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  • Fisheries  (344)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • North West Water Authority  (228)
  • Fisheries Society of Nigeria  (116)
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  • 1
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: This is the report from the Central Area Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 31st March, 1982. It includes information on the River Leven smolt rearing scheme, the annual report on match fishing at Skerton and Mitton fisheries, and the report by the area fisheries officer on fisheries activites from September 1981 to January 1982. The report covers information on river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, an update on the work at Middleton hatchery, Salmon cages on the Leven and Langcliffe hatchery. It also includes information on fish disease, fish mortalities, management work and monthly salmon and sea trout catches for rod, line, nets and fixed engines for the 1981 season. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-05
    Description: This is the report from the South and West Cumberland Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 16th October, 1978. It covers information on fisheries income and expenditure, the study of salmon propagation in England and Wales, work on the future programme of fisheries work, keep nets, and the drought order for the reduction of compensation water from Lake Ennerdale. It also covers the report by the area fisheries officer on fishing activities including river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, and an update on Holmwrangle hatchery. The report also looks at stocking numbers of salmon and sea trout in various rivers, predator counts for various rivers, fish mortalities and fish disease. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: Static bioassays were carried out in the laboratory for 96h to investigate the effect of Parateq a synthetic base mud on the fingerling of Orechromis niloticus and their microbial population. The fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 1000, 3000, 5000 and 9000Mg/l) of drilling fluid. Fish mortality data were recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96h and analysed using Finney’s Probit Analysis method to calculate LC50 values (concentration of drilling fluid in water that will kill 50% of the fish population in 96 hours). The 96h LC50 was 2210Mg/l.The mortality increased with increase in concentration, while, the lethal times decreased as concentration increased. The bacterial biomass ranged from 1.59 x 108 to 6.0 x 106CFU/ml while fungal biomass ranged from1.0 x 103 to 2.1 x 104 CFU/ml. Results revealed that there was an increase in fungal biomass with increase in mud concentration and a decrease in bacterial biomass with increase in mud concentration.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: The poor nature of most Agricultural processing practices in Nigeria have had adverse effect on our environment, and our aquatic resources are of no exception. This study was conducted to ascertain the median lethal concentration of the effluent within the 96 hours period and also to ascertain the extent of damage on some of the histological characteristics of the Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Juveniles of the Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 30g) were exposed to varied concentrations of the locust bean effluent under the standard laboratory conditions. Data on mortality corresponding to the various concentrations were subjected to the probit and logit transformations and used to calculate the LC50 graphically. The result shows the toxicity of the locust bean effluent to Clarias gariepinus juveniles as 0.089mg/L (treatment 4) during the period of study. Exposure to both the acute and subletheal concentrations resulted in a number of physiological dysfunction of the test fish. Observation of the fish under the tests revealed unbalanced swimming patterns loss of reflex, rapid opercular movements and gasping for air. Histopathological examination of the gill and liver of the treated fish showed signs of damage, ranging from Hypoxia, lesions, necrosis, fibrosis cell stasis and hyperplasia at the sublethal levels.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Diet of the juvenile Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis from Five Cowrie Creek was investigated between April 2008 and January 2009. Analyses of 184 specimens by numerical (NO), frequency of occurrence (FO) and geometric index of importance (GII) methods, respectively revealed a moderately high proportion (47.83%) of stomachs with food or prey. Shrimps and crabs constituted more than 80 % of total prey items. Other dietary components included lobsters, stomatopods, whole fish and fish parts. Similarly, analysis of diet composition by size - groups also indicated a predominance of the shrimps and crabs over all other prey items. In conclusion, L. goreensis can be described as a top-level carnivore feeding almost exclusively on epibenthic crustaceans in the juvenile stage.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Studies were conducted on some aspects of the reproductive biology of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis in Zaria dam. Fish were captured by using nets of various mesh sizes for 24 months. Sex ratio of female to male was 1:1.08. Fully matured gonads were observed from July to October (rainy season). Fish with spent gonads were found from December to February, virgin or immature gonads (stage I and II) were found in February to May, with the peak in March in female fish and January in male. The estimated fecundity ranged from 2025 to 4192 eggs per female with mean of 2822.4 ~c SD 781.43 eggs that had standard length range of 24.20cm to 35.50cm. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) ranged from 1.63% to 3.31%. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.873, p〉0.05) between the weight of the fish and fecundity and insignificant correlation (r=0.497, p〈0.05) between the standard length and fecundity.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: The survey of the fish fauna in Lake Kainji, Niger State and Kebbi state was carried out for a period of three months from August to October 2003 using fishermen’s catches. Forty two species of fish were identified and these were from the families Osteoglossidae, Gymnarchidae, Mormyridae, Characidae, Citharinidae, Distichodontidae, Cyprinidae Bagridae, Schilbeidae, Clariidae, Malapteruridae, Mochokidae, Channidae, Centropomidae, Cichlidae and Clupeidae. In terms of relative abundance, the family Bagridae has the highest species diversity of 20%, while Osteoglossidae, Citharinidae, Malapteruridae, Mochokidae, Centropomidae and Gymnarcidae had lowest species diversity of 2.5%.The study provides a biogenic history of fish species diversity within this period of the year in the last two decades. The significance of the study is to provide information towards a sustainable exploitation strategy in the community based management of the fisheries of the lake.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: The fin fish assemblage of Ikere gorge was investigated. The fin fishes comprised a total of 34 species belonging to 13 families. Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus was most abundant and highest in biomass (69,198.33 kg) accounting for 34.65% of the catch. Synodontis nigrita, Malapterurus electricus, Marcusenius psittacus Gnathonemus sensgalensis and Gnathonemus cyprinoides were the least in number, while Phago loricatus was least in biomass (20.00 kg) accounting for 0.01%.The major aim was to assess the fish resources of the gorge and evaluate the water parameters as related to fish production. No significant difference was observed in dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, water temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solid and pH range value in the stations. The water quality parameters were favourable for fish production. Water level and temperature were observed to guarantee high fish yield in the gorge.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Size measurements, anatomical composition and proximate composition of Horse eye mackerel fish (Caranax carangus) were carried out. The mean values of length (cm) and weight (g) were 21.79~c 1.76 and 87.96 ~c 21.4 respectively. Anatomical fractionation showed that the fish samples contained on the average 45.8% fillet, 17.75% head, 25.98% body frame and 6.12% gut. The proximate composition analysis showed that the fish sample contained 77.2% water content, 0.4% lipid, 20.63% protein and 1.67% ash. Horse eye mackerel fish thus constitutes a source of high protein as well as an ideal dietetic fish food.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: The study was conducted to assess the socio-economic status of fisherfolks in Yuna Adopted Village Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State. One hundred respondents (65 male and 35 female) were purposively selected from four registered groups in the Village. Frequencies and Percentages were used to arrange, summarize and present the findings of this study. Majority of the male respondents fell within the range of 30-49 years, while female respondents range from 40-49 and 60-69 years. The distribution of respondents based on educational attainment shows that 92.3% male and 100% female had Quranic education. Majority of the respondents (both male and female) lives in mud with thatched roof houses and do not own radio and television. Similarly the highest proportion of male respondents generated mostly income of 〉N111,000 and N6,000 ? N10,000, while female respondents earned between N11,000 ? N30,000 and N6,000 ? N10,000 only. The technologies awareness by respondents include fish farming, V-bottom boat, Solar tent dryer and trammel net, only fish farming was adopted by respondents. The major constraints to Agricultural Production were identified and suggestion was made on how to overcome the constraints.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: This paper reviews the role of modern fish aggregation devices (FADs) in fisheries. The types and principles of FAD application were discussed. Factors influencing fish aggregation (like species type, etc); classification of fish aggregation; and reasons for aggregative behaviour of fish, were also highlighted. Furthermore, use of durable materials and echo-sounders were observed to be common with modern FADs, with high fuel efficiency, longer life span, as some benefits. This paper therefore emphasizes the need for proper study of issues like the biology of aggregation, and the relationship between catch and effort to discourage system or resources abuse, like overfishing, among others. Keywords: Fish aggregation devices, fisheries resources
