ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Deutschland  (243)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank  (243)
Collection
Keywords
Language
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Es wird eine Methode zur Messung des Produktionsfaktors Kapital vorgeschlagen, in der Vermögensarten nach ihrem Nutzungswert im Produktionsprozess gewichtet werden. Dazu werden Nutzungskosten für die einzelnen Anlageklassen mit Hilfe von Daten der Volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnungen sowie anderer Quellen geschätzt. Im Beobachtungszeitraum von 1991 bis 2010 nahm der aggregierte Kapitaleinsatz der Unternehmen erkennbar stärker zu als der amtlich ausgewiesene Kapitalstock. In der Gesamtwirtschaft gilt dies nur für die zyklischen Expansionsphasen. Da das Statistische Bundesamt mit Bestandswerten gewichtet, sind die voneinander abweichenden Wägungsschemata in Verbindung mit den nach Vermögensarten variierenden Akkumulationsgeschwindigkeiten für die Unterschiede verantwortlich. Im Rahmen angebotsseitiger Zerlegungen des Wirtschaftswachstums ergeben sich daraus Differenzen in den Schätzungen der Totalen Faktorproduktivität. Parametrische Produktionsfunktionsschätzungen werden von diesem Methodenunterschied indessen nicht wesentlich beeinflusst.
    Description: A method is proposed to measure capital services in production. This means that productive assets are weighted according to their user costs. The user costs of the individual asset classes are estimated based on data from the national accounts and other sources. The results show that, in the observation period between 1991 and 2010, enterprises' capital services expand faster than the offcially published capital stock. For the economy as a whole, this applies only to phases of cyclical expansion. As the capital stock is aggregated using asset prices, the differences can be explained by the dfferent weighting methods in conjunction with the varying speeds at which the individual asset types have accumulated over time. In growth accounting, different estimates of total factor productivity emerge. The methodological difference, however, does not significantly affect the estimates of parametric production function specifications.
    Keywords: E01 ; O47 ; C43 ; ddc:330 ; Kapitalstock ; Aggregation ; Produktionsfunktion ; TFP ; Capital stock ; aggregation ; production function ; TFP ; Gesamtwirtschaftliches Anlagevermögen ; Messung ; Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung ; Produktionsfunktion ; Produktivität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: This paper explores the extent to which interest risk exposure is priced in bank margins. Our contribution to the literature is twofold: First, we present an extended model of Ho and Saunders (1981) that explicitly captures interest rate risk and returns from maturity transformation. Banks price interest risk according to their individual exposure separately in loan and deposit rates, but reduce these charges when they expect returns from maturity transformation. Second, using a comprehensive dataset covering the German universal banks between 2000 and 2009, we test the model-implied hypotheses not only for the commonly investigated net interest income, but additionally for interest income and expenses separately. Controlling for earnings from bank-individual maturity transformation strategies, we find all banks to charge additional fees for macroeconomic interest volatility exposure. Microeconomic on-balance interest risk exposure from maturity transformation, however, only affects the smaller savings and cooperative banks, but not private commercial banks. Returns are only priced in income margins.
    Keywords: D21 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; Interest rate risk ; Interest margins ; Maturity transformation ; Bank ; Zinsspannenrechnung ; Zinsrisiko ; Laufzeit ; Risikomanagement ; Betriebliche Preispolitik ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: This paper introduces a stress test of the corporate credit portfolios of 24 large German banks by a two-stage approach: First, a macro-econometric model is used to forecast the impact of a substantial increase of the user cost of business capital for firms worldwide on three particularly export-oriented industry sectors in Germany. Second, the impact of this economic multi-sector stress on banks' credit portfolios is captured by a state-of-theart CreditMetrics-type portfolio model with sector-dependant unobservable risk factors as drivers of the systematic risk. The German credit register provides us with access to highly granular risk information on loan volumes and banks' internal estimates of default probabilities which is key for an accurate assessment of the impact of the stress scenario. We find that the increase of the capital charge for the unexpected loss needs to be considered together with the increase in banks' expected losses in order to assess the change of banks' capital ratios. We also confirm that highly granular information on the level of borrowerspecific probabilities of default has a significant impact on the outcome of the stress test.
    Keywords: G21 ; G33 ; C13 ; C15 ; ddc:330 ; Asset correlation ; portfolio credit risk ; macroeconomic stress tests ; Kapitalkosten ; Schock ; Großbank ; Kreditrisiko ; Kreditwürdigkeit ; Bankenkrise ; Systemrisiko ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Little is known about how socioeconomic characteristics of executive teams affect corporate governance in banking. Exploiting a unique dataset, we show how age, gender, and education composition of executive teams affect risk taking of financial institutions. First, we establish that age, gender, and education jointly affect the variability of bank performance. Second, we use difference-in-difference estimations that focus exclusively on mandatory executive retirements and find that younger executive teams increase risk taking, as do board changes that result in a higher proportion of female executives. In contrast, if board changes increase the representation of executives holding Ph.D. degrees, risk taking declines.
    Keywords: G21 ; G34 ; I21 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Banks ; executives ; risk taking ; age ; gender ; education ; Bankmanager ; Führungskräfte ; Risikopräferenz ; Bankrisiko ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: A method is proposed to measure capital services in production. This means that productive assets are weighted according to their user costs. The user costs of the individual asset classes are estimated based on data from the national accounts and other sources. The results show that, in the observation period between 1991 and 2010, enterprises' capital services expand faster than the offcially published capital stock. For the economy as a whole, this applies only to phases of cyclical expansion. As the capital stock is aggregated using asset prices, the differences can be explained by the dfferent weighting methods in conjunction with the varying speeds at which the individual asset types have accumulated over time. In growth accounting, different estimates of total factor productivity emerge. The methodological difference, however, does not significantly affect the estimates of parametric production function specifications.
    Description: Es wird eine Methode zur Messung des Produktionsfaktors Kapital vorgeschlagen, in der Vermögensarten nach ihrem Nutzungswert im Produktionsprozess gewichtet werden. Dazu werden Nutzungskosten für die einzelnen Anlageklassen mit Hilfe von Daten der Volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnungen sowie anderer Quellen geschätzt. Im Beobachtungszeitraum von 1991 bis 2010 nahm der aggregierte Kapitaleinsatz der Unternehmen erkennbar stärker zu als der amtlich ausgewiesene Kapitalstock. In der Gesamtwirtschaft gilt dies nur für die zyklischen Expansionsphasen. Da das Statistische Bundesamt mit Bestandswerten gewichtet, sind die voneinander abweichenden Wägungsschemata in Verbindung mit den nach Vermögensarten variierenden Akkumulationsgeschwindigkeiten für die Unterschiede verantwortlich. Im Rahmen angebotsseitiger Zerlegungen des Wirtschaftswachstums ergeben sich daraus Differenzen in den Schätzungen der Totalen Faktorproduktivität. Parametrische Produktionsfunktionsschätzungen werden von diesem Methodenunterschied indessen nicht wesentlich beeinflusst.
