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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The present investigation is oriented towards the design of an energy absorbing aluminium subfloor for a new Agusta helicopter. To identify the detailed design and the structural concepts for the most efficient mechanism of energy absorption, the typical subfloor components have to be investigated. Design aspects focus in more detail on the subfloor structural intersections, because, under vertical crash loads, they can create high deceleration peak loads at the cabin floor level and cause dangerous inputs to the seat/occupant system. The crash behaviour and energy absorption capability of the subfloor structural intersections are investigated by experimental drop tests and finite element analyses. Presents the correlation between crash data and numerical results.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Considers the causes of corrosion of avionics antennae and the damage damage it causes. Gives the authors' view of the disadvantages of conventional antenna attachment and sealing techniques. Details an alternative technique - conductive gel gaskets - using a gel sealant developed by Raychem Corporation.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The details of predicting the aerodynamic forces of maneuvering helicopter rotors are discussed in this paper. A new approach to modeling the unsteady rotor aerodynamic forces is presented based on the insight into nonuniform induced velocity distribution, inflow dynamics and unsteady airfoil behavior. For a specified maneuver, the rotor control inputs and helicopter flight attitudes during the maneuvering are first obtained using inverse solution technique, and then the unsteady rotor forces are numerically simulated by synthetically applying the vortex theory, dynamic inflow theory and unsteady airfoil aerodynamic models. Good results of the sample calculations of lateral jink and pop-up maneuvers are obtained.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The objective of the present article is to provide a progress report on, and highlight, some ongoing efforts regarding the available techniques for the direct (i.e. not based on Monte Carlo simulations) prediction of the distribution of the forced response of turbomachinery bladed disks that exhibit small blade-to-blade variations in their structural properties (random mistuning). The focus of this effort is on the statistical distributions of the amplitudes of response of a typical blade at a given frequency (level 1), of the maximum responding blade on the disk at a given frequency (level 2), and finally of the maximum responding blade on the disk over a frequency sweep (level 3). When appropriate, emphasis will be placed on the reliability of these techniques as a function of the blade-to-blade coupling strength.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Downsizing in the aerospace industry is due to the cyclical nature of its business segments - defense and commercial. Erratic defense spending and fluctuations in commercial demand for aerospace products are the primary causes of this cyclical behavior. All employee groups are affected by aerospace downsizing initiatives, but the extent that each group is affected depends on product lifecycles. Economic impacts of aerospace downsizing efforts are substantial, both to the individual and communities, but are somewhat less today than in past years. As with all downsizing industries, the challenges of the aerospace industry include maintaining technological competitiveness in the areas of product development and human resources.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Some components are too fragile, too awkwardly shaped or too highly finished for workholding by conventional clamping. One alternative to the specially made fixture - always slow and expensive to produce - is to use a bismuth-based low-melting-point alloy as the work-holding medium. Alloys specialist Mining and Chemical Products says that with melting points as low as 47°C and the unique property of expanding on solidification, fusible alloys can often provide a quick and cost-efficient means of turning difficult work-pieces into something much easier to hold for machining and handling. The low melting temperatures eliminate risks of heat damage to work-pieces, while the non-shrinking characteristic ensures extremely solid support even during the most arduous machining operations. According to MCP, bismuth alloys are also highly economic to use. They can be melted down and used again repeatedly. This is not true of other work-holding media. Moreover, since many of them contract on solidification they cannot provide the firm and all-embracing support that is almost always needed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: This was selected as an excellent example of one of the papers published in the first ever issue of Aircraft Engineering in March 1929. It was presented at the Royal Aeronautical Society on 22 November 1928 and then published in the journal. It discusses the characteristics and influences affecting aircraft weight, and possible developments with increasing size and therefore provides a fascinating reminder of technology and thinking in the late 1920s.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A new method for predicting rotor wake in low speed and hovering flight is described to investigate the motion of the helical tip vortex. Beginning with the generalized wake model, a semi-empirical correction for the vortex core effect on rotor wake is made and free wake calculation is carried out. As an example of its engineering application, the calculated downwash velocity field along the rocket launch line is presented and simply analysed. In terms of theory, the method developed here may provide of a referable basis for further study the formation mode of the tip vortex and vortex core interior structure.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 13-17 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Diameter and depth of craters and removing efficiency of the material of RCCR (resin coated copper) used in PCB by a single pulse energy of 355nm YAG laser with a variety of pulse energy, pulse width and defocus have been studied in the paper. It is shown that the ablation rates per pulse are much higher when compared with those at 248nm. The crater diameter increases monotonically with the pulse energy. However, when the pulse energy is very high and the power density is higher than 4.0 × 109W/cm2, the crater depth and removing efficiency decrease with the increase of pulse energy. The pulse width has an important influence on the crater diameter and volume when the pulse width changes from 24ns to 38ns, whereas the influence on the crater depth is little. The influences of defocus on ablation results depend on the power density of laser beam. A certain defocus can make both crater diameter and removing efficiency increase for a relatively high power density. Meanwhile, the thermal effect in the process of 355nm laser ablation of RCCR cannot be neglected.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: While promising significant improvements in the cost and performance of electronic systems, the advent of new area array packaging concepts such as the BGA and newer area array CSPs has placed significant new demands on the substrates used in their interconnection. New methods such as build-up multilayers and micro vias and co-lamination of inner layers have been described and implemented by a number of different firms in an attempt to address this important issue. One such method employs simple double-sided plated through hole flex circuits and the use of conductive pastes and bondplies to provide reliable electrical and mechanical connection between layers during a simple lamination cycle. The process, briefly described herein as a co-laminated multilayer flex, is detailed in terms of both process steps and manufacturing flow. The structure of the interconnection substrate is also modeled and examined to determine its electrical performance potential according to electrical modeling software. Finally, detailed are the performance of the structure in reliability testing and an analysis of the expected design and performance advantages that might be obtained by such type constructions in combination with BGAs and area array CSPs.