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: Major sections (head, trunk and tail) of six fish species from the Warri River were measured in order to determine which was the largest and most fleshy. Besides Ethmalosa fimbriata (37.31%) the trunk length was over 40% of the standard length in the fish species. Based on the length and breadth the trunk was larger than the tail and head in all species and could be the bulkiest and most fleshy region. The sequence of the trunk surface area was Brycinus macrolepidotus 〉 B.nurse 〉 Pellonula leonensis 〉 Liza grandisquamis 〉 Mugil cephalus 〉 Ethmalosa fimbriata.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 13
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: The paper highlights recipes for the production of snacks using finfish and shellfish such as cockles, oysters and pelagic fish in the production of fish yam/sweet potato balls; fish roll or fish pie; cockle and oyster barbecue. In the production of these snacks, the quality and quantity of fish required is adequately provided. Each snack contained minced fish, a source of essential nutrients in good nutrition. The snacks were subjected to organoleptic assessment by a group of five panelists. Highest preference was given to fish sweet potato balls, rated 9, followed by oyster and cockle barbecue rated 8.6 on a 9-point scale. This is because cockle and oyster meat are fleshy and tasty. Production of these snacks is a way of introducing high protein variety to the family menu. Prices of the production of snacks were calculated and results showed that they are cheap and easily affordable. Conclusively, these snacks are easy to make and could be widely accepted. The overall concept of making these snacks was to introduce a wide range of foods produced using fish to add value to our daily nutrition.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: Bacteria flora predominates the skin of freshly caught fish, and will invade the tissue of the fish immediately after catch. Two preservative methods (cold smoking and freezing) were used to store eighteen specimens of Chrysichthys furcatus harvested from River Niger at Cable-point, Asaba. Two specimens were randomly selected every day from the cold smoked specimens and on weekly basis from the frozen specimens for physical, chemical and biological examination for bacteria causing spoilage. Five bacteria isolates: Salmonella spp, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris, were identified. Physical observation of the cold smoked fish after 24 hours showed the production of gas, off-odor, off flavour and slime formation. The colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria isolated from the fish immediately after harvest was 116 x 109 cfu/g. It increased to 268 x 109 cfu/g after 4 days of preservation, and to 64 x 109 cfu/g after four weeks of preservation. The Chi square (X2) analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between the bacteria load of frozen and cold smoked specimens. Free fatty acid value immediately after harvest was 0.90 %. It increased to 2.24 % after four weeks in the freezer and 2.35 % after four days of cold smoked storage. The Total Volatile Nitrogen profile at harvest time was 15.3 mgN/100g. It increased to 35.2 mgN/100g after four days, (for the cold smoked specimens) and 26.3 mgN/100g (for the frozen specimens) after four weeks. The peroxide and hydrogen ion concentrations followed the same increasing trend. The study revealed that freezer preservation was better than the cold smoked one. This is because bacteria proliferation was reduced and or halted in the frozen specimens, whereas it encouraged rapid bacteria growth in the cold smoked fish. The production of total volatile nitrogen (TVN), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was higher in the cold smoked specimens than in frozen ones, hence the cold smoked specimen exhibited shorter shelf life than their frozen specimens.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: The proximate composition of some wild tilapiine fishes in Epe lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria was analyzed. The species were Sarotherodon melanotheron, Tilapia guineensis, Tilapia mariaei, Sarotherodon galileaus and an ecotype cichlid popularly called ‘wesafu’. Major nutrient compositions of raw muscles like protein, fat, moisture and ash were determined. Proximate compositions were found to be varied among the species. Protein was determined in Sarotherodon melanotheron (19.13%), T. guineensis (18.71%), T. mariae (18.08%), S. galileaus (18.34%) and ‘wesafu’ (21.80%) respectively. Lipid content was recorded as 0.82%, 0.40%, 0.60%, 0.65%, and 0.90% for the tilapia species. The highest level of moisture content was found in T. guineensis (81.70%) and the lowest was in ‘wesafu’ (78.50%). The percentage of ash content was highest in S. galileaus and S.melanotheron (1.75%) and lowest in T. guineensis (1.00%). The present study revealed highest protein content in the ecotype cichlid, wesafu (19.22%) and lowest value in T.mariae (18.08%) while fat was highest in ‘wesafu’ (0.90%). The results of this study reveal the nutritional significance of the ecotype cichlid, ‘wesafu’ above other cichlids of the lagoon.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: African snakehead, Parachanna obscura is being considered as an emerging aquaculture candidate in Nigeria. The species is very palatable and has a good fillet quality. Study was conducted on the proximate composition of the species from Cross River, Nigeria. Samples of snakehead were analyzed for protein, fat, moisture, crude fibre and ash contents. The protein content of the species ranged from 21.03-22.03 with mean value of 21.5%. The fat content ranged from 17.1-17.4% with a mean value of 17.2 %. Moisture content ranged from 51.1-52.0 % with a mean value of 51.7%. Ash and crude fibre contents were very low. The protein content of Parachanna obscura compares favourably with that of other members of the family Channidae. The fat content is exceptionally high, making the species a good healing and recuperating agent for post-natal and post-operation patients. We strongly recommend the culture of Parachanna obscura in Nigeria and its meal for growing children.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: In the study and understanding of fish biology, characterization and morphology, the length-weight relationship is of great importance. The genus Hydrocynus, is of high economic importance to the fisheries of Lake Kainji. This study investigated their length-weight relationship to establish the growth pattern of species within this genus. The ‘b’ values of the length-weight relationship for these species are less than 3. There was negative allometric growth (b〈3) for all samples of the Hydrocynus species. The correlation coefficients (r) are 0.9713 and 0.9888, for Hydrocynus forskali and H.brevis respectively. Condition factors ranged from 1.313 for H. forskali to 1.431 for H. brevis.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: A study was conducted in Abeokuta, the Ogun State capital with the objective to investigate if fish trading could be a tool of poverty alleviation and socio-economic enhancement of the status of women in the household. A total of 120 correctly completed, structured and pre-tested questionnaires, out of the 150 administered to respondents, were retrieved for data analyses. Demographic data of the traders showed that all the respondents were women whose ages ranged from 15 to above 45 years. The ages of 33-45 years constituted 33.3% of the respondents while the age bracket of between 27-32 years constituted 23.3%. Majority (73.3%) were married while 25% were single-headed households (divorced or widowed). The study revealed that most of the respondents (approximately 61%) were able to meet their family expenditure jointly with their spouses while 28.3% of the respondents met the financial responsibilities of their families solely from the profit. Access to credit was found to be a major limitation. The study further revealed that 86.7% of the respondents would like to continue with the business because they were satisfied with the profit accruable to them from the trade.
