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  • Emerald  (13,577)
  • American Meteorological Society  (6,542)
  • 1995-1999  (20,119)
  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (12). pp. 2771-2777.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N–5°S, 120°–170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The present investigation is oriented towards the design of an energy absorbing aluminium subfloor for a new Agusta helicopter. To identify the detailed design and the structural concepts for the most efficient mechanism of energy absorption, the typical subfloor components have to be investigated. Design aspects focus in more detail on the subfloor structural intersections, because, under vertical crash loads, they can create high deceleration peak loads at the cabin floor level and cause dangerous inputs to the seat/occupant system. The crash behaviour and energy absorption capability of the subfloor structural intersections are investigated by experimental drop tests and finite element analyses. Presents the correlation between crash data and numerical results.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Considers the causes of corrosion of avionics antennae and the damage damage it causes. Gives the authors' view of the disadvantages of conventional antenna attachment and sealing techniques. Details an alternative technique - conductive gel gaskets - using a gel sealant developed by Raychem Corporation.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The details of predicting the aerodynamic forces of maneuvering helicopter rotors are discussed in this paper. A new approach to modeling the unsteady rotor aerodynamic forces is presented based on the insight into nonuniform induced velocity distribution, inflow dynamics and unsteady airfoil behavior. For a specified maneuver, the rotor control inputs and helicopter flight attitudes during the maneuvering are first obtained using inverse solution technique, and then the unsteady rotor forces are numerically simulated by synthetically applying the vortex theory, dynamic inflow theory and unsteady airfoil aerodynamic models. Good results of the sample calculations of lateral jink and pop-up maneuvers are obtained.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The objective of the present article is to provide a progress report on, and highlight, some ongoing efforts regarding the available techniques for the direct (i.e. not based on Monte Carlo simulations) prediction of the distribution of the forced response of turbomachinery bladed disks that exhibit small blade-to-blade variations in their structural properties (random mistuning). The focus of this effort is on the statistical distributions of the amplitudes of response of a typical blade at a given frequency (level 1), of the maximum responding blade on the disk at a given frequency (level 2), and finally of the maximum responding blade on the disk over a frequency sweep (level 3). When appropriate, emphasis will be placed on the reliability of these techniques as a function of the blade-to-blade coupling strength.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Downsizing in the aerospace industry is due to the cyclical nature of its business segments - defense and commercial. Erratic defense spending and fluctuations in commercial demand for aerospace products are the primary causes of this cyclical behavior. All employee groups are affected by aerospace downsizing initiatives, but the extent that each group is affected depends on product lifecycles. Economic impacts of aerospace downsizing efforts are substantial, both to the individual and communities, but are somewhat less today than in past years. As with all downsizing industries, the challenges of the aerospace industry include maintaining technological competitiveness in the areas of product development and human resources.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Some components are too fragile, too awkwardly shaped or too highly finished for workholding by conventional clamping. One alternative to the specially made fixture - always slow and expensive to produce - is to use a bismuth-based low-melting-point alloy as the work-holding medium. Alloys specialist Mining and Chemical Products says that with melting points as low as 47°C and the unique property of expanding on solidification, fusible alloys can often provide a quick and cost-efficient means of turning difficult work-pieces into something much easier to hold for machining and handling. The low melting temperatures eliminate risks of heat damage to work-pieces, while the non-shrinking characteristic ensures extremely solid support even during the most arduous machining operations. According to MCP, bismuth alloys are also highly economic to use. They can be melted down and used again repeatedly. This is not true of other work-holding media. Moreover, since many of them contract on solidification they cannot provide the firm and all-embracing support that is almost always needed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: This was selected as an excellent example of one of the papers published in the first ever issue of Aircraft Engineering in March 1929. It was presented at the Royal Aeronautical Society on 22 November 1928 and then published in the journal. It discusses the characteristics and influences affecting aircraft weight, and possible developments with increasing size and therefore provides a fascinating reminder of technology and thinking in the late 1920s.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A new method for predicting rotor wake in low speed and hovering flight is described to investigate the motion of the helical tip vortex. Beginning with the generalized wake model, a semi-empirical correction for the vortex core effect on rotor wake is made and free wake calculation is carried out. As an example of its engineering application, the calculated downwash velocity field along the rocket launch line is presented and simply analysed. In terms of theory, the method developed here may provide of a referable basis for further study the formation mode of the tip vortex and vortex core interior structure.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a study to determine the extent to which delamination at the die to encapsulantinterface affects the package moisture content, and electrical failures when subjected to unbiasedtemperature-humidity testing. Moisture absorption experiments showed that thepresence of delamination did not significantly after the measurable moisture absorptioncharacteristics of packages. Reliability testing indicated that although delamination is generallythought of as a reliability risk, it may not be a sufficient condition to promote damage inpackages under dormant storage conditions. Experimental results showed no parametric orfunctional failures (or visible degradation) in packages with 100% die surfacedelamination after 1000 hours of unbiased testing at 140°C/85%RH.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 23 (1997), S. 22-25 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Theexplosive growth of high-density packaging has created a tremendous impact on theelectronics assembly and manufacturing industry. Ball Grid Array (BGA), Chip ScalePackaging (CSP), Direct Chip Attach (DCA), and flip-chiptechnologies are taking the lead in this advanced manufacturing process. Many major equipmentmakers and leading electronic companies are now gearing up for these emerging and advancedpackaging technologies. In this paper, they will be briefly discussed.