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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/37
    In: CRREL Report, 82-37
    Description / Table of Contents: This report presents a Landsat-derived land cover map of the northwest portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. The report is divided into two parts. The first is devoted to the land cover map with detailed descriptions of the mapping methods and legend. The second part is a description of the study area. The classification system used for the maps is an improvement over existing methods of describing tundra vegetation. It is a comprehensive method of nomenclature that consistently applies the same criteria for all vegetation units. It is applicable for large- and small-scale mapping and is suitable for describing vegetation complexes, which are common in the patterned-ground terrain of the Alaskan Arctic. The system is applicable to Landsat-derived land cover classifications. The description of the study area focuses on five primary terrain types: flat thaw-lake plains, hilly coastal plains, foothills, mountainous terrain, and river flood plains. Topography, landforms, soils and vegetation are described for each terrain type. The report also contains area summaries for the Landsat-derived map categories. The area summaries are generated for the five terrain types and for the 89 townships within the study areas. Two land cover maps at 1:250,000 are included.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 68 Seiten , Illustrationen, 2 Karten
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-37
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Foreword Introduction A land cover map of the ANWR study area Legend development Mapping method Results Discussion Description of the ANWR study area General description Description of specific terrain types Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Descriptions of Landsat land cover categories for ANWR Appendix B: Area summaries Appendix C: Aproximate equivalent units in several systems of land cover, wetland and vegetation classifications used in northern Alaska Appendix D: Soil taxonomy Appendix E: Summary of principal Landsat land cover categories within the terrain types of the ANWR study area
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/36
    In: CRREL Report, 82-36
    Description / Table of Contents: Camp construction and drilling activities in 1950 at the East Oumalik drill site in northern Alaska caused extensive degradation of ice-rich, perennially frozen silt and irreversible modification of the upland terrain. In a study of the long-term degradational effects at this site, the near-surface geology was defined by drilling and coring 76 holes (maximum depth of 34 m) in disturbed and undisturbed areas and by laboratory analyses of these cores. Terrain disturbances, including bulldozed roads and excavations, camp structures and off-road vehicle trails, were found to have severely disrupted the site's thermal regime. This led to a thickening of the active layer, melting of the ground ice, thaw subsidence and thaw consolidation of the sediments. Slumps, sediment gravity flows and collapse of materials on slopes bounding thaw depressions expanded the degradation laterally, with thermal and hydraulic erosion removing materials as the depressions widened and deepened with time. Degradational processes became less active after thawed sediments thickened sufficiently to slow the increase in the depth of thaw and permit slope stabilization. The site's terrain is now irregular and hummocky with numerous depressions. Seasonal thaw depths are deeper in disturbed areas than in undisturbed areas and reflect the new moisture conditions and morphology. The severity of disturbance is much greater at East Oumalik than at another old drill site, Fish Creek. The difference results primarily from differences in the physical properties of the sediments, including the quantity and distribution of ground ice.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 42 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-36
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Methodology Geologic setting Camp construction and occupation Types of disturbance Degradational processes and the effective area of impact Areal effects of disturbance Topography Groundwater, surface water and drainage Sediment properties and near-surface stratigraphy Surficial processes Depth of thaw Comparison to Fish Creek Discussion and conclusions Literature cited
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  • 3
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/21
    In: CRREL Report, 83-21
    Description / Table of Contents: The probability density function of the gouge depths into the sediment is represented by a simple negative exponential over four decades of gouge frequency. The exceedance probability function is, therefore, e to the -lambda d, where d is the gouge depth in meters and lambda is a constant. The value of lambda shows a general decrease with increasing water depth, from 9/m in shallow water to less than 3/m in water 30 to 35 m deep. The deepest gouge observed was 3.6 m, from a sample of 20,354 gouges that have depths greater than or equal to 0.2 m. The dominant gouge orientations are usually unimodal and reasonably clustered, with the most frequent alignments roughly parallel to the general trend to the coastline. The value of N(bar) sub 1, the mean number of gouges (deeper than 0.2 m) per kilometer measured normal to the trend of the gouges, varies from 0.2 for protected lagoons to 80 in water between 20 and 38 m deep in unprotected offshore regions. The distribution of the spacings between gouges as measured along a sampling track is a negative exponential. The form of the frequency distribution of N sub 1 varies with water depth and is exponential for lagoons and shallow offshore areas, previously skewed for 10 to 20 m depths off the barrier islands, and near-normal for deeper water. As a Poisson distribution gives a reasonable fit to the N sub 1 distributions for all water depths, it is suggested that gouging can be taken as approximating a Poisson process in both space and time. The distributions of the largest values per kilometer of gouge depths, gouge widths, and the heights of the lateral embankment of sediments plowed from the gouges are also investigated.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 40 Seiten , Illustrationen, 1 Karte
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-21
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background and environmental setting Data collection and terminology Data analysis Gouge depths Gouge orientation Gouge frequency Extreme value analysis Applications to offshore design Gouge depth Extreme value statistics Burial depths Conclusion Literature cited Appendix A: Detailed bathymetric map of the Alaskan portion of the Beaufort Sea
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  • 4
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/19
    In: CRREL Report, 83-19
    Description / Table of Contents: Small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted on model bridge piers in the CRREL test basin. The experiments were performed by pushing model ice sheets against structures and monitoring the ice forces during the ice/structure interaction. The parameters, varied during the test program, were the geometry of the bridge piers and the velocity, thickness, and flexural strength of the ice. The results are presented in the form of ice forces on sloping and vertical structures with different geometries. During ice action on sloping structures, a phenomenon of transition of failure mode from bending to crushing was observed as the ice velocity was steadily increased.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 17 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-19
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Tests Results Ice forces on inclined structures Transition of ice action due to velocity increase Aspect ratio Bridge pier nose geometry Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 5
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/18
    In: CRREL Report, 83-18
    Description / Table of Contents: An evaluation of an impulse radar system for detecting cavities under concrete pavement is discussed, and field results are presented. It was found that a dual antenna mode of surveying was ideal for void detection. In this mode one antenna operated in a transceive mode and a second, offset from the first, operated in a receive-only mode. This arrangement allowed a refraction-type profile survey to be performed, which enabled subpavement voids to be easily detected. Field trails were held at Plattsburgh Air Force Base, where 28 cavities were detected and mapped. Drilling of holes verified that a cavity existed and allowed cavity depth to be measured. The cavities varied from 1.5 in. to 23 in, depth and were up to 20 ft. long.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 49 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-18
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Plattsburgh Air Force Base Radar sounding system Survey procedure Cavity inspection Radar cavity detection test Radar profile results Falling-weight deflectometer tests Discussion and conclusions Literature cited
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  • 6
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/12
    In: CRREL Report, 83-12
    Description / Table of Contents: This paper documents the development and verification of two finite difference models that solve the general two-dimensional form of the heat conduction equation, using the alternative-direction implicit method. Both can handle convective, constant flux, specified temperature and semi-infinite boundaries. The conducting medium may be composed of many materials. The first program, ADI, solves for the case where no change of state occurs. ADIPC solves for case where a freeze/thaw change of phase may occur, using the apparent heat capacity method. Both models are verified by comparison to analytical results.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 74 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-12
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Finite differences applied to heat transfer Heat conduction equation Boundary conditions Phase change Computer program ADDATA, the data subroutine TRIDIG, the matrix solver ISOTHM, the isotherm finider ADI, main program ADEPC, main program Verification of ADI Comparison of ADI with analytical results Comparison of ADI with experimental results Verification of ADIPC Comparison of ADIPC with analytical results-the Neumann solution Comparison of ADIPC with analytical results-two-dimensional phase change verification User instruction for ADI User instruction for ADIPC Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A. Program INFSUM and sample input and output for program ADI Appendix B. Program ADIPC and sample input and output
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  • 7
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/13
    In: CRREL Report, 83-13
    Description / Table of Contents: A review on past experimental and theoretical work indicates a need for additional experimentation to characterize the response of snow to inelastic pressure waves. Pressure data from previously conducted explosion tests are analyzed to estimate the elastic limit of snow of 400 -kg/cu m density to be about 36 kPa. This pressure corresponds to a scaled distance of 1.6 m/cu.rt.kg for charges fired beneath the surface of the snow, and to a scaled distance of 1.2 m/cu.rt.kg for charges fired in the air. The effects of a snow cover on the method of clearing a minefield by using an explosive charge fired in the air above the snow surface are also discussed and recommendations are given for further work in this area. Explosive pressure data are used to estimate the maximum effective scaled radius for detonating buried mines at shallow depth to be 0.8 m/cu.rt.kg. Fuel-air explosive will increase this effective radius significantly because of the increase in the size of the source region.