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Changes in biochemical properties of freshwater prawn stored with two ice conditions Without Direct Contact with Ice (DCI) and Without Direct Contact with Ice (WCI) for day 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 were investigated. Proximate composition defined in terms of moisture increased for the DCI as storage days increases but relatively constant with treatments with WCI. Values of TVB-N (mgN/100g) in prawn stored with DCI had inverse relationship with storage days but increased with storage days in the WCI. Changes in the values of ash and crude protein were relatively constant as the storage days increased in both treatments. Ice treatments recorded little changes in between storage days for fats. Values of NPN mgN/100g decreased with days of storage with DCI but increased as the storage increased with WCI. These results obtained in this study showed that ice storage may have contrasting values and importance on the biochemical properties of the freshwater prawn.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 20
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Nigeria is a coastal state with a coastline of 853km which lies between 4o 10’ to 6o20’N and longitude 2o 45’ to 8o 5’ E. The Nigerian coastline stretches from the Western border with the Republic of Benin to the eastern border with the Cameroon Republic. Some of the coastal characteristics which are of importance to the Nigerian inshore demersal fisheries are the presence of thirty-six estuaries and the prominent Niger Delta which provides suitable habitat for the penaeid shrimps, finfish and other living marine resources. Nigeria has a wide variety of shellfish resources ranging from the molluscs such as ark clams (Senila senilis), cockles costatum), periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) to the crustaceans which includes the penaeidae (shrimps), palaemonidae (prawns), portunidae (swimming crabs) and palinuridae (lobsters). Estimated potential yield for shellfishes is 51,760 metric tonnes. Shrimps and prawns have the highest commercial importance with production estimate between 10,000 to 15,000mt. More than half of this figure is exported to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries with shrimp market valued at US $8.6 billion. Nigeria generated about US $54million in 2005 from export of shrimps and prawns alone. This figure decreased to about US $38million in 2007 due to harassment by sea pirates and militant groups thus decreasing production from 13,767mt in 2006 to an alarming 5,995mt in 2007. However more research needs to be done to ascertain the true potential yield and environmental carrying capacity of the Nigerian shellfisheries to determine the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) so as to prevent over exploitation and consequently the destruction of the fishery. Research should also be carried out on other shellfish resources such as crabs, oysters, periwinkles and lobsters as appreciable income could be earned from their sales and export.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: This paper begins with a review of policy issues on status of women’s fundamental human rights and the effects on their optimal participation in fisheries development. The focus of the paper is on the importance of women in fisheries activities within the fisheries industry. Issues pertaining to gender inequality in the rural communities affecting women in the fisheries sector, and solutions to overcome some of these issues are discussed. The degree of participation of women in the fisheries sector is an overall reflection of the cultures, the laws of the country and the priority given by the state to ensure gender equity. Generally, women in Nigeria, especially those from depressed fisheries households, participate actively in many fisheries activities, including aquaculture. However, the lower status accorded to women in many of the communities in Nigeria means that their contribution to fisheries is undervalued and unrecognized. Issues that need to be addressed with regards to participation of women in fisheries which include sensitivity to gender issues in fishery, improve living conditions, promote programs relating to women, reconsidering the practice of relating fishing rights to their right to speak and others are discussed in the paper The paper also looks at the possibilities of articulating measures in sensitizing the womenfolks through education, especially in knowing their fundamental human rights as specified by the UN’s articles, especially ability to access micro-credit in fisheries activities, the nature of loans and alternative strategies to tackle the problem of small-scale credit to women in fisheries development in the nation.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 22
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: The paper traced the evolution of piracy and pointed out that the fishing industry in Nigeria alone has recorded over 15 deaths and loss of vessels, equipments, fish/fishery products valued over N3 billion to these attacks between 2006 and April 2009. The paper further highlighted that between February 2009 and April 2010 the fishing industry has recorded about 80 attacks. These have affected the fishing industry which operated over 250 registered trawlers in 2003/2004 which has now been reduced to 150 trawlers. To ameliorate this problem the paper highlighted steps taken in dealing with the menace of piracy. The paper concluded that good laws are a necessary pre-condition for the achievement of maritime security. However, they will only be effective if there is the political will and the practical capacity among the government, relevant agencies and stakeholders.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Law
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  • 23
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: The paper defined quarantine as the totality of measures taken by every country to prevent the entry of foreign exotic pest, pathogens and diseases of plant, animals and aquatic resources through international boundries. Also discussed is the international regulatory framework on quality control and quarantine of agricultural products. The advantages and socioeconomics impact of quarantine are discussed. The paper further examined the best practice procedure in quarantine service delivery in the aquatic resources and products right from production, processing, marketing and condition for exporting of aquatic (Live fish) from Nigeria, In conclusion the paper enumerated the challenges in meeting best practice procedures in quarantine service delivery
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
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  • 24
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: An assessment of the fish species composition in Lake Kivu Rwanda, East Africa was carried out between February 2005 and December 2006. Fish samples and statistics of average daily catches were collected from the organized fishermen cooperatives societies in Gisenyi, Kibuye and Cyangugu. Fish samples were identified on the basis of existing photographs and standard identification keys. Ten (10) fish species belonging to four families (Clupeidae, Cyprinidae, Clariidae and Cichlidae) were identified with Limnothrisa miodon (57.1%), Haplochromis spp. (17.1%), Tilapia rendalli (9.9%) and Oreochromis niloticus (9.5%) being the dominant ones.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 25
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Global aquaculture production has grown rapidly over the last 50years. It is generally accepted that there is limited potential to increase traditional fisheries; consequently, increased aquaculture is required in order to maintain global per capita fish consumption at the present level. With nearly half of all fish eaten today coming from farms and some 12 million people dependent on fish farming for their daily income, ensuring that farmed fish products are safe to eat and of the highest possible quality is crucial. Most of the work reviewed in this article describes the safety and quality issues in farmed fish, implications for consumers and presents methods to improve product characteristics.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Fishes of the family Cichlidae are known for spectacular adaptive radiation and therefore serve as a model for evolutionary and ecological studies. They are highly speciated due to hybridization that frequently occur in the wild. The existence of an ecotype cichlid, ’wesafu’ in Epe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria appears to be the result of such hybridization. This paper reviews the profile of wesafu and compare the species with other cichlids, evaluate the probable causes of speciation which includes diversity in feeding morphology, mate choice, adaptation to changes in habitat arising from water level dynamics , eco-phenotypic variation, restricted migration to predation and introgressive hybridization. The implication of such speciation and hybridization were also highlighted.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: Quality deterioration (microbial load) of smoked white catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from Ekeonunwa market Imo state Nigeria, was studied for six weeks. The experimental fish was divided into two batches. One batch of 18 fishes with average weight of 700g was resmoked weekly at 75oC. the second batch of 18 fishes weighing an average of 750g was left unresmoked. Weekly samples of both unresmoked and resmoked fish were taken from different regions (body flanks, gill and gut) and analyzed in the laboratory. Total plate counts (TPC) for the bacterial organisms in both resmoked and unresmoked samples (Table III) ranging between 1.56 105 and TNTC ( too numereous to count) exceeded the range of specified microbiological limits recommended for fish and fishery products by ICMSF (1986). Pathogenic organisms isolated included Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium varrucossum, Yeast and Mucor. Both unresmoked and resmoked fish specimens were contaminated with these spoilage microbes, but the microbial load of the resmoked samples were less than those of the unresmoked samples. Resmoking beneficially reduces microbial load of stored fish, increases the shelf/storage life, but can not totally eliminate pathogens. The presence of pathogens raises a public health concern.