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• 1
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Elsevier
In:  Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 143 . pp. 70-84.
Publication Date: 2019-01-28
Description: Highlights • next to organic matter degradation, bioirrigation and bottom water percolation through permeable surface sediments enhances benthic TPO43- and Fe2+ release • changes in bottom water oxygenation induce slight changes benthic TPO43- and Fe2+ release rates measured in 2011 and 2014 • deoxygenation experiments imply enhanced TPO43- and Fe2+ release at ongoing deoxygenation in the Mauritanian OMZ Abstract Benthic fluxes of total dissolved phosphate (TPO43-), dissolved iron (Fe2+), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined in situ using benthic chambers at nine stations along a depth transect between 47 and 1108 m water depth at 18 °N off Mauritania (NW Africa) during the upwelling season in 2014 (RV Meteor cruise M107). Bottom water oxygen (O2) concentrations were always ≥ 25 µM, and all fluxes (TPO43-, Fe2+, DIC) were consistently directed from the sediments into the bottom water. The highest benthic TPO43- release of 0.2 ± 0.07 mmol m2 d-1 was found at 47 m water depth (50 µM O2). The highest diffusive Fe2+ flux of 0.03 mmol m2 d-1, determined from porewater Fe2+ concentrations, occurred at 67 m water depth (27 µM O2). This was much lower than the detrital Fe supply as indicated by constant Fe/Al ratios along the depth transect. TPO43- release rates decreased concurrently with DIC flux and water depth. A difference of up to one order of magnitude between benthic chamber and diffusive TPO43- fluxes indicated that the total TPO43- release was strongly enhanced by bioirrigation. The observed fluxes were similar to those measured during an earlier cruise in 2011, generally indicating comparable release rates during both upwelling seasons. Furthermore, ex situ oxygen manipulation experiments showed an increase of the nutrient release (e.g. TPO43-, Fe2+) after seven days of anoxic bottom water conditions. The fluxes were enhanced by a factor of 1.4 for P and 7.3 for Fe compared to the measured release under natural conditions and reached values as high as those measured in the anoxic oxygen minimum zone off Peru. Our observations support the hypothesis that increasing deoxygenation of the oceans will likely enhance sedimentary TPO43- and Fe2+ release and thus contribute to a positive feedback mechanism with increasing nutrient levels and increased ocean productivity.
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• 2
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Elsevier
In:  In: Encyclopedia of Ecology. , ed. by Fath, B. D. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 108-115. 2. ed. ISBN 978-0-444-63768-0
Publication Date: 2018-10-16
Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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• 3
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Elsevier
In:  Gondwana Research, 65 . pp. 31-42.
Publication Date: 2018-10-23
Description: Highlights • New 40Ar/39Ar dates from SW Pacific and Zealandia igneous rocks form the basis of a revised tectonic model. • Intraplate lavas erupted onto continental, LIP and oceanic crust from 99 to 78 Ma. • Spreading ridges and transforms adjusted themselves around a collided Hikurangi Plateau. • Kinematically stable Pacific-Antarctic spreading became established from c. 84 Ma. • Osbourn Trough Sea floor spreading possibly ceased at c. 79 Ma. Abstract New 40Ar/39Ar ages of igneous rocks clarify the nature, timing and rates of movement of the oceanic Pacific, Phoenix, Farallon and Hikurangi plates against Gondwana and Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous. With some qualifications, cessation of spreading at the Osbourn Trough is dated c. 79 Ma, i.e. 30–20 m.y. later than 110–100 Ma Hikurangi Plateau-Gondwana collision. Oceanic crust of pre-84 Ma is confirmed to be present at the eastern end of the Chatham Rise, and a 99–78 Ma intraplate lava province erupted across juxtaposed Zealandia, Hikurangi Plateau and oceanic crust. We propose a new regional tectonic model in which a mechanically jammed Hikurangi Plateau resulted in the dynamic propagation of small, kinematically misaligned short-length 110–84 Ma spreading centres and long-offset fracture zones. It is only from c. 84 Ma that geometrically stable spreading became localized at what is now the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, as Zealandia started to split from Gondwana.
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• 4
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 245 . pp. 16-34.
Publication Date: 2018-10-30
Description: Highlights • New 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major, trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data are presented from the Walvis Ridge, belonging to the Tristan-Gough hotspot track in the South Atlantic. • The entire Tristan-Gough hotspot system, including Walvis Ridge, display a spatially continuous age progression. • The Gough-type component is the dominant geochemical flavor of the Tristan-Gough plume and has also been identified in the Discovery and Shona hotspot systems. • The geochemical heterogeneity in the South Atlantic DUPAL region can be reproduced by mixing of Gough-type enriched mantle with continental crust and a FOZO/PREMA-like component. • The HIMU-type alkalic lavas on the Walvis Ridge and older part of Shona hotspot track are ∼30 Ma younger in age than the EMI-type primarily tholeiitic basement lavas at a given locality. Abstract Long-lived spatial geochemical zonation of the Tristan-Gough and Discovery hotspot tracks and temporal variations from EMI-type basement to HIMU-type late-stage volcanism at the Walvis Ridge and Shona hotspot tracks point to a complex evolution and multiple source areas for the South Atlantic hotspots. Here we report 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major and trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data for samples from 16 new sites on the Walvis Ridge. This aseismic ridge is the oldest submarine expression of the Tristan-Gough mantle plume and represents the initial reference locality of the EMI end member in the South Atlantic Ocean. The EMI-type lavas display an excellent age progressive trend of ∼31 mm/a along the entire Tristan-Gough hotspot track, indicating constant plate motion over a relatively stationary melt anomaly over the last ∼115 Ma. The Gough-type EMI composition of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track is the dominant composition on the 〉70 Ma part of the Walvis Ridge, the Etendeka and Parana flood basalts, and along the Gough sub-track, extending from DSDP Site 525A on the SW Walvis Ridge to Gough Island, whereas Tristan-type EMI dominates on the Tristan Track, extending from DSDP Sites 527 and 528 to Tristan da Cunha Island. Gough-type EMI is also the dominant composition of the northern Discovery and Shona hotspot tracks, suggesting that these hotspots tap a common source reservoir. The continuous EMI-type supply over ≥132 Ma, coupled with high 3He/4He (〉10 RA), points to a deep-seated reservoir for this mantle material. The Tristan and Southern Discovery EMI-type flavors can be reproduced by mixing of the Gough-type component with (1) FOZO/PREMA to produce Tristan-type lavas, and (2) marine sediments or upper continental crust to generate the Southern Discovery-type composition. South Atlantic hotspots with EMI-type compositions overlie the margin (1 % ∂Vs velocity contour) of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP), which may promote the emergence of geochemical “zonation”. The St. Helena HIMU-type volcanism, however, is located above internal portions of the LLSVP, possibly reflecting a layered LLSVP.
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• 5
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Elsevier
In:  Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 172 . pp. 855-877.
Publication Date: 2018-10-29
Description: Gas hydrates are crystalline ice-like structures formed from water and gas molecules at high pressure and low temperature conditions. They are considered as near-future energy resources. Recently, there have been many drilling activities in gas hydrates in both permafrost regions (mainly Mallik wells, Canada; Ignik Sikumi #1 well, Alaska; Mount Elbert #1, Alaska) and marine sediments (the wells drilled in Gulf of Mexico and India drilling expeditions). In this study, it is aimed to evaluate and analyze logging-while drilling data (LWD) and other drilling data of these drilling activities. Initially, all drilling parameters (i.e. rate of penetration, weight on bit, torques, mud logs, etc.) of these wells were collected and drawn to see the change in parameters with depths. In order to indicate the changes in drilling parameters in the sediments containing gas hydrates, gas hydrate saturations were estimated from resistivity logs and NMR logs in this study. High resistivity log values and methane peaks in drilling fluid were good indicators of gas hydrate existence. During the drilling of permafrost formations and gas hydrates deposited in coarse sands as pore filling, the rate of penetration generally decreased. Differently, there was not almost any change in the rate of penetration during the drilling of fracture-filling gas hydrates within silts/clay in India. Borehole enlargements (washouts) were commonly seen in the wells drilled in marine sediments (Gulf of Mexico and Indian expeditions). However, this effect was minimum during the drilling of the wells in permafrost regions. This difference is due to the loose sediments in marine environment. Furthermore, gamma and density logs were seriously affected by washouts, mainly in marine sediments. It was observed that pore-filling gas hydrates affect the rate of penetration and keep the sediments stable because well collapses mainly occurred in the sediments without any gas hydrates. However, the temperature of drilling fluid should be close to the temperature of gas hydrate zones to reduce the effect of drilling on gas hydrate dissociation for the wells both in permafrost and marine sediments. In Gulf Mexico and Indian drilling expeditions, riser and wellhead equipment were not used. However, the usage of surface casing might decrease the risk of borehole collapses due to very loose sediments close to sea floor. Another important outcome of this study is that the pressure gradient follows hydrostatic pressure gradients according to the pressure analysis within gas hydrate stability zones of marine sediments. Finally, the analyses of drilling parameters revealed that drilling through gas hydrate bearing strata is not as risky as it might have been considered. The key is hidden in appropriate drilling design.
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• 6
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Elsevier
In:  Chemical Engineering Journal, 358 . pp. 598-605.
Publication Date: 2018-10-29
Description: Highlights • Thermodynamic and kinetic influences of NaCl on HFC-125a hydrate were investigated. • NaCl enrichment in the unconverted solution resulted in a lower conversion. • The presence of NaCl had little effect on the ΔH of HFC-125a hydrate. • The hydrate dissociation was retarded due to the formation of NaCl⋅2H2O. In this study, HFC-125a was selected as a hydrate-forming guest for gas hydrate-based desalination. The thermodynamic and kinetic effects of NaCl on HFC-125a hydrates were investigated with a primary focus on phase equilibria, gas uptake, dissociation enthalpy, and dissociation behavior. The equilibrium curve of HFC-125a hydrate shifted to higher pressure regions at any given temperature depending on the concentration of NaCl. The presence of NaCl also reduced the gas uptake and conversion to hydrates, because of the enrichment of NaCl in the solution during gas-hydrate formation. Even though NaCl did not affect the dissociation enthalpy of the HFC-125a hydrate, the thermograms obtained using a high-pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP μ-DSC) demonstrated that HFC-125a + NaCl hydrates started to dissociate at lower temperatures due to NaCl in unconverted solutions. Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns indicated that the HFC-125a hydrate (sII) was transformed into Ih as it dissociated. The dissociation of HFC-125a + NaCl hydrates was retarded and completely ended at higher temperatures compared to the pure HFC-125a hydrate by the sodium chloride dihydrate (NaCl⋅2H2O). Overall, these results could facilitate a better understanding of HFC-125a hydrates in the presence of NaCl; further, they might also be useful in the design and operation of hydrate-based desalination plants using HFC-125a.
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• 7
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-11-08
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 8
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-11-09
Description: Multiple toxic and bioactive compounds produced by Alexandrium spp. cause adverse effects on bivalves, but these effects are frequently difficult to attribute to a single compound class. To disentangle the effect of neurotoxic vs lytic secondary metabolites, we exposed blue mussels to either a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing Alexandrium spp. strain, or to an exclusively lytic compound (LC) producing strain, or a strain containing both compound classes, to evaluate the time dependent effects after 3 and 7 days of feeding. Tested parameters comprised signs of paralysis, feeding activity, and immune cell integrity (hemocyte numbers and viability; lysosomal membrane destabilization) and function (ROS production). Both compound classes caused paralysis and immune impairment. The only effect attributable exclusively to PST was increased phagocytic activity after 3 days and impaired feeding activity after 7 days, which curtailed toxin accumulation in digestive glands. Paralysis signals and lysosomal membrane destabilization were more closely, but not exclusively, matched with LC exposure. Effects on circulating hemocyte integrity and immune related functions were mostly transient or remain stable within 7 days; except for increased lysosomal labialization and decreased extracellular ROS production when mussels were exposed to the toxin combination. M. edulis displays adaptive fitness traits to survive and maintain immune capacity upon prolonged exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PST and/or LC producing Alexandrium strains.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 9
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Elsevier
In:  Multiple stressors in river ecosystems. Status, impacts and prospects for the future
Publication Date: 2018-11-07
Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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• 10
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 244 . pp. 366-382.
Publication Date: 2018-11-12
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• 11
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-11-13
Description: Among the most derived calanoid copepod superfamily Clausocalanoidea about half of the genera belong to the so-called “Bradfordian” families that are defined by the presence of sensory setae at the maxilla and maxilliped. Many of these “Bradfordian” taxa are insufficiently well described, because their taxonomy is complicated and phylogenetic relationships are not completely resolved. We therefore aimed to unravel their phylogenetic relationships using molecular multi-gene analyses. We conducted molecular multi-gene analysis on 26 species from 15 genera representing all seven “Bradfordian” families using five gene fragments, the nuclear ribosomal 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 DNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. The monophyly of “Bradfordians” as one lineage in the superfamily Clausocalanoidea was supported by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference multi-gene analyses. Except for the support of species belonging to the same genus and specimens belonging to the same species, no phylogenetic relationships among genera and families were supported. The impossibility of resolving phylogenetic relationships among “Bradfordian” genera and families may be due to the young age or fast radiation of “Bradfordians” within the mostly derived calanoid superfamily Clausocalanoidea. Therefore, mutation rates might be not sufficient to track phylogenetic relationships. Evidence on phylogenetic relationships between genera and families remain unresolved after implementing integrated morphological and molecular taxonomic approaches.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 12
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Elsevier
In:  Fisheries Research, 210 . pp. 121-130.