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    Pages: 33 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-13
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface List of symbols Introduction Objectives Background Problems in describing the response of snow to an applied stress Methods of determining the dynamic behavior of materials Review of previous studies on snow Experimental measurements on snow Summary of snow experiments Theoretical studies Confirmation of the theory Discussion Applications Recommendations Summary Literature cited Appendix A. Selected data from Wisotski and Snyder (1966) Appendix B. Pressure data from Livingston (1964)
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  • 8
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/14
    In: CRREL Report, 83-14
    Description / Table of Contents: An analysis of ice fracture that incorporates dislocation mechanics and linear elastic fracture mechanics is discussed. The derived relationships predict a brittle to ductile transition in polycrystalline ice under tension with a Hall-Petch type dependence of brittle fracture strength on grain size. A uniaxial tensile testing technique, including specimen preparation and loading system design was developed and employed to verify the model. The tensile strength of ice in purely brittle fracture was found to vary with the square root of the reciprocal of grain size, supporting the relationship that the theory suggests. The inherent strength of the ice lattice and the Hall-Petch slope are evaluated and findings discussed in relation to previous results. Monitoring of acoustic emissions was incorporated in the tests, providing insights into the process of microfracture during ice deformation.
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    Pages: 43 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-14
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Development of testing technique Test specimens Tensile testing Compression testing Experimental results Tensile tests Compression tests Discussion Conclusions Suggestions for further work Literature cited Appendix A: Additional information on seed grains Appendix B: Thin-sectioning procedure Appendix C: Displacement transducer calibration
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  • 9
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/16
    In: CRREL Report, 83-16
    Description / Table of Contents: The presence of snow on the ground can impose limitations on the mobility of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Snow depth and density are the two most easily measured snow properties that can be related to mobility over snow. Existing models of snowpack accumulation and ablation processes and models of internal snowpack structure were examined to determine if a model of the snowpack can be developed for use in predicting the snow parameters that affect mobility. Simple models, such as temperature index models, do not provide sufficient snowpack details, and the more detailed models require too many measured inputs. Components of the various models were selected from a basis of a snowpack model for predicting snow properties related to mobility over snow. Methods of obtaining the input data from some components are suggested, and areas where more development is needed are described.
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    Pages: 34 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-16
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Conversion of metric units Introduction Review of existing models Accumulation models Ablation models Using existing models for studying mobility Proposed snowpack model for mobility studies Model components Implementation of the model Developing input data Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 10
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/17
    In: CRREL Report, 83-17
    Description / Table of Contents: A sea ice model was applied to the East Greenland Sea to examine a 60-day ice advance period beginning 1 October 1979. This investigation compares model results using driving geostrophic wind fields derived from three sources. Winds calculated from sea-level pressures obtained from the National Weather Service's operational analysis system resulted in strong velocities concentrated in a narrow band adjacent to the Greenland coast, with moderate velocities elsewhere. The model showed excessive ice transport and thickness build-ups in the coastal region. The extreme pressure gradient parallel to the coast resulted partially from a pressure reduction procedure that was applied to the terrain-following sigma coordinate system to obtain sea-level pressures. Additional sea-level pressure fields were obtained from an independent optimal interpolation analysis that merged FGGE buoys drifting in the Arctic basin with high latitude land stations and from manual digitization of the NWS hand-analyzed Northern Hemisphere Surface Charts. Modeling results using winds from both of these fields agreed favorably.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-17
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Description of study Model results The problem Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 11
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/22
    In: CRREL Report, 83-22
    Description / Table of Contents: A new experimental method for measuring the soil-water diffusivity of frozen soil under isothermal conditions is introduced. The theoretical justification of the method is presented and the feasibility of the method is demonstrated by experiments conducted using marine-deposited clay. The measured values of the soil-water diffusivity are found comparable to reported experimental data.
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    Pages: 13 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-22
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/11
    In: CRREL Report, 83-11
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations of ground radar performance over thawed and seasonally frozen silts, and sands and gravels containing artificial and natural reflectors were carried out in Alaska. The radar emitted 5-10 ns pulses, the center frequency of which was approximately 150 MHz. The artificial reflectors were metal sheets and discs and the natural reflectors were the groundwater table and interfaces between frozen and thawed material. The water table was profiled at three sites where the subsurface material was coarse-grained alluvium. Dielectric constants of 16 to 18 were measured for the thawed silts, 6 to 7 for the frozen silts and 3 to 9 for the sands and gravels. Signal penetration in the thawed high moisture content silts may be achieved only by use of a lower frequency radar, whereas in the sands and gravels greater depths may be detected with more sophisticated signal processing.
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    Pages: 16 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-11
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/23
    In: CRREL Report, 83-23
    Description / Table of Contents: The problems associated with measuring stresses in ice are reviewed. Theory and laboratory test results are then presented for a stiff cylindrical sensor made of steel that is designed to measure ice stresses in a biaxial stress field. Loading tests on freshwater and saline ice blocks containing the biaxial ice stress sensor indicate that the sensor has a resolution of 20 kPa and an accuracy of better than 15% under a variety of uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Principal stress directions can also be determined within 5 degrees. The biaxial ice stress sensor is not significantly affected by variations in the ice elastic modulus, ice creep or differential thermal expansion between the ice and gauge. The sensor also has a low temperature sensitivity (5 kPa/deg C).