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: This study evaluated the effect of varying smoking durations of 6, 6.5, 7 and 7.5 hours on the microbiological quality and percentage moisture content of cold-smoked Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua. The fish sample were cold-smoked using the traditional drum oven. Four batches of the smoked fish were stored in metal baskets at ambient temperatures for a period of 12 days and assessed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli loads, Mould count, Total Plate Count and Total Coliform Count. Analyses of the smoked fish samples were carried out at the initial stage (day 0) and subsequently every alternate days (i.e. days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12). Significant variations (P 〈 0.05) were obtained for all the microbial counts on the four smoked fish samples. The best microbiologically stable cold-smoked samples were that smoked at the longest duration of 7.5 hours. This produced the least mean microbial load range of TPC (1.50 x 103 - 2.00 x 105cfu/g); TCC varied from 0.0MPN/g to 12.0 MPN/g ; Mould count (1.32 x103 - 2.55 x 105 cfu/g) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.0 x103 - 1.35 x 105cfu/g) while percentage moisture content ranged between 25.3% to 15.2%. All the samples tested negative to Escherichia coli.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: A static bioassay method to determine the acute toxicity of the herbicide propanil to Oreochromis niloticus was investigated under Laboratory conditions for 96 hours exposure period. Concentrations of propanil used include: 0.0096ml/l, 0.0103ml/l, 0.011ml/l and 0.012ml/l respectively. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of propanil on fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus was 0.0097ml/l for 96 hours of exposure. The regression equation for probit kill from propanil was found to be Y = 29.84 + 12.33* log conc. (r2 0.9951, Y = Probit kill). Fish showed various abnormal behaviours upon exposure to propanil. Immediate reaction was erratic swimming and tendency to jump out of the test bowl. Others include: restlessness, un-coordinated movement, vertical swimming, air gulping, equilibrium loss, a period of quiescence and eventually death.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: Twenty samples of canned seafood consisting of tuna, mackerel, sardines, prawn and shrimp were collected from retail operations in Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. Mercury content in these canned seafood were determined after digestion by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods. The mercury contents for all the canned seafood products have concentrations well below the permissible EU levels for this toxic metal. Their contribution to the body burden can therefore be considered negligible and the canned seafood products seem to be safe for human consumption.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: There have been many outcries in the Nigerian media on the various environmental degradation of the vast water space in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria by oil explorers. About 70% of the Nigerian populace lives in the coastal areas where the occupation is predominantly fishing and farming. For most of the publications, the extents of impact on the fishing industry are not addressed in order for solutions to be given. Production from the fisheries sector has dropped astronomically thereby earning the country a deficit due to importation of frozen fish to the country. In this study, a survey of three states (Bayelsa, Rivers and Delta) in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria was done. The communities studied include Ogulagha, Okobelema and Okpoama. Personal interviews with fishermen and primary data on the sector’s contribution to fish production and GDP were also carried out. The study aimed at finding out the sources and nature of degradation and the impacts such have on the fishing industry and the socio-economics of the fishermen. The study revealed that there are no significant difference in the negative impacts of environmental degradation caused by the activities of the oil companies on the socio-economics of the fishermen ((F2,27=0.59, P〉0.05)) The difference is not significant and the hypothesis is therefore accepted. The major impact on fishing was depletion in catches and low income earnings by fishermen with a resultant poor quality of living and livelihood. Oil spills, foreign vessels incursions and bunkering, vandalization of pipelines were identified sources of depletion in fish catches from the wild. The personal interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) showed that most heads of communities rely on the remuneration they get from the companies and refused to mobilize the fishermen for joint action against the oil companies. Mitigation measures usually carried out by the oil companies do not actually replenish the destroyed mangroves where breeding of fishes take place. The communities need the Government to institute high level surveillance of the high seas and monitor the activities of oil explorers as well as education of the communities on the effects of bunkering near shoreline.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Pollution ; Sociology
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: This study was carried out to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Clarias anguillaris and Parachanna africana from Lake Geriyo Yola, Nigeria using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrophotometer. The results in (mg/kg, dry weight) showed different levels of Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Pb in the two fish species. The order of heavy metals accumulated by C. anguillaris and P. africana are Cr〉Fe〉Zn 〉 Mn〉Cu〉Ni〉Pb and Ni〉Fe〉Zn〉Cu respectively. The levels of Cr, Mn and Ni in C. anguillaris and in Ni in P. africana were higher than WHO and FEPA recommended maximum permissible limits (MPL) in fish, while the levels of Zn, Cu and Pb were below the standards. The results suggest that Lake Geriyo has high pollution loads of these heavy metals in fishes and could pose a health hazards to man. Consequently, close monitoring of heavy metal loads in Lake Geriyo is recommended with a view to minimizing the risks to health of the population that depend on the lake for their water and fish supply.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: In recent times there has been an upsurge in the culture of Tilapia in Nigeria resulting in increased demand for the fingerlings which is hardly satisfied. This is due to increasing demand for table size tilapia as food fish and under-sized tilapia in the fish meal and fish canning industries in Nigeria. Collection of Tilapia guineensis fingerlings from the wild, to augment hatchery production, has been the practice and this is subject to environmental fluctuations. Multivariate regression and correlation analyses of accumulated data were used to investigate the effects of changes in water quality parameters on abundance of fingerlings of Tilapia guineensis in a brackishwater habitat in Lagos. Dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity and secchi transparency were found to be the most dominant factors affecting the abundance of Tilapia guineensis fingerlings in the Lagos lagoon. Peak period of abundance was closely associated with period of low salinity (0.50%o to 5.60%o), which coincided with the period of low transparency and low DO in the rainy season. The correlation analyses of Tilapia guineensis fingerlings with the water quality parameters yielded the following correlation coefficients (r)- 0.598; (salinity); -0.644 (transparency); -0.710 (DO); -0.566; (temperature) and 0.129 (pH). The abundance of Tilapia guineensis fingerlings in the Lagoon was ultimately defined by a suitable regression equation. This result is expected to optimize the collection of fingerlings of Tilapia guineensis from the wild and boost food fish security in Nigeria and elsewhere.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: The study examines the vulnerability and adaptation options of individual fishing households to climate change. Fourteen out of 24 fishing communities, with a total population of 20, 0000 artisanal marine fisher folks living on the 15 km coastal line in Ogun State, South West Nigeria were studied. Sources of data are Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with fisher-folks and questionnaires administered to 186 fishing households to assess vulnerabilities and methods of adaptation. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results of qualitative data reveal that the area is subjected to flooding due to storm surges during the rainy season months of May ? October hindering several socio-economic activities. The major adaptive strategy is fishing the seven marine beels during the peak of the wet season. Descriptive statistics reveal that 92.5% who are male, attained primary education (47.3%) and fishing is a major source of livelihood (92.50%). Different fishing gears are used for the capture of more than 16 fin-fish and shell fish species. Adaptation needs should be mainstreamed into the development of the abundant fisheries resources for guaranteed sustainable livelihoods of marine fisher folks in Ijebu-Waterside of Ogun State, Nigeria.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: The pari parsu development and good management of both capture and culture fisheries if proactively practised especially in coastal and marine ecosystems would, to a large extent ensure sustainability in the usage of the fisheries resource, and conservation of biodiversity. While by-catch, discards and less desirable fish can continue to be useful inputs in aquaculture, the practice of environmentally sustainable aquaculture on the other hand would lead, not only to the reduction in pressure on the wild fish stock , but also become a source of socio-economic and technological development. The risk of weakened and reduced genetic diversity in aquaculture is being offset by enrichment of genetic pool from the wild fish population. In this review, the losses and gains of capture fisheries have been highlighted in addition to the gains and negative impacts of aquaculture. The success of capture-Based Aquaculture (CBA), enhanced fisheries, restocking and intentional introduction of fish species are all based on either branch of fisheries (capture and culture fisheries). The complementary roles both capture and culture fisheries can play to ensure optimal environmental usage and profitable use of the fisheries resource have been discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of both capture and culture fisheries can be wisely tapped for the development of both aspects of fisheries.