    Keywords: E01 ; O47 ; C43 ; ddc:330 ; Capital stock ; aggregation ; production function ; TFP ; Kapitalstock ; Aggregation ; Produktionsfunktion ; TFP ; Gesamtwirtschaftliches Anlagevermögen ; Messung ; Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung ; Produktionsfunktion ; Produktivität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: To test if safety nets create moral hazard in the banking industry, we develop a simultaneous structural two-equations model that specifies the probability of a bailout and banks' risk taking.We identify the effect of expected bailout probabilities on risk taking using exclusion restrictions based on regional political, supervisor, and banking market traits. The sample includes all observed capital preservation measures and distressed exits in the German banking industry during 1995-2006. The marginal effect of risk with respect to bailout expectations is 7.2 basis points. A change of bailout expectations by two standard deviations increases the probability of official distress from 6.2% to 9.9%. Only interventions directly targeting bank management and, to a lesser extent, penalties mitigate moral hazard. Weak interventions, such as warnings, do not reduce moral hazard.
    Keywords: C30 ; C78 ; G21 ; G28 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; Banking ; supervision ; moral hazard ; intervention ; bailouts ; Bankrisiko ; Schuldenübernahme ; Moral Hazard ; Bankenaufsicht ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper analyses the role of bank-related constraints in explaining the sharp slowdown in bank lending to non-financial corporations in Germany during the recent financial crisis. We use a panel approach based on a unique data set which matches the individual responses of the banks participating in the Eurosystem's Bank Lending Survey with the corresponding micro data on loan quantities and prices. Our main finding is that bank-related supply and demand-side indicators were both important in explaining the slowdown of bank lending during the crisis years. The results suggest that the dampening impact of the bank-related restrictions was strongest from the third quarter of 2009 to the first quarter of 2010. Over this short period, more than one-third of the explained negative loan development was due to the restrictive adjustments of purely bank-related factors, such as the costs related to the bank's capital, market financing conditions and the bank's liquidity position.
    Keywords: C23 ; E30 ; E51 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; Bank Lending Survey ; credit supply ; panel data ; financial crisis ; Germany ; Kreditgeschäft ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Kreditrationierung ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Information economics has emerged as the primary theoretical lens for framing financing decisions in firm R&D investment. Successful outcomes of R&D projects are either ex-ante impossible to predict or the information is asymmetrically distributed between inventors and investors. As a result, bank lending for firm R&D has been rare. However, firms can signal the value of their R&D activities and as a result reduce the information deficits that block the availability of external funding. In this study we focus on three types of signals: Firm's existing patent stock, the presences of a joint venture investor and whether the firm has received a government R&D subsidy. We argue theoretically that all of these signals have the potential to alter the risk assessment of the firm's main bank. Additionally, we explore heterogeneities in these risk assessments arising from the industry level and the main bank's portfolio. We test our theoretical predictions for a sample of more than 7,000 firm observations in Germany over a multi-year period. Our theoretical predictions are only supported for firms' past patent activity while other signals fail to alter the risk assessment of a firm's main bank. Besides, we confirm that the risk evaluation is not randomly distributed across bank-firm dyads but depends on industry and bank characteristics.
    Keywords: O32 ; D82 ; G30 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; banking ; information asymmetry ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Industrielle Forschung ; Signalling ; Bank ; Lieferanten-Kunden-Beziehung ; Kreditgeschäft ; Asymmetrische Information ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Banking supervision requires regular inspection and assessment of financial institutions. In Germany this task is carried out by the central bank ('Deutsche Bundesbank, BBK') in cooperation with the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority ('Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, BaFin'). In accordance with the Basel II approach, quantitative and qualitative information is used. It is still an open question whether supervisors provide information, based on on-site inspections, which is not known from the numbers already, or simply duplicate the quantitative information, or even overrule it by their impressions gained through visits. In our analysis we use a unique dataset on financial institutions' risk profiles, i.e. the banking supervisors' risk assessment. Methodologically, we apply a partial proportional odds model to explain the supervisor's ordinal grading by a purely quantitative CAMEL covariate vector, which is standard in many bank rating models, and we also include the bank inspector's qualitative risk assessment into the model. We find that not only the quantitative CAMEL vector is clearly important for the final supervisory risk assessment; it is, indeed, also qualitative information on a bank's internal governance, ICAAP, interest rate risk, and other qualitative risk components that plays an equally important role. Moreover, we find evidence that supervisors have become more conservative in their final judgement at the beginning of the financial crisis, i.e. the supervisory assessment seems to be more forward-looking than the mere numbers. This result underpins the importance of bank-individual on-site risk assessments.
    Keywords: C35 ; G21 ; G32 ; L50 ; ddc:330 ; Bank rating ; banking supervision ; generalized ordered logit ; Bankenaufsicht ; Bankrisiko ; Kreditwürdigkeit ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper re-investigates the implications of monetary policy rules on changes in exchange rate, in a risk-adjusted, uncovered interest parity model with unrestricted parameters, emphasizing the importance of modeling market expectations of monetary policy. I use consensus forecasts as a proxy for market expectations. The analysis on the Deutsche mark, Canadian dollar, Japanese yen, and the British pound relative to the U.S. dollar from 1979 to 2008 shows that, through the expectations of future monetary policy, Taylor rule fundamentals are able to forecast changes in the exchange rate, even over short-term horizons of less than two years. Furthermore, the market expectation formation processes of short-term interest rates change over time and differ across countries, which contributes to the time varying relationship between exchange rates and macroeconomic fundamentals, together with the time varying currency risk premia and exchange rate forecast errors.