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 38 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-23
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Previous work Stress measurements Design considerations Stress sensors Biaxial ice stress sensor Biaxial stress sensor theory Gauge deformation Stresses associated with cylindrical sensors Determination of ice stresses Gauge calibration Evaluation of the biaxial ice stress sensor Temperature sensitivity Biaxial loading test equipment Biaxial loading test results Differential thermal expansion Long-term drift Discussion of test results Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 14
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/31
    In: CRREL Report, 83-31
    Description / Table of Contents: A mathematical model is described that is used to determine the maximum ice conveyance capacity of a river channel. Based upon this model, computer programs were developed that enable the ice discharge to be calculated for steady-state flow conditions. For rivers that have uniform flow, the maximum ice-conveying capacity can be described with a simple function expressed in terms of the size of the ice fragments, channel geometry, and the flow of water in the river. For nonuniform flows, the computer program determines the elevation profile of the surface layer in addition to other flow characteristics, such as the velocity and surface concentration of the ice fragments. The location along this surface profile where the ice conveyance capacity becomes less than the upstream supply is determined and is considered to be the position where a surface ice jam or ice bridge will be formed.
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    Pages: iv, 21 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-31
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Constitutive relationships Equations of motion Uniform flow Nonuniform flow Ice transport: Uniform flow Symmetric channel Asymmetric channel Ice transport: Nonuniform flow Further considerations Basis for model improvement Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 15
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/33
    In: CRREL Report, 83-33
    Description / Table of Contents: A thermodynamic model has been developed that for the first time describes the entire creep process, including primary, secondary, and tertiary creep, and failure for both constant stress (CSR) tests (σ= const.) and constant strain rate (CSR) tests (ϵ = const.), in the form of a unified constitutive equation and unified failure criteria. Deformation and failure areconsidered as a single thermoactivated process in which the dominant role belongs to the change of entropy. Failure occurs when the entropy change is zero. At that moment the strain rates in CS tests reach the minima and stress in CSR tests reaches the maximum (peak) values. Families of creep (ϵ vs τ) and stress-strain (σ vs ϵ) curves, obtained from uni-axial compression CS and CSR tests of frozen soil, respectively (both presented in dimensionless coordinates), are plotted as straight lines and are superposed, confirming the unity of the deformation and failure process and the validity of the model. A method is developed for determining the parameters of the model, so that creep deformation and the stress-strain relationship of ductile materials such as soils can be predicted based upon information obtained from either type of test.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 25 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-33
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Nomenclature Introduction Principal relationships Constitutive equation Failure criteria Secondary creep: Flow equations Creep at constant stress (σ = Const.) Creep model Creep strain (σ = Const.) Creep at constant strain rate (ϵ = Const.) Stress-strain relationship Stress/strain/strain rate at failure Test data Preliminary analysis Constant stress tests (σ = Const.) Constant strain rate tests (ϵ = Const.) The principle of superposition Thermodynamic equation of creep Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 16
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/5
    In: CRREL Report, 84-5
    Description / Table of Contents: Diatom species composition and relative abundances were determined for ice cores obtained from Weddell Sea pack ice during the October-November 1981 Weddell Polynya Expedition (WEPOLEX). Ice thickness and salinity indicate that the ice was less than one year old. The predominant ice type (70%) was frazil, which has the capacity to mechanically incorporate biological material through nucleation and scavenging. Diatoms were found throughout the length of the cores. Species showed down-core fluctuations in abundance that appeared to be correlated with changes in ice type. Pennate forms were more abundant than centrics, the average ratio being 16:1. Diatom frustules with intact organic material were more abundant (5 billion cells/liter). Differences in species abundances are attributed initially to incorporation of algal cells from a temporally changing water column and subsequently to diatom reproduction within the ice. Scanning electron micrographs illustrating the morphologic characteristics of the predominant species are included.
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    Pages: iv, 46 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-5
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Taxonomic terms Appendix B: Differences in species composition and abundance in duplicate samples examined under optical and inverted light microscopes Appendix C: Morphologic descriptions and SEM micrographs
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  • 17
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-84/17
    In: CRREL Report, 84-17
    Description / Table of Contents: VHF-band radiowave short pulses were transmitted within the permafrost tunnel at Fox, Alaska, over distances between 2.2 and 10.5 m. The propagation medium was a frozen silt containing both disseminated and massive ice with temperatures varying from -7°C near the transmitter to probably -2 C near the center of the tunnel overburden. The short pulses underwent practically no dispersion in the coldest zones but did disperse and refract through the warmer overburden, as suggested by calculations of the effective dielectric constant. Most significantly the measured frequency content decreased as the effective dielectric constant increased. The results indicate that deep, cross-borehole pulse transmissions over distances greater than 10 m might be possible, especially when the ground is no warmer than -4°C. The information thus pined could be used for identifying major subsurface variations, including ground ice features.
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    Pages: ii, 14 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-17
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-84/18
    In: CRREL Report, 84-18
    Description / Table of Contents: This report investigates the influences of turbulence and water temperature on frazil ice formation. The rate and thequantity of frazil ice formed in a specified volume of supercooled water increase with both increasing turbulence inten-sitv and decreasing water temperature. The influence of turbulence intensity on the rate of frazil ice formation, how-ever. is more pronounced for larger initial supercooling. The turbulence characteristics of a flow affect the rate offrazil ice formation by governing the temperature to which the flow can be supercooled, by influencing heat transferfrom the frazil ice to surrounding water, and by promoting collision nucleation, particle and floc rupture and increasingthe number of nucleation sites. larger frazil ice particles formed in water supercooled to lower temperatures. The par-ticles usually were disks, with diameters several orders greater than their thickness. Particle size generally decreased with increasing turbulence intensity. This report develops an analytical model, in which the rate of frazil ice formation isrelated to temperature rise of a turbulent volume of water from the release of latent heat of fusion of liquid water toice. Experiments conducted in a turbulence jar with a heated, vertically oscillating grid served both to guide and tocalibrate thanalytical'model as well as to afford insights into frazil ice formation. The formation of frazil ice wasstudied for Vemperatures of supercooled water ranging from -0.9° to -0.050°C.
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    Pages: vi, 50 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-18
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Background Scope of study Literature review Introduction Incipient formation of frazil ice Particle size and evolution of frazil ice Influences of turbulence and water temperature on the rate of frazil ice formation Conclusions Analytical model Introduction Elements of heat transfer Elements of turbulence Experimentation Experimental apparatus Experimental procedure Results Introduction Nucleation of frazil ice Influences of turbulence on frazil ice formation Water temperature Influences of water temperature and turbulence on the concentration of frazil ice Frazil ice particle shape and size Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Preliminary frazil ice experiments Flume experiments Couette-flow Appendix B: Listing of computer program for calculation of frazil ice formation Appendix C: Water temperature rise attributable to frazil ice formation as computed usingthe analytical model .
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  • 19
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/26
    In: CRREL Report, 84-26
    Description / Table of Contents: Observations of shore ice pile-up and ride-up along the Alaska Beaufort Sea coast in 1983 and 1984 are presented. New information on historical accounts of onshore ice movement, uncovered since publication of Part I in this series, is reported. An account is given of ice overtopping a concrete caisson exploration island in the Canadian Beaufort Sea.