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: The effects of groundnut oil and sodium chloride as protectants against insect infestation of dried fish were investigated for a period of 13 weeks. The fish samples were divided into 3 groups, a group was soaked for 10mins in 30% sodium chloride solution (Brine), and the second group was dipped in groundnut oil after smoking while the third group served as control. The samples were kept in different containers in the laboratory at temperature of 28oC and 70% Relative humidity for 13 weeks. Results show that, the fish treated with 30% sodium chloride was effectively protected from insect and moulds compared to sample treated with groundnut oil. The odour and the texture were also more attractive to customers. However, fish treated with groundnut oil was attacked by insects at week 12th and 13th with 6 Maculatus, 4 Necrobia rufipes species and at few mould colonies. The control specimens however was attacked by insects from week 8th to 13th with numerous number of both Necrobia rufipes and Maculatus species as well as mould colonies showing as early as from the 6th week. The results proved that sodium chloride is more effective than groundnut oil for long period of storage.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-05-06
    Description: Preliminary studies on the antimicrobial properties of various methods of extraction of Carica papaya (Pawpaw) seeds, Citrus paradisa (Grapefruit peel) and Piper guineese (Black pepper) seeds against eleven bacteria ( Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Pseudomonas lundensis, Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae) associated with fresh catfish spoilage were investigated using the cup-plate diffusion method. Cold water, hot water and ethanol were the different extraction solvents used while the concentrations were 0.1g/ml, 0.2g/ml, 0.3g/ml, 0.4g/ml and 0.5g/ml. Generally, hot water extraction of the plant materials was most effective (p 〈 0.01) with the highest mean zone of inhibition of 4.42 ~c 0.38mm followed by ethanol extraction (3.55 ~c 0.47mm). The most susceptible bacteria was Enterobacter cloacae with the highest mean zone of inhibition of 22.6 ~c 3.50mm. This investigation indicates that the antimicrobial compounds in grape peel and black pepper are best liberated when extracted with ethanol while that of pawpaw is best extracted with hot water.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: The effects of fresh garlic (Allium sativum) at concentrations of 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg, 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of fish on lipid oxidation and microbial growth of hot smoked catfish Clarias gariepinus during a 28 day storage period at ambient temperature of 20-260C was examined. The samples were subjected to chemical and microbial analyses during the storage period. The results of analyses suggest that fresh garlic possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, which can extend the shelf life of Clarias gariepinus.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: The study accessed the quality changes of Alestes nurse displayed at 31-33oC average daily temperature on different platforms, the traditional retail table used by fish processors and the NIFFR improved retail table. The fishes were displayed on the tables for 9 hours and quality attributes were monitored hourly by trained panelists. For A. nurse, the gills and intestine recorded faster deterioration starting from the fourth and fifth hours for samples in the traditional table while those in improved table were prolonged by one hour. Scores for skin brightness and texture did not indicate quality deterioration throughout the display period. However, at the end of the storage time, samples in screened table recorded 1.5 x 104 cfu/g while samples in unscreened table recorded 3.7 x 107 cfu/g. The study shows the effectiveness of the improved table over the traditional table in enhancing the keeping quality, minimizing fish contamination and improving the general hygiene of fresh fish.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: Study was conducted to investigate lipid profile and metabolites in deformed (lost one or both pectoral fins) and healthy (both pectoral fins intact) African mud catfish C. gariepinus using three groups of adults male and female with a mean weight and standard length of 822.17~c 48.75g and 42.55~c.26cm respectively. The fish were allotted in replicates to 5000m capacity tanks based on the presence or absence of pectoral fins. 1mL blood was drawn from caudal peduncle of each fish by means of disposable sterile syringe and centrifuged at 1000rpm for 20min at 40C. Cholesterol and total protein were determined using the cholesterol FL (CT F400CH) and total protein (TP 0500CH) kits. Serum albumin and globulin concentrations were determined following methods described by Tietz (1995) and Buckley et al., (1976) while total serum bilirubin concentration was measured as outlined by AACC (American Association of Clinical Chemistry). Results indicate that male fish had relatively higher amount of triglyceride while female fish had higher amounts of cholesterol, reduction in globulin of the deformed fish, reduction in the concentrations of albumin in healthy fish, increase in total protein and globulin levels and high urea concentrations. No total bilurubin was detected in any of the fish sampled thus an indication of good liver function which means there was no liver dysfunction or liver damage in the fishes. It is evident therefore that abnormal fish can still perform better if they are given intense management because of the variability in their blood constituents with the normal fishes which is used to assess their health is minimal. Keywords: Blood, Cholesterol, Deformed, Healthy, C. gariepinus.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: The changes that occur on proximate composition of some common fish processing methods used in Nigeria were studied in order to determine the nutritional content of the processed products. Traditional (smoke drying and sun drying) and modern (electrical oven drying) methods of processing were used to process Pseudotholithus elongatus and the results were compared with the fresh sample to determine the changes that occur during processing. The results for the fresh sample of P. elongatus were 79.50%, 1.50%, 0.8% and 18.2% for moisture, ash, lipid and protein. For the processed products, the moisture content for smoke-dried, sun-dried, salt sun-dried and oven-dried fish were 27.00%, 21.83%, 19.50% and 20.17% . Oven dried had the highest protein content (69.87%) while salt sun-dried had the lowest (54.90%). Lipid content was highest in sun-dried (6.6%) and lowest in smoke-dried (4.6%). Correlation between smoke-dried and sun-dried were r2 = 0.99, smoke-dried and oven-dried were r2= 0.98 and smoke-dried and salt sun-dried were r2= 0.98. There was no correlation between the fresh and the processed P.elongatus. The present findings revealed that processing affect the nutritional composition of fish.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: A total number of 166 specimens of Mugil cephalus caught from Epe Lagoon (low brackish/ freshwater) were examined for food and feeding habit and biometric features from November 2006 ? May 2007. The food of the species consisted mainly of algae (Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta and Pyrrophyta) and detritus. The size range of fish examined were 12.4 ? 27.0cm (standard length) while the weight ranged from 22.40 ? 308.00g. The mean values of the biometric characters of Mugil cephalus did not reflect wide variations. The population dominant cohort in the lagoon represents the harvestable and marketable representative for a sustainable fishery and is a strong indication of potential for freshwater culture of this marine species.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: This study investigated the fish diversity of Eko ? Ende and Owalla reservoirs, which are within the Osun river system in South West, Nigeria with a view to document biodiversity information needed for conservation and sustainable fisheries. Fish samples were collected monthly from the two reservoirs for one year, using a battery of multifilament gill nets. The data collected from each reservoir was analyzed for fish diversity. Information obtained on the forage / carnivore (F/C) ratio of fishes in each reservoir was used in measuring and comparing the ecological balance of the reservoirs. The results showed that eighteen fish species representing 16 genera and 10 families were identified in Eko ? Ende, while 17 fish species in 15 genera and 10 families were identified in Owalla during the period of study. Sixteen species (representing 84.2% of the total number of fish species) were common to both reservoirs and they were both dominated by Cichlids. Eko ? Ende Reservoir had greater fish diversity than the Owalla Reservoir. Shannon ? Weiner (H') index of fish diversity from Eko ? Ende reservoir was 2.37 while that from Owalla reservoir was 2.10. The forage / carnivore (F/C) ratios of the fishes from the two reservoirs showed that Eko ? Ende reservoir (F/C = 1.98) is ecologically balanced, while Owalla reservoir (F/C = 0.92) is not Owalla reservoir had a higher population of Hemichromis fasciatus (a predatory species). This reservoir also had more intensive fishing activities than the smaller Eko ? Ende reservoir. The study concludes on the need for a participatory research to alleviate the problem of ecological imbalance of fish species in Owalla reservoir.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: An aspect of artisanal fisheries of Oramiri-Ukwa River was studied for 6 months from January to June 2008, to get the base-line information on the artisanal fisheries of Oramiri-Ukwa River and appraise the Ichthyo-fauna of the river and their monthly distribution. Data collected was subjected to Simpson’s index, Shannon-Weiner index and Marglefs’ index analysis. The Ichthyofauna community was composed of 30 species representing 16 families with Cichlidae having the highest number of species. Nineteen (19) species were present in both wet and dry season. Wet season recorded more species than Dry season with 52.1% and 47.9% respectively. General diversity value of 0.856 (dry) and 0.672 (wet) was observed. Key words: Ichthyo-fauna, Oramiri-Ukwa, composition