    Keywords: F31 ; E52 ; D83 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; Exchange Rate ; Monetary Policy ; Expectation ; Learning ; VAR ; Consensus Forecast ; Wechselkurs ; Geldpolitik ; Erwartungstheorie ; Lernprozess ; Schätzung ; US-Dollar ; Deutschland ; Kanada ; Japan ; Großbritannien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The World Financial Crisis has shaken the fundamentals of international banking and triggered a downward spiral of asset prices. To prevent a further meltdown of markets, governments have intervened massively through rescues measures aimed at recapitalizing banks and through liquidity support. We use a detailed, banklevel dataset for German banks to analyze how the lending and borrowing of their foreign affiliates has responded to domestic (German) and to US crisis support schemes. We analyze how these policy interventions have spilled over into foreign markets. We identify loan supply shocks by exploiting that not all banks have received policy support and that the timing of receiving support measures has differed across banks. We find that banks covered by rescue measures of the German government have increased their foreign activities after these policy interventions, but they have not expanded relative to banks not receiving support. Banks claiming liquidity support under the Term Auction Facility (TAF) program have withdrawn from foreign markets outside the US, but they have expanded relative to affiliates of other German banks.
    Keywords: G01 ; F34 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; Cross-border banking ; financial crisis ; government support ; Term Auction Facility ; Internationale Bank ; Auslandsniederlassung ; Kreditgeschäft ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Geldpolitik ; Bankenpolitik ; Staatliche Einflussnahme ; Bürgschaft ; Öffentliche Kapitalbeteiligung ; Deutschland ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper analyzes the tax haven investment behavior of multinational firms from a country that exempts foreign income from taxation. High foreign tax rates generally encourage firms to invest in tax havens, though significant costs of reallocating taxable income dampen these incentives. The behavior of German manufacturing firms from 2002-2008 is consistent with this prediction: at the mean, one percentage point higher foreign tax rates are associated with three percentage point greater likelihoods of owning tax haven affiliates. This contrasts with earlier evidence for U.S. firms subject to home country taxation, which are more likely to invest in tax havens if they face lower foreign tax rates. Foreign tax rates appear to be unrelated to tax haven investments of German firms in service industries, possibly reflecting the difficulty they face in reallocating taxable income.
    Keywords: H87 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; tax havens ; multinational firms ; tax avoidance ; profit shifting ; manufacturing FDI ; service FDI ; Steueroase ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Steuervermeidung ; International ; Direktinvestition ; Deutschland ; USA ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: In this paper we analyse whether the recording behaviour of consumers keeping a payment diary changes over the diary period. Using data from a large study on the payment behaviour of German consumers we find that individuals tend to report a higher number of transactions on the first day of the diary period than on subsequent days. Contrary to existing literature we also find that the number of small cash payments recorded does not decrease during the one-week diary period. Our findings indicate that short diaries may be enough to reflect adequately the payment behaviour of all consumers. However, the precision of the estimates increases with longer diaries, at small additional costs. Longer diaries are especially helpful when it comes to analysing subgroups of payment types or rare events.
    Keywords: C81 ; D12 ; E41 ; ddc:330 ; payment behaviour ; survey design ; diary studies ; Zahlungsverkehr ; Privater Haushalt ; Befragung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Distinguishing pure supply effects from other determinants of price and quantity in the market for loans is a notoriously difficult problem. Using German data, we employ Bayesian vector autoregressive models with sign restrictions on the impulse response functions in order to enquire the role of loan supply and monetary policy shocks for the dynamics of loans to non-financial corporations. For the three quarters following the Lehman collapse, we find very strong negative loan supply shocks, while monetary policy was essentially neutral. Nevertheless, the historical decomposition shows a cumulated negative impact of loan supply shocks and monetary policy shocks on loans to non-financial corporations, due to the lagged effects of past loan supply and monetary policy shocks. However, these negative effects on loans to non-financial corporations are overcompensated by positive other shocks, which implies that loans developed more favorably than implied by the model, over the past few quarters.
    Keywords: C11 ; C32 ; E51 ; ddc:330 ; Loan supply ; Bayesian VAR ; sign restrictions ; Kredit ; Geldangebot ; Schock ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Firmenkundengeschäft ; VAR-Modell ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: We develop a formula for user costs of housing on the basis of a neoclassical approach to housing investment which does not impose a perfect capital market assumption. We suggest that the definition for the user costs of housing should be extended by an additional term which mirrors the credit constraints a household would be faced with. This extension term consists of the inflation gap between consumer and house price inflation multiplied with an average loan-to-value ratio and the real house prices. The empirical relevance of our finding is confirmed by a VECM. A time series for the user costs of housing is calculated using this extended definition.
    Keywords: C32 ; E13 ; E22 ; ddc:330 ; Housing investments ; user costs of housing ; cointegration ; Wohnkosten ; Wohneigentum ; Wohnungsbauinvestition ; Verschuldungsrestriktion ; Kapitalkosten ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Liquidity creation is one of banks' raisons d'être. But what happens to liquidity creation and risk taking when a bank is identified as distressed by regulatory bodies and subjected to regulatory interventions and/or receives capital injections? What are the long-run effects of such interventions? To address these questions, we exploit a unique dataset of German universal banks for the period 1999 - 2008. Our main findings are as follows. First, regulatory interventions and capital injections are followed by lower levels of liquidity creation. The probability of a decline in liquidity creation increases to up to around 50 percent when such actions are taken. Second, bank risk taking decreases in the aftermath of regulatory interventions and capital injections. Third, while banks' liquidity creation market shares decline over the five years following such disciplinary measures, they also reduce their risk exposure over this period to become safer banks.
    Keywords: G21 ; G28 ; ddc:330 ; Liquidity creation ; bank distress ; regulatory interventions ; capital injections ; Geldschöpfung ; Bankenliquidität ; Bankinsolvenz ; Bankenpolitik ; Öffentliche Kapitalbeteiligung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper aims to shed light on some of the major allocative consequences of financial market bubbles. In March 1997, the Neuer Markt in Germany opened. Six years later, in June 2003, it closed forever. In the interim period lay the spectacular rise and fall of the first and most important European market for hi-tech stocks. Given investors' frenzy, the Neuer Markt was a special kind of natural experiment. For some time, financing constraints were virtually non-existent. Our model of corporate financing shows that bubbles on financial markets will induce entrepreneurs and providers of external finance to enter the 'wrong' contract. Incentive compatibility constraints designed to guarantee that corporate decision-makers behave constructively turn out to be invalid, and managers will know this before shareholders do. Thus, faulty valuation by stock markets may directly induce destructive corporate behaviour: slack, empire building, excessive risk-taking, and fraud. At the time of the IPO, a huge amount of liquidity is injected into the companies, and a dynamic analysis of the balance sheet ratios and income statement items in the following years can teach us the ways in which this liquidity is diffused. We analyse the corresponding dynamics of total assets, tangible assets and equity, as well as the evolution of sales and profits for 204 German non-financial companies out of a total of 326 companies that had their IPO at the Neuer Markt. On the basis of consecutive annual accounts, we retrace the events using a dynamic flow of funds analysis. We assess the explanatory power of our model using non-parametric methods [Median tests, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests] and quantile regressions. Our results indicate that valuation has strong and systematic effects on incentives. Experience, as proxied by age at IPO, is shown to have a beneficial effect, whereas support by VC and PE firms does not seem to matter for the success of the enterprises considered.