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    Pages: iii, 33 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-26
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Observations Discussion Literature cited Appendix A: Site location maps
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  • 20
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-84/33
    In: CRREL Report, 84-33
    Description / Table of Contents: A small-scale experimental study was conducted to characterize the magnitude and nature of ice forces during continuous crushing of ice against a rigid, vertical, cylindrical structure. The diameter of the structure was varied from 50 to 500 mm, the relative velocity from 10 to 210 mm/s, and the ice thickness from 50 to 80 mm. The ice tended to fail repetitively, with the frequency of failure termed the characteristic frequency. The characteristic frequency varied linearly with velocity and to a small extent with structure diameter. The size of the damage zone was 10 to 50% of the ice thickness, with an average value of 30%. The maximum and mean normalized ice forces were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio (structure diameter/ice thickness). The forces increased significantly with decreasing aspect ratio, but were constant for large aspect ratios. The maximum normalized forces appeared to be independent of strain rate. The effect of velocity on the normalized ice forces depended on structure diameter. The mean effective pressure or specific energy of ice crushing depended on both aspect ratio and ice-structure relative velocity. The energy required to crush the ice for the one failure cycle was obtained from the ice force records for each test, and was compared to the energy calculated from an idealized sawtooth shape for the force record, the maximum force, velocity and characteristic frequency data. Originator - supplied keywords included: Cold regions, Cold regions construction, Cylindrical test structures, Ice, Ice crushing, Ice forces, and Test facilities.
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    Pages: vi, 47 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-33
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Test objectives Experimental setup and procedures Facilities Test fixture Data acquisiton system Ice sheets Measurement of ice properties Daily test summary Experimental results and discussion Observations Ice force records Frequency of ice force variations Discussion Maximum crushing forces Mean effective pressure or specific energy of ice in crushing Failure energy of ice Ratio of maximum force to mean force Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Data for continuous crushing tests
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  • 21
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-82/41
    In: CRREL Report, 82-41
    Description / Table of Contents: Many of the important factors influencing the choice of appropriate aquifer test procedures are presented. The concepts of bias, accuracy and spatial variabil­ity are explained. The definitions of a number of aquifer parameters are devel­oped from basic principles demonstrating the underlying assumptions and limita­tions. The parameters considered are: piezometric head, hydraulic conductiv­ity/intrinsic permeability, flow direction, specific discharge magnitude, transmissivity, volumetric flow rate, total porosity, effective porosity, aver­age linear velocity, storage coefficient, specific yield, dispersion coefficient-aquifer dispersivity. For each parameter several techniques are described, evaluated and ranked in terms of perceived potential accuracy, simplicity and value to contaminant transport studies. It must be stressed, however, that the evaluations are based principally upon theoretical grounds, and not upon actual conduct of the described procedures.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 111 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-41
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstrac Preface Introduction Purpose Scope Concept of accuracy Test selection Definition of parameters Piezometric head Use of piezometers Hydraulic conductivity Flow direction Specific discharge magnitude Transmissivity Volumetric flow rate Porosity Average linear velocity Storage coefficient-specific yield Aquifer dispersivity Parameter estimation techniques Piezometric head Hydraulic conductivity Direction and magnitude of specific discharge vector Transmissivity Volumetric flow rate Total porosity Average linear velocity Storage coefficient Specific yield Effective porosity Aquifer dispersivity-dispersion coefficients Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 22
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/39
    In: CRREL Report, 82-39
    Description / Table of Contents: Observations of a 4.4-m-high brine step in the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, show that it has migrated about 1.2 km in 4 years. The present brine wave is overriding an older brine-soaked layer. This migration is proof of the dynamic nature of the step, which is the leading edge of a brine wave that originated at the shelf edge after a major break-out of the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The inland boundary of brine penetration is characterized by a series of descending steps that are believed to represent terminal positions of separate intrusions of brine of similar origin. The inland boundary of brine percolation is probably controlled largely by the depth at which brine encounters the firn/ ice transition (43 m). However, this boundary is not fixed by permeability considerations alone, since measurable movement of brine is still occurring at the inland boundary. Freeze-fractionation of the seawater as it migrates throught the ice shelf preferentially precipitates virtually all sodium sulfate, and concomitant removal of water by freezing in the pore spaces of the infiltrated firm produces residual brines approximately six times more concentrated than the original seawater.
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    Pages: v, 35 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-39
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Objectives Analytical techniques Radio echo profiling Core drilling Results and discussion Brine infiltration survey Brine layer steps Brine infiltration characteristics Brine infiltration mechanisms at inland boundary Confirmation of brine depths by drilling Density and temperature profiles Ice shelf freeboard Brine upwelling Brine chemistry Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 23
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-84/2
    In: CRREL Report, 84-2
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations of the in situ complex dielectric constant of sea ice were made using time-domain spectroscopy. It was found that (1) for sea ice with a preferred horizontal crystal c-axis alignment, the anisotropy of polarizing properties of the ice increased with depth, (2) brine inclusion conductivity increased with decreasing temperature down to about -8 C, at which point the conductivity decreased with decreasing temperature, (3) the DC conductivity of sea ice increased with increasing brine volume, (4) the real part of the complex dielectric constant is strongly dependent upon brine volume but less dependent upon the brine inclusion orientation, (5) the imaginary part of the complex dielectric constant was strongly dependent upon brine inclusion orientation but much less dependent upon brine volume. Because the electromagnetic (EM) properties of sea ice are dependent upon the physical state of the ice, which is continually changing, it appears that only trends in the relationships between the EM properties of natural sea ice and its brine volume and brine inclusion microstructure can be established.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 38 Seiten , Illustrationen , 1 Beilage
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-2
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Dielectric properties of sea ice Time-domain spectroscopy measurement Laboratory measurements Field measurements Analysis of ladder data Conductivity of brine and sea ice Complex dielectric constant of brine and sea ice Discussion and conclusions Literature cited
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  • 24
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    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/6
    In: CRREL Report, 84-6
    Description / Table of Contents: An expression relating aerosol growth to cold environmental conditions was developed. This was accomplished by solving the diffusion equation with the method of Laplace transformation. The series solution was expressed in terms of the dimensionless parameters K (ratio of vapor density over droplet surface to droplet density), ω (ratio of environmental vapor density at time zero to vapor density over droplet surface), and dimensionless time τ (ratio of product of diffusion coefficient D and time t to square of initial radius of condensation nucleus). To take into account the variation of the vapor density over the surface of an acidic condensation nucleus due to the continuous dilution of the droplet, the solution was obtained by assuming various levels of constant vapor concentration. The final expression [R/R sub o - 1 = 2.4917 x 10 to the minus 18th power) exp(0.0737 θ) (P sub RHS/25) x (100-P sub RHS) τ to the 0.9890 powder] can be used to compute the value of R once the values of initial radius R sub o, relative humidity P sub RH, percent of relative humidity at the droplet surface P sub RHS, and environmental temperature θ are given.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 28 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-6
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature General background The problem Method of solution Results and discussion Conclusions Literature cited Appendix: Evaluation of rn's in equation 25
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  • 25
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/7
    In: CRREL Report, 84-7
    Description / Table of Contents: Experiments were conducted in CRREL's refrigerated flume facility to examine the two-dimensional force distribution of a floating, fragmented ice cover restrained by a boom in a simulated river channel. To determine the force distribution, a vertically walled channel, instrumented for measuring normal and tangential forces, and an instrumented restraining boom were installed in a 40.0- by 1.3-m flume. Two sizes of polyethylene blocks and two similar sizes of fresh-water ice blocks were tested using water velocities ranging from 10 to 30 cm/s. The forces measured at the instrumented boom leveled off with increasing cover length. The contribution of the increasing shear forces developed along theshorelines to this leveling off in the data was clearly evident. The shear coefficients of the polyethylene blocks averaged 0.43, and the freshwater ice averaged 0.044. The normal force measured along the instrumented shoreline could not be related simply by a K coefficient to the longitudinal force; another expression was required, with a term being a function of the cover thickness and independent of the undercover shear stress or cover length. By adding this term, good agreement was then found between the measured and predicted values of the boom forces and the shoreline normal and shear forces
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 22 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-7
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Experiments Test flume facility Experimental apparatus Experimental procedure Results Plastic versus freshwater ice Shoreline forces Boom forces Average shear stress under ice cover Internal forces Discussion Data scatter Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Experimental results
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  • 26
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/15
    In: CRREL Report, 84-15
    Description / Table of Contents: Measurements of meltwater pH from annual layers of South Pole firn and ice samples ranging in age from 40 to 2000 years B.P. show that precipitation at this remote site has a higher natural acidity than that expected from atmospheric equilibrium with CO2. The average pH of deaerated (CO2-free) samples was 5.64 + or - 0.08, while air-equilibrated samples averaged 5.37 + or - 0.008, a pH that is about a factor of two more acidic than the expected background pH of 5.65. The observed 'excess' acidity can be accounted for by natural SO4(2)- and NO(3)- levels in the samples probably originating from non-anthropogenic H2SO4 and HNO3. Because of the presence of these naturally occurring acids in South Pole precipitation, a pH of 5.4 is considered a more representative baseline reference pH for acid precipitation studies.