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 13-17 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Diameter and depth of craters and removing efficiency of the material of RCCR (resin coated copper) used in PCB by a single pulse energy of 355nm YAG laser with a variety of pulse energy, pulse width and defocus have been studied in the paper. It is shown that the ablation rates per pulse are much higher when compared with those at 248nm. The crater diameter increases monotonically with the pulse energy. However, when the pulse energy is very high and the power density is higher than 4.0 × 109W/cm2, the crater depth and removing efficiency decrease with the increase of pulse energy. The pulse width has an important influence on the crater diameter and volume when the pulse width changes from 24ns to 38ns, whereas the influence on the crater depth is little. The influences of defocus on ablation results depend on the power density of laser beam. A certain defocus can make both crater diameter and removing efficiency increase for a relatively high power density. Meanwhile, the thermal effect in the process of 355nm laser ablation of RCCR cannot be neglected.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: While promising significant improvements in the cost and performance of electronic systems, the advent of new area array packaging concepts such as the BGA and newer area array CSPs has placed significant new demands on the substrates used in their interconnection. New methods such as build-up multilayers and micro vias and co-lamination of inner layers have been described and implemented by a number of different firms in an attempt to address this important issue. One such method employs simple double-sided plated through hole flex circuits and the use of conductive pastes and bondplies to provide reliable electrical and mechanical connection between layers during a simple lamination cycle. The process, briefly described herein as a co-laminated multilayer flex, is detailed in terms of both process steps and manufacturing flow. The structure of the interconnection substrate is also modeled and examined to determine its electrical performance potential according to electrical modeling software. Finally, detailed are the performance of the structure in reliability testing and an analysis of the expected design and performance advantages that might be obtained by such type constructions in combination with BGAs and area array CSPs.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A defective printed circuit board assembly that exhibited excessive current leakage was examined to determine the responsible failure mechanisms. Observation of the failure site (determined electrically) by optical and electron microscopy revealed an area in the circuit board where debonded fiber bundles bridged a plated-through-hole (PTH) to a copper plane. This phenomenon is highly suggestive of conductive filament formation.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 22-24 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper explores the use of models of substrate behaviour to examine the wireability constraints on PCBs due to signal layers and buried and through vias. The importance of product scale as a factor affecting technology choice is examined in detail, and the factors that decide the need for multi-layer construction and buried and through vias are discussed. Large PCB layouts are constrained by lack of space for traces - trace bound; a limitation that can be removed by using multi-layers and through hole vias. Small PCB layouts are constrained by lack of space for vias - via bound; buried vias and landless vias are particularly useful for maximising wiring density under these conditions. A further observation is that the use of multiple layers offers diminishing returns as each further layer is added. For small high wiring density PCBs approximately four layers supporting blind vias can give excellent support for the use of high I/O (Input/Output) density packages.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: New developments in the semi-conductor industry lead to higher I/O counts. Packaging is changing to new, smaller packages, like TCPs and CSPs, and the pitch density increases as well. For the fanout of such pages on the PCB, new design rules have to be applied. Blind via holes, sequential build-up technologies, new ways to form holes, new materials, a lot of questions for the PCB manufacturer. The integration of passive components, such as bypass capacitors and pull up and pull down resistors, into the PCB, go along with the next generation of packaging technology. This adds complexity to the printed circuit boards, leading to a new generation of PCBs that could better be called Integrated Component Boards (ICB). These boards offer a much higher price/area for the PCB manufacturer and at the same time give the OEM better performance with fewer assembly steps and much smaller units.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 14-20 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: X-ray laminography, a tomographic technique that can examine individual planes of focus within a 3-D structure, promises to be an excellent method of inspecting complicated circuit boards. The technique has accuracy appropriate for circuit board inspection, but the application has been limited by the requirements of synchronized motion of the source and detector, a sophisticated X-ray device and a huge image acquiring system. A new translational laminography system is presented. The X-ray source and detector described are stationary. Translation of the XY table is only the mechanical motion required to generate the laminographic image. Based on this system, a new image separation algorithm is also explained. This algorithm uses a recursive process with a simple mathematical function, which is derived analytically by the X-ray projection geometry. To evaluate the proposed method, an X-ray imaging system has been constructed. From the test sample experiments, it is confirmed that the proposed algorithm allows cleanly separated images with fewer artifacts than the one obtained by conventional laminography.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 10-13 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Organic and immersion metallic coatings are being used as a replacement for the hot air solder level (HASL) process. Use of these coatings provides advantages for both the fabricator and assembler. Advantages to assemblers include flatter pads (0.25-0.5 micron thickness), no limitations on fine pitch or small hole cleaning, and greater solder joint strength. Advantages to the fabricator include lower operating costs, little or no rejects/rework, reduced safety hazard and a more environmentally friendly process. Current problems associated with the organic and immersion coatings include the inability to assess the solderability of the bare copper or the integrity of the coating (organic). These coatings also present a critical concern due to their reduced shelf life and potential inability to survive mishandling in manufacturing. Real time, non-destructive methods of rapidly assessing the integrity these coatings are currently not available to the electronics industry. Surface Spectroscopy measurement techniques have the potential to measure the structure and characteristics of the organic and metallic coatings, and surface oxides that develop with time and temperature. The measurement techniques are rapid, non-contact, and relatively inexpensive to make when compared to existing methods. Surface Spectroscopy can also provide critical surface information that is needed to troubleshoot solderability problems. The American Competitiveness Institute in association with the Navy EMPF program is working with several industry partners to develop a usable surface spectroscopy tool that will assess the quality and integrity of the coatings and correlate that reading with a solderability evaluation.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 6-10 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The objective of this paper is to highlight the advantages of tenting as a process worthy of meeting the current and future challenges of the PWB industry. A further refinement of the tenting process will also be described, which enables "mini-land" tenting to be accomplished, and also makes the standard tenting process less sensitive to misregistration.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 34-37 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Reviews the use and development of dry film photoresists and liquid resists. Provides an historical perspective and considers factors affecting investment in the future. Discusses both the advantages and limitations of dry film and liquid photoresists. Provides an outlook for future developments.