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: The fatty acid composition of oil extracted from the viscera of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus caught from a fish farm in New Bussa was investigated with a view to prove their usefulness. A total of 20 fatty acids were obtained out of which five were identified. Lauric, Palmitic and Stearic acids were the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids respectively. The principal acids in the polyunsaturated group were Oleic and Linoleic acids. C. gariepinus viscera is constituted of polyunsaturated fatty acids which make it a valuable pharmaceutical raw material rather than waste.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: The study assesses the enforcement of Inland Fisheries Regulations and Laws in Oyo State. This was done with a view to ascertaining the existence of regulations and laws that govern the inland waters of the state; the agents that are responsible to carry out the enforcement and the problems militating against the effectiveness of enforcement in the state, in order to provide relevant information for policy formulation and management of fishery resources. Information was gathered from secondary sources which include edicts for the state, journals and mass media reports. Personal interview with government fisheries officials and fishermen was also conducted. The research findings revealed that Oyo State has only fishing by-laws. The study also reveals that fishermen's co-operatives were the enforcement agents in the state. There was no record of arrest during the period of the study. Problems such as non- availability of surveillance and arresting equipment, lack of trained law enforcement fisheries officers were identified. The paper elaborates on possible management strategies of inland waters as a prelude towards increased fish production in the State.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Law
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: The study examined the opinion of fishermen and fish buyers on middlemen of Doro Baga fish market. 240 respondents were used as samples with the aid of structured questionnaire, using stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data obtained. The study revealed that majority of the fishermen (75%) highly depend on these selling brokers to sell their fish for them because their financial support comes from the selling brokers, moreover they do not have a stand in the market. Among the fish buyers, especially those that buy directly for consumption, see the brokers as people that create confusion during transaction. But 55% of the fish buyers believed that brokers keep the business flowing through their support of the fishermen. While the major problem of the fishermen with the selling brokers is getting the loan from the brokers especially when the fisherman is new in the area or business and on the other side, brokers only give the fish buyers grace of two to three days when they don’t have money, after that the broker would sell the fish to another buyer. These problems can be solved when a strong relationship is established between the fishermen, selling brokers, and fish buyers, or when the government intervenes by giving loans to the fishermen.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Information on sex composition of fish/shellfish species is important in determining reproductive potentials and estimating size structure of a given stock. Sustainable fisheries management options and policies usually rely on this aspect of the reproductive biology. In the present study, the sex ratios of three palaemonid shrimps, Macrobrachium macrobrachion, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Macrobrachium equidens were studied over an annual cycle with respect to gear type. Male: female relationship for M. macrobrachion caught with beach seine, pushnet and trap were 1:2.2, 1:2.1 and 1:2.15 respectively, while the M:F ratios for M. vollenhovenii were 1:1.27 (beach seine), 1:1.32 (pushnet) and 1:1.64 (trap). The overall M:F ratios during the annual cycle were 1:2.15 (M. macrobrachion), 1:1.47 (M. vollenhovenii), and 1:1.74 (M. equidens). The monthly sex ratios indicated that there were more females than males during the period, except for M. equidens which had a ratio of 1:0.78 in the month of August. This is advantageous for the stock dynamics of the species, especially if the males could mate with more than one female during any reproductive season.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: Microfinance refers to loans, savings, insurance, transfer services and other financial products targeted at low-income people. Artisanal fishing is a crucial source of livelihoods in developing nations, particularly for low-income families in rural areas where job options are limited. Nigeria depends heavily on revenues from natural resources, especially oil hence income from fishing is particularly important to Nigeria. Aquaculture is also being practiced with a growth rate that has increased over the years. Sources of funding for the operators of these sectors of the economy who are mostly poor peasants will ensure sustainable production and income generation. Informal microfinance groups have existed before the advent of formal microfinance. Microfinance institutions in Nigeria operate in an environment that is dominated by commercial banks. However, their high deposit rate makes them attractive to the low income group. This paper examines the emergence of microfinance institutions, their contributions to fisheries and aquaculture and constraints to be overcome to enable them serve the fisheries and aquaculture sector better.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: The paper examined gender and fisheries of Lake Kainji, Nigeria. The study highlights socio economic characteristics of women involved in Kainji Lake fisheries, important issues about gender and fisheries. It reveals that the categories of women in the Kainji Lake fisheries are in the middle age of 31 to 40 years with very low educational background. It also indicates that fish processing has been the most prominent activity of women in fisheries of Lake Kainji and constitute about 60 percent of the women. The study concludes that women play significant roles in all aspects of fisheries in Lake Kainji. Importantly, women’s roles span reproduction and production.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Women are the majority of the third World population. They are considered subservient to their male counterpart, even in Europe and America where women have greater basic human right. This paper evaluates the various roles of women in Fisheries and fish processing. Statistics from the European Union shows that, of the various fishing sectors, participation of women (in terms of number) was greatest in fish processing, followed by marine aquaculture, marine fishing and inland aquaculture, with no women involved in inland fishing. In Asia and Africa women are basically involved in fish processing and marketing. In Asia (Thailand and Philippines), women are involved in hatchery operations in aquaculture in addition to fish processing. The finding of the review shows that Fish processing in developing countries, principally Africa is not attracting young literate generation who may have better management competence. It further revealed that, in Nigeria women are directly involved in capture fishery, in addition to fish marketing and processing. This is aimed at empowering women economically to meet the pressing needs of the family. The paper further assesses the problems of women in fisheries and fish processing namely, access to financial resources, education, support services and the need to ensure food security. Possible ways of improving women’s participation in fisheries were highlighted.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Ifiayong is a small local village market where economically and commercially important fin and shellfishes are landed. It is located very close to the Five Star and Ibom Le Meridian Hotels at Nwaniba beach. Women functioned as transporters, sorters, processors, financiers, distributors and marketers of the thirty-two finfish families, seven shellfish species together with three turtles (reptiles) encountered at the study site. Socio-economic survey revealed that ninety-four women modally aged 46-55years (34; 36.17%) participated in the fisheries and frequently communicated in Efik (40; 42.55%), and were mostly drop-outs (40; 40.56%) in educational level and polygamous (35; 38.30%). The modal family size was 11-15 persons (45; 47.87%) who invested N 41,000 - N 50,000 (28; 29.79%). Problems encountered by these women together with the corresponding solutions and appropriate recommendations proffered were highlighted with the aim of making Ifiayong a revenue generating and tourism centre for Uruan Local Council and Akwa Ibom State Government.
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: The paper is a review of the curriculum, staffing, equipment, field and laboratory requirements prescribed by the National Universities Commission (NUC) for training of Fisheries graduates. This is made as these are guidelines against which Fisheries programmes, now being proliferated in many Nigerian tertiary institutions, can be evaluated for possible accreditation. The critique shows that some courses are highly under-weighted e.g. “Aquatic Flora and fauna” as a 2 credit unit. There is a high degree of overlap between courses. Some are not clearly and sharply delineated, defined or described. Staff needs are not defined or described. Staff needs are not defined in terms of core course areas of specialization. Limnology & Oceanography have their descriptions restricted to physico ? chemical features and not viewed in the desired comparative perspective. Suggestions are made on a wider listing of equipment, field laboratory, and library need to sharpen the NUC guideline. A review committee is recommended.