Publication Date: 2018-11-20
Description: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is an important recreational and commercial fisheries target species in the Northern hemisphere. Release rates are high in the recreational fishery due to regulatory and voluntary catch-and-release practice. Although post-release mortality of cod is relatively low, there is potential for further reductions. The most effective way to reduce post-release mortality is to minimize the catch of sublegal fish or non-target species and to reduce hooking injuries by using more selective fishing methods. This study investigated the influence of the lure/bait type on: (1) size of fish, (2) catch and harvest, (3) proportion of bycatch, (4) hooking location, and (5) injury (bleeding) in the western Baltic Sea recreational cod fishery. Data were collected via random onboard sampling of 35 charter vessel angling trips (778 anglers) and during two supplementary studies in the western Baltic Sea. Overall, the median total length was significantly higher for cod caught on artificial lures (39 cm) than for cod caught on natural bait (28 cm), leading to a 43% higher proportion of sublegal (〈38 cm) cod for bait than for lure. Median catch-per-unit-efforts (number of captured cod per angling hour) did not differ significantly between lure and bait angling (both: 0.49 cod per hour), whereas the median harvest-per-unit-effort (number of captured cod ≥ minimum landing size (38 cm) per angling hour) was significantly higher for lure (0.24 cod ≥38 cm per hour) than for bait angling (0.06 cod ≥38 cm per hour). The incidence of deep hooking and severe bleeding was significantly higher for bait angling. Furthermore, bait angling significantly increased bycatch of other species dominated by whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and European flounder (Platichthys flesus). Cod anglers can reduce the catch of sublegal cod and non-target species and minimize hooking injuries of released fish by using lures instead of bait in the western Baltic Sea. Thus, voluntary terminal gear recommendations may be an effective tool for anglers and managers to increase selectivity in recreational cod fisheries.
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• 13
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-11-19
Description: The present study is based on a series of two-dimensional simple shear numerical simulations of two-phase non-linear viscous materials used to investigate the mechanical behaviour of two-phase aggregates representing partially molten rocks. These simulations couple viscoplastic deformation with dynamic recrystallisation (DRX). The aim of these simulations is to investigate the competition between deformation and recrystallisation, and how they affect the mechanical behaviour and resulting microstructures of the deforming material. We systematically vary the melt to solid rock ratio, the dihedral angle of melt and the ratio of DRX vs. deformation. The results show that the amount of DRX and the dihedral angle have a first-order impact on the bulk rheology and the melt distribution in the aggregate. The numerical results allow defining two regimes, depending on the relative contribution of deformation and DRX: (1) a deformation-dominated regime at high strain rates (i.e., with a low ratio of recrystallisation vs. viscoplastic deformation) and (2) a recrystallisation-dominated regime at low strain rates (i.e., with a high ratio of recrystallisation vs. viscoplastic deformation). The first case results in systems bearing large connected melt pockets whose viscous flow controls the deformation of the aggregate, while disconnected smaller melt pockets develop in models where dynamic recrystallisation dominates. The results of this study allow us to better understand the development of connected melt pockets, which may focus melt flow. The distribution of the melt phase plays a key role in the formation of larger-scale melt-enriched shear bands, which in turn has a direct influence on large-scale convective mantle flow.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 14
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 245 . pp. 79-97.
Publication Date: 2018-11-27
Description: The neodymium isotope proxy has become a valuable tool for the reconstruction of past ocean water mass provenance and mixing. For its accurate application, knowledge about the origin and preservation of Nd in sedimentary archives is crucial. Recently, concerns have emerged regarding the applicability of neodymium isotopes as a conservative palaeo water mass tracer, given potential Nd fluxes from sediments into bottom waters (Abbott et al., 2015a) and inferred relabelling of ocean waters by settling detrital material (Roberts and Piotrowski, 2015). Consequently, a decoupling of water mass provenance and proxy variations may arise. We investigate the mobility of Nd around extreme detrital sedimentation events such as glacial ice rafting pulses and turbidite deposition in the Northeast Atlantic. The constructed records from sediment leachates span extreme Nd isotope variations including volcanic (εNd ∼ 0) and Laurentian (εNd ∼ −27) sources. We find that Nd was released into pore waters from reactive detritus inside some detrital layers during early diagenesis, thereby overprinting any archived bottom water Nd signature and precluding the reconstruction of past water mass provenance during the affected time intervals. However, we do not observe any definite indication of diffusive vertical migration of Nd into adjacent layers. Furthermore, bottom water Nd isotope signatures were not modified to a measurable degree by any potential benthic flux of Nd during the deposition of these detrital sediment layers. Consequently, the Nd isotope composition of the pelagic glacial Northeast Atlantic water masses were resilient to such episodic large detrital fluxes. Apart from extreme local sedimentation events, we confirm the presence of detritally overprinted deep waters north of 47°N during the peak glacial from comparison of Northeast Atlantic depth transects. We furthermore suggest that the sensitivity of deep waters to this overprinting effect increased during periods of reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and elevated ice rafting. Overall, our study demonstrates that a thorough evaluation of the proportion of Nd originating from physical water mass advection versus in situ chemical inputs is crucial for the reliable application of Nd isotopes as a water mass tracer.
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• 15
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-11-28
Description: Life cycle and reproduction of Calanus hyperboreus were studied during a year of record low ice cover in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Stages CIV, adult females and CV dominated the overwintering population, suggesting a 2- to 3-year life cycle. Within two spring-summer months in the upper water column females filled their energy reserves before initiating their downward seasonal migration. From February to March, vigorous reproduction (20–65 eggs f−1 d−1) delivered numerous eggs (29 000 eggs m−2) at depth and nauplii N1-N3 (17 000 ind. m−2) in the water column. However, CI copepodite recruitment in May, coincident with the phytoplankton bloom, was modest in Amundsen Gulf compared to sites outside the gulf. Consequently, C. hyperboreus abundance and biomass stagnated throughout summer in Amundsen Gulf. As a mismatch between the first-feeding stages and food was unlikely under the favourable feeding conditions of April-May 2008, predation on the egg and larval stages in late winter presumably limited subsequent recruitment and population growth. Particularly abundant in Amundsen Gulf, the copepods Metridia longa and C. glacialis were likely important consumers of C. hyperboreus eggs and nauplii. With the ongoing climate-driven lengthening of the ice-free season, intensification of top-down control of C. hyperboreus recruitment by thriving populations of mesopelagic omnivores and carnivores like M. longa may counteract the potential benefits of increased primary production over the Arctic shelves margins for this key prey of pelagic fish, seabirds and the bowhead whale.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 16
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Elsevier
In:  Aeolian Research, 36 . pp. 9-26.
Publication Date: 2018-11-28
Description: Protodunes emerge from a flat sand bed at the upwind margin of White Sands Dune Field, and, over several hundred meters, transition into fully developed dunes. Here, we investigate spatial and temporal changes in topography across this transition from 2007 to 2016 using lidar-derived topography, structure-from-motion-derived topography, and RTK GPS. We characterize the deposits present in 2015 using ground penetrating radar. Symmetric protodunes give way downwind to an asymmetric protodune at the transition to slipface development. Between 2007 and 2016, protodune amplitude increased from 0.2 m to 4.0 m, migration rate increased from 3.2 m/yr to 6.1 m/yr, and wavelength increased from 76 m to 122 m. Ground-penetrating radar surveys show strata between flat and 15° make up the stratigraphic architecture of the protodunes. Strata increase in steepness commensurate with an increase in amplitude. Decimeter accumulations of low-angle strata associated with initial protodune stages give way to 4 m of accumulation composed of sets up to 1 m thick prior to slipface development. Topsets present in the thickest sets indicate near critical angles of bedform climb. Growth and slipface development occur by aerodynamic sand trapping and protodune merging. Changes in asymmetry erase initial slipfaces prior to permanent slipface development, after which efficient sand trapping and scour promotes the transition to a dune across 20 m in 5 years. Protodune stratification has hallmarks of sandsheet stratification and can be appreciated within the greater suite of processes that create low-angle eolian stratification found in modern and ancient environments.
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• 17
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Elsevier
In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 506 . pp. 381-387.
Publication Date: 2018-12-04
Description: Highlights • A small fraction of corrugated detachment fault surfaces is eventually exposed at the seafloor. • Seafloor slopes indicate effective friction of ∼0.2 on shallow part of detachments. • Moderate-offset detachment faults may be largely blanketed by hanging wall material. • Seafloor-shaping processes profoundly alter the morphology of oceanic core complexes. Abstract While oceanic detachment faults have been proposed to account for the accretion of ∼40% of new seafloor in the North Atlantic ocean, clear exposures of large-offset, often-corrugated fault surfaces remain scarce and spatially limited. To help resolve this paradox, we examine the conditions under which detachment fault growth may or may not lead to extensive exposure of corrugated fault planes at the seafloor. Using high-resolution bathymetry from four detachment faults at the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, we investigate the rafting of hanging wall-derived debris over emerging fault scarps, which can lead to covering shallow-dipping corrugated fault surfaces. We model this process using critical taper theory, and infer low effective friction coefficients (∼0.2) on the shallowest portion of detachment faults. A corollary to this result is that detachments emerging from the seafloor at angles 〈13° are more likely to become blanketed under an apron of hanging wall material. We generalize these findings as a simple model for the progressive exposure and flexural rotation of detachment footwalls, which accounts for the continued action of seafloor-shaping processes. Our model suggests that many moderate-offset, hidden detachment faults may exist along slow mid-ocean ridges, and do not feature an exposed fault surface.
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• 18
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Elsevier
In:  Quaternary Science Reviews, 203 . pp. 248-265.
Publication Date: 2018-12-04
Description: Highlights • Increased glacial sedimentation rates do not generate sufficient overpressure to trigger a landslide. • Simulated overpressures for different sedimentation scenarios do not significantly differ. • A glacimarine layer underneath rapidly-deposited sediments is important for overpressure build-up. • An earthquake of M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the Tampen Slide. Abstract Trough mouth fans are environments characterized by high sediment supply during glacial stages and the occurrence of large-scale instabilities. The geological record indicates that several of these environments have failed repeatedly resulting in large submarine landslides. The roles of sedimentation rate, weak layers, glacial loading and unloading as well as seismic activity on triggering megaslides in trough-mouth-fan systems is still unclear. A better understanding of the preconditioning factors, triggers and consequences of these landslides is crucial due to the hazard they pose to coastal communities and offshore industries. In this paper, we focus on the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan, which is the result of massive glacial sediment input delivered to the shelf edge through the Norwegian Channel, southeast Nordic Seas margin. The Tampen Slide, one of several large paleo-landslides that have happened within the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan, took place at c. 130 ka (end of MIS 6), and removed an estimated 1800 km3 of sediment. Here, we use boundary conditions from the Tampen Slide and 2D Finite Element Modeling (Abaqus software from Simulia) to evaluate the effects of variations in sedimentation rates as well as sediment properties on the generation of excess pore pressure, fluid flow, and slope stability along the axis of the trough-mouth-fan system. The model domain, 40 km in length and 2 km in height, is dominated by glacigenic debris flows and glacimarine sediment deposits. We use geotechnical data measured on samples of glacigenic and glacimarine sediment deposits from the nearby Ormen Lange gas field area to constrain the model. We evaluate the stability of the slope under various scenarios, including constant sediment loading, episodic changes in sedimentation rates and abrupt pulses in sediment delivery for a 61 kyr period (MIS 6). The models show that increased sedimentation rates during glacial stages do not generate sufficient excess pore pressure to set off a landslide. Furthermore, the simulated overpressures for the different sedimentation scenarios do not significantly differ at the end of the model runs. The results also highlight the importance of a basal glacimarine sediment layer underneath the rapidly-deposited sediments for the build-up of overpressure. Consequently, this glacimarine sediment layer has the inherited potential to act as a weak layer facilitating instability. However, as overpressure due to sediment deposition alone does not result in slope failure, we couple the preconditioned slope with earthquake ground shaking. Based on attenuation models, an earthquake of approximately M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the landslide. Therefore, we suggest glacial sedimentation and a glacimarine sediment layer to represent preconditioning factors, and seismic shaking as the final trigger mechanism for the Tampen Slide, i.e. similar to the situation that lead to the development of the Storegga Slide in the same area.
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• 19
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 245 . pp. 406-425.