    Keywords: G32 ; D82 ; D83 ; D92 ; C14 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; Bubbles ; corporate governance ; quantile regressions ; nonparametric statistics ; Neuer Markt ; Wertpapieremission ; Risikokapital ; Corporate Governance ; Bubbles ; Börsenkrise ; Unternehmensbewertung ; Asymmetrische Information ; Ökonomischer Anreiz ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: We use a unique dataset of German banks' exposure to interest rate risk to derive the following statements about their exposure to this risk and their earnings from term transformation. The systematic factor for the exposure to interest rate risk moves in sync with the shape of the term structure. At bank level, however, the time variation of the exposure is largely determined by idiosyncratic effects. Over time, changes in earnings from term transformation have a large impact on interest income. Across banks, however, the earnings from term transformation do not seem to be a decisive factor for the interest margin.
    Keywords: G11 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; interest rate risk ; term transformation ; interest income ; Bankrisiko ; Zinsrisiko ; Zinsstruktur ; Kreditgeschäft ; Laufzeit ; Zinsspannenrechnung ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The paper estimates the NAIRU from a Phillips curve relationship in the state-space framework. To identify the inflation-unemployment trade-off we account for a time-varying inflation trend to control for the part of inflation that is not affected by the cyclical component of unemployment. In addition we use shifts in the relative volatility of shocks to unemployment and inflation to address the simultaneity problem in Phillips curve estimations. Applying the method of Rigobon and Sack (2003) allows for a data driven identification of the contemporaneous coefficients on the unemployment gap in the Phillips curve and yields more precise estimates of the structural coefficients in the Phillips curve. This tightens the economic relation on the basis of which the NAIRU is derived.
    Keywords: E24 ; E31 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment ; state-space estimation ; identification through heteroskedasticity ; trend inflation ; Natürliche Arbeitslosigkeit ; Phillips-Kurve ; Zustandsraummodell ; Heteroskedastizität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper provides evidence that interbank markets are tiered rather than flat, in the sense that most banks do not lend to each other directly but through money center banks acting as intermediaries. We capture the concept of tiering by developing a core-periphery model, and devise a procedure for fitting the model to real-world networks. Using Bundesbank data on bilateral interbank exposures among 1800 banks, we find strong evidence of tiering in the German banking system. Moreover, bankspecific features, such as balance sheet size, predict how banks position themselves in the interbank market. This link provides a promising avenue for understanding the formation of financial networks.
    Keywords: G21 ; L14 ; D85 ; C63 ; ddc:330 ; interbank markets ; intermediation ; networks ; tiering ; core and periphery ; market structure ; Geldmarkt ; Bank ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Kern-Peripherie-Beziehung ; Finanzintermediär ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Section 340f of the German Commercial Code allows banks to provision against the special risks inherent to the banking business by building hidden reserves. Beyond risk provisioning, these reserves are implicitly accepted as an earnings management device. By analyzing financial statements of German banks for the period 1995 through 2009, we see these hidden reserves being used to (1) avoid a negative net income, (2) avoid a drop in net income compared to the previous year, (3) avoid a shortfall in net income compared to a peer group, and (4) reduce the variability of banks' net income over time. We (5) find a diminished relevance of avoiding a drop in net income as well as a shortfall relative to the peer group during the financial crisis. Finally, we are (6) unable to confirm any differences in the relevance of hidden reserves for earnings management between listed and non-listed banks.
    Keywords: C23 ; G21 ; M41 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings management ; Income smoothing ; Hidden reserves ; Prospect theory ; Financial institution ; Bank ; Bilanzpolitik ; Stille Reserve ; Prospect Theory ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Based on detailed regulatory intervention data among German banks during 1994-2008, we test if supervisory measures affect the likelihood and the timing of bank recovery. Severe regulatory measures increase both the likelihood of recovery and its duration while weak measures are insignificant. Results seem not to be driven by regulators directing measures to particularly bad banks. That is, our results remain intact when we exclude banks that eventually exit the market due to restructuring mergers or moratoria. More transparent publication requirements of public incorporation that indicate more exposure to market discipline are barely or not at all significant. Increasing earnings and cleaning credit portfolios are consistently of importance to increase recovery likelihood, whereas earnings growth accelerates the timing of recovery. Macroeconomic conditions also matter for bank recovery. Hence, concerted micro- and macro-prudential policies are key to facilitate distressed bank recovery.
    Keywords: G28 ; C41 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; Bank distress ; capital support ; regulation ; recovery ; Bankinsolvenz ; Bankenpolitik ; Bankenaufsicht ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper investigates the purchases and redemptions of a large cross-sectional sample of German equity funds. We find that investors punish bad performance by selling their shares, but also have a tendency to sell winners. Investors in large fund families show higher sales and redemption rates. Furthermore, family size also affects the flow-performance relationship. On the one hand, investors in large families punish bad performance more, on the other, they also tend to sell winners more. Finally, we find that inner-family rankings play an important role for redemptions, with investors strongly redeeming their shares from intra-family losers.
    Keywords: G20 ; G23 ; ddc:330 ; Mutual funds ; fund family ; flow-performance relationship ; Investmentfonds ; Institutioneller Anleger ; Anlageverhalten ; Portfolio-Management ; Aktienfonds ; Wertpapieranalyse ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The carry-over effect is the advance contribution of the old year to growth in the new year. Among practitioners the informative content of the carry-over effect for short-term forecasting is undisputed and is used routinely in economic forecasting. In this paper, the carry-over effect is analysed 'statistically' and it is shown how it reduces the uncertainty of short-term economic forecasts. This is followed by an empirical analysis of the carry-over effect using simple forecast models as well as Bundesbank and Consensus projections.