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 24-33 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Since the 1960s, interconnection technology has been dominated by implementations of printed circuit board (PCB) technology. However, in response to the ever increasing demand for higher routing densities and improved electrical performance, this technology has been increasingly challenged by multichip module (MCM) technology and in particular the MCM-L type. MCM-L technology is a laminate construction and is basically a further development of PCB technology with two or more bare chips and fine line interconnects. Consequently, it is perceived that the current PCB fabricators are ideally positioned to take the initiative with MCM-L technology. Reviews the current state of PCB industry and MCM-L technological (process and material) requirements, within the UK, such that a comparison can be made between the two technologies. Planning, training and investment requirements for new technology implementation are then identified and compared with PCB fabricators' technological, training, planning and investment capabilities. The shortfalls between MCM-L fabrication requirements and PCB fabricators capability are identified and discussed.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 11-25 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new solder-bumped flip chip land grid array (LGA) chip scale package (CSP) called NuCSP is presented in this paper. NuCSP is a minimized body size package with a rigid substrate (interposer). The design concept is to utilize the interposer to redistribute the very fine pitch peripheral pads on the solder-bumped chip to much larger pitch area-array pads on the printed circuit board (PCB). Using conventional PCB substrate manufacturing processes, NuCSP offers a very low-cost package suitable for memory chips and low pin-count application-specific ICs (ASICs). Also, NuCSP is surface mount technology (SMT) compatible and can be joined to the PCB with a 6-mil (0.15mm) thick 63wt %Sn-37% Pb solder paste.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A computational study is presented in this paper to investigate the effect of variation in material properties on the fatigue life prediction of solder joints subjected to cyclic thermal loading. The package under investigation was a plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) with gull-wing leads. A commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, was employed to perform a two-dimensional plane stress analysis. While all other constituents of the PQFP assembly were assumed to be linear elastic, the solder joint was considered to be elastic-viscoplastic. The creep model was adopted from Norton's equation and was implemented in the finite element analysis via a user-defined subroutine. The maximum creep strain was evaluated and incorporated into the modified Coffin-Manson equation to estimate the life cycles under thermal fatigue. It was found that the variation in material properties could have a significant influence on the fatigue life prediction of solder joints.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 32-33 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Addresses the problem of printed circuit board inspection. Gives an example of an approach which aims to overcome the difficulties associated with it.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 33-35 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Drilling blind vias with lasers has become more and more popular over the past three years as PWB fabricators and OEMs recognize the benefits of a process that has high throughput, is versatile with materials, has a fairly large process window and requires little to no changes in their existing manufacturing line. Laser drilling systems have improved in throughput over the past two years and as fabricators develop close working relationships with the laser system suppliers, better laser drilling systems emerge. This paper will discuss a laser drilling system that is a direct result of input from fabricators around the world. Details will be provided on compatible materials, and processing speeds.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 24 (1998), S. 36-39 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The use of a "microvia" process for the fabrication of high density printed circuit boards and IC packages offers many advantages in terms of producing high interconnect density, cost competitive substrates for portable communications products. Motorola has put into production a sequential build HDI process that uses photoimageable dielectrics and semi-additive copper metallization on a PWB substrate. Design capabilities for the current HDI process are 100µm/100µm line/space and 125µm /250µm via/pad. Plated through holes in the substrate are filled with a screen printable ink so that traces can be routed over the through hole area. This design capability meets routing and reliability requirements for current Motorola portable products. Future PWBs and IC packages, however, will need higher density features and higher performance materials. These features include finer line width, multiple HDI layers for routing dense SMT packages, low loss dielectrics for RF circuitry, higher Tg, and lower moisture dielectrics for DCA and IC package assembly.
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  • 27
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 25-29 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper focuses on the comparative study on reliability performance of various surface coatings. Only brief descriptions of coating processes, material physical properties, costs, and their applications are given.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best options in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pd finishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas which is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessary to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that include thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders are discussed.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper examines the make-up of the subcontract printed circuit board industry in the UK and identifies the geographical location of manufacturing sites together with the number of employees at these sites. It describes both the subcontract board-producing and assembly sectors. The maps show the position and size of the sites, and these together with a histogram showing the frequency of ranges of employee numbers, provide an understanding of the structure of the industry. Higher density areas which have a greater incidence of PCB manufacturing activity are identified and compared. It is also shown that there is little consistent relationship between the positions of the major system providers and the PCB subcontract industry sites. Concern is expressed about the ability of the many smaller companies to compete in the supply of emerging assembly and substrate technologies.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The strain-based flex fatigue of 18 µm thick copper foil is evaluated over a wide range of strain amplitudes. Seven electrodeposited foils, four commercial grades and three experimental foils, and a commercial grade rolled foil are characterized. The fatigue life versus cyclic strain amplitude curve in the high strain amplitude (low cycle) and low strain amplitude (high cycle) regimes is developed for each foil. On the basis of fatigue life (Nf) and fatigue ductility (Df), the low cycle fatigue performance of eight foils is ranked. Universal correlations of Nf and Df with the uniaxial tensile strength are established. Two electrodeposited foils, experimental foil DF 8 in the high strain amplitude regime and commercial foil DF 9 in the low strain amplitude regime, have been shown to display fatigue performance comparable to that of the commercial rolled GR 8 foil.