Publication Date: 2018-12-06
Description: Stable isotopes (15,14N, 18,16O) of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) were measured in sediment porewaters and benthic flux chambers across the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) from 74 to 1000 m water depth. Sediments at all locations were net consumers of bottom water NO3−. In waters shallower than 400 m, this sink was largely attributed to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by filamentous nitrate-storing bacteria (Marithioploca and Beggiatoa) and to denitrification by foraminifera. The apparent N isotope effect of benthic NO3− loss (15εapp) was 7.4 ± 0.7‰ at microbial mat sites and 2.5 ± 0.9‰ at the lower fringe of the OMZ (400 m) where foraminifera were abundant. The OMZ sediments were a source of 15N-enriched NO2− (28.9 to 65.5‰) and NH4+ (19.4–20.5‰) to the bottom water. Model simulations generally support a previous hypothesis attributing the 15NH4+ enrichment to a coupling between DNRA and anammox (termed DAX) using biologically-stored NO3− from Marithioploca and NH4+ from the porewater. The model predicts that 40% of NO3− that is actively transported into the sediment by Marithioploca is reduced to N2 by this pathway. DAX enhances N2 fluxes by a factor of 2–3 and accounts for 70% of fixed N loss to N2. Moreover, because most of the ambient porewater NH4+ is generated by DNRA, up to two-thirds of biologically-transported NO3− could end up being lost to N2. This challenges the premise that Marithioploca-dominated sediments tend to conserve fixed N. By limiting the flux of 15NH4+ back to the ocean, DAX also tends to decrease benthic N fractionation. Tracking the fate of NH4+ once it leaves the sediment is critical for understanding how the benthos contributes to N isotope signals in the water column.
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-12-03
Description: The chapter presents a review of sea ice properties in relation to sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) predictions in the Arctic and the Antarctic. After a concise presentation of the main processes governing sea ice physics, the spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and variability of sea ice in both poles are described. Using a variety of observations and model reconstructions of the four recent decades, the memory of the main descriptors of the sea ice state is quantified. In both the Arctic and the Antarctic, persistence of the sea ice areal properties emerges as the primarily source of sea ice sub-seasonal predictability, with strong dependence on season. Further memory can be obtained from reemergence mechanisms, implying processes internal to sea ice and coupling with the atmosphere and the ocean. In addition, lessons from modeling studies are addressed in terms of potential sea ice predictability and actual predictive skill. Finally, the chapter provides an overview of our understanding of the possible role of sea ice as a source of S2S atmospheric predictability, both in the polar regions and beyond.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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Elsevier
In:  Global and Planetary Change, 172 . pp. 365-373.
Publication Date: 2018-12-07
Description: This study presents new high resolution sedimentary δ15N records from piston cores collected within and outside the present-day eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone along a latitudinal transect from 3.5°S to 15°S. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera and organic matter show that the cores cover the Holocene and the last deglaciation with high sedimentation rate allowing interpretations at millennial to centennial timescale. High δ15N values, reaching 10‰ and large amplitude changes, with a magnitude of ~4‰, are observed in the southern part of the studied area during the last 18 ka BP. In contrast, the northern Peruvian cores located on the edge of the OMZ show low δ15N values varying from 4 to 6‰ with amplitude of only 1‰, during the same time period. δ15N values decrease in all the studied cores from the last deglaciation to the early Holocene (17 to 8.5 ka BP) and reach a minimum value during the mid-Holocene. The δ15N variations are attributed to microbial N-loss to N2, e.g. denitrification and/or anammox, and the characteristic 15N-enriched signal that is recorded in the underlying sediments under suboxic to anoxic conditions where denitrifiers thrive. Surprisingly, δ15N values from cores located within the OMZ show similar values as the more northern cores located outside the OMZ between 5 and 8.5 ka BP. This minimum is not related to local changes in export production, reconstructed from sedimentary organic carbon, total nitrogen and bromine, but appears to be controlled by changes in the ventilation of the area. The low δ15N values recorded between 8.5 and 5 ka BP are well correlated with more arid conditions developed along the Peruvian margin and an increase of the sea surface temperature gradient along the Peruvian margin and between the West and East Pacific along the equator, implying an intensification of the Hadley circulation and climatic conditions similar to La Niña-like state. Consequently, these mid-Holocene conditions led to greater ventilation of subsurface waters that deepened the Peruvian oxycline then revealing similar conditions as observed today in the northern part of the study area.
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Elsevier
In:  Fuel, 237 . pp. 769-774.
Publication Date: 2018-12-11
Description: Hydrate dissociation equilibrium conditions for the mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O) are measured in the temperature range of 274.15–280.15 K. The relative molar composition of carbon dioxide in the feed gas mixture varies between 0.05 and 0.25 which is the interesting range of composition when it comes to production of methane, and sequestration of carbon dioxide, from methane hydrate reservoirs. A thermodynamic model is presented based on the classical van der Waals and Platteeuw (vdW-P) solid solution theory for the hydrate phase combined with the Equation of State (EoS) for combustion gas and combustion gas-like mixtures (CG-EoS). The results of this model are compared to the dissociation data measured here, along with all available data from the experimental literature. The predicted results from two thermodynamic software programs, CSMGem, and Multiflash (which use Peng-Robinson (PR) and Cubic Plus Association (CPA) EoSs respectively), are also statistically evaluated. A Clausius-Clapeyron type equation was used to derive the enthalpy of dissociation at 279.15 K, and the values were found to converge for mixtures containing 0.1–0.25 mol fraction of carbon dioxide.
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Elsevier
In:  Progress in Oceanography, 170 . pp. 119-133.
Publication Date: 2018-12-10
Description: Highlights • Seafloor geomorphology was important in the structuring of abyssal megafauna. • Differences in megafaunal community ecology were found between all landscape types. • Lower megafauna density & diversity in a bathymetric valley than flat and ridge areas. • Large samples, collected by AUV, were required to make robust ecological conclusions. The potential for imminent polymetallic nodule mining in the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) has attracted considerable scientific and public attention. This concern stems from both the extremely large seafloor areas that may be impacted by mining, and the very limited knowledge of the fauna and ecology of this region. The environmental factors regulating seafloor ecology are still very poorly understood. In this study, we focus on megafaunal ecology in the proposed conservation zone ‘Area of Particular Environmental Interest 6′ (study area centred 17°16′N, 122°55′W). We employ bathymetric data to objectively define three landscape types in the area (a level bottom Flat, an elevated Ridge, a depressed Trough; water depth 3950–4250 m) that are characteristic of the wider CCZ. We use direct seabed sampling to characterise the sedimentary environment in each landscape, detecting no statistically significant differences in particle size distributions or organic matter content. Additional seafloor characteristics and data on both the metazoan and xenophyophore components of the megafauna were derived by extensive photographic survey from an autonomous underwater vehicle. Image data revealed that there were statistically significant differences in seafloor cover by nodules and in the occurrence of other hard substrata habitat between landscapes. Statistically significant differences in megafauna standing stock, functional structuring, diversity, and faunal composition were detected between landscapes. The Flat and Ridge areas exhibited a significantly higher standing stock and a distinct assemblage composition compared to the Trough. Geomorphological variations, presumably regulating local bottom water flows and the occurrence of nodule and xenophyophore test substrata, between study areas may be the mechanism driving these assemblage differences. We also used these data to assess the influence of sampling unit size on the estimation of ecological parameters. We discuss these results in the contexts of regional benthic ecology and the appropriate management of potential mining activities in the CCZ and elsewhere in the deep ocean.
Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Elsevier
In:  Marine Geology, 407 . pp. 121-147.
Publication Date: 2018-12-14
Description: Highlights • Northern Hispaniola Margin is studied with new high-resolution bathymetry and vintage seismic data. • Northern Hispaniola Deformed Belt forms an active N-verging fold-and-thrust imbricate system. • Gravity failures are frequent features in the Northern Hispaniola Margin and Bahamas Banks slope. • Oblique collision accelerates the Bahamas Carbonate Province collapse and retreat. • New observations help the assessment of tsunami hazards in the Northern Caribbean region. Abstract The northern margin of Hispaniola records the oblique collision/underthrusting of the Bahamas Carbonate Province with the island-arc. Due to the collision, northern Hispaniola has suffered several natural disasters caused by major earthquakes and tsunamis, such as the historic earthquake of 1842, the tsunami caused by earthquake-driven slumping in 1918 in the Mona Passage, the seismic crisis of 1943–1953 with five events of M 〉 7.0 or the seismic crisis of 2003 with a main shock of M6.3 and a large aftershock of M5.3. Using new swath multibeam bathymetry data and vintage single- and multi-channel seismic profiles, we have performed a regional scale analysis and interpretation of the shallow surface and active processes along the northern margin of the Dominican Republic. We have identified three morphostructural provinces: a) the Bahamas Banks, b) the Hispaniola Trench and c) the Insular Margin, which are divided into two tectonic domains, the Collision Domain and Underthrusting Domain. The southern slope of the Bahamas Carbonate Province shows a very irregular morphology produced by active erosive processes and normal dip-slip faulting, evidence of an extensional tectonic regime and margin collapse. This collapse is of major extent in the Oblique Collision Domain where there are erosive and fault escarpments with higher dip-slip fault throws. The Hispaniola Trench, is formed by the Caicos and Hispaniola basins in the underthrusting domain, and by the Santisima Trinidad and Navidad basins in the Oblique Collision Domain. They have a flat seafloor with a sedimentary filling of variable thickness consisting of horizontal or sub-horizontal turbiditic levels. The turbiditic fill mostly proceeds from the island arc through wide channels and canyons, which transports sediment from the shelf and upper slope. The Insular Margin comprises the Insular Shelf and the Insular Slope. The active processes are generated on the Insular Slope where the Northern Hispaniola Deformed Belt is developed. This Deformed Belt shows a very irregular morphology, with a WNW-ESE trending N verging imbricate thrust-and fold system. This system is the result of the adjustment of the oblique collision/underthrusting between the North American plate and the Caribbean plate. In the Oblique Underthrusting Domain the along-strike development of the imbricate system is highly variable forming salients and recesses. This variability is due to along-strike changes in the sediment thickness of the Hispaniola Trench, as well as to the variable topography of the underthrusting Bahamas Carbonate Province. In the Oblique Collision Domain, the morphology of the Insular Slope and the development of the Deformed Belt deeply change. The imbricate system is barely inferred and lies upslope. These changes are due to the active collision of Bahamas Carbonate Province with the Insular Margin where the spurs are indented against the Insular Margin. Throughout the entire area studied, gravitational instabilities have been observed, especially on the Insular Margin and to a lesser extent on the southern slope of the Bahamas Carbonate Province. These instabilities are a direct consequence of the active underthrusting/collision process. We have mapped large individual slumps north of Puerto Plata in the Oblique Underthrusting Domain and zones of major slumps in the Oblique Collision Domain. These evidences of active processes must be considered as near-field sources in future studies on the assessment of tsunami hazards in the region.
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Elsevier
In:  Quaternary Science Reviews, 204 . pp. 1-16.
Publication Date: 2018-12-12
Description: Highlights The increase in volcanic activity after the last glacial maximum observed on Iceland has led to one of the most fascinating hypothesis in science in the last decades: that deglaciation may force volcanism. We: - Re-analyzed four longer tephra records with the same statistical method and demonstrated that all contain the ∼41 kyr and ∼100 kyr Millankovitch periodicities. - The frequency spectra of the tephra and δ18O records are significantly correlated supporting the hypothesis that orbital-driven global climate changes interact with the volcanic eruption frequency regionally and globally. - However, the simultaneous analysis of the four best-characterized tephra records shows that correlations and associated time lags suffer from a number of uncertainties including the nature and quality of tephra time series, a wide range in geographic latitudes and geological settings, as well as applied statistical methods Therefore more precise tephra time series (preservation and age optimized) from different regions (glaciated versus non-glaciated) and geological settings (island arcs, continental arcs, intraplate) are needed together with standardized statistical analysis to decipher the impact of these factors on a global perspective of how climate may control volcanism. Abstract The increase in volcanic activity after the last glacial maximum observed on Iceland has led to one of the most fascinating hypothesis in science in the last decades: that deglaciation may force volcanism. Consequently, tephrostratigraphic records of sufficient length that cover multiple glacial cycles have been used to test whether such relationships hold systematically through the Quaternary. Here we review such tephra records that have been linked with climate proxy records such as δ18O in marine sediments, which is a measure of sea-level change and which is thought to be orbitally forced, as it exhibits the characteristic Milankovitch periodicities of precession (∼23 kyr), obliquity (∼41 kyr) and eccentricity (∼100 kyr). Statistical analyses have identified these periodicities also in long tephra records from different latitudes and geotectonic settings, as well as in compiled semi-global records. These studies detect Milankovitch periods in their tephra record, and also a phase shift relative to the δ18O record in such that periods of increased eruption frequencies coincide with the deglaciation period at the glacial/interglacial transition when ice and water loads on the lithosphere change most rapidly. However, there are also disparities in results and interpretations, which may be attributable to the different methods of analysis applied by the studies. We have therefore re-analyzed the four best-characterized tephra records by the same methods. We distinguish between analysis in the frequency domain, a novel approach, and analysis in the time domain, which has been used in previous studies. Analysis in the frequency domain identifies harmonic frequencies that arise from the binary nature of the tephra records and complicate the identification of primary frequencies. However, we show that all four records show spectral density peaks near the main Milankovitch periodicities of 41 and 100 kyr, and that they produce meaningful and significant statistical correlations with each other and the global δ18O record but not with random time series. Although the time-domain correlations with δ18O roughly confirm phase shifts implying peak volcanism during deglaciation, correlation coefficients arising from very noisy records are generally too low for precise constraints on the relative timing. These deficiencies presently hamper the recognition of the physical mechanisms through which global climate changes affect volcanism at both, high-latitude glaciated regions and low-latitude non-glaciated regions.