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    Pages: ii, 12 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-15
    Language: English
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  • 27
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/16
    In: CRREL Report, 84-16
    Description / Table of Contents: Phase composition curves are presented for a typical saline silt from Lanzhou, P.R.C., and compared to some silts from Alaska. The unfrozen water content of the Chinese silt is much higher than that of the Alaskan silts due to the large amount of soluble salts present in the silts from China, which are not present in silt from interior Alaska. When the salt is removed, the unfrozen water content is then similar for both the Chinese and Alaskan silt. Here we introduce a technique for correcting the unfrozen water content of partially frozen soils due to high salt concentrations. We calculate the equivalent molality of the salts in the unfrozen water at various temperatures from a measurement of the electrical conductivity of the extract from saturated paste.
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    Pages: iii, 25 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-16
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Introduction Background Materials Sample preparation Nuclear magnetic resonance Specific surface area Electrical conductivity Results and discussion Summary Literature cited Appendix A: Unfrozen water content vs temperature data for Lanzhou silt
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  • 28
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/42
    In: CRREL Report, 82-42
    Description / Table of Contents: A high-resolution impulse radar profiling system was evaluated for 1) detecting the existence of sea ice which coring has revealed to exist on the bottom of the Ross Ice Shelf at Site J-9, 2) detecting the preferred horizontal c-axis azi-muthal direction of the sea ice crystals, using the voltage amplitude of the radar reflection from the sea ice bottom, and 3) determining the direction of the currents under an Antarctic ice shelf. A field program was conducted consisting of a surface radar survey on the Ross Ice Shelf at Site J-9 and surface and airborne radar profiling on the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The CRREL impulse radar system, operating at a center frequency of either 80 MHz or 20 MHz, was unable to detect the shelf bottom at Site J-9, which drilling revealed to be 416 m below the snow surface. The radar system was used to profile the McMurdo Ice Shelf both from the snow surface and from the air; a shelf thickness of about 275 m was easily detected. Theoretical considerations indicate that the bulk conductivity of the ice shelf at Site J1-9 was higher than originally anticipated, and this limited the radar sounding depth to about 405 m when operating at a frequency of 20 MHz.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-42
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Introduction Profiling system Theoretical considerations Field program Discussion Literature cited
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  • 29
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/40
    In: CRREL Report, 82-40
    Description / Table of Contents: The use of explosives to break floating ice sheets is described, and test data are used to develop design curves that predict explosives effects as ice thickness, charge size, and charge depth vary. Application of the curves to practical problems is illustrated by numerical examples. The general features of underwater explosions are reviewed and related to ice blasting. Quasi-static plate theory is considered, and is judged to be inapplicable to explosive cratering of ice plates. The specific energy for optimized ice blasting is found to compare quite favorably with the specific energy of icebreaking ships. All available field data for ice blasting are tabulated in appendices, together with details of the re­gression analyses from which the design curves are generated.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 68 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-40
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction General behavior of underwater explosions Regression analysis for ice-blasting data General features of the regression curves Use of the regression curves as design curves for ice blasting Row charges and pattern charges Response of floating ice sheets to underwater explosions Specific energy and “powder factor” Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Basic data on ice blasting Appendix B: Scaled input data Appendix C: Initial regression analysis using complete polynomial Appendix D: Regression analysis with two coefficients of the original poly­nomial deleted
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  • 30
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-82/38
    In: CRREL Report, 82-38
    Description / Table of Contents: Extreme cold causes heavy buildup of frost, ice and condensation on many windows. It also increases the incentive for improving the airtightness of windows against heat loss. Our study shows that tightening specifications for Alaskan windows to permit only 30% of the air leakage allowed by current American airtightness standards is economically attractive. We also recommend triple glazing in much of Alaska to avoid window icing in homes and barracks. We base our conclusions on a two-year field study of Alaskan military bases that included recording humidity and temperature data, observing moisture accumulation on windows and measuring airtightness with a fan pressurization device.
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    Pages: v, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-38
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Previous work in cold weather window performance Investigation Data acquisition and analysis Modeling the window thermal regime Moisture and ice observations Airtightness testing and analysis Annual heat loss from air leakage Results and conclusions Moisture on windows Airtightness Airtightness economics Recommendations for windows in extreme cold Airtightness Multiple glazing Literature cited Appendix A: Moisture levels and airtightness Appendix B: Dewpoint data Appendix C: Sample observations of icing
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  • 31
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/25
    In: CRREL Report, 83-25
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice action on two cylindrical and conical structures, located side by side, was investigated in a small-scale experimental study to determine the interference on the ice forces generated during ice-structure interaction. The proximity of the two structures changes the mode of ice failure, the magnitude and direction of ice forces on the individual structure, and the dominant frequency of ice force variations. Interference effects were determined by comparing the experimental results of tests at different structure spacings.