    Keywords: Education ; Fisheries ; Information Management
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  • 54
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: A keynote address at the 25th annual conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria. The paper presented evidence of climate change in the past and discussed the issue of global warming in the past, present and future. The Greenhouse effects are some of the topics discussed. Discussed in greater detail is the Nigerian situation in the global warming and climate change. The potential impacts on aquaculture has been enumerated. The paper is concluded by given suggestionswhich mitigate the impact of climate change and called on the Federal Ministry of Environment to strengthen research and other arms of government to create a strong synergy to work towards ameliorating the impact of climate change in the country.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: There have been considerable efforts in recent time to modify fishing gears and practices to target particular sizes and species of fish (fin and shell) and other marine organisms more efficiently. These efforts are coming on the heels of the negative- impact they tend to have on the population of organisms in the aquatic ecosystem. By-catch consideration and gear modification play an important role in the regulation of several consideration and gear modification play an important role in regulation of several major fisheries now by catch reduction devices and other innovative gear modification are continuously being proposed and tested to mitigate against these problems among which are the turtle excluder device (TEDS) in the shrimp trawls to reduce mortality of endangered sea turtle, sorting grids and scaring device in long fisheries. Recommendation are made on effective monitoring of fishing gear to ensure that devices aimed at reducing by-catch are included and fishermen use only the appropriate gears to limit by-catch and discards.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Fishing experiments with conventional and modified codends were conducted to reduce fish by-catch from shrimp beam trawl fisheries off Lagos coast, Nigeria. The modified codend consist of Nordmore gride with a guarding panel and bar spacing of 20 mm. simultaneous paired comparisons against conventional codends showed that the modified codend significantly reduced the by-catch of juvenile fishes up to 72.06% (T-test, p〈0.05;0.01) with no significant reduction(2.9%) in the quantity of the target shrimps, Nematopaaemon hastatus (T-test,p〉0.05;0.01). SmaIl sized and fusiform shape fishes with total length range of 4 to 10 cm were mostly retained by the modified codend, eg. Epinephelus aenus (p〉0.05;0.01) and Pomadasys jubelini (p〉0.05;0.01) while large and flattened fish specimens with a total length range of 11 to 30 cm were mostly excluded, eg. Dasyatis margarita (p〈0.05;0.01) and Carcharhinus brachyrus (p〈0.05;0.01). The high percentage reduction of the 3 species of most abundant and priortised croaker by-catch family sciaenidae e.g Pseudotolithus elongatus (72.73%, p〈0.05;0.01), P. senegalensis(66.65%,p〈0.05;0.01) and P. typus (68.33, p〈0.05;0.01) makes the BRD a conservation tool for commercial application. The potential of Nordmore gride to alleviate by-catch problem and its limitation in a developing economy is discussed.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Salted and saltless Clarias gariepinus were smoked and oven dried. Their proximate composition and sensory qualities were assessed using standard methods. The salted oven dried fish has mean values of 65.00% (crude protein); 21.90% (fat); 6.40% (moisture); and 0.79% crude fibre while the saltless had lower mean values of 64.50% (protein); 20.95% (fat);5.68% (moisture) and0.40% crude fibre. The ash content of the saltless oven dried fish 7.34% was higher than the salted 6.46%. The salted smoke dried fish has 64.07% crude protein; 20.74% (fat), 6.51 % moisture; 8.54% ash and 0.53% crude fibre. Thus, the oven dried samples have higher protein and fat values than the smoke dried samples. The salted samples have higher values of these nutrients than the saltless ones. Salting perhaps increases the availability of nutrients in smoked and oven dried Clarias gariepinus. Sensorily, there was no significant difference (P〉O.05) in taste, texture and overall acceptability of salted and unsalted smoked and oven dried Clarias gariepinus. A significant difference existed in their colour and Flavour. The colour of the saltless smoked dried fish was most acceptable. While the flavour of the 5% salted smoked dried fish was preferred. The salted oven dried fish had the highest overall acceptability score
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The study is an icthyological survey of River Galma. the study was carried out to confirm or other wise the finding that there was no species of Clarias anguillaris in the river. The paper morphologically described the different species of Clarias found in the river and concluded that one of the species with gill rakers count ranging from 78 to 103 is clarias anguillaris
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Aspects of the biology (species composition, Length - Weight relationships, condition factor, fecundity, and sex ratio) of Mugilids in waters around Port-Harcourt, Niger Delta were studied. Of the sampled population of Mugilidae, four species of mullet belonging to two genera were identified; Liza grandisquamus (33.55%), L.falcipinus (28.95%), Mugil curema (19.08%) and M. bananensis (18.42%). The mean sizes of all species ranged from 8.1 - 27.5cm total length and 6.10- 170.23g in weight. There was no significant difference P〉0.05 between male and female in all four species in both length and weight. All species exhibited isometric growths while populations of L. grandisquamus and M. bananensis revealed negative allometric and positive functions respectively. There was also no significant variation P〉0.05 in the Fulton condition factors between male and female in all species and among species. The highest absolute fecundity value of 211, 793 eggs was recorded in L. grandisquamus with a body weight of 71.80g and the best predictor of fecundity for all species was ovary weight, while males and females did not depart from a 1 : 1 sex ratio in all species.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The knowledge of sources and routes of fish contamination is a very important aspect in maintaining the quality of safety of fish. This is paramount because the sources constitute the acess through which most unwanted microorganisms may be transmitted onto fish and fishery products. Unwanted microorganisms may be found in the final product through raw material, personal handling or mobile equipment such as forklifts, through leakage and openings in building, or through pests. Some pathogens may even become established in the processing equipment and rough contact surfaces such as fish retail tables and from niches where they can survive for long periods of time. Many of these microorganisms occur naturally in aquatic and general environments, and may be transmitted onto fish before capture, during and after processing. Also, contamination via air can occur through dust particles or via aerosols. Water is also a vehicle for transmission of many agents of diseases. Thus, the quality of the raw material, personnel hygiene, equipment used for processing, the quality of the water used and pests are key issues in this context. As for quality assurance, methods such as the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygiene Practice (GHP) and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) are recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for use by any food processing establishment to ensure safe, wholesome and nutritious food for human consumption
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The proximate composition and mineral content of the African snake head, .Channa obscura from the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated with a view to provide nutritional data for dietary planning and baseline data for further research. Mean values for proximate composition were: protein 21.02%, fat 4.38%, moisture 67.82%, ash, 2.28%. The P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Fe contents of the fish samples was 3113.29mg/g, 237.35mg/100g, 332.12mg/100g, 383.25mg/100g, 455.33mg/l00g 0. 76mg/100g and 5.06mg/l00g respectively. Channa obscura thus constitutes a source of high protein, low in fat and source of P, Fe, K and Mg.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The paper enumerated the mandate of the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) which was set up by the Federal Government of Nigeria in October 2000 specifically to provide credit facilities to the less privileged. It also accepts savings, deposits and provides opportunities for self employment in the rural areas. The bank has brought this function to bear in the fishing industry by granting microcredit financing services to both artisanal fishermen, small and medium scale fish farmers. Conditions for granting loan by the bank have been well spelt out in the paper. Also discussed are problems in financing the fish industry. Some of the problems are inadequate information, lack/inadequacy of collateral, resources information, dearth of skilled manpower. In conclusion, suggestions have been offered for the way forward