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Elsevier
In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 506 . pp. 255-267.
Publication Date: 2018-12-18
Description: Highlights • Tungsten isotopes reveal vertical structure in mantle plumes. • Plume heads and tails each sample a distinct ancient mantle reservoir. • ULVZs contribute material to OIBs. • LLSVPs may contribute to both OIBs and LIPs. • Chemical heterogeneity in the mantle may be restricted to the base of LLSVPs. Abstract The lowermost mantle is driven to Earth's surface by mantle plumes, providing a volcanic record of its structure and composition. Plumes comprise a head and tail, which melt to form large igneous provinces (LIPs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs), respectively. Recent analyses have shown that LIPs and OIBs exhibit tungsten (W) isotope heterogeneity that was created in the first ∼60 million years of our solar system's evolution. Moreover, the isotopic signature found in LIPs differs to that found in OIBs, revealing that the melt products of plume heads must be dominated by a different ancient mantle reservoir to that of plume tails. However, existing geodynamical studies suggest that plume heads and tails sample the same deep-mantle source region and, therefore, cannot account for any systematic differences in composition. Here, we present a suite of numerical simulations of thermo-chemical plumes and an isotopic model for W sources in the mantle. Our results demonstrate that the W isotope systematics of LIPs and OIBs can, under certain conditions, arise as a dynamical consequence of plumes forming in a heterogeneous, thermo-chemical boundary layer. We find that ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs), which sit on the core–mantle boundary (CMB), likely contribute to the chemical diversity observed in OIBs but not LIPs, while any dense components residing inside large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) may contribute to both. This study places geochemical observations from Earth's surface in a geodynamically consistent framework and illuminates their relationship with seismically imaged features of the deep mantle.
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 246 . pp. 138-155.
Publication Date: 2018-12-17
Description: The major processes that determine the distribution of methane (CH4) in anoxic marine sediments are methanogenesis and the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), with organoclastic sulfate reduction exerting an important secondary control. However, the factors leading to the distribution of stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of CH4 are currently poorly understood, in particular the commonly-observed minimum in δ13C-CH4 at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) where AOM rates reach maximum values. Conventional isotope systematics predict 13C-enrichment of CH4 in the SMT due to preferential 12CH4 consumption by AOM. Two hypotheses put forward to explain this discrepancy are the addition of 12C-enriched CH4 to porewaters by methanogenesis in close proximity to AOM, and enzymatically-mediated carbon isotope equilibrium between forward and backward AOM at low concentrations of sulfate. To examine this in more detail, field data including δ13C of CH4 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the continental margin offshore southwestern Taiwan were simulated with a reaction-transport model. Model simulations showed that the minima in δ13C-CH4 and δ13C-DIC in the SMT could only be simulated with carbon isotope equilibrium during AOM. The potential for carbon cycling between methanogenesis and AOM in and just below the SMT was insignificant due to very low rates of methanogenesis. Backward AOM also gives rise to a pronounced kink in the δ13C-DIC profile several meters below the SMT that has been observed in previous studies. We suggest that this kink marks the true base of the SMT where forward and backward AOM are operating at very low rates, possibly sustained by cryptic sulfur cycling or barite dissolution.
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Elsevier
In:  Science of the Total Environment, 656 . pp. 1280-1288.
Publication Date: 2018-12-17
Description: Understanding the interaction between organisms’ life history traits and environmental factors is an essential task in ecology. In spite of the increasing appreciation of jellyfish as an important component in marine ecosystem, there are still considerable gaps in understanding how the phase transition from the benthic polyp to the pelagic medusa stage is influenced by multiple environmental factors, including nutrition. To investigate survival, growth, and phase transition of Aurelia aurita polyps, we designed a factorial experiment manipulating food quantity (20 μg C, 5 μg C and 1.5 μg C polyp−1 every other day), food quality (Artemia salina and two dietary manipulated Acartia tonsa), and temperature (13 °C, 20 °C, and 27 °C). Temperature was the key factor determining phase transition of polyps and negatively affecting their survival rate and growth at 27 °C, which reflected a summer heatwave scenario. Furthermore, at polyps’ optimum tolerance temperature (20 °C) in our study, budding reproduction benefits from high food concentrations. Interestingly, polyps fed with food containing high level highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) were able to compensate for physiological stress caused by the extreme temperature, and could enhance budding reproduction at optimum temperature. Moreover, benthic-pelagic coupling (strobilation) was determined by temperature but affected significantly by food conditions. Mild temperature together with optimum food conditions contributes to inducing more polyps, which may potentially bring about great ephyrae recruitments during overwintering. In contrast, heatwave events can potentially regulate plankton community structure accompanied by changes of nutritional conditions of primary and secondary producers and thus, negatively affect the population dynamics of polyps. We suggest a novel polyp tolerance curve, which can help to understand jellyfish population dynamics in different seasons and ecosystems. This sets up a baseline for understanding how anticipated global warming and food conditions may affect the population size of benthic polyps and consequently pelagic medusae.
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Elsevier
In:  Ocean & Coastal Management, 169 . pp. 129-136.
Publication Date: 2019-01-07
Description: Highlights: • Designing spawning closures requires consideration of the mechanisms through which the closures can affect the fish stocks. • Small area closures may have unintended negative effects to the stocks due to fishing effort reallocation. • Closures covering most of the stock distribution are more robust to gaps in biological knowledge than small area closures. Abstract: Fisheries management measures often include spatio-temporal closures during the spawning period of the fish with an overarching aim of improving the stock status. The different mechanisms how a spawning closure potentially can influence the stock are often not explicitly considered when designing such closures. In this paper, we review and synthesize the available data and knowledge on potential effects of the implemented spawning closures on cod in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic cod example represents a relatively data rich case, which allows demonstrating how a closure might affect different parameters of stock status via different mechanisms, including potential unintended negative effects. We conclude that designing relatively small area closures appropriately is highly complex and data demanding, and may involve tradeoffs between positive and negative impacts on the stock. Seasonal closures covering most of the stock distribution during the spawning time are more robust to data limitations, and less likely to be counterproductive if suboptimally designed.
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Elsevier
In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 508 . pp. 30-40.
Publication Date: 2019-01-07
Description: Highlights • The youngest known (2 Ma) volcanically-active subduction system. • Exceptionally diverse range of magma compositions coeval and spatially juxtaposed. • Mixing of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle melt and a slab melt. • Modern example of an immature subduction system building its proto forearc. • Modern analog of the environment where SSZ ophiolites lithosphere forms. Abstract The development of ideas leading to a greater understanding of subduction initiation is limited by the scarcity of present-day examples. Furthermore, the few examples identified so far unfortunately provide few insights into the nature of magmatism at the inception of subduction. Here we report new observations from the Matthew and Hunter (M&H) subduction zone, a very young subduction zone located in the South-West Pacific. Tectonics of the area show it is younger than 2 Ma, making the M&H the youngest known volcanically-active subduction system and hence providing unique insights into the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Volcanism in this area comprises an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously erupting magma compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Pb isotopic compositions and abundance of LILE and REE strongly suggest melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle (Indian MORB) and subducted oceanic crust (Pacific MORB of the South Fiji Basin) and the mixing of these two components. Volcanism occurs much closer to the trench compared to volcanism in more mature subduction zones. We demonstrate that the M&H subduction zone is a modern example of an immature subduction system at the stage of pre-arc, near-trench magmatism. It is not yet building an arc but what we propose to call a Subduction Initiation Terrane (SITER). Today, the proto-forearc of the M&H subduction zone is a collage of these SITERs, coeval back-arc domains and remnants of pre-existing terranes including old Vitiaz Arc crust. The M&H area represents a modern analog of a Supra Subduction Zone setting where potentially a majority of ophiolites have formed their crustal and lithospheric components. Present-day magmatism in the M&H area therefore provides clues to understanding unforeseen distribution of contrasted magmatic rock types in fossil forearcs, whether they are at the front of mature subduction zones or in ophiolites.
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Elsevier
In:  Progress in Oceanography .
Publication Date: 2019-01-10
Description: Highlights • WAP coastal areas are able to sustain massive summer phytoplankton blooms. • WAP coastal areas may act as strong CO2 and NO3 sinks during summer. • Water column stability is the main driver of high phytoplankton growth rates. • Glacier meltwater supplies Fe, allowing phytoplankton to nearly exhaust NO3. • Future higher glacier melting may facilitate complete localized NO3 consumption. Abstract During January and February 2017 massive phytoplankton blooms (chlorophyll 〉 15 mg m−3) were registered in surface waters within two bays in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Reflecting these intense blooms, surface waters exhibited high pH (up to 8.4), low pCO2 (〈 175 µatm) and low nitrate concentrations (down to 1.5 µM). These summer phytoplankton blooms consisted mainly of diatoms and were associated with the presence of shallow, surface freshwater plumes originating from glacier-melt outflow which contributed both to stratification and to iron supply, thus facilitating pronounced nitrate and CO2 drawdown. These findings suggest that with future increases in freshwater discharge around the WAP, phytoplankton blooms in the northern WAP may become more dominated by large cells, resembling the blooms occurring further south along the Peninsula. Fresher surface waters enhanced water column stability in both bays, enabling phytoplankton populations to attain high growth rates. Phytoplankton was observed to double their biomass in 2.3 days, consistent with the high net primary production rates recorded in both bays (1.29–8.83 g C m−2 d−1). Phytoplankton growth rates showed a direct mechanistic relationship with changes in water column stability, suggesting that this is a main driver of primary productivity in near-shore Antarctic coastal ecosystems, which agrees with previous findings. After wind induced mixing, the organic matter produced within both bays did not settle inside them, suggesting that it was laterally advected out of the bays. Thus, we hypothesize that highly productive near-shore bay areas in Antarctica may supply organic matter to oceanic waters.
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 245 . pp. 327-351.
Publication Date: 2019-01-08
Description: Stable isotope compositions of methane (δ13C and δD) and of short-chain alkanes are commonly used to trace the origin and fate of carbon in the continental crust. In continental sedimentary systems, methane is typically produced through thermogenic cracking of organic matter and/or through microbial methanogenesis. However, secondary processes such as mixing, migration or biodegradation can alter the original isotopic and composition of the gas, making the identification and the quantification of primary sources challenging. The recently resolved methane 'clumped' isotopologues Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 are unique indicators of whether methane is at thermodynamic isotopic equilibrium or not, thereby providing insights into formation temperatures and/or into kinetic processes controlling methane generation processes, including microbial methanogenesis. In this study, we report the first systematic use of methane Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 in the context of continental sedimentary basins. We investigated sedimentary formations from the Southwest Ontario and Michigan Basins, where the presence of both microbial and thermogenic methane was previously proposed. Methane from the Silurian strata coexist with highly saline brines, and clumped isotopologues exhibit large offsets from thermodynamic equilibrium, with Δ12CH2D2 values as low as -23‰. Together with conventional δ13C and δD values, the variability in Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 to first order reflects a mixing relationship between near-equilibrated thermogenic methane similar to gases from deeper Cambrian and Middle Ordovician units, and a source characterized by a substantial departure from equilibrium that could be associated with microbial methanogenesis. In contrast, methane from the Devonian-age Antrim Shale, associated with less saline porewaters, reveals Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values that are approaching low temperature thermodynamic equilibrium. While microbial methanogenesis remains an important contributor to the methane budget in the Antrim Shale, it is suggested that Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) could contribute to reprocessing methane isotopologues, yielding Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 signatures approaching thermodynamic equilibrium.
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Elsevier
In:  Progress in Oceanography, 171 . pp. 231-250.
Publication Date: 2019-01-08
Description: A central aspect of coastal biogeochemistry is to determine how nutrients, lithogenic- and organic matter are distributed and transformed within coastal and estuarine environments. Analyses of the spatio-temporal changes of total suspended matter (TSM) concentration indicate strong and variable linkages between intertidal fringes and pelagic regions. In particular, knowledge about the organic fraction of TSM provides insight to how biogenic and lithogenic particulate matter are distributed in suspension. In our study we take advantage of a set of over 3000 in situ Loss on Ignition (LoI) data from the Southern North Sea that represent fractions of particulate organic matter (POM) relative to TSM (LoI $\equiv$ POM:TSM). We introduce a parameterization (POM-TSM model) that distinguishes between two POM fractions incorporated in TSM. One fraction is described in association with mineral particles. The other represents a seasonally varying fresh pool of POM. The performance of the POM-TSM model is tested against data derived from MERIS/ENVISAT-TSM products of the German Bight. Our analysis of remote sensing data exhibits specific qualitative features of TSM that can be attributed to distinct coastal zones. Most interestingly, a transition zone between the Wadden Sea and seasonally stratified regions of the Southern North Sea is identified where mineral associated POM appears in concentrations comparable to those of freshly produced POM. We will discuss how this transition is indicative for a zone of effective particle interaction and sedimentation.The dimension of this transition zone varies between seasons and with location. Our proposed POM-TSM model is generic and can be calibrated against in situ data of other coastal regions.
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 245 . pp. 426-440.