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 30-37 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A novel tin electrodeposition chemistry and process has been developed at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, New Jersey, USA. This process produces smooth, satin bright tin deposits which have stable, large grain structures. The deposits contain very low organic content and, as a consequence, exhibit excellent ductility, solderability and reflowability. The chemistry is capable of operating at elevated temperatures over a wide range of current densities, and is, thus, applicable to rack, barrel and reel-to-reel operations. All chemical components, including breakdown products are fully analyzable with conventional analytical methods. Extensive bath life studies show that the deposit appearance and material properties, including grain structures, are stable in relation to the age of the electroplating chemistry. In addition, the grain refiners used are highly stable, and have few breakdown products as the chemistry ages. All these features imply a robust process which has been confirmed in various manufacturing environments. This tin electroplating process has been utilized in plating coatings for connectors, solder bumps, PWBs and components for semiconductor applications.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper extends our study of the sequential electrochemical reduction analysis (SERA) technique for evaluation of various alternative finishes and it discusses the application of the SERA technique to assess the surface conditions of the silver finish. The tarnishing products of the silver formed under ambient and artificially created conditions were analyzed, the protective effect of an anti- tarnishing film was evaluated, and the influence of the elevated temperatures (reflow) on the stability of the organic inhibitor and the formation of the tarnishing film will be shown.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Polymer thick film (PTF) technology provides the lowest cost, cleanest and most efficient manufacturing method for producing flexible circuits. Non-contact radio frequency (RF) smart cards and related information transaction devices, such as RFID tags, appear to be a good fit for PTF-flex. Flip chip also seems well suited for these "contactless" RF transceiver products. Flip chip and PTF adhesive technologies are highly compatible and synergistic. All PTF SMT adhesives assembly methods are viable for flip chip. However, the merging of flip chip with PTF-flex presents major challenges in design, materials and processing. This paper will compare assembly methods and discuss obstacles and solutions for state-of-the-art flip chip on flex within the RFID product environment.
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  • 34
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    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 6-10 
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: "A patterned arrangement of printed wiring utilizing flexible base material with or without flexible coverlayers". The balance of this brief article will hopefully serve to help the reader understand this remarkable interconnection technology and appreciate just how widely the technology can be applied.
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  • 35
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    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 18-26 
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Multi-layer surface finish, from the bottom to top, of electroless Ni, electroless Pd, and immersion Au (Ni/Pd/Au) have been introduced in the printed circuit board (PCB) industry recently. This paper reports an evaluation of this surface finish from the perspective of solder joint attachment reliability, especially to see if the Ni/Pd/Au could be immune from the brittle interfacial fracture of PBGA on electroless Ni/immersion Au, recently observed and reported by us. PCBs with Ni/Pd/Au finishes, made from two vendors with varied Pd layer thickness were attached with PBGA packages, and tested in four-point bending. When joint strength is strong, bending tests resulted in peeling off the PCB pads; otherwise, brittle fractures occurred at the interface between solder balls and PCB pads. After aging, solder joints on all Ni/Pd/Au and reference metal finishes failed by the same brittle fracture at the interface between Ni-Sn and Au-Sn intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that the interfacial fracture was controlled by something other than the Pd, and the existence of the Pd did not prevent the interfacial fracture. Also, the presence of Pd could not prevent the Au migration and subsequent fracture.
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  • 36
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Studies immersion gold over electroless nickel, immersion gold over electroless palladium, immersion gold over electroless palladium over electroless nickel, immersion gold over immersion silver and immersion silver. In the palladium finishes, two palladium thicknesses were evaluated: 10-12µin. and 18-20µin. Multiple plating chemistry suppliers provided plated test vehicles. HASL and OSP test vehicles were included as control samples. In total, 14 finishes were evaluated in the test matrix. The test vehicle was a daisy chain of zero ohm 1,206 chip resistors that could be monitored individually. Test vehicles were assembled using 63Sn/37Pb eutectic solder paste on an automated assembly line. The thermal cycle range was -40°C to 125°C with 30-minute transition times and 15 minutes at each extreme in a single chamber air system. For each test matrix cell, 120 zero ohm resistors (40 from three boards) were continuously monitored for electrical failure (〉100ohms). In addition, resistors were sheared from test vehicles and the shear force at failure was recorded. A decrease in shear force did occur with thermal cycling due to crack initiation and growth in the solder joints. Solder joint cracks have also been examined.
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  • 37
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    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 35-40 
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper explores the capability of electroless copper deposition plus acid copper electroplating to metallize high aspect ratio microvias.
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  • 38
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Ball grid array (BGA) component packages challenge the circuit board design with signal routing and layout, creating in some cases extra board layers and added vias all resulting in increased costs for the printed circuit board (PCB). As component densities increase and microBGA (µBGA) and other fine pitch components become more common, microvia-in-pad technology will ease the transition to these fine pitch components. This paper presents and profiles a cost-effective solution to interconnecting BGAs on PCBs using laser drilled blind vias connecting the outer three or more layers of a multilayer circuit board. Following a discussion on the design advantages, a comprehensive outline of the PCB fabrication process explores a new procedure for the rapid production of via-in-pad multi-depth blind via laser drilling.
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  • 39
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A family of cavity-down plastic ball grid array (PBGA) packages have been designed by split via connection (SVC) and split wrap around (SWA) methods. Because of the special designs, these packages consist of a single core of organic material and two-metal layers of copper and are manufactured with the conventional printed circuit board (PCB) process at very low cost. The electrical performances of the packages are studied by both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Parasitic parameters are extracted from time domain reflectometer (TDR) and time domain transmission (TDT) measurements. Cross-talk and simultaneous switch output (SSO) noise of the packages are also investigated.