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    Pages: 42 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-25
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Experimental setup and procedure Results and discussion Cylindrical structures Conical structures Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Relationship between flexural strength and in-situ unconfined compressive strength Appendix B: Test data
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  • 32
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    Call number: ZSP-201-83/26
    In: CRREL Report, 83-26
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice accreted on high-speed rotors operating in supercooled fog can be thrown off by centrifugal force, creating severe unbalance and dangerous projectiles. A simple force balance analysis indicates that the strength of accreted ice and its adhesive strength can be obtained by measuring the thickness of the accretion, the location of the separation, the rotor speed, and the density. Such an analysis was applied to field and laboratory observations of self-shedding events. The results agree reasonably well with other observations.
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    Pages: 13 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-26
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/24
    In: CRREL Report, 83-24
    Description / Table of Contents: Secondary recovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, will involve transporting large quantities of seawater in elevated pipelines across tundra for injection into oil-bearing rock strata. The possibility of a pipeline rupture raises questions concerning the effects of seawater on tundra vegetation and soils. To evaluate the relative sensitivities of different plant communities to seawater, eight sites representing the range of vegetation types along the pipeline route were treated with single, saturating applications of seawater during the summer of 1980. Within a month of the treatment 30 of 37 taxa of shrubs and forbs in the experimental plots developed clear symptoms of stress, while none of the 14 graminoid taxa showed apparent adverse affects. Live vascular plant cover was thus reduced by 89 and 91% in the two dry sites and by 54, 74 and 83% in the three moist sites, respectively. Live(green) bryophyte cover was markedly reduced in the moist experimental sites in 1981. Bryophytes in all but one of the wet-site experimental plots were apparently unaffected by the seawater treatment. Two species of foliose lichens treated with seawater showed marked deterioration in 1981. All other lichen taxa were apparently unaffected by the seawater treatment. The absorption and retention of salts by the soil is inversely related to the soil moisture regime. In the wet sites, conductivities approached prespill levels within about 30 days. In such sites, spills at the experimental volumes are quickly diluted and the salts flushed from the soil. In the dry sites, on the other hand, salts are retained in the soil, apparently concentrating at or near the seasonal thaw line.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 43 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-24
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Methods Site selection and preparation Prespill assessment Seawater application Postspill assessment Enzyme assay and analysis of soil flora Results and discussion Soil-solution conductivities Vascular plant response Cryptogam response Site factors and plant response Soil flora and extracellular soil enzymes Limitations of this study Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix: Plant taxa included in this study
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  • 34
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/19
    In: CRREL Report, 84-19
    Description / Table of Contents: In this study a method for making long-range forecasts of freeze-up dates in rivers is developed. The method requires the initial water temperature at an upstream station, the long-range air temperature forecast, the predicted mean flow velocity in the river reach, and water temperature response parameters. The water temperature response parameters can be either estimated from the surface heat exchange coefficient and the average flow depth or determined empirically from recorded air and water temperature data. The method is applied to the St. Lawrence River between Kingston, Ontario, and Massena, New York, and is shown to be capable of accurately forecasting freeze-up. Originator-supplied keywords include: Ice formation, and River ice.
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    Pages: iii, 22 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-19
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Problem formulation Analytical treatment Application to the upper St. Lawrence River Summary Literature cited Appendix A: Basic program for St. Lawrence River freeze-up forecast
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  • 35
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/24
    In: CRREL Report, 84-24
    Description / Table of Contents: This report describes the growth characteristics and crystalline textures of urea ice sheets which are now used extensively in the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL) test basin for modeling sea ice. The aims of the report are to describe the different kinds of crystalline texture encountered in urea ice sheets and to show that even small variations in texture can drastically influence the mechanical behavior of urea ice sheets. Standard petrographic techniques for studying microstructure in thin sections were used on 24 urea ice sheets. These investigations entailed observations of the crystalline texture of the ice (including details of the subgrain structure), grain size measurements, and studies of the nature and extent of urea entrapment and drainage patterns in the ice. Increased knowledge of the factors controlling the crystalline characteristics of urea ice sheets has progressed to the point where test basin researchers at CRREL are now able to fabricate ice sheets with prescribed structures leading to predictable mechanical properties. Originators supplied keywords include: Sea ice, and Mechanical properties.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 55 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-24
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Abstract Preface Introduction Objectives Analytical techniques Procedures for growing urea ice sheets Analysis of the crystalline structure of urea ice Characteristics of urea ice Results and discussion Ice sheet no. 1 Ice sheet no. 2 Ice sheet no. 3 Ice sheet no. 4 Ice sheet no. 5 Ice sheet no. 6 Ice sheet no. 7 Ice sheet no. 8 Ice sheet no. 9 Ice sheet no. 10 Ice sheet no. 11 Ice sheet no. 12 Ice sheet no. 13 Ice sheet no. 14 Ice sheet no. 15 Ice sheet no. 16 Ice sheet no. 17 Ice sheet no. 18 Ice sheet no. 19 Ice sheet no. 20 Ice sheet no. 21 Ice sheet no. 22 Ice sheet no. 23 Ice sheet no. 24 Urea concentrations in test tank solution and ice Discussion and conclusions E/σf ratio Thickness of incubation layer Crystal properties Literature cited Appendix A: Thin sections of urea ice sheets
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  • 36
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/43
    In: CRREL Report, 82-43
    Description / Table of Contents: The radar signatures of ice wedges and wedge-like structures have been investigated for a variety of soil conditions. The radar used for this study emitted short sinusoidal pulses of about 10-ns duration with an approximate center frequency of 150 MHz. Most of the ice wedges existed at depths of about 1 m in a variety of silty and sandy soils with both frozen and thawed active layers. The position of the wedges was usually identified from corresponding surface features. An artificial ice wedge in coarse-grained alluvium was also profiled as well as wedge-like structures of fine silt in a coarse-grained glacial outwash. All wedges and wedge-like structures produced a hyperbolic reflection profile except when an active layer of thawed, saturated silt was present which eliminated returns from the wedges. The peaks of the hyper-bolas were sometimes masked by reflections from the permafrost table or other material interfaces, and multiple hyperbolas occurred at some sites. The dielectric constant of the host medium was often calculated from the linear portions of the hyperbolas and the results were verified by laboratory time domain reflectometry measurements per-formed on field samples. In some cases, hyperbolic profiles originated at several meters depth suggesting that deep ice wedges could be detected in areas of cold permafrost.