    Keywords: C53 ; E37 ; C16 ; ddc:330 ; forecast uncertainty ; growth rates ; carry-over effect ; variance contribution ; Chebyshev density ; Konjunkturprognose ; Prognoseverfahren ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Recent developments on international financial markets have called the benefits of bank globalization into question. Large, internationally active banks have acquired substantial market power, and international activities have not necessarily made banks less risky. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the actual link between bank internationalization, bank risk, and market power. Analyzing this link is the purpose of this paper. We jointly estimate the determinants of risk and market power of banks, and we analyze the effects of changes in terms of the number of foreign countries (the extensive margin) and the volume of foreign assets (the intensive margin). Our paper has four main findings. First, there is a strong negative feedback effect between risk and market power. Second, banks with higher shares of foreign assets, in particular those held through foreign branches, have higher market power at home. Third, holding assets in a large number of foreign countries tends to increase bank risk. Fourth, the impact of internationalization differs across banks from different banking groups and of different size.
    Keywords: F3 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; market power-risk nexus ; international banking ; micro-data ; Germany ; Internationale Bank ; Marktmacht ; Bankrisiko ; Bankgeschäft ; Globalisierung ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: After decades of steady liberalisation and financial market development, emerging capital markets experienced unparalleled capital inflows in the aftermath of the emerging markets crisis in the 1990s. This paper studies portfolio investment decisions of German banks in 30 emerging capital markets using monthly data from 2002 to 2007. The use of a dynamic Time-Series Cross-Section framework and the micro database External Position Report provided by Deutsche Bundesbank, which covers German banks assets and liability positions vis-à-vis foreign countries, allows insights into the various determinants: indicators of financial market development, the portfolio-calculus of investors, investor-specific characteristics, as well as the macroeconomic environment. There is evidence for German banks taking into account the various dimensions of financial market development in their portfolio investment decisions and anticipating the special risks inherent in emerging markets. The implication for policymakers would be to foster financial market development in order to attract and sustain international portfolio investors. However, there is additional evidence for the investor's domestic market environment and global risk aversion exerting a significant influence in times of financial turmoil.
    Keywords: C23 ; F32 ; G11 ; O16 ; ddc:330 ; Emerging capital markets ; financial market development ; portfolio investment ; international capital flows ; Bank ; Portfolio-Investition ; Deutsch ; Aufstrebende Märkte ; Deutschland ; Schwellenländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: We analyse the adjustment of public education spending in response to rapidly decreasing student cohorts in East Germany where birth rates collapsed after German reunification. Previous results from the literature based on data from more stable demographic periods suggest that public resources are incompletely adjusted, and that large reductions in the student population would thus translate into major increases in spending per student. Our empirical analysis suggests, however, that resource adjustments in East Germany have been considerable, especially in the years when student cohorts actually decreased. Adjustments were less tight when student numbers began to stagnate. Although our results are restricted to public education, they may be interpreted as early evidence on fiscal adjustments during strong demographic change, which will play a growing role in the years to come.
    Keywords: I22 ; J18 ; H72 ; ddc:330 ; Subnational government spending ; demographic change ; public education ; Öffentliche Bildungsausgaben ; Anpassung ; Fruchtbarkeit ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Neue Bundesländer ; Finanzpolitik ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Real residential investment in Germany is found to be cointegrated with population, real national income per capita and real house prices. This evidence is consistent with a model where the trend in housing demand is determined by demographic factors and economic well-being to which supply adjusts so slowly that real house prices are affected persistently. Reunification seems to have induced two structural changes in the empirical housing market model. First, the speed of equilibrium adjustment via residential investment slowed down substantially and real house prices lost the capacity to contribute to the adjustment process. Second, the degree of persistence in the error correction term increased a lot. The changing features are key to explain significant differences in alternative trend-cycle decompositions of residential investment.
    Keywords: E22 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; Residential investment ; vector autoregression ; trend-cycle decomposition ; Germany ; Wohnungsbauinvestition ; Baukonjunktur ; VAR-Modell ; Dekompositionsverfahren ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Lending specialization on certain industry sectors can have opposing effects on monitoring (including screening) abilities and on the sectoral concentration risk of a credit portfolio. In this paper, we examine in the first part if monitoring abilities of German cooperative banks and savings banks increase with their specialization on certain industry sectors. We observe that sectoral specialization generally entails better monitoring quality, particularly in the case of the cooperative banks. In the second part we measure the overall effect of better monitoring and the associated higher sectoral credit concentrations on the credit risk of the portfolio. Our empirical results suggest that specialization benefits overcompensate the impact of higher credit concentrations in the case of the cooperative banks. For savings banks, the results on the net effect depend on how specialization is measured. If specialization is gauged by Hirschman Herfindahl indices, the net effect is an increase of portfolio risk due to the higher sectoral concentration. If specialization is instead measured by distance measures, portfolio risk decreases as the impact of better monitoring abilities prevails.
    Keywords: G11 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; bank lending ; loan portfolio ; diversification ; expected loss ; savings banks ; cooperative banks ; concentration ; economic capital ; credit risk ; Kreditgeschäft ; Arbeitsteilung ; Kreditwürdigkeit ; Hausbank ; Kreditrisiko ; Portfolio-Management ; Sparkasse ; Kreditgenossenschaft ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Over the term of a securitization transaction, the concept of non-compliance allows a securitizing bank to classify a securitized loan as materially non-compliant with certain transaction requirements. Such a loan becomes unqualified for loss allocation. Therefore, non-compliant loans can directly affect transaction performance and the extent of risk transfer achieved with the transaction. The concept of non-compliance is incorporated in many securitizations independent of the underlying assets or structure. In Germany, there are currently no specific regulations regarding this concept. However, a bank can use discretion when classifying a loan as non-compliant and could thus report non-compliant loans strategically. This hypothesis is tested and confirmed based on a unique data set.
    Keywords: G21 ; G28 ; ddc:330 ; Non-compliance ; risk transfer ; securitization ; Securitization ; Asset-backed security ; Kreditrisiko ; Wertpapierhandel ; Bankrisiko ; Risikomanagement ; Bankenpolitik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper studies the flow-performance relationship of three different investor groups in mutual funds: Households, financial corporations, and insurance companies and pension funds, establishing the following findings: Financial corporations have a strong tendency to chase past performance and also hold an increased share in the top performing funds. Insurance companies and pension funds show some evidence of performance chasing, but are underrepresented in the best performing funds. Households chase performance, but they are also subject to status quo bias in their flows. Regarding investor composition the worst performing funds show no significant difference in their investor structure when compared to funds with average performance.