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  • 40
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    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 18-22 
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: While the interest in alternative metalization processes for the manufacturing of printed wiring boards is extremely keen, the long-term reliability of plated through holes fabricated with these electroless copper alternatives remains in question. However, during the last three years, significant process improvements have been made in the direct metalization process based on a patented dispersion of graphite. This paper will describe the technology in detail and present data on the reliability and versatility of the graphite based direct metalization process.
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  • 41
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Puts forward the view that the atrocities committed in thetwentieth century, particularly in Germany and the Union of SovietSocialist Republics, were due to widespread acceptance of the Stoicdoctrine that man was the measure of all things, a doctrine made popularby scholars of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Discusses the movefrom belief in original sin, a Supreme Being and the imperfection of manto man as essentially good and self-perfectible, directed by his ownreason. Highlights the effects of Communism and National Socialism andthe rejection of traditional morality in favour of secular humanism.Concludes that this move led to the worst atrocities known to man.Advocates a return to the law of nature, a code of morality and the"moral compass" of religion which has perdured the test oftime.
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  • 42
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Argues that direct tax reform in India should include eliminationof income tax and capital gains taxes. Presents an analysis of how theunbelievably high direct tax rates over several years, coupled withseveral types of controls, drastically distorted the price and incentivesystem. Shows that, in comparison with several other developingcountries, India is still a high taxed economy. The institutionalizedcorruption resulting from these direct taxes over several years cannotbe reduced without elimination of these taxes, and measures such asbroadening of direct tax base, higher penalties, etc. arecounter-productive. The official national accounts statistics in such ahigh tax regime do not reflect the economy, and the government policyand planning based on these statistics often proved ineffective. Thesuccess of liberalization programmes, environmental conservation, andgeneral socio-economic development requires the elimination of thesetaxes.
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  • 43
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Examines the options for a pension system in Israel in comparisonwith other pension systems in developed countries. A basic actuarialmodel is calculated for the evaluation of the feasible funded pensions.For reasonably conservative rates of return and contribution rates afunded system can be maintained. Employs the conceptual framework toanalyse proposals for the reform of the pension system. Suggests that afunded pension is preferable.
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  • 44
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Focuses on the thought of representative social scientists whorejected the Marxian class/exploitation thesis and opted for a culturalinterpretation of development. Explores the contributions of Max Weber,Horace Plunkett, Edward Banfield and George Foster. Each stressedpopular commitment to some rendition of the work ethic as the key toeconomic "take-off". Collectively, the writings of these"cultural" social scientists represent an alternative to theMarxian class/ exploitation thesis.
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  • 45
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Examines the sequencing of economic reforms in the post-communisttransition, focusing on Russia. Proposes a moderately expansionarystabilization, succeeded by gradual liberalization and marketization,followed by a more ambitious economic restructuring and privatization.
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  • 46
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: From the vantage point of the 1970s and early 1980s, the LatinAmerican Catholic Church appeared to be on a trajectory of increasingprogressivism, typically manifesting itself as a "preferentialoption for the poor". Recently, however, the Catholic hierarchyhas experienced a "conservative retrenchment". Why has thischange occurred? Argues that the need to maintain a high profile indemocratic societies experiencing rapid growth in evangelicalProtestantism has led Church officials to return to anélite-based, conservative political strategy. Suggests thatlacking the resources to compete adequately with the rapid expansion ofevangelical Protestantism, bishops have turned to lobbying the politicaland economic élite to help them maintain their social presenceand prevent further parishioner defections from the faith. Ironically,at that time when the Church most needs state assistance to competeeffectively, politicians are least likely to lend support.
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  • 47
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    Notes: Throughout their histories the Evangelical and Catholic communitieshave been traditional opponents. Seldom have they agreed, and never havethey joined to work as one within the US society and polity. However,beginning in the early 1990s some small, self-identifying élitesfrom each religious community sought out in the other visible persons ofsimilar ideological and moral commitment. Advances the context of thatdialogue between these micro-élites, proposes the application ofclassical élite theory to explain the dialogue better. Generatesa seven-postulate hypothesis to answer the question posed by the contextand the application of élite theory: can self-selectedmicro-élites maintain their alliance and accommodation for asignificant period of time? Given that these are integrative and patternmaintenance élites (not the more usual ruling and adaptive ones)the application of élite theory offers an unconventionalunderstanding of alliance building, as well as an uncommon insight intoreligious co-operation and political accommodation bymicro-élites in contemporary US politics.
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  • 48
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Argues that the association of Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czech and Slovak Republics (CEECs) with the European Union (EU) under "Europe agreements" is unlikely to divert any significant amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) from developing countries because most of it in the latter is location specific. Notes that this applies to investments in natural resources, services and manufacturing industries targeting at domestic markets of the host developing countries. Only in the case of footloose labour and pollution intensive branches, developing countries may face additional locational competition from the associated CEECs. But such industries generally have very low shares in total FDI. Moreover, relative costs of production in CEECs are expected to rise in the course of their convergence towards EU standards.
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  • 49
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Sets out a model giving an interpretation of the engine of economic development and growth, and business cycle. Based on a peculiar concept of dynamic competition, explains innovation and uncertainty and describes the way equilibrating and disequilibrating processes are intertwined and operate. Carries out concise application to successive stages of economic development, along with some econometric application, that demonstrates the degree of generality and flexibility of the theory proposed and provides a comprehensive interpretative tool and pictures of different growth processes and the crucial factors on which they depend.
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  • 50
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: All post-socialist countries began the transition process towards a market economy with very high shares of public expenditures in their gross domestic product. The policy question these countries face is whether to decrease the public expenditure rate (PER), and if so, to what level. Another question is whether the change in the PER will affect their economic growth perspectives. Seeks to answer these questions. Discusses the theoretical relation between PER and the rate of economic growth, defines growth neutral public expenditure rate and estimates it empirically. Assesses the empirical relationship between PER and economic growth rate in a cross-country analysis, and presents findings that economic growth in the cross-country analysis cannot be explained by the public expenditure rate, nor by the deviations from growth neutral PER.