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A defective printed circuit board assembly that exhibited excessive current leakage was examined to determine the responsible failure mechanisms. Observation of the failure site (determined electrically) by optical and electron microscopy revealed an area in the circuit board where debonded fiber bundles bridged a plated-through-hole (PTH) to a copper plane. This phenomenon is highly suggestive of conductive filament formation.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 22-24 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper explores the use of models of substrate behaviour to examine the wireability constraints on PCBs due to signal layers and buried and through vias. The importance of product scale as a factor affecting technology choice is examined in detail, and the factors that decide the need for multi-layer construction and buried and through vias are discussed. Large PCB layouts are constrained by lack of space for traces - trace bound; a limitation that can be removed by using multi-layers and through hole vias. Small PCB layouts are constrained by lack of space for vias - via bound; buried vias and landless vias are particularly useful for maximising wiring density under these conditions. A further observation is that the use of multiple layers offers diminishing returns as each further layer is added. For small high wiring density PCBs approximately four layers supporting blind vias can give excellent support for the use of high I/O (Input/Output) density packages.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 25-29 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper focuses on the comparative study on reliability performance of various surface coatings. Only brief descriptions of coating processes, material physical properties, costs, and their applications are given.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best options in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pd finishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas which is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessary to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that include thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders are discussed.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper examines the make-up of the subcontract printed circuit board industry in the UK and identifies the geographical location of manufacturing sites together with the number of employees at these sites. It describes both the subcontract board-producing and assembly sectors. The maps show the position and size of the sites, and these together with a histogram showing the frequency of ranges of employee numbers, provide an understanding of the structure of the industry. Higher density areas which have a greater incidence of PCB manufacturing activity are identified and compared. It is also shown that there is little consistent relationship between the positions of the major system providers and the PCB subcontract industry sites. Concern is expressed about the ability of the many smaller companies to compete in the supply of emerging assembly and substrate technologies.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The strain-based flex fatigue of 18 µm thick copper foil is evaluated over a wide range of strain amplitudes. Seven electrodeposited foils, four commercial grades and three experimental foils, and a commercial grade rolled foil are characterized. The fatigue life versus cyclic strain amplitude curve in the high strain amplitude (low cycle) and low strain amplitude (high cycle) regimes is developed for each foil. On the basis of fatigue life (Nf) and fatigue ductility (Df), the low cycle fatigue performance of eight foils is ranked. Universal correlations of Nf and Df with the uniaxial tensile strength are established. Two electrodeposited foils, experimental foil DF 8 in the high strain amplitude regime and commercial foil DF 9 in the low strain amplitude regime, have been shown to display fatigue performance comparable to that of the commercial rolled GR 8 foil.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 30-37 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A novel tin electrodeposition chemistry and process has been developed at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, New Jersey, USA. This process produces smooth, satin bright tin deposits which have stable, large grain structures. The deposits contain very low organic content and, as a consequence, exhibit excellent ductility, solderability and reflowability. The chemistry is capable of operating at elevated temperatures over a wide range of current densities, and is, thus, applicable to rack, barrel and reel-to-reel operations. All chemical components, including breakdown products are fully analyzable with conventional analytical methods. Extensive bath life studies show that the deposit appearance and material properties, including grain structures, are stable in relation to the age of the electroplating chemistry. In addition, the grain refiners used are highly stable, and have few breakdown products as the chemistry ages. All these features imply a robust process which has been confirmed in various manufacturing environments. This tin electroplating process has been utilized in plating coatings for connectors, solder bumps, PWBs and components for semiconductor applications.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper extends our study of the sequential electrochemical reduction analysis (SERA) technique for evaluation of various alternative finishes and it discusses the application of the SERA technique to assess the surface conditions of the silver finish. The tarnishing products of the silver formed under ambient and artificially created conditions were analyzed, the protective effect of an anti- tarnishing film was evaluated, and the influence of the elevated temperatures (reflow) on the stability of the organic inhibitor and the formation of the tarnishing film will be shown.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Polymer thick film (PTF) technology provides the lowest cost, cleanest and most efficient manufacturing method for producing flexible circuits. Non-contact radio frequency (RF) smart cards and related information transaction devices, such as RFID tags, appear to be a good fit for PTF-flex. Flip chip also seems well suited for these "contactless" RF transceiver products. Flip chip and PTF adhesive technologies are highly compatible and synergistic. All PTF SMT adhesives assembly methods are viable for flip chip. However, the merging of flip chip with PTF-flex presents major challenges in design, materials and processing. This paper will compare assembly methods and discuss obstacles and solutions for state-of-the-art flip chip on flex within the RFID product environment.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 6-10 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: "A patterned arrangement of printed wiring utilizing flexible base material with or without flexible coverlayers". The balance of this brief article will hopefully serve to help the reader understand this remarkable interconnection technology and appreciate just how widely the technology can be applied.