Publication Date: 2019-01-09
Description: Proglacial streams deliver melt water and chemical weathering products, including nutrients and radiogenic isotopes, from continental ice sheets to the ocean. Weathering products are also delivered to the ocean in non-glacial streams that form following ice sheet retreat and are disconnected from ice sheet meltwater by hydrologic divides. If weathering reactions differ in non-glacial and proglacial stream catchments, the streams could deliver different types and magnitudes of solutes to the ocean, depending on relative discharge volumes. Unlike proglacial streams, however, little is known of non-glacial stream solute compositions or discharge. Here we show specific discharges are similar from a proglacial stream draining the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) with several streams disconnected from the ice sheet. We also evaluate weathering reactions across a 170-km transect in western Greenland that contains one proglacial stream draining the GrIS, and two coastal (ice distal) and three inland (ice proximal) areas with non-glacial streams. Non-glacial streams exhibit solute compositions and offsets between dissolved and bedload Sr isotope ratios that indicate weathering increases toward the coast with exposure age and precipitation. Major element mass balance calculations show weathering reactions shift from predominately carbonic acid weathering of carbonate minerals inland near the ice sheet to predominately sulfuric acid weathering of carbonate minerals near the coast. Strontium concentrations and isotopic ratios of the proglacial stream reflect mixing of at least two subglacial sources and minor in-stream weathering that consumes CO2. About 5 times less CO2 is consumed per liter in the proglacial than inland non-glacial streams; however, arid conditions inland suggest limited discharge from the ungauged inland streams leads to less total CO2 weathering than proglacial stream. One coastal area consumes less CO2 per liter than the proglacial stream and another coastal area exhibits net CO2 production. These results indicate estimates for glacial foreland solute fluxes and CO2 weathering consumption and production should include estimates from both non-glacial and proglacial streams. Understanding weathering fluxes from these two types of streams will be important for evaluations of past ice sheet retreat and predictions of future solute and CO2 fluxes associated with continued ice sheet retreat.
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Elsevier
In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 505 . pp. 76-85.
Publication Date: 2019-01-09
Description: Highlights • Continental margin-scale spatial variability in C values among grain size fractions is presented. • Two different hydrodynamic modes influencing in 14C heterogeneity are identified. • A new index (H14 index) is defined to describe overall 14C heterogeneity within marine surface sedimentary OC. Abstract The deposition and long-term burial of sedimentary organic matter (OM) on continental margins comprises a fundamental component of the global carbon cycle. A key unknown in interpretation of carbon isotope records of sedimentary OM is the extent to which OM accumulating in continental shelf and slope sediments is influenced by dispersal and redistribution processes. Here, we present results from an extensive survey of organic carbon (OC) characteristics of grain size fractions (ranging from 〈20 to 250 μm) retrieved from Chinese marginal sea surface sediments in order to assess the extent to which the abundance and isotope composition of OM in shallow shelf seas is influenced by hydrodynamic processes. Our findings show that contrasting relationships exist between 14C contents of OC and grain size in surface sediments associated with two different hydrodynamic modes, suggesting that transport pathways and mechanisms imparted by the different hydrodynamic conditions exert a strong influence on 14C contents of OM in continental shelf sediments. In deeper regions and erosional areas, we infer that bedload transport exerts the strongest influence on (decreases) OC 14C contents of the coarser fraction, while resuspension processes induce OC 14C depletion of intermediate grain size fractions in shallow inner-shelf settings. We use the inter-fraction spread in 14C values, defined here as 14H , to argue that the hydrodynamic processes amplify overall 14C heterogeneity within corresponding bulk sediment samples. The magnitude and footprint of this heterogeneity carries implications for our understanding of carbon cycling in shallow marginal seas.
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Elsevier
In:  Encyclopedia of Ecology
Publication Date: 2019-01-09
Keywords: Earth Systems, Environmental Science, Climate Change
Type: inbook
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Elsevier
In:  Journal of Geodynamics, 124 . pp. 14-24.
Publication Date: 2019-01-14
Description: The Earth’s ocean floor deforms continuously under the influence of plate tectonic processes. In recent years, the development of deep-sea instruments using acoustic direct-path ranging allows observations of ocean floor deformation with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Due to rapid technological progress, acoustic ranging emerged as a central research field to monitor seafloor deformation. Here we review recent developments and the progress of direct-path ranging applications. We discuss the methodology and examine the effects of the oceanographic environment on the measurement precision. Comparing the resolution of previous deployments, we find that the baseline uncertainty increases linearly with baseline length, at least for distances up to 3 km, but with different linear relations for each deployment. Measurements of displacement at millimeter-level precision across normal, thrust or strike-slip faults are discussed to evaluate the influence of dedicated network designs appropriate for the discrete fault geometries. Furthermore, tectonically quiet areas, such as flanks of coastal or ocean island volcanoes and passive continental margins pose substantial hazards that often lack in-situ monitoring and are therefore a significant target for the application of seafloor geodetic techniques.
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Elsevier
In:  Tectonophysics, 750 . pp. 434-457.
Publication Date: 2019-01-14
Description: The Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP) in the western Pacific, has been proposed to be emplaced as part of the “Greater Ontong Java Event” during the early Cretaceous. Shortly after its formation, the Manihiki Plateau fragmented into multiple sub-provinces. Plate tectonic reconstructions ignore this fragmentation, treating the Manihiki Plateau as a single crustal block. By analyzing two seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-provinces of the Manihiki Plateau, we provide new insight into their deep crustal structure and magmatic evolution. Our data indicate that the High Plateau and the Western Plateaus were emplaced as a single unit during an initial phase of massive magmatic activity, but later magmatic stages altered the individual sub-provinces considerably. The High Plateau has a crustal thickness of 20 km and its P-wave velocity distribution is comparable to previously surveyed oceanic LIPs. Strong secondary magmatic phases are visible by eruptive centers and former magmatic pathways in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateaus, which have a crustal thickness decreasing gradually from 17.3 km (East) to 9.2 km (West), experienced smaller amounts of magmatism mainly along fault zones and on local seamounts. Therefore, we propose a distinct development of the two main sub-provinces of the Manihiki Plateau after their initial joint emplacement. The High Plateau experienced voluminous multi-phase magmatic accretion and extrusion, whereas the thinner Western Plateaus exhibit only relatively minor magmatic growth. Such a large difference in the evolution process has not been reported from any other oceanic LIP so far.
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Elsevier
In:  Chemical Geology, 507 . pp. 9-22.
Publication Date: 2019-01-15
Description: Highlights • The volcanic nature of the Mozambique Ridge is clearly established. • It is a Large Igneous Province. • It is formed by a mantle plume originating from the African LLSVP. Abstract The Mozambique Ridge (MOZR) is one of several bathymetric highs formed in the South African gateway shortly after the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. Two major models have been proposed for its formation - volcanic plateau and continental raft. In order to gain new insights into the genesis of the Mozambique Ridge, R/V SONNE cruise SO232 carried out bathymetric mapping, seismic reflection studies and comprehensive rock sampling of the igneous plateau basement. In this study, geochemical data are presented for 51 dredged samples, confirming the volcanic origin of at least the upper (exposed) part of the plateau. The samples have DUPAL-like geochemical compositions with high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7024–0.7050), low initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.5123–0.5128) and low initial 176Hf/177Hf (0.2827–0.2831), and elevated initial 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb (Δ7/4 = 2–16; Δ8/4 = 13–167). The geochemistry, however, is not consistent with exclusive derivation from an Indian MORB-type mantle source and requires a large contribution from at least two components. Ratios of fluid-immobile incompatible elements suggest the addition of an OIB-type mantle to the ambient upper mantle. The MOZR shares similar isotopic compositions similar to mixtures of sub-continental lithospheric mantle end members but also to long-lived, mantle-plume-related volcanic structures such as the Walvis Ridge, Discovery Seamounts and Shona hotspot track in the South Atlantic Ocean, which have been proposed to ascend from the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP), a possible source for DUPAL-type mantle located at the core-mantle boundary. Interestingly, the MOZR also overlaps compositionally with the nearby Karoo-Vestfjella Continental Flood Basalt province after filtering for the effect of interaction with the continental lithosphere. This geochemical similarity suggests that both volcanic provinces may be derived from a common deep source. Since a continuous hotspot track connecting the Karoo with the MOZR has not been found, there is some question about derivation of both provinces from the same plume. In conclusion, two possible models arise: (1) formation by a second mantle upwelling (blob or mantle plume), possibly reflecting a pulsating plume, or (2) melting of subcontinental lithospheric material transferred by channelized flow to the mid-ocean ridge shortly after continental break-up. Based on geological, geophysical and geochemical observations from this study and recent published literature, the mantle-plume model is favored.
Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2019-01-17
Description: The thermal state of polar continental crust plays a crucial role for understanding the stability and thickness of large ice sheets, the visco-elastic response of the solid Earth due to unloading when large ice caps melt and, in turn, the accuracy of future sea-level rise prediction. Various studies demonstrate the need for precise measurements and estimation of geothermal heat flow (GHF) in Antarctica for better constrained boundary conditions to enhance the ice sheet model performance. This study provides ground-truth for regional indirect GHF estimates in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, which is part of the West Antarctic Rift System, by presenting in situ temperature measurements in continental shelf sediments. Our results show regionally elevated and heterogeneous GHF (mean of 65 mWm−2) in the Amundsen Sea Embayment. Considering thermal blanketing effects, induced by inflow of warmer water and sedimentary processes, the estimated GHF ranges between 65 mWm−2and 95 mWm−2.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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Elsevier
In:  Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 217 . pp. 56-68.
Publication Date: 2019-01-16
Description: Salt marshes respond to sea-level rise through a series of complex and dynamic bio-physical feedbacks. In this study, we found that sea-level rise triggered salt marsh habitat restructuring, with the associated vegetation changes enhancing salt marsh elevation resilience. A continuous record of marsh elevation relative to sea level that includes reconstruction of high-resolution, sub-decadal, marsh elevation over the past century, coupled with a lower-resolution 1500-year record, revealed that relative sea-level rose 1.5 ± 0.4 m, following local glacial isostatic adjustment (1.2 mm/yr). As sea-level rise has rapidly accelerated, the high marsh zone dropped 11 cm within the tidal frame since 1932, leading to greater inundation and a shift to flood- and salt-tolerant low marsh species. Once the marsh platform fell to the elevation favored by low-marsh Spartina alterniflora, the elevation stabilized relative to sea level. Currently low marsh accretion keeps pace with sea-level rise, while present day high marsh zones that have not transitioned to low marsh have a vertical accretion deficit. Greater biomass productivity, and an expanding subsurface accommodation space favorable for salt marsh organic matter preservation, provide a positive feed-back between sea-level rise and marsh platform elevation. Carbon storage was 46 ± 28 g C/m2/yr from 550 to 1800 CE, increasing to 129 ± 50 g C/m2/yr in the last decade. Enhanced carbon storage is controlled by vertical accretion rates, rather than soil carbon density, and is a direct response to anthropogenic eustatic sea-level rise, ultimately providing a negative feedback on climate warming.
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Elsevier
In:  Chemical Geology, 507 . pp. 42-53.
Publication Date: 2019-01-16
Description: Highlights • Deglacial chemical weathering monitored by adsorbed isotopic and elemental signals • Resilience of authigenic geochemical signals towards variable lake redox conditions • Pronounced early deglacial weathering of labile accessory minerals • Remarkably congruent uranogenic and reduced thorogenic Pb isotope release • Anthropogenic, atmospherically deposited Pb pollution since over 2000 years Abstract Radiogenic Pb and Nd isotopes are well established tools in paleoceanographic science tracing ambient climate and continental runoff to the oceans down to sub-millennial timescales. Particularly in case of Pb isotopes, a clear climate dependency of continental isotopic runoff on glacial-interglacial transitions has been observed. Pb isotopes were reported to be released incongruently during initial chemical weathering. This incongruent release implies that Pb isotopic runoff compositions differ from the bulk catchment Pb isotopic signal. Yet only little is known about the processes leading to the incongruent release and the timescales of weathering on the continents. In this study we targeted the adsorbed trace metal signature in sediments from a Swiss high-Alpine lake that have accumulated since the retreat of the large Alpine ice domes during the last deglaciation to investigate initial Pb and Nd isotope weathering processes in a granitic environment. Additionally, selected adsorbed element concentrations and ratios were analysed to complement the isotopic physico-chemical weathering information. The integrity of the presented isotope records is supported by further investigation into the lake environment (e.g. oxic/anoxic conditions) and its potential influence on the isotopic record. The Pb isotope records during the early lake phase witnessed high-amplitude isotopic fluctuations linked to the initial chemical weathering of fine glacial substrate. This finding is also supported by the lithology of the core and rapidly decreasing adsorbed Th and U concentrations. Following this early lake phase, the majority of the Holocene traced congruent release of 207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb and a significant depletion of 208Pb/204Pb in the adsorbed phase. These findings corroborate earlier suggestions of more effective weathering of uranogenic minerals yet also call for the presence of more weathering-resistant thorogenic minerals in the lake catchment. The latest 2.2 ka of the record are significantly overprinted by anthropogenic Pb deposition coinciding with the rise and fall of the Roman Empire. Finally, our data suggest that Nd isotopes are equally affected by incongruent weathering during the initial deglacial weathering processes, albeit at smaller magnitude than seen for Pb isotopes.
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Elsevier
In:  Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 233 . pp. 94-100.