    Keywords: G11 ; G20 ; G23 ; ddc:330 ; Mutual Funds ; Flow-Performance Relationship ; Clientele ; Investmentfonds ; Institutioneller Anleger ; Anlageverhalten ; Performance-Management ; Wertpapieranalyse ; Vergleich ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper considers factor forecasting with national versus factor forecasting withinternational data. We forecast German GDP based on a large set of about 500 time series, consisting of German data as well as data from Euro-area and G7 countries. For factor estimation, we consider standard principal components as well as variable preselection prior to factor estimation using targeted predictors following Bai and Ng [Forecasting economic time series using targeted predictors, Journal of Econometrics 146 (2008), 304-317]. The results are as follows: Forecasting without data preselection favours the use of German data only, and no additional information content can be extracted from international data. However, when using targeted predictors for variable selection, international data generally improves the forecastability of German GDP.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; forecasting ; factor models ; international data ; variable selection ; Konjunkturprognose ; Prognoseverfahren ; Faktorenanalyse ; Hauptkomponentenanalyse ; Deutschland ; Konjunkturindikator ; EU-Staaten ; G-7-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Multinational corporations (MNC) search increasingly for lead market knowledge and technological expertise around the globe. We investigate whether their subsidiaries gain access to these valuable sources of host country knowledge to the same degree as domestic rivals. We develop a theoretical framework for "why" and "how" a lack of embeddedness and legitimacy (liability of foreignness) may translate into additional obstacles for foreign subsidiaries. We test these hypotheses empirically using a broad dataset of more than 1,000 innovative firms in Germany. We find that MNCs can compete on an equal footing with host country competitors when it comes to generating impulses for innovations from universities. They are significantly challenged by liabilities of foreignness, though, when host country customers are involved. The disadvantages are especially pronounced when the host country industry is at the technological forefront. We suggest that the disadvantages arising from liability of foreignness in the host country are particularly relevant when promising lead customers have to be identified and their tacit and often unarticulated impulses have to be transferred, understood and prioritized.
    Keywords: O31 ; F23 ; D83 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Liability of foreignness ; knowledge spillover ; globalization ; Auslandsniederlassung ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Deutsch ; Wissenstransfer ; Legitimität ; Welt ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: During the turbulent 1970s and 1980s the Bundesbank established an outstanding reputation in the world of central banking. Germany achieved a high degree of domestic stability and provided safe haven for investors in times of turmoil in the international financial system. Eventually the Bundesbank provided the role model for the European Central Bank. Hence, we examine an episode of lasting importance in European monetary history. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how the Bundesbank monetary policy strategy contributed to this success. We analyze the strategy as it was conceived, communicated and refined by the Bundesbank itself. We propose a theoretical framework (following Söderström, 2005) where monetary targeting is interpreted, first and foremost, as a commitment device. In our setting, a monetary target helps anchoring inflation and inflation expectations. We derive an interest rate rule and show empirically that it approximates the way the Bundesbank conducted monetary policy over the period 1975-1998. We compare the Bundesbank's monetary policy rule with those of the FED and of the Bank of England. We find that the Bundesbank's policy reaction function was characterized by strong persistence of policy rates as well as a strong response to deviations of inflation from target and to the activity growth gap. In contrast, the response to the level of the output gap was not significant. In our empirical analysis we use real-time data, as available to policymakers at the time.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Inflation ; Price Stability ; Monetary Policy ; Monetary Targeting ; Policy Rules ; Geldpolitik ; Geldmengensteuerung ; Zinspolitik ; Reaktionsfunktion ; Inflationsbekämpfung ; Geldgeschichte ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper explores the impact dividend taxes exert on the dividends repatriated from foreign affiliates to their German parent company. Based on an augmented Lintner model of firms' dividend payout decisions, the paper focusses on cross-border intra-firm dividend payments of wholly-owned foreign affiliates in the manufacturing sector. Firm-level data from the Microdatabase Direct Investment (MiDi) of the Deutsche Bundesbank is used. Results firstly signal the validity of the original Lintner model for cross-border intra-firm dividend payments of German affiliates abroad, although the target payout ratio and the degree of dividend smoothing drops substantially once timeinvariant unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for. Secondly, results from an augmented Lintner model imply that increases in dividend taxes indeed have a statistically significant negative impact on the expected value of dividends repatriated: Evaluated at the overall mean dividend payment a one percentage point increase in the dividend tax rate would decrease dividends repatriated by about 3.5 percent. Evaluated at the mean of positive dividend payments a semi-elasticity of -1.6 is derived.
    Keywords: G35 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; Dividend policy ; taxes ; lintner model ; multinational enterprise ; Dividende ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Steuerbegünstigung ; Steuerwirkung ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Rückverlagerung ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper investigates how multinational firms choose the capital structure of their foreign affiliates in response to political risk. We focus on two choice variables, the leverage and the ownership structure of the foreign affiliate, and we distinguish different types of political risk, such as expropriation, unreliable intellectual property rights and confiscatory taxation. In our theoretical analysis we find that, as political risk increases, the ownership share tends to decrease, whereas leverage can both increase or decrease, depending on the type of political risk. Using the Microdatabase Direct Investment of the Deutsche Bundesbank, we find supportive evidence for these different effects.
    Keywords: G32 ; F21 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; Multinational firms ; political risk ; capital structure ; leverage ; ownership structure ; foreign affiliates ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Auslandsniederlassung ; Kapitalstruktur ; Politische Stabilität ; Korruption ; Enteignung ; Übernahme ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of knowledge management on the innovation success of firms in Germany. Using a matching procedure on data from the German Innovation Survey of 2003 (Mannheim Innovation Panel), we pair firms applying knowledge management with twin firms with similar characteristics not applying knowledge management. Our focus is on investigating the effects of knowledge management techniques on the economic success of firms with product and process innovations. The results of our matching analysis reveal that firms which apply knowledge management perform better in terms of higher-than-average shares of turnover with innovative products compared to their twins. We do not find a significant effect of knowledge management on the share of cost reductions with process innovation.
    Keywords: O32 ; L23 ; L25 ; M11 ; ddc:330 ; knowledge management ; innovation ; matching estimator ; Wissensmanagement ; Innovation ; Erfolgsfaktor ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Germans are still very fond of using cash. Of all direct payment transactions, cash accounts for an astounding 82% in terms of number, and for 58% in terms of value. With a new and unique dataset that combines transaction information with survey data on payment behaviour of German consumers, we shed light on how individuals choose payment instruments and why cash remains so important. We propose a two-stage empirical framework which jointly explains credit card ownership and the use of cash. Our results indicate that the pattern of cash usage is compatible with systematic economic decision making. Consumers decide upon the adoption of payment cards and then use available payment media according to their transaction and personal characteristics, the relative costs of cash and card usage, and their assessment of payment instruments' characteristics. Whereas older consumers use significantly more cash, the comparison with younger consumers shows that the difference in payment behaviour is not explained by age as such but to a large extent by differences in the characteristics of these two groups. It is interesting that the possession of a credit card, especially alongside a debit card, does not significantly affect the use of cash in Germany.