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 18-26 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Multi-layer surface finish, from the bottom to top, of electroless Ni, electroless Pd, and immersion Au (Ni/Pd/Au) have been introduced in the printed circuit board (PCB) industry recently. This paper reports an evaluation of this surface finish from the perspective of solder joint attachment reliability, especially to see if the Ni/Pd/Au could be immune from the brittle interfacial fracture of PBGA on electroless Ni/immersion Au, recently observed and reported by us. PCBs with Ni/Pd/Au finishes, made from two vendors with varied Pd layer thickness were attached with PBGA packages, and tested in four-point bending. When joint strength is strong, bending tests resulted in peeling off the PCB pads; otherwise, brittle fractures occurred at the interface between solder balls and PCB pads. After aging, solder joints on all Ni/Pd/Au and reference metal finishes failed by the same brittle fracture at the interface between Ni-Sn and Au-Sn intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that the interfacial fracture was controlled by something other than the Pd, and the existence of the Pd did not prevent the interfacial fracture. Also, the presence of Pd could not prevent the Au migration and subsequent fracture.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Studies immersion gold over electroless nickel, immersion gold over electroless palladium, immersion gold over electroless palladium over electroless nickel, immersion gold over immersion silver and immersion silver. In the palladium finishes, two palladium thicknesses were evaluated: 10-12µin. and 18-20µin. Multiple plating chemistry suppliers provided plated test vehicles. HASL and OSP test vehicles were included as control samples. In total, 14 finishes were evaluated in the test matrix. The test vehicle was a daisy chain of zero ohm 1,206 chip resistors that could be monitored individually. Test vehicles were assembled using 63Sn/37Pb eutectic solder paste on an automated assembly line. The thermal cycle range was -40°C to 125°C with 30-minute transition times and 15 minutes at each extreme in a single chamber air system. For each test matrix cell, 120 zero ohm resistors (40 from three boards) were continuously monitored for electrical failure (〉100ohms). In addition, resistors were sheared from test vehicles and the shear force at failure was recorded. A decrease in shear force did occur with thermal cycling due to crack initiation and growth in the solder joints. Solder joint cracks have also been examined.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 35-40 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper explores the capability of electroless copper deposition plus acid copper electroplating to metallize high aspect ratio microvias.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Ball grid array (BGA) component packages challenge the circuit board design with signal routing and layout, creating in some cases extra board layers and added vias all resulting in increased costs for the printed circuit board (PCB). As component densities increase and microBGA (µBGA) and other fine pitch components become more common, microvia-in-pad technology will ease the transition to these fine pitch components. This paper presents and profiles a cost-effective solution to interconnecting BGAs on PCBs using laser drilled blind vias connecting the outer three or more layers of a multilayer circuit board. Following a discussion on the design advantages, a comprehensive outline of the PCB fabrication process explores a new procedure for the rapid production of via-in-pad multi-depth blind via laser drilling.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A family of cavity-down plastic ball grid array (PBGA) packages have been designed by split via connection (SVC) and split wrap around (SWA) methods. Because of the special designs, these packages consist of a single core of organic material and two-metal layers of copper and are manufactured with the conventional printed circuit board (PCB) process at very low cost. The electrical performances of the packages are studied by both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Parasitic parameters are extracted from time domain reflectometer (TDR) and time domain transmission (TDT) measurements. Cross-talk and simultaneous switch output (SSO) noise of the packages are also investigated.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 25 (1999), S. 18-22 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: While the interest in alternative metalization processes for the manufacturing of printed wiring boards is extremely keen, the long-term reliability of plated through holes fabricated with these electroless copper alternatives remains in question. However, during the last three years, significant process improvements have been made in the direct metalization process based on a patented dispersion of graphite. This paper will describe the technology in detail and present data on the reliability and versatility of the graphite based direct metalization process.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 26 (1999), S. 1199-1226 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: A human life seems to have infinite value, and morality appears to demand that no effort be spared to preserve or to maintain it. Yet health care costs could destroy the economy if all available knowledge was applied to every person on the globe. There is no guaranteed solution, but this paper argues that we must look closely at the concepts of life and the person and understand the distinctions between the person as he or she really is (the "ontological person" in philosophical terms), the social person (the person who appears in the lives of others), and the psychological person (ourselves as we appear in our inner lives). If we are clear we can make decisions about how to pay for health care and how to manage it which will tend to keep costs under control and still respond to the dignity and worth of individuals touched by infinity.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper presents an alternative approach to urban development which emphasizes broad based citizen participation in identifying neighbourhood needs and skills as the basis for neighbourhood based development. Process and results of a survey of 444 urban households in Schenectady, New York, affirm the role resident participation can play in identifying development strategies which support social connections, despite existing communication and institutional barriers.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper analyzes and explains the dynamics of corporate evolution in the context of anthropologist conception of culture. The multinational corporate characterizing the Galbraithian world, as The New Industrial State, dominates the current economic landscape. The conception of corporate culture and its dynamics lays bare the locus of corporate power which resides in the control of corporate technology. Granting this dynamic, the question then arises concerning the agency which controls the application and use of this cumulated corporate power. Corporate power and policy in the USA are currently directed by a social institution in the form of profits without social responsibility. This policy is manifest in a "low road" of cost reduction. Such a policy direction exacerbates rather than ameliorates the current economic malaise now characterizing the US economy.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Argues that none of the basic problems in the science of economics and finance have been properly solved. Discusses the basic problems in theory and practice, in particular with the monetary system. Adds much to the teachings of Smith, Marx, Walras and Keynes and is even critical of Friedman. Proposes a "Third revolution in economic thinking", where problems are studied in terms of a simultaneous synthesis between modern, pure empirical and classical, pure analytical economics.