Publication Date: 2019-01-22
Description: Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The oleoresin of Brazilian Copaifera reticulata is a traditional remedy used for the treatment of skin and urinary tract infections, respiratory diseases, rheumatism, ulcer and tumours; thus, playing an important role in the primary health care of the indigenous population. AIM: As most previous pharmacological tests used the crude oleoresin and only a few studies so far dealt with enriched fractions or pure chemically defined compounds, the aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of the Copaifera reticulata oleoresin and to assign traditional uses to specific secondary metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oleoresin, as well as its neutral and acidic fractions were tested for their activity against six cancer cell lines, two clinically relevant bacterial strains, and two dermatophytes. Both fractions were analysed by GC-MS and UHPLC-ELSD, respectively. The antibacterial acidic phase was further fractionated by preparative chromatography to purify and characterize the compounds responsible for the observed pharmacological effect. RESULTS: Whereas no cytotoxic activity was detected, the crude oleoresin and its acidic fraction showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (IC50 values 4.2 and 4.8 µg/mL, respectively) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, IC50 values 5.3 and 7.2 µg/mL, respectively). Purification of the acidic fraction of the C. reticulata oleoresin yielded two dicarboxylic diterpene acids and the four main diterpene acids, comprising three different diterpene scaffolds. Interestingly, the activity was not restricted to a particular diterpene-type but rather depended on the compounds' lipophilicity, with the most active constituent showing IC50 values of 1.6 (E. faecium) and 2.5 µg/mL (MRSA), respectively. Furthermore, ent-polyalthic acid, the major diterpenoid, was significantly active against dermatophytes with IC50 values of 6.8 µg/mL (Trichophyton rubrum) and 4.3 µg/mL against (T. mentagrophytes). CONCLUSION: The present study proved the antimicrobial effects of the C. reticulata oleoresin and its diterpenoid constituents, confirming its wide use in folk medicine for the treatment of skin and urinary tract infections. The inhibitory activity of copaiba diterpenoids against dermatophytic fungi as well as the gram-positive bacteria E. faecium and MRSA is being reported for the first time, providing potential lead structures for the treatment of these clinically relevant bacterial strains.
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Elsevier
In:  Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 87 . pp. 105-119.
Publication Date: 2019-01-22
Description: Temperature is a major factor that modulates the development and reactivity of the immune system. Only limited knowledge exists regarding the immune system of the catadromous European eel, Anguilla anguilla, especially during the oceanic early life history stages. Thus, a new molecular toolbox was developed, involving tissue specific characterisation of 3 housekeeping genes, 9 genes from the innate and 3 genes from the adaptive immune system of this species. The spatial pattern of immune genes reflected their function, e.g. complement component c3 was mainly produced in liver and il10 in the head kidney. Subsequently, the ontogeny of the immune system was studied in larvae reared from hatch to first-feeding at four temperatures, spanning their thermal tolerance range (16, 18, 20, and 22 °C). Expression of some genes (c3 and igm) declined post hatch, whilst expression of most other genes (mhc2, tlr2, il1β, irf3, irf7) increased with larval age. At the optimal temperature, 18 °C, this pattern of immune-gene expression revealed an immunocompromised phase between hatch (0 dph) and teeth-development (8 dph). The expression of two of the studied genes (mhc2, lysc) was temperature dependent, leading to increased mRNA levels at 22 °C. Additionally, at the lower end of the thermal spectrum (16 °C) immune competency appeared reduced, whilst close to the upper thermal limit (22 °C) larvae showed signs of thermal stress. Thus, protection against pathogens is probably impaired at temperatures close to the critical thermal maximum (CTmax), impacting survival and productivity in hatcheries and natural recruitment.
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Elsevier
In:  Current Opinion in Systems Biology, 13 . pp. 108-114.
Publication Date: 2019-01-22
Description: Ecological studies need experimentation to test concepts and to disentangle causality in community dynamics. While simple models have given substantial insights into population and community dynamics, recent ecological concepts become increasingly complex. The globally important pelagic food web dynamics are well suited to test complex ecological concepts. For instance, trophic switches of individual organisms within pelagic food webs can elongate food webs or shift the balance between autotroph and heterotroph carbon fluxes. Here, we summarize results from mesocosm experiments demonstrating how environmental drivers result in trophic switches of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. Such mesocosm experiments are useful to develop and test complex ecological concepts going beyond trophic level–based analyses, including diversity, individual behavior, and environmental stochasticity
Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Elsevier
In:  Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 159 . pp. 143-151.
Publication Date: 2019-01-24
Description: The synchrony of pelagic fish population dynamics with climate variability may impose significant alterations in their distribution and biomass, as well as catch composition, with potential effects on ecosystems and fisheries. This work examines the effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signals across the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions (western, central and eastern), with respect to small (European sardine Sardina pilchardus, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, round sardinella Sardinella aurita and European sprat Sprattus sprattus) and medium (Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, Atlantic chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus) pelagic fishes using various catch ratios and the mean temperature of the pelagic catch (MTpC) method for the period 1970–2014. The time until the pelagic fish communities react to the signals of the AMO and NAO, as revealed by the MTpC and catch ratios, varied among the Mediterranean sub-regions. The pelagic fishes of the central and eastern Mediterranean are those that responded most strongly to AMO variability, whereas those of the central and western Mediterranean also responded to the NAO. The effect of the NAO on pelagic fishes of the eastern Mediterranean was not significant.
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Elsevier
In:  Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 159 . pp. 130-142.
Publication Date: 2019-01-24
Description: Northeast Atlantic marine ecosystems such as the Bay of Biscay, Celtic Sea, English Channel, Subpolar Gyre region, Icelandic waters and North Sea as well as the Mediterranean Sea show concomitant ‘regime shift’-like changes around the mid-1990s, which involved all biota of the pelagial: phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic fish assemblages, demersal fish assemblages and top predators. These shifts were caused by complex ocean-atmosphere interactions initiating large-scale changes in the strength and direction of the current systems, that move water masses around the North Atlantic, and involved the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG and fluctuations of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) play a key role in these complex processes. Small pelagic fish population trends were the sentinels of these changes in the mid-1990s in the ecosystems under investigation.
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Elsevier
In:  Marine Geology, 410 . pp. 56-69.
Publication Date: 2019-01-24
Description: Highlights: • Clay dehydration water expelled from buried sediments drives mud volcanism. • Rise of fluids mediated by crustal-scale strike-slip faults cross-cutting wedge. • On active accretionary wedge, petroleum accumulations were dismantled in Neogene. • 4He enrichment and δ13C-CH4 ~−50‰ in fluids reflect an open hydrocarbon system. • Petroleum pools remain on shallow margin. Microbial gas vented out of active wedge. Abstract: A geochemical study of the composition of hydrocarbon gases and helium isotopes (3He/4He) in fluids from Mud Volcanoes (MVs) located on and out of the active accretionary wedge of the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) provides information on fluid sources and migrations in deeply buried sediments. The GoC is a tectonically active segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary occluded beneath the thick sediments of an accretionary wedge dissected by crustal-scale strike-slip faults. Initially built during the Miocene Gibraltar Arc subduction, the wedge has since developed toward the W-NW in an oblique convergent setting. Interstitial water expelled from clays undergoing diagenesis in buried sediments drives mud volcanism on the wedge, with MVs located along strike-slip faults mediating fluid ascent. The large excess of radiogenic helium (4He) in all GoC fluids agrees with a clay mineral dehydration source of water. Hydrocarbon gases from all deepwater MVs bear methane having similar stable carbon isotope compositions of ~−50‰VPDB whether fluids are highly enriched in methane relative to heavier homologues (C2+) or not (Methane / (Ethane + Propane) ~10 to 10,000). We suggest that methane with −50‰VPDB was largely diffused out of early generating source rocks, and became dissolved in the water expelled by the buried sediments. Consistently, low 3He/4He ratios suggest an open hydrocarbon system: Petroleum accumulations and 3He dissolved in the original sedimentary pore water have mostly escaped into the water column during the major Late Neogene compressional events. At present, some MVs vent CH4-rich fluids from dewatering sediments, while other structures located on active thrusts additionally vent C2+-rich gases generated by active Cretaceous source intervals. By contrast, evaporitic seals preserved petroleum accumulations on the shallow Moroccan Margin, while the westernmost MVs located out of the accretionary wedge vent microbial gas.
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Elsevier
In:  Marine Chemistry, 208 . pp. 43-55.
Publication Date: 2019-01-24
Description: Highlights • Frequent sediment resuspension may have buffered D-Fe released from shelf sediments. • 228Ra was used to estimate trace element fluxes from the Chukchi shelf sediments. • The estimated sediment 228Ra flux ranks among the highest reported globally. • About 10–25% of the Chukchi shelf sediment Fe flux is exported to the Arctic Ocean. The Chukchi Sea is a primary site for shelf-ocean exchange in the Arctic region and modifies Pacific-sourced water masses as they transit via the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this study was to use radium and trace metal distributions to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycles in the Bering and Chukchi Seas, and evaluate their potential response to future changes in the Arctic. We investigated the distributions of dissolved and total dissolvable trace metals (Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Pb) in the Bering and Chukchi Seas during spring. In addition, the long-lived radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were measured as tracers of benthic trace metal inputs. Trace metal concentrations, especially Fe and Mn, were highly elevated in Chukchi shelf waters compared with the open Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. Trace metal, nutrient, and Ra patterns suggested that Fe, Mn, and Co concentrations were predominantly controlled by reductive benthic inputs, whereas the other trace metals were influenced by biological uptake and release processes. We propose that Fe, Mn, and Co in the Chukchi Sea are supplied from shelf sediments during winter overturning, and we combine the 228Ra fluxes with the distributions of Fe, Mn, and Co to provide a first estimate of their benthic fluxes in the region. The average benthic flux of 228Ra was 1.49 × 108 atoms m−2 d−1, which is among the highest rates reported globally. Estimated dissolved Fe (D-Fe) flux from the sediments was 2.5 μmol m−2 d−1, whereas D-Mn and D-Co fluxes were 8.0 μmol m−2 d−1 and 0.2 μmol m−2 d−1, respectively. The off-shelf transport of D-Fe to the Arctic Ocean is estimated to be about 10–25% of the benthic Fe flux, with the remainder retained on the shelf due to scavenging and/or phytoplankton uptake. Our results highlight the importance of the Chukchi Sea as a major source of the micro-nutrients to the Arctic Ocean, thereby supporting primary production. Long-term changes in factors that affect cross-shelf mixing, such as the observed reduction in ice cover, may therefore enhance shelf nutrient inputs and primary productivity in the Arctic.
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Elsevier
In:  Lithos, 326-327 . pp. 540-555.
Publication Date: 2019-01-29
Description: Highlights: • Researcher Ridge, a chain of volcanic seamounts in the central Atlantic is identified as a classical hotspot track; • The underlying small mantle plume is believed to get captured by the westward migrating Mid-Atlantic Ridge; • The bathymetric/geochemical anomaly of the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge at 14° N can therefore be explained by plume-ridge interaction. Abstract: Researcher Ridge is a 400 km long, WNW-ESE oriented chain of volcanic structures, located on ~20 to 40 Ma old oceanic crust on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at ~15° N. Researcher Ridge has been little studied, and its age and origin are currently unclear. At roughly the same latitude (14–15° N), the MAR axis is bathymetrically elevated and geochemically enriched (hereafter referred to as the 14° N MAR anomaly). This study presents 40Ar/39Ar age data, major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of volcanic rocks dredged from several seamounts of the Researcher Ridge. In addition, new geochemical data of MORBs from two 13–14° N dredge sites on the MAR are also presented. The results reveal that Researcher Ridge lavas have geochemically enriched ocean island basalt compositions (chondrite-normalized [La/Sm]N = 1.7–5.0, and [Ce/Yb]N = 1.58–11.3) with isotopic signatures (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51294–0.51316, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70266–0.70405, 206Pb/204Pb = 19.14–19.93, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.57–15.63, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.82–39.17, and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28307–0.28312) trending towards the FOZO or HIMU mantle end member composition. Based on the new age and geochemical data, Researcher Ridge is interpreted as a classic hotspot track, albeit formed by a relatively weak melting anomaly. The lavas from the 14° N MAR anomaly have an enriched E-MORB type composition ([La/Sm]N = 1.81–2.29, [Ce/Yb]N = 1.6–3.9). Their isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51298–0.51313, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70250–0.70282, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.90–19.31, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52–15.58, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.45–38.95, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28315–0.28320) plot at the enriched end of the local MORB array and partly overlap the Researcher Ridge lava compositions, suggesting a genetic relationship. We propose that the 14° N MAR anomaly is caused by deflection of upwelling Researcher Ridge plume material towards the westward migrating MAR, causing the production of E-MORBs with similar isotopic compositions to the Researcher Ridge lavas. Once the plume was captured by the spreading ridge, off-axis hotspot track volcanism ceased, resulting in a seamount gap between the eastern end of the Researcher Ridge and the 14° N MAR anomaly.