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  • 51
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Argues the importance of foreign aid for industrial developmentprogrammes in Africa. Suggests desirable management and administrativeobjectives and outcomes of foreign aid for industrial development interms of discussion of the strategic adaptation to foreign aid cultureand "tame" industrial development base in Africa. Arguesthat African countries should make effective use of foreign aid receivedfrom the developed countries. But for this to take place, Africancountries should examine foreign aid in terms of commodities that can bebought and sold. Suggests that foreign aid should be"project-tied" and its implementation closely monitored.Discusses the effects of foreign aid on industrial development inAfrica.
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  • 52
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The loss of bio-diversity has received increasing attention as oneof the most serious environmental threats we face. Yet not onlybiodiversity is being lost at staggering rates, socio-diversity is beinglost as well. Sociodiversity is defined as the various social andeconomic arrangements by which people organize their societies,particularly the underlying assumptions, goals, values and socialbehaviours guiding these arrangements. Just as the loss of bio-diversityhas focused attention on the interface between human socio-economic andecological systems, so too can the interaction between these systemsgive us insights into the reasons for the loss of diversity insocio-economic systems. Examines the assumptions and valuation conceptsunderlying economic theory and the ways in which mainline economictheory contributes to the loss of socio-economic diversity. The analysisdraws on ecologically relevant concepts and proposes that the base foreconomic theory and valuation be expanded to include five categoriesidentified as relevant to sustain bio-diversity. These are: context,participation, place, limits and temporality. These categories point tothe need to expand, diversify and make concrete economic theory andmethodology.
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  • 53
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: According to communist literature socialism has been established inthe former Soviet Union and other communist countries. Demonstrates thatthe system of any of these countries according to Marxist-Leninistideology can be classed as state monopolistic feudalism. Among SovietCommunist values egalitarianism holds a very special position, althoughit is a more general phenomenon and can also be found in a capitalistsystem. Reveals in post-communist economic reforms, and particularly inthe process of privatization, the idea of egalitarianism is verypopular. According to this view the government has to give everyoneequal opportunities. Such an approach resulted in inflation, a markedincrease in the difference between rich and poor, and the abolition ofequal opportunities.
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  • 54
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Argues that while an expenditure tax would increase the complexityand administrative burdens of taxation, these problems are notoverwhelming. The problems which have led others to conclude that anexpenditure tax is infeasible, or would result in gross inequities, arenot insuperable. At worst they can be handled with a little ingenuityand a suitable transition scheme. The case for or against an expendituretax must rest on whether the economic benefits of adopting such a taxexceed the minor administrative costs of the tax. The expenditure taxcannot be rejected as infeasible merely because of practical oradministrative problems.
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  • 55
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Evaluates how economic co-operation can be organized for the mutualadvantage of the two economies of Northern Ireland and the Republic ofIreland. The methodological approach adopted by the authors explores thedynamics of market design within the two transitional economies andexamines how they could contribute to the performance of an all-islandeconomy. The emphasis is on public utilities, electricity andtelecommunications as sources of inter-firm synergies. At a time whenmany European countries are moving towards greater integration, it isimperative that the two economies on the island of Ireland integrate inorder to realize competitive advantages. Integration may not be thepanacea for solving specific economic problems such as unemployment orhousing shortages, however, it will solve the problem of diseconomies ofsmall scale which impair the competitiveness of commercially orientedpublic utility firms on the island. The politics is not about the spoilsof a united Ireland but the gains from participation in an integratedEurope. The primary objective is in realizing the economic reality ofall-island commercial activities which will dissipate rents, eliminateinefficiencies, create incentives and release real economic growth.
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  • 56
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Examines the relationship between economics and culture. Discussesthe role of Protestantism, Calvanism and Catholicism in the affluency ofsocieties. Refers to the article by D.J. O'Neil in this issue whichdiscusses the works of Horace Plunkett, Edward Banfield and GeorgeFoster, who applied Weberian analysis of culture to the problem ofsocieties which fail to become affluent. Compares Marxist and Weberiantheories of society and economics.
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  • 57
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    Notes: Discusses the meaning of the term new world order (NWO) and defines its economic dimensions. Identifies three common principles of any workable NWO: material, social and spiritual dimensions. Links these dimensions in an analytical framework. Reviews the literature on the theories and concepts which further our understanding and identification of societal ideals. Describes ways to integrate the social and spiritual dimensions into production, consumption and exchange. Attempts to link the ideals of a NWO with the potential behaviour of corporations to create a smoother transition towards sustained global welfare.
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  • 58
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Applies a modified Keynesian money demand function to household money demand in Poland from 1969 to 1993. Co-integration between the demand for broad money, income and shortage, despite the regime shifts during the 1980s and full liberalization of the Polish economy in the beginning of 1990. Compared to other studies, pays much attention to empirical evidence concerning portfolio arguments in the money demand function. Because the Polish economy has developed from a cash into a savings economy, over the sample period, observes an increase in price and interest rate elasticities of the demand for different financial assets.
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  • 59
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Notes that macro-economic policy faces the same challenges in both developing and post-socialist economies: to reduce inflation while achieving or maintaining stable economic growth. Moreover, there are developing countries like Argentina which succeeded in overcoming a type of institutional chaos which comes quite close to what is to be observed in post-socialist countries. By looking at the theoretical concept and by its implementation in Argentina, examines the main advantages and flaws of an exchange rate anchor. Shows that this is a high risk strategy for post-socialist countries which needs radical complementary reforms in order to be effective and to minimize risks. Suggests that credibility cannot be imported.