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  • 31
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    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 26 (1999), S. 1285-1301 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This article explores the hypothesis of Clifford Geertz concerning the importance of essentialism (culture) and epochalism (economics) in the creation of new states. It focuses on the Irish state-building process, examining the thought of the two leaders of the 1916 rising. It finds that Patrick Pearse throughout stressed cultural revitalization and James Connolly stressed economic/social transformation. The article lends support to Geertz's hypothesis but notes that each leader also came to appreciate the primary concern of the other.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The British National Health Service (NHS) has experienced various phases of reform and reorganisation during the last 15 years. During this time it has been suggested that the role of the patient is analogous to that of the consumer. Meanwhile there has been increasing application of the techniques of health economics. This paper examines the rationale for these developments, placing them in wide historial context, and arguing that far from being a passive consumer of pre-packed healthcare, patients ought to be considered as partners in a continuing process of inquiry, in accordance with John Dewey's philosophy of instrumentalism. As a result it is argued that the present commodification of healthcare in the UK should be halted, in order to preserve and build on the achievements of the NHS.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Although the Cold War is over, the dangers of international armed conflict remain. Multinational talks about restricting the arms trade stalled in 1992. If they resume, what should the British attitude be towards participation in a multilateral agreement to limit arms exports when such exports apparently make a significant contribution to the UK economy? Sensible public debates and choices need information on the likely economic impacts of alternative scenarios. This paper examines the likely effects of a one-third reduction in the value of UK arms exports. It finds that between 13,333 and 40,000 jobs would be lost and that of those that remain in the labour force over half will find new work within a year. The South-West would be the worst affected region losing 0.3 per cent of all jobs; defence sales would be cut by between 3 and 8 per cent; aerospace output would be cut by between 5 and 9 per cent , and total exports would fall by 0.5 per cent. There would be initial adverse effects but, over time, resources would be re-allocated to other industries and regions.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Tsuda Hiromichi is a most representative shishi (noble-minded patriot) of the Meiji Restoration Era. He came from a middle class warrior family of Okayama han. Trained first in Confucianism and later in Western technologies, he was appointed to new high positions in the military and civil services for the Han to cope with changing situations. He was selected as one of the 18 to be despatched by the Meiji Restoration Government for the first round-the-world observation tour for one year from 1871 to 1872. On his return, he repaid the balance of travel expenses, which became the foundation of the Ikeda Scholarship. Before long, he was installed as a high official of the Meiji Restoration Government. After the services there, he came back to hometown Okayama to develop enterprises for employing ex-samurai. An examination of Tsuda's career will reveal the following as most significant roles played by middle class warriors; work ethics and the tradition of thrift maintained firmly by samurai élites; the feudal system's flexibility in the later half of the 19th century which allowed their foresight and claims to be satisfied.
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  • 35
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 1136-1160 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Analyses the influence of the use of Spanish and of regional languages in consumers and homes of five bilingual regions of Spain: Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia and Valencia. After eliminating the effects of social class and of habitat, a fair number of significant differences have been found between speakers of Castilian (i.e. Spanish), bilinguals and speakers of their own vernacular language, in very varied areas: food, drinks, home cleaning products, financial services, cosmetics and personal hygiene products, shopping stores, reading of newspapers, supplements and magazines, home equipping and makes of car. Language has revealed itself as a good criterion for segmentation in various sectors and regions in order to reach each linguistic group more efficiently.
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  • 36
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Reports a study that analyses the sources of meaning for kayak sport amongst its consumers. Key aspects of hedonic consumption are discussed, along with its relevance for other areas of consumption. Extant research in adventure sports, from which the survey instrument is derived, is discussed and the issues that it raises are highlighted. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of meaning of consumption. Explanation of these factors endorses and extends the extant theory developed through qualitative research.
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  • 37
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 291-313 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Zajonc's mere exposure hypothesis plus a variant of the Ross false consensus theorem were tested on samples of UK football (soccer) supporters categorised according to their frequency of attendance at three London football grounds. Spectator recall of sponsors' and other advertising business's posters (billboards) around the perimeters of playing pitches was measured and the level of false consensus (i.e. belief that team sponsors' brands are purchased by far higher proportions of, first, fellow supporters and, second, members of the general public than is actually the case) was assessed. Substantial mere exposure and false consensus effects were noted.
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  • 38
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 163-195 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Reviews the literature on consumer-perceived risk over the past 30 years. The review begins by establishing perceived risk's relationship with related marketing constructs such as involvement and trust. It then tackles some debates within the literature, concerning subjective and objective risk and differences between the concepts of risk and uncertainty. It describes how different models have been devised and operationalised to measure risk and how these have developed over the years. Aims to identify and report the theoretical and model developments over the past 30 years and to propose criteria which researchers can use in deciding the most useful model for their own research. The criteria are: understanding, prediction, suitability for reliability and validity assessment, practicality and usability. It is suggested that the basic two-component model is still the most generally useful for researchers and practitioners alike.
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  • 39
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 250-272 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Presents the results of an analysis of 28 national and multi-national Canadian firms that had been involved in sport sponsorships at the national or international levels. Detailed interviews were conducted with senior marketing personnel in each company to determine how sponsorships were created and managed. Suggests that those firms which were successful had, either knowingly or fortuitously, developed their sponsorship into a distinctive competence and made it an intrinsic part of the overall marketing and communications mix. By contrast, those that were unsuccessful entered into sponsorship agreements on a more piecemeal basis with little thought of building a coherent marketing image.