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    Pages: iv, 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-43
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Objectives and procedures Equipment used Radar TDR Definitions Massive ice Results Artificial wedge: Norwich, Vermont Ice wedges in sand: Fish Creek, Alaska Ice wedges: Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Ice wedges under thawed fine-grained soils: North Slope, Alaska Wedge-like soil structures: Ft. Greely, Alaska TDR measurements Summary and concluding remarks Literature cited Appendix A: Brief discussion of dispersion
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  • 37
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/30
    In: CRREL Report, 83-30
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice sheets are formed and retained in several ways in nature, and an understanding of these factors is needed before most structures can be successfully applied. Many ice sheet retention structures float and are somewhat flexible; others are fixed and rigid or semirigid. An example of the former is the Lake Erie ice boom and of the latter, the Montreal ice control structure. Ice sheet retention technology is changing. The use of timber cribs is gradually but not totally giving way to sheet steel pilings and concrete cells. New structures and applications are being tried but with caution. Ice-hydraulic analyses are helpful in predicting the effects of structures and channel modifications on ice cover formation and retention. Often, varying the flow rate in a particular system at the proper time will make the difference between whether a structure will or will not retain ice. The structure, however, invariably adds reliability to the sheet ice retention process.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 39 Seiten , Illustrationen , 1 Beilage
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-30
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Introduction Natural ice sheets Choosing an ice control structure Flexible structures Ice booms Frazil collector lines Fence booms Rigid or semirigid structures Pier-mounted booms Stone groins Artificial islands Removable gravity structures Timber cribs Weirs Pilings and dolphins Structures built for other purposes Hydroelectric dams Wicket dams Light piers and towers Bridge piers Breakwaters Ice control not using Structures Channel improvements Ice sheet tying Ice sheet bridges Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Ice control structure
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  • 38
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/8
    In: CRREL Report, 84-8
    Description / Table of Contents: This report describes the equipment and procedures that were used for acquiring, preparing and testing samples of multi-year sea ice. Techniques and procedures are discussed for testing ice samples in compression and tension at constant strain rates and constant loads, as well as in a conventional triaxial cell. A detailed account is given of the application and measurement of forces and dispiacements on the ice test specimens under these different loading conditions.
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    Pages: iv, 43 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-8
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Test material and test specimens Test material Required dimensions for test specimens Acquisition and preparation of specimens Field core sampling Specimen preparation in the laboratory Application of forces and displacements to uniaxial specimens Compression Tension Squareness imperfections Loading devices Universal testing machine Gas actuator for constant load Weight-and-pulley system for constant tension Equipment for triaxial tests Measurement of force and displacement Force Displacement Readouts and recorders Literature cited Appendix A: Phenolic-resin end caps Appendix B: Compliant platens Appendix C: Theoretical factor for converting overall strain to gauge-length strain indumbbell specimens Appci dix D: Items developed but not used in Phase I Appendix E: Use of the Brazil test
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  • 39
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/32
    In: CRREL Report, 84-32
    Description / Table of Contents: Orwell Lake, in west-central Minnesota, is a flood-control, water-management reservoir first impounded in 1953. Subsequent erosion of the shoreline and a lack of knowledge of slope erosion processes in this region prompted this study to identify and quantify the processes there. The processes were measured at selected sites between June 1980 and June 1983. Erosion of the banks is primarily caused by three processes: rain, frost thaw, and waves. The first two processes tend to move sediment to the base of the steep slopes, forming 4 relatively gentle surface of accumulation. Wave action then tends to move this sediment into the lake. Analysis of the data collected over three years has confirmed that wave action is the dominant erosion process, providing almost 77% of the erosion during the 1981-82 study year. During the 1981 high pool level, 2,089 Mg of sediment, mostly colluvium, was removed from the lower slopes by wave action striking the 1.62 km of eroding shoreline. More than 4,300 Mg was eroded by waves accompanying the higher pool levels of 1982., During years in which the pool level does not exceed 325.5 m in elevation, the colluvium slope builds up at the expense of the steeper slope. But during successive years with higher pool levels, the resulting thin colluvium is quickly eroded. Erosion of the primary sediment, a compact till, then occurs, forming the S typical nearly vertical banks. In winter the upland surface adjacent to the lake freezes to a depth of between 1 and 2 m, depending on the surface temperature, the mow cover, and the distance from exposed banks. In late winter soil aggregates, released by the sublimation of interstitial ice within the banks, begin to accumulate at the base of the slopes, often veneering snowbanks there. Once thaw begins, slab failure of bank sediment is followed by mudflows and earthflows. Thaw failure at Orwell Lake in the winter of 1981-82 accounted for over 20% of the erosion; in the spring of 1982, 824 Mg was eroded by this process and 746 Mg the following spring. Such slope failure is most intense along north-facing banks and considerably less intense on south-facing banks, where more effective desiccation and sublimation reduce the soil moisture content. Summer rainfall is responsible for the remaining 3% of the total erosion, amounting to 102 Mg in 1981 and 208 Mg in 1982. Because the banks are steep and relatively short, rainwash is infrequent; rainsplash is the most consistent process during the summer, but the infrequent storms during which rainwash occurscause greater total erosion. Erosion by rain has increased in each of the past three summers, largely because of increased precipitation. Infrequent massive slope failures (slumps) have occurred at the east end of the lake where a buried clay rich unit is stratigraphically and topographically positioned to favor such failures. Drought years followed by heavy spring rains probably will result in additional slope failures of this type at the east end. Unless changes are made, the banks at Orwell Lake will continue to recede. Restriction of the pool level to less than 325.5-m elevation is the least expensive solution to the problem.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: ix, 110 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-32
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Chapter 1. Introduction Location Purpose of study Previous work Chapter 2. Methodology Geology Overland erosion Wave erosion Frost penetration and heave Thaw failure Bank recession Ground water Soil moisture Chapter 3. Results Geology Geotechnical properties Overland erosion Wave erosion Freeze-thaw phenomena Ground water fluctuations Other slope failures Chapter 4. Discussion Overland erosion Wave erosion Thaw failure Universal soil loss equation Chapter 5. Summary and conclusions Techniques Erosion processes at Orwell lake Bank recession Literature cited Appendix A1: Average cumulative change of surface at erosion stations #2-12, 1980-81 Appendix A2: Cumulative net changes at overland erosion stations #1-12, 1980-81 Appendix A3: Cumulative net changes at overland erosion stations #1 -12, 198 1-82 Appendix A4: Cumulative average erosion at overland erosion stations #1-12, 1980-81 Appendix AS: Cumulative average erosion at overland erosion stations #1-12, 1981-82 Appendix A6: Cumulative average erosion at overland erosion stations #1 -1 2A, 1982 Appendix B: Dimensions of erosion sections, Orwell Lake, Minnesota Appendix C: Piezometer installation data, Orwell Lake, Minneso
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  • 40
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/29
    In: CRREL Report, 83-29
    Description / Table of Contents: A literature review indicated that the effects or permafrost on streambank erodibility and stability are not yet understood because systematic and quantitative measurements are seriously lacking. Consequently, general controversy exists as to whether perennially frozen ground inhibits lateral erosion and bankline recession, or whether it increases bank recession rates. Perennially frozen streambanks erode because of modification of the bank's thermal regime by exposure to air and water, and because of various erosional processes. Factors that determine rates and locations of erosion include physical, thermal and structural properties of bank sediments, stream hydraulics and climate. Thermal and physical modification of streambanks may also induce accelerated erosion within permafrost terrain removed from the immediate river environment. Bankline or bluffline recession rates are highly variable, ranging from less than 1 m/year to over 30 m/year and, exceptionally, to over 60 m/year. Long-term observations of the physical and thermal erosion processes and systematic ground surveys and measurements of bankline-bluffline recession rates are needed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-29
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Stream bank erosional processes Permafrost and related factors Permafrost and erosion General Erosional processes Bank zone processes Bluff zone processes Factors affecting perm afrost erodibility Exposure to currents and wind waves Texture and stratigraphy Ice content, distribution and type Slope aspect Coriolis force Timing and depth of thaw Water level and temperature Vegetation Ice and snow cover Groundwater Rates and timing of erosion and recession Overall effects of permafrost Recommendations for research Literature cited Appendix A : Processes of stream bank modifications
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  • 41
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/32
    In: CRREL Report, 83-32
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice forces on a bridge pier in the Ottauquechee River, in Quechee, Vermont, were measured by installing fourpanels-each capable of measuring forces in the normal and tangential direction - on both sides of a vertical V-shaped pier nose. The measured forces are presented for a short period during an ice run. After the ice run, the thickness and sizes of the ice floes were measured and the compressive strength of the ice was determined in the laboratory from the ice samples collected along the river banks. The water level measurements made at several locations along theriver are also presented for the period of the ice run.