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  • 60
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    Notes: Freeman criticizes the economics profession on the ground that it has improperly accepted the philosophy of laissez-faire capitalism in five different realms: economic development, unionism and minimum wage laws, socialist central planning versus decentralized markets, military dictatorships and income inequality, and the benefits of economic progress. Attempts to defend the view that the free enterprise analysis in these five different areas can withstand Freeman's criticisms.
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  • 61
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Presents evidence from the literature that Jews are generally to be found on the left side of the political economic spectrum. Various thories have been put foward to explain this phenomenon: historical accident, reaction to stereotypes, intellectualism, and the Mishnah. Concludes that Jews, even orthodox ones, are liberals and leftists.
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  • 62
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Recent years have seen the emergence of a new industry dealing in the international disposal of garbage and various forms of waste. Emerging nations have become disposal sites for materials emanating from the developed world. Attempts to explain the rationale behind the international waste trade. Discusses the acceptance of garbage and waste by poorer nations as a public policy issue. Attempts to balance the economic logic of the acceptance decision with various ethical considerations. Concludes that waste should never be accepted but rather that the advisability of such a practice is destination-specific and must be assessed on a case by case basis.
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  • 63
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Uses a one-sector model to investigate how external labour mobility can affect the economic performance of micro-states. In the absence of restrictions on labour market flows between a micro-state and a larger economy, the micro-state becomes virtually an extension of the large economy. It may expand or contract in total size relative to the larger economy, and gain or lose population accordingly; but the linkage of its level of real wages to the level of real wages in the larger economy constrains opportunities for independent growth in labour productivity and hence in output per capita. A labour-exporting micro-state will experience a more autonomous form of economic development when a binding quota on emigration detaches the domestic real wage from the foreign real wage. However, per capita growth is likely to be of a lower base than under conditions of unrestricted access.
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  • 64
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Egoism as a moral philosophy of market economy in Adam Smith's system is rational not ultra. It benefits not only other people but also the society led by an invisible hand. The Chinese traditional culture dominated by Confucianism, which denied gain-seeking actuated by human selfish motives, as a whole, may be incompatible with the development of a market economy. Without rational egoism, the market economy would not exist. Meanwhile, ultra-egoism which benefits oneself at the expense of others has also deformed the market economy. If it runs wild, the market economy would take the road to its doom.
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  • 65
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Among biologists it is generally recognized that market activity is having a devastating effect on the biological world. The current worldwide loss of biodiversity may be of the same order of magnitude as the five mass extinctions which have decimated life on earth during the past 500 million years. One reason for the current crisis is that decisions about resource use are increasingly made from the narrow perspective of market exchange. Decisions made in this context necessarily place a lower value on preservation than those made in a broader social context. Although the phenomenon of discounting generally works against biodiversity conservation, policies may be devised to use discounting to implement land use policies which will take effect in the relatively distant future.
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  • 66
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Focuses on the indirect participation of the more marginalized and disenfranchised voters in a political system where discrimination and segregation in the supply of public goods is a leading hallmark of political reality. Specifically, the non-voters tend to be poorer, less well educated, younger and also disproportionately higher in minority and discriminated groups. There is instability in the political system and inevitably their detachment confers legitimacy to a political suborder, popularized by terrorism and paramilitary activity. Addresses the possibility of achieving equal control of the political agenda. The unelected representatives, referred to as the parapoliticians, of the marginalized and disenfranchised citizens, many of whom have had recourse to paramilitary activity, have to be included in the negotiations for a new political system. The accomplishment may be in electing a government but a greater accomplishment would be in revealing and unmasking who really governs. The parapoliticians are in a unique position to exercise agenda control which would restore stability to the political system.
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The elections in Northern Ireland took place on 30 May 1996. The parapolitical parties must have a fair share of the seats in any new proposed electoral body. Comment on the distribution of seats is difficult, however, as the concentration of seats in a supergroup of seven or ten and the redistribution of seats away from the lower group of five or eight parties is a more complex issue, bedevilled by a mixture of considerations of what is right, what is fair and what is representative.
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    Notes: Examines critically traditional economic paradigms as well as those given by Hayek and Buchanan on markets with constitutional contracts in order to contrast them with yet another view of market - that endogeneity of various political and economic processes creates a global system of interlinkages among and between policy variables and socio-economic variables. By invoking the methodology and epistemology of such a system develops a theory of globally interactive market processes. In such a globally interactive system, markets are seen to be induced by and to regenerate circularly endogenous preferences. Knowledge induction becomes epistemologically critical in such an evolutionary and interactive order. Hence, these globally knowledge-induced interlinkages generated by policy-market interactions are made to establish and explain what is termed here as a system of social contracts.
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  • 69
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    Notes: Plagiarizes Jonathan Swift to produce a tongue-in-cheek proposal for the relief of the burden of children to the poor and so create benefits for the state. Claims satirically that the scheme would solve a number of societal problems.
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  • 70
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Analyses the economic efficiency of innovation under different market conditions within the context of a formal model that represents competitive innovation as the closed loop solution of a dynamic stochastic game in the spirit of Reinganum's analysis. Goes beyond Reingnaum's model in its explicit treatment of the product market (following Spence), which permits a consistent analysis of competitive innovation in the absence of patent protection. Measures efficiency by the expected net present value of total surplus, and studies the effect on it of competitive structure, elasticity of demand, fixed costs, spillovers and subsidies.