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  • 40
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: While an abundance of research exists on the topic of professional sport marketing, little, if any, has been directed toward identifying predictors of franchise marketing success or, perhaps more importantly, measuring excellence within this organizational unit. Therefore, the fundamental purpose of this investigation was to identify key indicators for success or excellence as defined by Peters and Waterman within marketing divisions of American professional sport franchises. The results have enabled the authors to develop a paradigm with which to assess strengths and weaknesses of various dimensions within a professional sport franchise's marketing operations. These findings have profound implications for team management as not all franchises are fortunate enough to produce winning team records and thus are challenged to explore other options for achieving marketing excellence.
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  • 41
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Sports events are a prime place-based medium for promoting a company's brands. This study investigates the demographics, brand recall, and brand preference of spectators at the Ryder golf and Lipton tennis tournaments. The demographic profile of spectators can be valuable information to brand advertisers. The demographics of the spectators at the two tournaments were similar in important respects, although there were (face valid) differences where these might be anticipated. The study indicates that there are differences between spectators' recall of, and preference for, brands sponsoring both the golf and tennis events, or just one of them. The overall correlations between brand recall and brand preference were significantly high in all instances. Implications of similarities and differences between recall and preference with respect to particular brands are discussed.
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  • 42
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 450-474 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Among the range of strategies available to a company, line extensions are an important way to keep a brand alive and to realize incremental financial growth. In order to be successful at introducing new extensions managers should understand line extensions' key success factors. In this study three market-related factors' impact on line extension success were investigated, i.e. the level of competition in the market place; retailer power; and consumers' variety seeking behavior. Data collected from 49 marketing and product managers in the fast-moving consumer goods industry showed that line extensions have very little added value over existing products, and that cannibalization is very much related to a line extension's success. Of all line extensions, those involving new flavors and new packaging/sizes were most successful. Extensions that improved product quality were found to be unsuccessful. The market-variables: level of competition; retailer power; and variety seeking behavior all had a negative influence on line extension success. Dominant brands were hurt more by variety seeking behavior's negative impact than less dominant brands.
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  • 43
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Japan has the world's second largest food service sector and its food market is three times greater than all other Asian food markets combined. Thus, exports of fresh fruit to Japan have potential for growth, but little research has been done about Japanese fresh fruit markets. Examines exports of fresh fruit from Australia to Japan, using fresh mangoes as a case study to explore the issues involved. A literature review of the fresh fruit market in Japan and Japanese consumer preferences for fruit formulates three research issues: (1) How do Japanese consumers view the taste and other characteristics of a new and foreign fruit such as mangoes?; (2) What are the factors affecting the popularisation of new and foreign fruit such as mangoes, in Japan?; (3) What are the possible bases for segmentation of the market for new and foreign fruit such as mangoes, in Japan? Next, the focus group methodology used to explore these issues is described and justified. Findings about each of the issues are compared with theory, and a model of fresh fruit opportunities in Japan is developed. Finally, implications for management about the promotion of a fresh fruit like mangoes are addressed and implications for further research are noted.
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  • 44
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Public events, nearly pure forms of functional alliance, are examined. Because of their status as infrequent service occasions, public events offer opportunities to apply network analysis to prototypical virtual corporations. With two specific case histories from auto racing at hand, the authors consider how such public event networks illustrate current theory on network identity, network-specific skills, network environment, and dynamic networks. Moreover, some extension is possible in terms of describing the unique exchange relationships found in events and defining the different types of network relationships.
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  • 45
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Professional sports have emerged as a lucrative business, with many opportunities for sports marketers to flourish. As this paper will show, professional sports teams unite to produce a league product that, while initially is produced to provide entertainment for spectators, is now sold to four distinct groups: first, fans who support leagues by attending games, following games on television and other media, and purchasing league- and team-related merchandise; second, television and other media companies which purchase the right to show games as a programming option; third, communities which build facilities and support local clubs; and fourth, corporations which support leagues and clubs by increasing gate moneys, purchasing teams outright, or providing revenues through sponsorships or other associations. As a result, professional sports leagues provide a unique environment for marketing decisions and processes to occur, in a number of markets and at a number of levels, and should continue to be a growing segment within the broader, global, entertainment industry.
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  • 46
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 844-858 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Selects European business air travel as an example of a market that displays both industrial and consumer characteristics, and subsequently defines it as having a hybrid nature. Adopts a stakeholder approach to overcome the problems of the identification and analytical complexity associated with the decision-making unit in this hybrid market. Collects data on three stakeholder groupings in a survey of 827 business travellers. Identifies the nature of the decision-making process and the influence that each of the stakeholder groupings has in the purchase decision. Indicates that marketing strategies in the business air travel market could prove more successful through addressing multiple stakeholder groups involved in the purchase decision process. Suggests that the stakeholder model may provide a practical research approach to other hybrid markets where the DMU approach is difficult, particularly where there are many purchasing units.
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  • 47
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 874-895 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Recognises that whilst an abundance of research has been conducted into solicitors' marketing, other players in the legal industry have been ignored or overlooked. Suggests that what is clearly lacking is a holistic analysis of legal-market dynamics. Attempts to provide a clearer and more accurate understanding of the relationships within the legal industry. Investigates the role of relationships in facilitating exchange, elucidates how these relationships are developed, and identifies key relationship characteristics. Overviews the legal industry and discusses the rationale for utilising a relational perspective. Presents and analyses evidence generated from interviews with barristers, solicitors, barristers' clerks and clients. Culminates with a discussion of findings, implications and directions for future research.