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2019-01-29
Description: Rapid declines in Arctic sea ice have captured attention and pose significant challenges to a variety of stakeholders. There is a rising demand for Arctic sea ice prediction at daily to seasonal time scales, which is partly a sea ice initial condition problem. Thus, a multivariate data assimilation that integrates sea ice observations to generate realistic and skillful model initialization is needed to improve predictive skill of Arctic sea ice. Sea ice data assimilation is a relatively new research area. In this review paper, we focus on two challenges for implementing multivariate data assimilation systems for sea ice forecast. First, to address the challenge of limited spatiotemporal coverage and large uncertainties of observations, we discuss sea ice parameters derived from satellite remote sensing that (1) have been utilized for improved model initialization, including concentration, thickness and drift, and (2) are currently under development with the potential for enhancing the predictability of Arctic sea ice, including melt ponds and sea ice leads. Second, to strive to generate the “best” estimate of sea ice initial conditions by combining model simulations/forecasts and observations, we review capabilities and limitations of different data assimilation techniques that have been developed and used to assimilate observed sea ice parameters in dynamical models.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 52
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Elsevier
In:  Aquatic Toxicology, 206 . pp. 72-80.
Publication Date: 2019-01-30
Description: Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide are a common stressor for fish and other aquatic animals. In particular, intensive aquaculture can impose prolonged periods of severe environmental hypercapnia, manifold exceeding CO2 concentrations of natural habitats. In order to cope with this stressor, gills are essential and constitute the primary organ in the acclimatization process. Yet, despite a general understanding of changes in ion regulation, not much is known with regard to other cellular mechanisms. In this study, we apply RT-qPCR to investigate changes in the expression of several genes associated with metabolism, stress and immunity within gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) after an eight-week exposure to different concentrations of CO2 (low = ~3000 μatm, medium = ~15000 μatm and high = ~25000 μatm CO2). Histological examination of the gill tissue only found a significant increase of hypertrophied secondary lamella in the highest tested treatment level. gene expression results, on the other hand, implied both, mutual and dose-dependent transcriptional adjustments. Comparable up-regulation of IL-1ß, LMP7 and Grim19 at medium and high hypercapnia indicated an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within gill cells. Simultaneous increase in Akirin and PRDX transcripts at medium CO2 indicated enhanced anti-oxidant activity and regulation of transcription, while reduced mRNA concentrations of COX, EF1α and STAT2 at high CO2 denoted suppressed protein synthesis and reduced metabolic capacity. In addition to upregulated DFAD and ApoE expression, implying compensating repair measures, gills exposed to the highest tested treatment level seemed to operate close to or even beyond their maximum capacity. Thus, fitting the model of capacity limitation, our results provide evidence for accretive intracellular hypoxia and oxidative stress in the gills of turbot, dependent on the level of environmental hypercapnia. Further, genes, such as COX, may be valuable biomarkers when attempting to discriminate between a successful and an overpowered stress response.
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• 53
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Elsevier
In:  Chemical Geology, 509 . pp. 45-63.
Publication Date: 2019-01-30
Description: A long-standing question has been whether the Lower Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea represents thinned continental crust or is part of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). During the R/V Meteor cruise M81/2, the northeastern part of the Lower Nicaraguan Rise including the Hess Escarpment was extensively sampled. Only volcanic and carbonate rocks were recovered and no metamorphic rocks or rocks with continental crustal affinities, indicating that at least the uppermost basement is volcanic and belongs to a volcanic province, probably the CLIP. We provide a comprehensive geochemical dataset, including major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb double spike isotope ratios, for the volcanic rocks. The basalts are geochemically subdivided into two groups: 1) depleted and 2) enriched. The majority belong to the depleted group with 6–9 wt% MgO and highly depleted incompatible element (e.g. (La/Yb)N = 0.15–0.76, (La/Sm)N = 0.21–0.65) compositions and depleted radiogenic isotope (e.g. εNdi = 8.9–11.0, εHfi = 13.6–16.5, 206Pb/204Pbi = 18.28–18.98) ratios. The subordinate enriched group basalts have 5–8 wt% MgO and were solely recovered from the lower part of the central Hess Escarpment. These rocks possess enriched incompatible element ((La/Sm)N = 1.15–1.60, (La/Yb)N = 1.40–2.57) and isotopic (εNdi = 7.52–8.34, εHfi = 12.6–12.9, 206Pb/204Pbi = 18.87–19.07) ratios resembling E-MORB. The depleted group is distinct from Pacific and Atlantic MORB based on combined 206Pb/204Pb, 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf data. It is similar, but not identical to the highly depleted Gorgona komatiites, thought to be generated during the CLIP event, and depleted Galápagos hotspot track lavas accreted to the Pacific margin of Central America. Ages of ~81 Ma from rocks drilled on the Hess Escarpment postdate the main CLIP phase (95-83 Ma), and indicate that at least the northeastern part of the Nicaraguan Rise formed during a later volcanic event. Lithospheric thinning after the main CLIP phase is suggested to have triggered upwelling of still anomalously hot, partially-melted or unmelted CLIP mantle material to form the younger depleted group of lavas. Our investigations imply that second-stage melting to generate depleted compositions during formation of oceanic large igneous provinces, as has been recently proposed for the Manihiki Plateau, is a more common process than originally thought.
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• 54
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 246 . pp. 213-233.
Publication Date: 2019-02-08
Description: The development of weathering profiles shapes Earth’s surface and regulates its climate via chemical weathering. Hence, it is essential to be able to determine the age of weathering profiles and quantify how fast they form. Uranium-series isotopes allow for such quantification. However, isotope compositions are generally measured in bulk regolith, which represents a complex mixture of mineral and organic phases of different origins that can impact the reliability of the information derived from U-series isotopes. Thus, in this study, we assess whether sequential extraction and mineral separation could provide more reliable estimates of weathering ages and rates. We focus on a granitic profile developed under temperate climate in southeastern Australia, a tectonically quiescent environment. Regolith production rates have been independently estimated in the region using cosmogenic isotopes. As expected, the mineralogy and geochemistry of the bulk regolith show that biotite and feldspar are the main phases lost during weathering, progressively replaced by clay minerals. There is no evidence for significant input of element from external sources, such as via aerosol deposition. While sequential extraction does not seem to affect major mineral phases and element concentrations, it is suspected of producing artificial radioactive disequilibrium. Biotite separates show very large accumulation of U and Th, which increases with decreasing depth. Regolith production rates and mineral dissolution rates calculated with weathering rates estimated using the bulk saprolite and quartz separate compositions yield values comparable to independent estimates. Conversely, weathering ages derived from the compositions of saprolite leached experimentally or biotite separates underestimate regolith production rates and mineral dissolution rates. Thus, sequential extraction or biotite separation are not recommended methods to derive reliable rates of regolith production and mineral dissolution. Despite the potential complexity of the composition of bulk regolith, the use of regolith without any pre-treatment seems to yield satisfying estimates of regolith production and mineral dissolution rates. The composition of quartz separates yields rates similar to those derived from bulk compositions. This provides an alternative method, potentially allowing reliable results to be obtained from a single mineral phase rather than a complex mixture of weathering products.
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• 55
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Elsevier
In:  Lithos, 328-329 . pp. 69-87.
Publication Date: 2019-02-08
Description: Highlights • At least parts of the Beata Ridge formed during the main CLIP stage at 95–83 Ma. • Sampling of numerous volcanic rocks indicates a broad extrusive magmatic event. • Depleted and enriched geochemical signatures point to a heterogeneous mantle source. • Geochemical heterogeneities can occur on a small scale of tens of kilometers. Abstract The Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP), a Cretaceous oceanic flood basalt province, presumably formed at the initiation of the Galápagos hotspot. During the M81 cruise of the German R/V METEOR, we sampled the Beata Ridge, a prominent submarine structure in the Caribbean Sea belonging to the CLIP. The ridge offers the opportunity to directly sample basement sequences of the central, submarine part of the CLIP, complementing numerous studies of accreted CLIP sequences exposed on land around the margins of this LIP. The majority of the recovered Beata Ridge samples are volcanic, implying that at least parts of the Beata Ridge were formed during a large extrusive event in contrast to previous assumptions that the structure is primarily composed of intrusive rocks. Several stratigraphically controlled profiles were sampled along the western slope of the Beata Ridge using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kiel 6000 and revealed variously alternating sequences of magmatic rocks (lavas, pillow breccias, tuffs and gabbros) and sediment plains. We report new 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major and trace element, Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope) data for the recovered magmatic samples. Although the 40Ar/39Ar analyses display disturbed age spectra, they suggest an age range of 92.4–76.9 Ma. Thus our age data show for the first time that the Beata Ridge also formed during the main magmatic stage of the CLIP (~95–83 Ma). Previous studies suggested that the Beata Ridge was formed during a second, lower-volume magmatic phase of the CLIP (~81–71 Ma), possibly related to decompression melting during an extensional phase in the Caribbean. Most samples display relatively flat chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns commonly observed throughout the CLIP, but light REE enriched and depleted compositions are also present. The occurrence of enriched and depleted incompatible element and radiogenic isotope signatures implies a heterogeneous mantle source region, as is observed for other LIPs worldwide. Since a high degree of geochemical variability is observed over short stratigraphic intervals within the ROV profiles, melt homogenization did not operate as effectively as commonly assumed for LIPs. Instead the plume head probably preserved some domains of enriched and depleted components, whereas most of the melts during the main stage have intermediate compositions (with flat REE patterns), representing mixtures of the enriched and depleted components.
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• 56
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 248 . pp. 25-42.
Publication Date: 2019-02-11
Description: Inferring redox conditions for ancient marine environments is critical to our understanding of biogeochemical cycles over Earth history. Because of the redox sensitivity of cerium (Ce) relative to other rare earth elements (REEs) and its uptake in marine carbonates, the Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) is widely applied to ancient carbonates as a proxy for local redox conditions in the water column. However, carbonate sediments and rocks are particularly vulnerable to multiple stages and styles of post-depositional diagenetic alteration where the diagenetic redox conditions and fluid compositions can vary widely from overlying seawater. Evaluations of the effects of this post-depositional alteration for the Ce anomaly have mostly been limited to ancient carbonate rocks rather than recent, well-characterized analog facies. Here, we report on analyses of REE plus yttrium concentrations (REY) and Ce anomalies in bulk carbonate samples from drill cores collected in the Bahamas (Clino and Unda) that allow us to track loss or retention of primary signals of initial oxic deposition through a range of subsequent alteration scenarios mostly under anoxic conditions. Specifically, these materials have experienced well-constrained overprints linked to meteoric processes and marine burial diagenesis, including dolomitization. Our results show that, regardless of mineralogy, diagenetic fluid composition, and redox state, the REY patterns in these carbonates, including the Ce anomaly, are similar to those of modern oxic seawater, indicating that they likely record the seawater signatures of primary deposition. As such, the Ce anomaly in shallow marine carbonates has the potential to preserve records of primary deposition even when subject to multiple stages and styles of diagenetic alteration, confirming its utility in studies of ancient marine redox.
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• 57
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 248 . pp. 370-386.
Publication Date: 2019-02-11
Description: CO2-induced ocean acidification and associated decrease of seawater carbonate saturation state contributed to multiple environmental crises in Earth’s history, and currently poses a major threat for marine calcifying organisms. Owing to their high abundance and good preservation in the Phanerozoic geological record, brachiopods present an advantageous taxon of marine calcifiers for palaeo-proxy applications as well as studies on biological mechanism to cope with environmental change. To investigate the geochemical and physiological responses of brachiopods to prolonged low-pH conditions we cultured Magellania venosa, Terebratella dorsata and Pajaudina atlantica under controlled experimental settings over a period of more than two years. Our experiments demonstrate that brachiopods form their calcite shells under strong biological control, which enables them to survive and grow under low-pH conditions and even in seawater strongly undersaturated with respect to calcite (pH = 7.35, Ωcal = 0.6). Using boron isotope (δ11B) systematics including MC-ICP-MS as well as SIMS analyses, validated against in vivo microelectrode measurements, we show that this resilience is achieved by strict regulation of the calcifying fluid pH between the epithelial mantle and the shell. We provide a culture-based δ11B−pH calibration, which as a result of the internal pH regulatory mechanisms deviates from the inorganic borate ion to pH relationship, but confirms a clear yet subtle pH dependency for brachiopods. At a micro-scale level, the incorporation of 11B appears to be principally driven by a physiological gradient across the shell, where the δ11B values of the innermost calcite record the internal calcifying fluid pH while the composition of the outermost layers is also influenced by seawater pH. These findings are of consequence to studies on biomineralisation processes, physiological adaptations as well as past climate reconstructions.
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• 58
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Elsevier
In:  Quaternary International .