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  • 71
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    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 24 (1997), S. 1056-1079 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Economic discourse has two interesting properties. It tends to be all-encompassing and it tends to shape the reality which it sets out to describe. Systems of economic theory can become very powerful and those based on ideas from Adam Smith and Karl Marx are good examples. Each of these has produced serious problems which are difficult to cope with because of their tendency to be rooted in a reality which they have helped to create. What is needed is a logic which is open to constant revisions and which ties closely to human experience and a notion of economics which makes this possible. Suggests a "logic of continuous discourse" and an information-based economy aimed at maximizing the availability of a range of human experience and minimizing the expenditure of energy.
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  • 72
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    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 24 (1997), S. 1103-1131 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Christian Democracy as an ideology and as a political movement has been ascendant in Western European states for half a century, forming the governing party or a major part of the governing coalition of parties in many of them over numerous decades up to the present. Yet the study of Christian Democracy, its general ideology and general programmatic elements across Western Europe, has been singularly lacking. Centrist establishment parties and economic programmes seem not to have the same appeal to academic investigators as the more exciting and ideologically demarcated ones. Also the future seems bleak for some Christian Democratic parties in Western Europe. The focuses are on the general ideology of the movement and the shared programmatic commonalities among the parties. Advances a consideration of the future for CD parties in the short term and the problems confronting Christian Democracy in the future. Also assesses the role and prospects for Christian Democracy in the European Union, particularly as they relate to the European People's Party (EPP) in the European Parliament.
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  • 73
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    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 24 (1997), S. 1132-1139 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Attempts to explain the survival and success of the American Amish community by examining its history, tenets, structures and life style. Concludes by stressing the importance of the community's unambiguous value system, its clear borders/boundaries, its emphasis on integration and continuity, its commitment to the "work ethic", its techniques of separation, and its meaningful and efficacious rites and rituals.
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  • 74
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Reports that poverty alleviation is a particular developmental focus in Malaysian plans. Reveals that for this to be attained microenterprises are encouraged, and that the financing of microenterprises by means of pawnshop loans in small amounts and with low risk is a popular one among the marginal groups. Examines the efficacy of this instrument of microenterprise financing.
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  • 75
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Remarks that Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative, admonishing us not to treat others as mere means, can be seen to pave the way for an ethics of worker ownership, where the staff decides and assumes the role of residual claimant. Could large corporations convert worker ownership and still prosper and grow? It is in trying to answer this type of question that scholars all over the world have been interested in the development of what is generally regarded as the world's most famous and most successful worker co-operative: the Mondragon Co-operative Complex. After reviewing some of the major reorganizations at Mondragon, summarizes the co-operative's economic performance up to 1995. Assesses the prospects of maintaining economic democracy while competing with large transnational corporations which have access to low-cost labour in the Third World.
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  • 76
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Examines critically the Grameen Bank (GB) experience in Bangladesh in order to understand the essential elements of its operations. Reports that this unique financial institution developed the important factors needed to help the poor and that GB has replaced physical collateral requirements with group responsibility. States that by organizing poor people into groups, it has created the social and financial conditions enabling them to receive loans; it has demonstrated that the poor are bankable, capable of making good business decisions in utilizing their loans and repaying them on time. Explains that GB showed the possibility to develop a viable and self-reliant credit programme for the poor. Concludes that the GB approach also proves that financial intermediation is a viable device to fight poverty, and an excellent vehicle for community development.
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  • 77
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Shows the importance of heeding Clem Tisdell's call to devote attention to values and to consider further the limitations of unbounded rationality models in economic research. Outlines the implications of a criticism of choice theory for environmental decision-making. The critics of positivist philosophy of science show that it is impossible to carry out any analysis without making value judgements. The economist cannot escape this neither in theoretical analyses nor in applied studies. In relation to Clem Tisdell's call to consider values without pontificating on them, it is important to make two points. First, the analysts should state as clearly as possible the values that guide their specific analyses. Second, they could provide the decision makers with a range of options that depend on different stakeholders' ethical positions. Describes elements of the participatory decision-making process. It is noted that this approach to evaluation may enhance the rationality of the choices; better represent the values of the various stakeholders; and allow an improved interaction between individuals and institutions.
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  • 78
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Attempts to analyse some of the aspects of economic time as presented in biblical and apocryphal sources, and as debated in the Talmudic tomes. Also asks, what is time and what is its social significance? The notion of time and its proper utilization is a major topic of discussion and significance in Hebrew scriptures, Talmudic literature and in subsequent Jewish thought. Demonstrates the scriptural and Talmudic approach towards the time phenomenon and, in particular, the utilization of time as an economic vehicle with respect to "time preference" - the placing of a higher value on present rather than future goods; "waiting time" - the Talmudic theory of interest; "lost time" - the Talmudic theory of foregone opportunities or opportunity lost, and the subtle distinction between "waiting time" and "lost time", all theoretically insightful and economically significant.
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  • 79
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The post-1978 micro-economic reforms have dismantled China's community-funded rural health system, relying on paramedics called "barefoot doctors". Examines the economic behaviour and incentives of village doctors (formerly "barefoot doctors") as a response to a deregulated market and the private sector in the 1990s. The investigation of 519 village doctors showed that the occupation was male-dominated. There was minimal labour mobility - 86 per cent worked in the same village; 87 per cent were allocated land, but the majority spent 25 per cent or less of working hours on farming. Suggests that they should provide free patient services, and income should come from payment for medicine. In practice, monopolistic market situations enabled many to charge fees. To maximize income, 41 per cent of western medicine practitioners also sold Chinese medicinal herbs in competition with Chinese medicine practitioners. However, village doctors wanted more regulations on entry to the occupation and looked to government intervention to solve problems. Concludes with some policy implications drawing on the pursuit of private interests by village doctors.
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