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  • 48
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Reports the results of an experimental study that examines the impact of different strategies of product placement on consumer reactions in the context of television sponsorship. Four factors were manipulated: type of placement, sponsor's image, type of television program and sponsor-program congruity. Uses a factorial design comprising these four factors, which was operationalised by means of 12 brief written vignettes. Indicates that strategies of product placement impact differently on consumers' evaluative and ethical judgements and that their effects interact with the type of television program. Suggests that evaluations of product placement are most negative in the context of mini-series/drama television programs. Furthermore, product placements that play a passive role and are not clearly expressed within the program are generally perceived as less ethical, especially when they appear in information/services magazines. Also determines that sponsor-program congruity leads to better ethical and evaluative consumer reactions for all types of television program considered except mini-series/dramas. Implications for research and practice are derived from these results.
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  • 49
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 926-944 
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Internal marketing has been of interest to practitioners and academics, in marketing and other disciplines of management, for some years, and published papers focus on definitions, the role of internal marketing in organisations, and various empirical investigations. Discusses the elements of a broadened concept on internal marketing, which emerges from: a systematic review and examination of the existing literature; case study material; "expert" opinion from leading academics; and interviews with managers.
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    European journal of marketing 33 (1999), S. 911-925 
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Examines how perceived product safety may be affected by such product-related factors as price, brand name, store name, promotion channels, source credibility, country of origin, nature of product testing authority and warranty. Shows that perceived product safety was significantly affected by all of the variables mentioned above. Implies that, by carefully manipulating these variables in formulating marketing strategies, managers can attract the large and growing market of safety-conscious consumers and gain a competitive edge that cannot possibly be ignored.
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  • 51
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Examines the impact of manager and salesforce antecedents on sales organization effectiveness, using a sample of 146 Australian sales units. Indicates that sales manager monitoring, directing, evaluating and rewarding activities distinguish between high and low sales unit profitability and managers' satisfaction with their units. Suggests that sales territory design displays significant differences between high and low sales/market share and unit satisfaction. Discovers that several salesperson characteristics and performance were significantly different between high and low customer satisfaction effectiveness and managers' satisfaction with sales units. Highlights significant antecedent roles for sales manager and salesforce antecedents of sales organization effectiveness.
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  • 52
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    Journal of European industrial training 23 (1999), S. 416-436 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Appraises the scope for cost- effective government intervention into the mobilization of resources for training, examining measures catalytic in nature as well as direct interventions. Asserts that economic recession and shrinking government revenues have led to a reconsideration of the role played by the state in training provision and to a growing acknowledgement and appreciation of the role of the private sector. Suggests that although the documentation is incomplete, the government is, and has always been, the junior partner. Discusses how training is financed by the private sector. Analyses situations where privately financed training provision may be sub-optimal in scale and where there are grounds for government intervention. Addresses the issues of how best to provide financial incentives and mobilize the resources required for financial intervention.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0309-0590
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Proposes that a crucial component of the career development process is what is termed "managerial self-awareness" (MSA). To-date relatively little has been written about self-awareness, particularly in the literature on managerial career development. Specifically explores the concept of self-awareness in the context of managerial career development. The importance of self-awareness in the managerial career development processes is examined and the relationship between self-awareness and managerial success is also considered. The findings of a qualitative study conducted to investigate the effectiveness of two instruments used to enhance self-awareness are reported. One of the characteristics of effective managerial career development is the creation of self-awareness in the learner. 360-degree feedback and personality inventories are considered useful tools in this respect.
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  • 54
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 84-94 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: This paper describes an efficient reduced-order method for the analysis of cylindrical dielectric resonators with an inhomogeneous dielectric medium. The field equations are formulated using the Laplace-domain finite element method and are reduced to lower-order models using the complex frequency hopping (CFH) technique. CFH is a moment matching technique which has been used successfully in the circuit simulation area for the solution of a large set of ordinary differential equations. The proposed technique is faster than the conventional approach by one to three orders of magnitude. The results are compared with those of other numerical methods available in the literature.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 103-119 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: There are two conflicting views about electromagnetic phenomena. The first is based on the action between stationary and moving particles of electric charge and the second on energy distributions in electric and magnetic fields. The difference between these approaches is seen most clearly in the roles assigned to the potentials. According to the particle view the potentials convey the force from one particle to another, whereas in the field approach the potentials are system parameters related to the field energy. The article compares the two views and concludes that the particle view faces impossible difficulties because it ascribes local significance to quantities which are unobservable and conflicts with the quantum-mechanical understanding of charge as a statistical distribution.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 132-142 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: For each natural n let Fn denote the collection of mappings of Rn onto itself defined by: F ?Fn if and only if there exist n strictly monotone increasing functions fk mapping R onto itself such that for each x =[x1, ..., xn]T ? Rn, F(x) = [f1(x1), ..., fn(xn)]T. The following new property of the class P0 of matices is proved: a real n × n matrix A belongs to P0 if and only if for every G, H ? Fn the set S0 = { x ? Rn : - G(x) =Ax = - H(x) } is bounded. As an illustration of this property a method of estimating the unique solution of the nonlinear equation F(x) + A(x) =b describing the large class of DC transistor circuits is developed. This can improve the efficiency of known computation algorithms. Numerical examples of transistor circuits illustrate in detail how the method works in practice.
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  • 57
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper a prototype actuator designed for a high bandwidth servo system is modeled and analyzed using finite elements. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of frequencies below 10kHz are extracted using frequency analysis and compared with the results from an experimental model analysis. The effects of key parameters used in the analysis on the natural frequencies are investigated. The frequency response is calculated using the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The calculated frequency response is compared with experimental results. The comparison of results shows that the numerical results are accurate. From the analysis the mechanical dynamics of the actuator can be understood and characterized. The analysis of the actuator shows that dynamic analysis using finite element modeling is accurate and effective and can be applied to other mechatronic systems.