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    Pages: ii, 8 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-32
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/3
    In: CRREL Report, 84-3
    Description / Table of Contents: The results of resistance tests in level ice and broken ice channels are presented for two models of the WTGB 140-fticebreaker at scales of 1:10 and 1:24, respectively. No scale effect on the resistance in level ice could be detected between the two models. From the test results an empirical predictor equation for the full scale ice resistance is derived. Predicted resistance is compared against, and found to be 25 to 40% larger than, available full-scale values estimated from thrust measurements during full-scale trials of the Great Lakes icebreaker Katmai Bay.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 25 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-3
    Language: English
    Note: COTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Model characteristics and test conditions Ice-hull coefficient of friction Measurements of ice properties Experimental procedures Data acquisition system Test program and procedures for 1:10 model Test program and procedures for 1:24 model Analysis of test results Comparison of test results between 1:10 and 1:24 models Analysis of tests in broken or brash-filled ice channels Analysis of tests in level ice Full-scale prediction of level ice resistance Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 43
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/4
    In: CRREL Report, 84-4
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice problems developed in the Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, portion of the St. Marys River because of winter navigation. Passing ships and natural influences moved ice from Soo Harbor into Little Rapids Cut in sufficient quantities to jam, cause high water in the harbor, and prevent further ship passage. After physical model and engineering studies, two ice booms with a total span of 1375 ft (419 m) with a 250-ft (76-m) navigation opening between were installed at the head of Little Rapids Cut in 1975. A modest field study program on the booms was conducted for the ensuring four winters to determine ice and boom interaction and the effects of ship passages on the system. Forces on some anchors were recorded and supplemental data were taken by local personnel. Several reports have been written about the booms' early operations. This paper presents four-year summary of the main effects of the booms on ice and ship interaction and vice versa. Throughout the four winter seasons, the small quantities of ice lost over and between the booms were manageable. Ships usually passed through the boom without influencing the boom force levels, but at time they brought about large changes. One boom needed strengthening, and artificial islands were added for upstream ice stability. Coast Guard icebreakers were also a necessary part of winter navigation in this area.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 18 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-4
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction St. Marys River Ice problems Remedial measures Field studies Highlights, trends, and major findings Modifications to boom Maximum forces Ship traffic Characteristics Effect of boom forces Effect on ice Conclusion Literature cited Appendix A: Ice boom forces
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  • 44
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/12
    In: CRREL Report, 84-12
    Description / Table of Contents: Icing on stationary structures such as oil rigs is becoming an increasingly serious problem as offshore drilling operations in the subpolar regions become more common. Little information exists on this subject. Extensive observations have been made of icing on the upper structures of moving ships, but the complexity of this problem makes analysis of the results very difficult. Even the generation of water drops in this case involves many factors, such as windspeed, wave direction relative to the bearing of the ship, and size and free-board of the ship. On stationary structures, however, the problem is much simpler, since the major factor in drop generation is whitecaps produced by wind, and no motion of the structure is involved. In the present study, a theoretical calculation was made by combining the data available on the generation of drops by wind with data on the proportion of ice frozen from the collected water. The rate of ice accumulation on stationary structures was calculated using published data. The results were compared with icing measured on board ships. Although the general trend of this calculation indicated parallelism with the onboard measurements, the measured ice accumulation rate on ships needed a 5 to 8 m/s higher windspeed to correspond with the calculated rate for stationary structures.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: ii, 13 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-12
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/11
    In: CRREL Report, 84-11
    Description / Table of Contents: Data obtained from two sets of data buoys either air-dropped or deployed by ship onto the Weddell Sea pack ice during the period from Dec 1978 to Nov 1980 are presented. The buoy data include position, pressure and temperature information and to date represent the most complete combined weather and pack ice drift records for the ice-covered Southern Ocean regions. The buoys tended to drift north initially and then to turn east generally between latitudes 62°S and 64°S. Buoy 1433 turned east farther south at approximately 67°S but at about the same time as buoy 0527, implying that the westerly wind belt was farther south than usual in 1979. The range of air pressures-from about 950 mb to about 1020 mb is typical of the circumpolar low pressure trough in the Southern Hemisphere. All buoys were equipped with an internal or compartment temperature sensor. The 1980 buoys also contained an external air temperature sensor in a ventilated, shielded can at 1-m height. Although differences of 10°C or more between recorded air and compartment temperatures are common, the correlation between the two measured temperatures is generally very good. The compartment temperatures are higher probably because the buoy is radiationally heated. We found that subtracting 3°C from the average daily compartment temperature yielded a good estimate of the average air temperature for any given day. This technique can be used to construct average daily air temperature records for the 1979 buoys which only contained the internal or compartment temperature sensor.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 21 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-11
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Methods and instrumentation Results Drift tracks Pressure data Temperature data Discussion Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 46
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/9
    In: CRREL Report, 84-9
    Description / Table of Contents: This report presents the results of the first phase of a test program designed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In Phase I, 222 constant-strain-rate uni-axial compression tests were performed on ice samples from ten multi-year pressure ridges to examine the magnitude and variation of ice strength within and between pressure ridges. A limited number of constant-strain-rate compression and tension tests, constant-load compression tests, and conventional triaxial tests were also performed on ice samples from a multi-year floe to provide preliminary data for developing ice yield criteria and constitutive laws for multi-year sea ice. Data are presented on the strength, failure strain, and modulus of multi-year sea ice under different loading conditions. The statistical variation of ice strength within and between pressure ridges is examined, as well as the effects of ice temperature, porosity, structure, strain rate and confining pressure on the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 107 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-9
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Field Sampling Site selection and description Ice sampling procedures Shipping and storage of ice samples Testing Techniques Multi-year Pressure Ridge Tests Ice description Sampling scheme and test variables Uniaxial compressive strength Residual compressive strength Failure strains Initial tangent modulus Statistical Variations in Ice Strength Differences in strength above and below level ice Sources of the variation in strength Shape of the strength histograms Multi-year Floe Ice Tests Ice description Uniaxial compressive strength Constant-load compression tests Constant-strain-rate tension tests Triaxial tests Conclusions Literature Cited Appendix A: Structural profile of a multi-year pressure ridge core Appendix B: Ridge uniaxial compression test data Appendix C: Structural profile of the continuous multi-year floe core Appendix D: Multi-year floe test data
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