    Keywords: E41 ; E58 ; D12 ; ddc:330 ; Payment instruments ; payment cards ; payment behaviour ; payment innovation ; cash usage ; cash substitution ; debit cards ; credit cards ; survey data ; Zahlungsverkehr ; Konsumentenverhalten ; Kreditkarte ; Geldumlauf ; Mikrodaten ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The Italian and German banking systems shared similar characteristics early in the 1990s but have evolved in different directions since then: Italy privatized its publicly-owned banks while Germany has maintained a large share of state-owned savings banks. Contemporaneously, banks in both markets engaged heavily in mergers and acquisitions. We analyze how these activities have affected banks' productivity in the period 1994-2004, differentiating between technical change, efficiency change and scale economies. We find that privatized banks experienced a significant increase in productivity, especially if they subsequently merged with other banks. German banks were still able to increase their productivity through consolidation.
    Keywords: D24 ; G21 ; G28 ; L33 ; ddc:330 ; Banking market integration ; deregulation ; total factor productivity ; Italy ; Germany ; Bank ; Produktivität ; Öffentliche Bank ; Privatisierung ; Übernahme ; Fusion ; Deutschland ; Italien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: For their short-term payment obligations, savings banks hold substantially more liquid assets than the liquidity regulation requires. This paper investigates whether sight deposits, an important funding source for savings banks, help in explaining liquid asset holdings in excess of regulatory requirements. We analyze whether savings banks transform sight deposits in illiquid assets less intensively than is permitted because (i) the liquidity regulation underestimates actual withdrawal rates (underestimation effect) and/or (ii) savings banks are subject to limits in their lending to non-banks that they do not offset by, for instance, medium-term interbank lending or fixed asset holdings (lending effect). In our sample, we do not find the underestimation effect to be applicable as actual deposit withdrawal rates are in most cases lower than the regulatorily specified rate. However, we find the lending effect to be at work: Savings banks with low shares of loans to non-banks do not transform sight deposits into illiquid assets as intensively as savings banks with high shares of non-bank loans. Our analysis does not only show that liquid assets positively depend on sight deposits, but also shines a light on how bank size and the individual bank's position in the interbank market affect liquid assets.
    Keywords: G21 ; ddc:330 ; Liquid assets ; sight deposits ; prudential liquidity regulation ; Sparkasse ; Einlagengeschäft ; Liquide Mittel ; Kreditgeschäft ; Kapitalanlage ; Bankenliquidität ; Betriebsgröße ; Interindustrielle Verflechtung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: From a banking supervisory perspective, this paper analyses aspects of market risk of an aggregated trading portfolio comprised of the trading books of 11 German banks with a regulatory approved internal market risk model. Based on real, clean profit and loss data and Value-at-Risk estimates of the 11 banks, the paper specifically models and analyzes the portfolio's dependence and diversification structure, indispensable for financial stability studies. The high sensitivity of market risk measurements with respect to dependence structure of the underlying portfolio is nowadays a well-known fact. However, only few techniqques for high-dimensional and hierarchical dependence analysis have been proposed and studied in the financial literature so far. One reason is certainly the increasing complexity of the statistical theory, which is commonly referred to as the curse of high-dimensionality. The present paper develops and applies multidimensional (asymptotic) test statistics based on the copula theory with the aim of detecting significant long-term level changes in the supervisory portfolio's dependence over time. Furthremore, a statistical hyphothesis test is proposed to identify the distinct contributions of sub-portfolios towards the overall dependence level in ahiercharchical manner. The utilized techniques are distribution-free and, in particulaar, are invariant with respect to the maarginaal return distributions.
    Keywords: C12 ; C13 ; C14 ; ddc:330 ; Multivariate dependence modelling ; multivariate Spearman's rho ; time-varying copula ; asymptotic test theory ; hierarchical testing ; control chart theory ; Rendite ; Börsenkurs ; Wertpapierhandel ; Multivariate Analyse ; Statistische Qualitätskontrolle ; Statistischer Test ; Portfolio-Management ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Since changes in import prices feed into consumer prices and thus might affect monetary policy decisions, policymakers need to establish whether or not German importers' long-run pricing behaviour has changed. Of particular interest are any shifts in the importance of cost passthrough and pricing-to-market for import pricing in Germany that may have ocurred since the 1990s. We analyse pricing in single equations for 11 product categories because the factors influencing the pricing behaviour, eg competitive pressure, may well have developed differently on the individual product markets. The Saikkonen (1991) approach is applied to test the import price levels for changes in the impact of their determinants. After aggregating the findings for the individual product categories, we find that, on the whole, pricing-to-market has increased, whereas cost pass-through via foreign costs and exchange rates is lower, but not via commodity prices.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; import pricing ; cost pass-through ; exchange rate pass-through ; pricing-to-market ; Germany ; Außenhandelspreis ; Exchange Rate Pass-Through ; Kosten ; Betriebliche Preispolitik ; Deutschland ; pricing to market
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Is time-varying firm-level uncertainty a major cause or amplifier of the business cycle? This paper investigates this question in the context of a heterogeneousfirm RBC model with persistent firm-level productivity shocks and lumpy capital adjustment, where cyclical changes in uncertainty correspond naturally to cyclical changes in the cross-sectional dispersion of firm-specific Solow residual innovations. We use a unique German firm-level data set to investigate the extent to which firm-level uncertainty varies over the cycle. This allows us to put empirical discipline on our numerical simulations. We find that, while firm-level uncertainty is indeed countercyclical, it does not fluctuate enough to significantly alter the dynamics of an RBC model with only first moment shocks. The mild changes we do find are mainly caused by a bad news effect: higher uncertainty today predicts lower aggregate Solow residuals tomorrow. This effect dominates the real option value effect of time-varying uncertainty, highlighted in the literature.
    Keywords: E20 ; E22 ; E30 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; Ss model ; RBC model ; lumpy investment ; countercyclical risk ; aggregate shocks ; idiosyncratic shocks ; heterogeneous firms ; news shocks ; uncertainty shocks. ; Real Business Cycle ; Produktivität ; Schock ; Konjunktur ; Risiko ; Innovation ; Investition ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The paper studies the short-term effects of energy price hikes on the supply of industrial goods and transport services including the repercussions on remuneration of input factors. While industry had suffered more strongly from the oil price shock of the late 1970s compared with the one of the early 1970s and the 2004-08 upsurge, evidence is reverse for transportation. Regarding the impact on the income distribution, both sectors share the pattern that in the recent episode rising energy costs were more than compensated by falling unit labor costs while in the 1970s cost structures had been strained by expansive wage policy in addition to the oil price shocks.