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  • 58
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Electrical potentials in a junction field transistor can be calculated using a simplified model based on a complete depletion assumption. This gives rise to a free boundary problem. We show here how we can approximate this problem with a quasi-variational inequality technique and the shape optimization method. A detailed analysis of these methods is presented. Using some numerical experiments we compare our results with the solution of the discrete drift-diffusion system, accomplished with a Gummel-like algorithm. The numerical results suggest that the methods proposed here work successfully and that the shape optimization technique provides a reasonably free boundary without excessive iterations.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 187-203 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Computer simulations were done extensively in order to study non-linear dynamics of laser-plasma interaction in InSb semiconductor. We constructed the modified Duffing kind of non-linear semiconductor plasma oscillator equation. Collision frequency is found to be dominant parameter to influence the bifurcation, chaos, hysteresis and bistable effects of plasma wave. Small windows of higher period cascade above the critical value of laser parameter (a1a2) in the chaos region are observed. Laser-plasma exhibits too much chaotic regime at lower value of laser driving frequency (d). Hysteresis and bistable regions of plasma wave are presented and the conditions for their occurence are identified. The unstable regions completely merge at higher value of effective collision frequency (?).
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 175-186 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: We introduce the drift-diffusion model with appropriate jump conditions at the junction of the MODFET transistor (AlGaAs/GaAs). We propose a quasi-variational inequality (QVI) model for this device. We assume that the electron density is bounded and piecewise constant. These hypotheses imply that the Poisson's equation becomes linear with respect to the electrostatic potential. The QVI model keeps a coupling with the continuity equation. Free boundaries arise in the medium AlGaAs near the Schottky-gate contact and in the high mobility medium (GaAs) under the effect of the electron affinity discontinuity at the junction. Numerical results of the QVI model show their location versus the applied gate voltage V/up〉 and the molar fraction X of the AlXGa(1-X)As medium. The inequality seems to be a reasonable simplification of the non-linear Poisson's equation.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 204-214 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper an outline of the development of methods for the analysis of non-linear circuits is presented. Non-inert and inert elements have been discerned and an inertia measure has been proposed. For this purpose, an exponential function with time constant T equal to TR, TL, or TC is formulated for an element of type R, L, or C, respectively. In circuits with the imposed cause, which varies sinusoidally in time with period Te, the following situations are distinguished and considered: Te » T; Te « T; and Te ˜ T. In the first case, the effect changes in time according to the non-linear characteristic of the element. In the second case, the respective circuit is referred to as the "quasi-linear", because for the sinusoidal cause the effect is also sinusoidal. In the third case, the hysteresis occurs and the effect is a two-valued function. The hysteresis effect occurs also in resistive elements.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 215-224 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: The paper presents an extension to previous work on modelling AC losses in high-temperature superconducting tapes as a highly non-linear diffusion process. Following successful formulation for a bulk superconductor the presence of silver in a tape has now been included, using a "sandwich" model, to represent more realistically the practical arrangement. The results of the extended 1-D model are included and a new 2-D scheme is described using finite difference formulation. Effects of non-linearity are emphasised.
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Ventricular surface activation time maps are estimated from simulated and measured body surface potential (BSP) maps and extra-corporal magnetic field maps. In a first step the transfer matrix, relating the primary cardiac sources to the measured potential and/or magnetic field data, is calculated applying the boundary element method. Activation times are determined by minimizing a cost function which is based on this transfer matrix. This optimization method is solved by a quasi Newton method. The critical point theorem is used in order to estimate the starting column matrix.
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: A boundary element method in terms of the field variables is applied to three-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problems. Especially, the influence of a dipole excited field on low conducting materials situated very close to the antenna will be discussed. We use higher order edge elements of quadilateral shape for the field approximation on curved surfaces. The tangential components of the unknown field variables are interpolated by vector element functions. The Galerkin method is implemented to obtain a set of linear equations. The applicability of the proposed edge element is investigated by the comparison of different BEM-formulations and FEM-results.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 372-384 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: This paper deals with the inverse scattering problem of reconstructing the material properties of perfectly conducting or dielectric cylindrical objects. The material properties are reconstructed from measured far-field scattering data provided by the Electromagnetics Technology Division, AFRL/SNH, 31 Grenier Street, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-3010. The measured data have to be calibrated for use in our reconstruction algorithm. The inverse scattering problem formulated as unconstrained nonlinear optimization problem is numerically solved using an iterative scheme with a variable calibration factor which will be determined during the optimization process. Numerical examples show the successful application of the method to the measured data.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 385-398 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Two sets of dual magnetodynamic and magnetostatic finite element formulations taking thin conducting magnetic shells into account are proposed. The abstraction of the thin region from the computational domain is performed by an appropriate treatment of the surface integral terms arising in the weak formulations. Results are presented for two three-dimensional test-problems.
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 398-409 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper, a hybrid formulation for solving time harmonic eddy current problems in terms of magnetic field h is considered. In particular, we discuss some properties of the implicit boundary condition on the discrete level and the computation of the integral operator exploited in this context. An iterative technique is confirmed to be efficient in solving the arising, partly dense, complex linear system of equations. Furthermore, some test results, including timings for linear solvers are presented.
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    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: The calculation of magnetic shielding with ferromagnetic material by an effective reluctivity method and a time step method based on the finite element calculation is investigated. The calculation results of both methods are compared with measurement results and with each other in order to check their reliability and accuracy. It turns out that both methods give similar results for the field inside the shielding material, whereas in the surrounding air the effective reluctivity method gives more accurate results than the present time step method.