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Selective breeding studies were carried out in four genetic mating combinations of Clarias gariepinus with the aim of improving its growth performance. F2 intraspecific and backcross were produced using the best male and female of the best genetic mating combination in the F generation in crosses of three wild strains of Clara gariepinus. The highest percentage hatchability (75%) was recorded in female Kainji parental and male Kainji F1. and the least (53.67%) in female and Male Kainji Fl. The cross involving female Kainji F1. and Male Kainji Parental had the best survival (49%) indoor and also best (38.67%) outdoor, while the least (37.67%) was recorded in female Kainji parental and Male Kainji F1 and also gave the least (32.67%) outdoor. The female Kainji F1, and male Kainji parental gave the best growth performance (1.61 g) at 19 days indoor rearing, while female and male Kainji parental gave the least (1.50g). At the end of seven months rearing outdoor, the female Kainji parental and male Kainji F1. gave the best growth performance of(222.49g) and the least (180.66) was recorded in female Kainji F1 and male Kainji parental.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Quality conditions of Tilapias (family Cichidae), a group of highly relished fresh water fish, were assessed using the human senses of touch, smell and sight at ambient temperature. The quality factors observed were body texture, odour, skin condition, gill condition, belly condition and eye shape. Deteriorative changes in the quality factors of the fish were observed and recorded at two hours interval. The observed quality factors deteriorated with time in the course of the study. Tilapia fish exhibited deteriorative changes from six hours of storage at ambient temperature. The fish became spoilt and unacceptable from twelve hours of storage.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The correlation coefficient (R2) for Jos (cultured, Clarias anguillaris was 0.8367 while the coefficient of b was 3.1046. The correlation coefficient (R2) for Jos (wild) showed 0.7785 while the coefficient b was 3.4779. The correlation coefficient (R2) for Yola (wild) revealed 0.8637 and the coefficient of b was 2.4785. The results showed that there was correlation of length and weight in all the samples though Jos (cultured and wild) had positive allometric growth while Yola (wild) had negative allometric growth.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Fish Protein concentrate (FPC) from small and stunted tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) which would otherwise have been discarded was used in certain proportion (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, where the zero percent serves as control) in addition with wheat flour, for the production of chin-chin in order to address the problem of inadequate intake of protein and to determine the acceptable proportion of FPC to wheat flour by consumers. From the organoleptic result, 10% FPC + 90% wheat flour was well accepted by the panel of judges and therefore recommended as this will help to increase the protein intake of consumers.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The food and feeding adaptations of Protopterus annectens (Owen) in River Rima, Sokoto, Nigeria, were studied. Fish samples were collected from August to October, 2007. The Stomach contents were analyzed using frequency of occurrence method. The fish is an omnivore, feeding mainly on other fish, crustaceans, molluscus, leaf parts, seeds, pytoplankpton and detritus. The junviles showed more indigestion towards leaf parts and detritus while the adults exhibited more diverse and complex feeding. The fish gut length was 1.1 times the body length.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The acute toxicity of galex (Metolachlor) to fingerlings of Orechromis niloticus (Trewavas) was determined in 96hour static bioassays. During the assays, opercular ventilation and tail fin movement rates of the fish were determined. Haematological parameters of the blood and histopathology of the gills were observed. The 96hours LC50 of galex to fingerlings of O. niloticus was observed to be 9.30mgL-1~c 1.04. Histopathology of gills of the fish exposed to l100mgL -1, 1200mgL and 13..00mg/L-1 showed a dose-dependent disruption of the architecture of the lamellae and atrophy which led to impairment in oxygen uptake. Other symptoms of toxicosis in exposed fish include haemorrhage of the gills and fins, blood shot eyes of the fish, copious production of mucus on the body and head, agitated swimming, eruption of the ventral side and spilling out of the digestive system of fish, air gulping and death.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 69
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The paper highligthed the coastline of Nigeria to be about 853 kilometers bordering the Gulf of guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The contribution of Nigerian fisheries development has been discussed. Also discussed is the constraints to industrial fisheries development in Nigeria. The papaer concluded that the government should establish Radar Monitoring Centres at strategic locations along the Nigerian coastline to monitor the activities of the fishing vessels. Also there should immediate registration and licensing of all fishing canoes and craft. There should be an upgrading of the threeFisheries Resource Monitoring Control and Surveillance Zonal Centres. The Nigerian Navy should also establish forward Operational Bases along Nigerian coastline to monitor the activities of fishing and shrimping vessels and other maritime vessels.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 70
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    Fisheries Society of Nigeria
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Factors which threaten sustainable commercial fisheries are considered in this paper. Oil and grease, suspended solids, overfishing impact on fishes and fisheries. Whereas overfishing declines adult fish values; the duo of oil and suspended solids clog and disable gills of affected fishes and deplete insolation. And barnacles foul boats.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-04-25
    Description: The effect of wood types on the nutrient composition of smoked dried fish was carried out using Citharinus citharus. The wood types used for the experiment were Neem, Parkia and Terminalia. The fish samples were smoked dried to constant weight under the same conditions using the three wood types. Proximate nutrient composition of the fish samples and phytochemical analysis of the wood types was determined. Sensory evaluation on the organoleptic properties of the smoked fish samples was also conducted using a test panel to determine the general acceptability of the fish products in relation to the wood type used. Result of the proximate nutrient composition showed that fish sample smoked dried with Terminalia had the highest percentage of protein followed by that of Parkia. Fat content was highest in the fish sample smoked dried with Neem tree. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the wood types revealed the presence of high levels of tannin in Neem, tannins and phenolic compounds in Parkia. Organoleptic evaluation of the products showed that the fish samples smoked dried with Terminalia had the highest general acceptability.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The principle of Evaporative Cooling System (ECS) was adopted to construct a Wooden Evaporative Coolant Structure (WECS) to prolong the freshness of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The keeping quality of the two structures was compared with fish kept at ambient using temperature, relative humidity, weight loss and organoleptic indices. Results showed that the Basket ESC and Wooden ECS recorded lower temperatures and higher relative humidity values as compared with the ambient. Tilapia stored at ambient condition recorded significantly higher weight loss (P〉0.05) than those kept in BECS and WECS. Results of sensory evaluation showed that there was a gradual reduction in the organoleptic quality of the fish stored in BECS and WECS. Quality of whole fish by panelist after 8 hours of storage showed that the two ECS models recorded significantly higher (P〈0.05) freshness scores than fish stored at ambient temperature. Fishmongers should adopt this technology (BECS and WECS) as a means of prolonging the freshness of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus before they are sold to consumers.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: This paper seeks to analyse the demand for fish in Ilorin with a view to identifying the factors that affect the demand for fish in the area. The study was based on data collected from respondents in five (5) major locations in Ilorin. Both descriptive statistics and multiple regression models were used for socio-economic characteristics of fish consumers demand. The results of this study showed that fish is preferred to any other livestock protein sources and the per capital consumption of fish is 0.53kg per month. Sociological factors, health factors and the household sizes did not play major roles in determining the quality of fish demanded. However, price of a close substitute to fish, income of respondents and distances of household from the fish market were very important factors influencing the quantity of fish demanded. The average distance of fish market from households in the study area is 4.5km. It is therefore recommended that distance of fish farm market point should be established close to household to ensure proper patronage and increased consumption.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The study considered the relationship between micro credit fishing, farming and non farm employment as a means of sustanable livelihood. Demographic data showed that more male are involved in active fishing while females are more involved in processing, preservation and marketing. Also shown was that female fisherfolks engaged in more than two other livelihood activities apart from fishng at atime more than their male counterpart. Fishing becomes a secondary occupation in the wet season, such as farming, trading, hunting, tailoring, artisan