    Keywords: E23 ; E25 ; Q43 ; ddc:330 ; Energy prices ; supply of goods and services ; income distribution ; Mineralölpreisschock ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Verkehrsgewerbe ; Angebot ; Verteilungswirkung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Modern trade theory emphasizes firm-level productivity differentials to explain the cross-border activities of non-financial firms. This study tests whether a productivity pecking order also determines international banking activities. Using a novel dataset that contains all German banks' international activities, we estimate the ordered probability of a presence abroad (extensive margin) and the volume of international assets (intensive margin). Methodologically, we enrich the conventional Heckman selection model to account for the self-selection of banks into different modes of foreign activities using an ordered probit. Four main findings emerge. First, similar to results for non-financial firms, a productivity pecking order drives bank internationalization. Second, only a few non-financial firms engage in international trade, but many banks hold nternational assets, and only a few large banks engage in foreign direct investment. Third, in addition to productivity, risk factors matter for international banking. Fourth, gravity-type variables have an important impact on international banking activities.
    Keywords: F3 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; International banking ; extensive and intensive margin ; productivity pecking order ; ordered probit ; selection models ; Internationale Bank ; Bankgeschäft ; Internationale Markteintrittsstrategie ; Produktivität ; Probit-Modell ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht, wie sich Angebots-, Nachfrage- und geldpolitische Schocks aus den Vereinigten Staaten auf Deutschland übertragen. Dabei wird ein so genanntes factor-augmented vector autoregressive model (FAVAR) auf einen neu zusammengestellten Datensatz mit mehr als 200 deutschen Variablen zwischen 1976 und 2008 angewandt. Die Studie untersucht nicht nur die Übertragung US-amerikanischer Schocks auf das deutsche Bruttoinlandsprodukt mit Hilfe einer Impuls-Antwort-Analyse sondern auf eine Vielzahl weiterer Variablen, die die verschiedenen Transmissionskanäle abbilden. Die Arbeit berücksichtigt insbesondere disaggregierte Handelsvariablen, welche den Handel Deutschlands mit unterschiedlichen Ländern beziehungsweise Regionen abbilden. Dies erlaubt eine detaillierte Analyse des Handelskanals. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt auf der Übertragung US-amerikanischer Schocks auf bestimmte Branchen, darunter der Maschinenbau und die Automobilindustrie, die von der globalen Finanzkrise besonders stark negativ betroffen waren. Mittels einer historischen Zerlegung wird schließlich der Beitrag US-amerikanischer Schocks zum jüngsten Abschwung in Deutschland abgeschätzt.
    Keywords: F1 ; F4 ; C3 ; C5 ; ddc:330 ; International business cycles ; factor models ; trade ; financial market integration ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Schock ; Branchenkonjunktur ; Außenhandel ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Faktorenanalyse ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper discusses pooling versus model selection for now- and forecasting in the presence of model uncertainty with large, unbalanced datasets. Empirically, unbalanced data is pervasive in economics and typically due to di¤erent sampling frequencies and publication delays. Two model classes suited in this context are factor models based on large datasets and mixed-data sampling (MIDAS) regressions with few predictors. The specification of these models requires several choices related to, amongst others, the factor estimation method and the number of factors, lag length and indicator selection. Thus, there are many sources of mis-specification when selecting a particular model, and an alternative could be pooling over a large set of models with different specifications. We evaluate the relative performance of pooling and model selection for now- and forecasting quarterly German GDP, a key macroeconomic indicator for the largest country in the euro area, with a large set of about one hundred monthly indicators. Our empirical findings provide strong support for pooling over many specifications rather than selecting a specific model.
    Keywords: C53 ; E37 ; ddc:330 ; casting ; forecast combination ; forecast pooling ; model selection ; mixed - frequency data ; factor models ; MIDAS ; Konjunkturprognose ; Prognoseverfahren ; Ökonometrisches Modell ; Faktorenanalyse ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Developments in risk-transfer instruments and risk management techniques in the last two decades have fundamentally changed how banks manage their assets and liabilities. In this document we show that, for all three sectors of German universal banks (private commercial banks, savings banks, and cooperative banks), asset-liability dependency declined over the period 1994-2007, the decline was strongest for those banks that use more than sector-average amounts of derivatives. Only in the case of private commercial banks, we do find that lower regulatory capital has coincided with higher asset-liability dependencies. Over our sample period, the difference has diminished since poorly-capitalized private commercial banks have reduced their asset-liability dependencies more intensively than their well-capitalized counterparts. Moreover, we find that profitability matters for the asset-liability dependency but not in the same way for all three sectors. Asset-liability dependency is lower for private commercial banks with higher provision income, savings banks with lower ROE volatilities and cooperative banks with higher ROEs.
    Keywords: G21 ; G32 ; ddc:330 ; Asset-liability dependency ; maturity ; correlation analysis ; Bank ; Bilanzstrukturmanagement ; Laufzeit ; Finanzintermediär ; Finanzderivat ; Rentabilität ; Risiko ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of 28 German banks based on a Mertontype multi-factor credit risk model. The ad-hoc stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile industry that constitutes an exceptional but plausible event suggested by historical data. Rather than on a particular stress forecast, the focus of the paper is on the main drivers of the stress impact on banks' credit portfolios. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low for all banks in the sample, the expected loss conditional on the stress event increases substantially by 70%-80% for the total portfolio. This result confirms the need to account for hidden sectoral concentration risk because the increase in expected loss is driven mainly by correlation effects with related industry sectors. Therefore, credit risk dependencies between sectors have to be adequately captured even if the trigger event is confined to a single sector. Finally, we calculate the impact on banks' own funds ratios. The main results are robust against various robustness checks, namely those concerning the granularity of the credit portfolio, the level of inter-sector asset correlations, and a cross-sectional variation of intra-sector asset correlations.
    Keywords: G21 ; G33 ; C13 ; C15 ; ddc:330 ; Asset correlation ; portfolio credit risk ; stress test ; sectoral credit concentration ; Kreditrisiko ; Bankrisiko ; Kraftfahrzeugindustrie ; Branchenkonjunktur ; Bank ; Betriebliche Liquidität ;