Publication Date: 2019-02-13
Description: This paper is based on the results of a comprehensive investigations of sediments from seven cores sampled during the International Russian-Chinese Cruise 53 of the R/V “Akademik Lavrentyev” (2010) in the frames of the Russian-Chinese collaboration between the Pacific Oceanological Institute of the Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (POI FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia), and the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO, Qingdao, China). Baitoushan (Chanbaishan) Volcano had several powerful explosive eruptions during the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene, which produced widespread tephra layers. The paper reports chemical composition of volcanic glasses and minerals from six tephra layers labeled as B-Og, B-Sado, B-J, B-Un1, B-V, and B-Tm, which belong to Baitoushan Volcano and were identified in sediments of the northwestern part of the Sea of Japan. The tephras were dated using geochronological data for the host sediments. The estimated ages for the Middle Pleistocene tephra is 488 ka; the Late Pleistocene tephras are 71.1–71.9 cal. kа (B-Sado), 50.8 cal. ka (B-J), 38.3 cal. ka (B-Un1), and 29.0–29.4 cal. ka (B-V). The ash layers consist of alkali-rich glass of trachydacitic to alkaline rhyolitic composition and specific assemblage of minerals including Fe-rich augite-hedenbergite, aegirine-augite, aegirine, arfvedsonite, and fayalite. The mineral assemblage is typical for alkalic volcanic rocks from continental rift setting. Aenigmatite, a rare mineral from the group of inosilicates, was firstly identified in distal tephra of Baitoushan Volcano, supplied into marine sediments. The composition of glasses and minerals from all layers are similar. It testifies about steady-state conditions of the magma accumulation under Baitoushan Volcano and about the bimodal character of magmatic chambers during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene (since 100 ka).
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• 59
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Elsevier
Publication Date: 2019-02-13
Description: Time series derived from paleoclimate archives are often irregularly sampled in time and thus not analysable using standard statistical methods such as correlation analyses. Although measures for the similarity between time series have been proposed for irregular time series, they do not account for the time scale dependency of the relationship. Stochastically distributed temporal sampling irregularities act qualitatively as a low-pass filter reducing the influence of fast variations from frequencies higher than about 0.5 (Δtmax) − 1, where Δtmax is the maximum time interval between observations. This may lead to overestimated correlations if the true correlation increases with time scale. Typically, correlations are underestimated due to a non-simultaneous sampling of time series. Here, we investigated different techniques to estimate time scale dependent correlations of weakly irregularly sampled time series, with a particular focus on different resampling methods and filters of varying complexity. The methods were tested on ensembles of synthetic time series that mimic the characteristics of Holocene marine sediment temperature proxy records. We found that a linear interpolation of the irregular time series onto a regular grid, followed by a simple Gaussian filter was the best approach to deal with the irregularity and account for the time scale dependence. This approach had both, minimal filter artefacts, particularly on short time scales, and a minimal loss of information due to filter length.
Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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• 60
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Elsevier
In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 248 . pp. 43-60.
Publication Date: 2019-02-14
Description: Assessing the physicochemical variability of the deeper ocean is currently hampered by limited instrumental time series and proxy records. Bamboo corals (Isididae) form a cosmopolitan family of calcitic deep sea corals that could fill this information gap via geochemical information recorded in their skeletons. Here we evaluate the suitability of high-resolution chemical imaging of bamboo coral skeletons for temperature and nutrient reconstruction. The applied elemental mapping techniques allow to verify the suitability of the chosen transect on the sample section for paleo-reconstructions and enhance the statistical precision of the reconstruction. We measured Mg/Ca via electron microprobe at 1 µm resolution and Ba/Ca via laser ablation ICP-MS at 35 µm resolution in a historic specimen of Keratoisis grayi from the Blake Plateau off Eastern Florida. Long-term growth temperatures of 7.1 ± 3.4 °C (± 2 SD) that are in agreement with recent ambient temperature range can be reconstructed from Mg/Ca ratios provided that anomalously Mg-enriched structural features around the central axis and isolated features related to tissue attachment are avoided for reconstruction. Skeletal Ba/Ca measurements reflect mean seawater barium [Ba]SW concentrations ([Ba]SW = 51 ± 24 nmol kg-1 (± 2 SD)), in agreement with instrumental data (47 nmol kg-1). We show for the first time that Ba/Ca forms concentric structures in a bamboo coral skeleton section. Our investigations suggest that, while bamboo coral skeletons do record environmental parameters in their mean chemical composition, the magnitude of environmental variability reconstructed from high-resolution chemical maps exceeds that expected from instrumental time series. This necessitates additional investigation of the factors driving bamboo coral skeletal composition.
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• 61
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Elsevier
In:  Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 62 . pp. 330-339.
Publication Date: 2019-02-14
Description: Highlights • CO2-methane exchange in a pressure vessel was simulated. • The model uses a detailed description of the kinetics for the CO2-methane exchange and simplifies the transport phenomena. • Irreversible dissociation rate of CH4- and CO2-hydrate in the pressure vessel was estimated as 0.02 and 0.03 mol m−3.s−1. • Formation of CO2-hydrate not only improved the quality of CO2 retention but also enhanced the methane recovery. Carbon dioxide exchange with methane in the clathrate structure has been shown beneficial in laboratory experiments and has been suggested as a field-scale technique for production of natural gas from gas-hydrate bearing sediments. Furthermore, the method is environmentally attractive due to the formation of CO2-hydrate in the sediments, leading to the geosequestration of carbon dioxide. However, the knowledge is still limited on the impact of small-scale heterogeneities on hydrate dissociation kinetics. In the present study, we developed a model for simulating laboratory experiments of carbon dioxide injection into a pressure vessel containing a mixture of gas hydrate and quartz sand. Four experiments at different temperature and pressure conditions were modeled. The model assumes that the contents are ideally mixed and aims to estimate the effective dissociation rate of gas hydrate by matching the model results with the experimental observations. Simulation results indicate that with a marginal offset the model was able to simulate different hydrate dissociation experiments, in particular, those that are performed at high pressures and low temperatures. At low pressures and high temperatures large discrepancies were noticed between the model results and the experimental observations. The mismatches were attributed to the development of extremely heterogeneous flow patterns at pore-scale, where field-scale models usually assume the characteristics to be uniform. Through this modeling study we estimated the irreversible dissociation rate of methane- and CO2-hydrate as 0.02 and 0.03 mol m(-3) s(-1), respectively.
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• 62
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Elsevier
In:  Optics Communications, 434 . pp. 184-190.
Publication Date: 2019-02-18
Description: In this paper, we propose a transmitter with 150°divergence angle and more than 90% uniformity of rndiation intensity for quasi-omni-directional underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) by applying freeform lens into LED array. We demonstrate its performance under different transmitting directions with 19Mbps data rate and 8m communication distance in an experimental tank whose volume is 20mx20mx14m and attenuation coefficient is about 0.40m-1. The result shows that the variation of bit error rate (BER) is about three orders of magnitude with the help of freefonn lens when direction deviation angle is between -75°and +75°, which is reduced five orders compared with the situation without the lens. The presented result is useful to make it easier lo establish communication link and improve the performance ofUWOC syste"1) when transmitter direction shake exists. Also, it implies that we could apply different freefonn lenses into LED array to reshape transmitting illumination according to different demands for UWOC application.
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• 63
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Elsevier
In:  Science of The Total Environment, 649 . pp. 224-232.
Publication Date: 2019-02-19
Description: In order to gain knowledge about the potential effects of acidification in aquatic ecosystems, global change research based on microalgae as sentinel species has been often developed. However, these studies are limited to single species tests and there is still a research gap about the behaviour of microalgal communities under this environmental stressor. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the negative effects of CO2 under an ecologically realistic scenario. To achieve this objective, two types of toxicity tests were developed; i) single toxicity tests and ii) multispecies toxicity tests, in order to evaluate the effects on each species as well as the interspecific competition. For this purpose, three microalgae species (Tetraselmis chuii, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis gaditana) were exposed to two selected pH levels (7.4, 6.0) and a control (pH 8.0). The pH values were choosen for testing different scenarios of CO2 enrichment including the exchange atmosphere-ocean (pH 7.4) and natural or anthropogenic sources of CO2 (pH 6.0). The effects on growth, cell viability, oxidative stress, plus inherent cell properties (size, complexity and autofluorescence) were studied using flow cytometry (FCM). Results showed that T. chuii was the most resistant species to CO2 enrichment with less abrupt changes in terms of cell density, inherent cell properties, oxidative stress and cell viability. Although P. tricornutum was the dominant species in both single and multispecies tests, this species showed the highest decrease in cell density under pH 6.0. Effects of competence were recorded in the multispecies control (pH 8) but this competence was eclipsed by the effects of low pH. The knowledge of biological interactions made by different microalgae species is a useful tool to extrapolate research data from laboratory to the field.
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• 64
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Elsevier
In:  Quaternary Science Reviews, 208 . pp. 105-117.
Publication Date: 2019-02-20
Description: Highlights • Colder and fresher subsurface waters during glacials in the Central South Pacific. • Depth of source waters forming the AAIW in the CSP shifts between LGM  and PGM. • LGM-PGM conditions resemble the oceanographic changes caused by SAM. Abstract Southern Ocean Intermediate Waters (SOIWs), such as Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water, play a key role in modulating the global climate on glacial-interglacial time scales. They link the Southern Ocean and the tropics via mechanisms such as “oceanic tunneling” that transport climatic signals across latitudes. Despite their importance, the past evolution of the SOIWs in the Central South Pacific is largely unknown. Here we compare paired Mg/Ca-temperature, stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope records from surface-dwelling and deep-dwelling planktic foraminifera to infer changes in the water column structure for the last 260 ka in the Central South Pacific (54° S). Our study focuses on the subsurface oceanographic variability controlled by SOIWs, which are subducted at the Subantarctic Front. Our data show that the subsurface ocean in the Central South Pacific was colder and fresher during glacial stages than during the Holocene (0–10 ka BP), suggesting a general glacial enhanced presence of Antarctic Intermediate Water, in agreement with previous studies from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific and the Southeast Pacific. However, the subsurface ocean salinity differs for both glacial stages, with fresher condition during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ∼26.5–19 ka BP) and more saline condition during the Penultimate Glacial Maximum (PGM; ∼155–140 ka BP). The δ13C data also show contrasting conditions for both glacial time windows in the upper water column, with a large depletion of 0.37‰ in δ13C from the LGM values, suggests a larger contribution of “old” low δ13C deep waters at intermediate depths at the study site during the PGM, plausibly due to stronger upwelling in high southern latitudes. The dissimilar scenarios between the LGM and the PGM may have been caused by processes that are analogous to the phase-switch in modern day Southern Annular Mode.
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• 65
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Elsevier
In:  Chemical Geology, 507 . pp. 64-84.
Publication Date: 2019-02-22
Description: The role of accessory minerals in the incongruent release of Hf and Pb during continental weathering and its implications for the generation of distinct seawater isotope compositions is subject of debate. While it has been suggested that radiogenic Hf and Pb isotope signatures released during the dissolution of rocks are controlled by the relative abundances of minerals with distinct isotope compositions and differences in their resistance to dissolution there has not been a comprehensive experimental investigation of these processes to date. We carried out systematic sequential leaching experiments on fresh and partly weathered granitic rock samples as well as separated zircons from the Central Aar Granite in Switzerland. Combined with major and rare earth element concentrations our new quantitative experimental data reveal systematic preferential release of radiogenic Nd, Hf and Pb isotopes primarily controlled by dissolution characteristics of the host rock's easily dissolvable accessory and major minerals, in particular apatite and sphene, during weak chemical weathering. Moreover, Pb isotope signatures of incipient weathering conditions, contrary to expectations, indicate initial congruent release of Pb from freshly exposed mineral surfaces that becomes subsequently incongruent. During more advanced chemical weathering stages, as well as enhanced physical weathering conditions, the dissolution of major minerals (i.e. feldspars) becomes dominant for Nd and Pb isotope signatures, whereas Hf isotopes are still dominated by contributions from highly radiogenic accessories. Additional leaching experiments of zircon separates were performed to test the specific role of zircons for Hf isotope compositions of riverine runoff. It is demonstrated that zircon is more efficiently dissolved when physical weathering is enhanced. This increased Hf release originating from partial dissolution of zircons, however, is quantitatively not sufficient to explain less radiogenic Hf isotope signatures in seawater during episodes of enhanced mechanical erosion alone. Moreover, the observed addition of Hf from the more congruent dissolution of the zircon-free fractions of the parent rock due to enhanced physical weathering indicate that these minerals also play an important role in controlling Hf isotope signatures released under deglacial conditions.
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Elsevier
In:  Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 143 . pp. 127-138.
Publication Date: 2019-02-22
Description: The global marine fixed nitrogen budget acts as a strong control on oceanic primary productivity, and the Arctic plays a disproportionately large role in the sink terms for this budget. This paper aims to quantify the impact of nitrogen cycling on the Canada Basin, utilizing two tracers of denitrification: N2/Ar, a dissolved gas tracer, and N*, a nutrient ratio tracer. In the Pacific Winter Water (PWW), which forms in the Chukchi Sea, we observe a disconnect between N2/Ar and N*, where the excess N2 expected from N* observations is far larger than the N2 excess we measure. We show that loss of N2 to the atmosphere through ventilation on the Chukchi Shelf likely accounts for this disparity, highlighting the importance of using N2/Ar as a denitrification tracer only in isolated water masses. We additionally observe increasing N2/Ar and decreasing N* in the old deep waters of the Canada Basin, suggesting benthic denitrification has been operating in the deep sediments over the 500-year age of this water mass. We use a one-dimensional vertical reaction-diffusion model to estimate denitrification rates of 0.0053–0.0130 mmol-N m−2 d−1, or 0.04–0.1 Tg N y−1 integrated over the whole basin, which is about half the rates estimated for other deep basins, in-line with lower remineralization rates in the deep Canada Basin. Further measurements of these tracers in the Arctic, particularly directly in the Chukchi Sea, will help constrain the relative importance of physical vs. biological processes on N2 in this region.
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