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  • 69
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Compel 18 (1999), S. 422-435 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper a method is presented for an efficient solution of the direct problem (find the scattered field for a given thin crack and driving field) in the time domain. This is a fundamental step in any non destructive evaluation problem. Two different approaches, one in the time domain and the other based on Fourier analysis, are used and compared with reference to a configuration for which some experimental results are available. The advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches are briefly discussed.
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  • 70
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 445-457 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: A fast dynamic hysteresis model is constructed based on the classical Preisach model and a differential equation which delays its input with respect to the actual value to encompass dynamic effects such as eddy currents and domain wall displacement. It is applied to describe the magnetic behaviour of both grain oriented and nonoriented electrical steel sheets. The results of numerical simulations are compared to experiment and power loss prediction is performed.
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  • 71
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Compel 18 (1999), S. 436-444 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Fluxset type eddy current probes are used for detecting discontinuities in conducting materials. The measurements obtained by such probes can be used for the reconstruction of the parameters of the detected discontinuity if the output signal of the measurement is uniquely related to the measured field. In this paper a calibration method is presented for the establishment of the relation between the measured magnetic field and the output signal of the probe. The relation is obtained by the optimisation of the parameters of the mapping between the calculated magnetic field distribution and the measured output signal. The magnetic field distribution due to the interaction of the probe and an infinitesimally thin crack located in a conducting plate is calculated numerically by the solution of a boundary integral equation.
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  • 72
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    Compel 18 (1999), S. 77-83 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: The divergence equations in Maxwell's theory are Gauss law and the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist; from this point of view these two equations are fundamental. However, from a practical point of view, it is generally believed that Maxwell's divergence equations are redundant and may be ignored provided that they are satisfied at some time t-0. It has been proved recently that this idea is not correct for boundary-initial value problems. To make mathematical arguments more accessible, we analyse here the role of the divergence equations in the framework of 2D-electromagnetism.
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  • 73
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Short computation times required for the design and numerical optimisation of electromagnetic devices with the finite element method are obtained using an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm. Less time is spent on the initial mesh generation, while the time needed for refinement is negligible when special data structures are used. But an even more significant reduction in total computation time is achieved with the initialisation of the solution on the generated mesh. Fewer Newton steps are required to solve non-linear problems compared to a zero initial solution, while the time needed for the projection of the solution is far less than the time needed for a Newton step.
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  • 74
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Suggests that the arousability theory of intelligence and personality of Robinson (1996) lacks two important factors: the influence of neural transmission errors and of hemisphericity on intelligence and personality. It is considered that at least two factors contribute to intelligence. The first factor is the potential energetic level of Hebb's engrams, which may be related to arousability. The second factor is the probability of neural transmission errors. It is suggested that the theory of H.J. Eysenck, that a neural message is sent repeatedly until it is accepted identically a certain number of times, which is smaller for more intelligent subjects, is correct.
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  • 75
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    Kybernetes 28 (1999), S. 726-731 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: A neural network approach is proposed for modeling the process of transcriptional initiation control in eukaryotic cells. Although all of the steps involved in expressing a eukaryotic gene can in principle be regulated, for most genes the initiation of RNA transcription (transcriptional control) predominates. Static and dynamic artificial neural networks are taken as modeling methods. A single-hidden layer feedforward neural network model learns to identify the transcriptional system input-output relationship.
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  • 76
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: In this paper we try to assess how a weighted shares index and corresponding futures index respond to a change in the short-term interest rate. Three methods are applied in analysing the data: an error correction regression method, a state space method and a neural network method. Results indicate presence of cointegration in the data set. A sensitivity analysis of each model was carried out by studying the evolution of the predictions after the studied time period, using deterministic values of the inputs. An analysis of the influence of an interest rate shock yielded interesting results. In the neural network model, again, more complicated response patterns were observed.
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  • 77
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    Kybernetes 28 (1999), S. 753-762 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: In this work, which is purely argumentative, the author has made an attempt to apply a system approach to explain a phenomenon of biological structures in the universe. The suggested approach leads to a hypothesis of the physical function of the Earth's ecosystem biota as a participant to a large-scale non-linear dynamic process which is the universe itself within the frames of the thermodynamics of the non-equilibrium systems. The hypothesis is substantiated by the anthropic argumentation of cosmology but implemented through finding system links in conceptualizations and data of other sciences. The consequence of this hypothesis can facilitate the development of a general principle of the global ecology strategy.
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  • 78
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    Kybernetes 28 (1999), S. 792-809 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: A principal problem of information systems (IS) development today is how to integrate the work activity and social context of users into the IS which is being designed. This paper aims to delineate a sociocybernetic approach which enlightens the relationship between IS design activity, use activity, and the embedded social context. First and second order cybernetics are employed as a general skeleton or structure for conducting the sociocybernetic approach. Approaches from social autopoiesis theory and activity theory are introduced respectively to provide the skeleton of cybernetics with flesh and blood elements of real problems. An emerging conceptual body resulting from an organic integration of the cybernetic structure and social-psychological elements which demonstrates the relationship between IS design activity, use activity, and embedded social context is presented.
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  • 79
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    Kybernetes 28 (1999), S. 821-825 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Discusses the need for knowledge management and its required composite. Presents three areas of knowledge management that are regarded as of essential understanding. Considers a knowledge management model that includes an emphasis on information in contrast to the traditional one. Studies the relationship between knowledge management, autopoiesis and apoptosis. Sees both autopoiesis and apoptosis as two of the most important agents in heightening the plateau of knowledge management and its systems.
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