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  • Elsevier  (5,803,982)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Volcanic hazard assessment relies on the accurate knowledge of the eruptive style and recurrence of volcanic eruptions in the past. At El Hierro (Canary Islands) historical and prehistorical records are still poorly defined, and although the island was the location of one of the most recent eruptions (La Restinga, 2011 CE) of the Canarian archipelago, the recent subaerial volcanism is still poorly studied. Information about the age of Holocene volcanic activity as well as the stratigraphy of the deposits is scarce: few eruptions are dated so far, whereas the others are classified as pre-or Holocene events considering lava flow characteristics along the coast. Here, we report on the dating of eleven (M˜na Chamuscada, M˜na del Tesoro, Orchilla, Las Calcosas, M˜na Negra, Lomo Negro, Below Lomo Negro, Cuchillo del Roque, Malpaso Member, and M˜na del Guanche) Holocene subaerial eruptions, distributed along the three rift zones, combining paleomagnetic and 14C methods. We also provide geochemical analyses for nine of them. Results indicate that M˜na Chamuscada and M˜na del Tesoro occurred more recently than previously considered, setting them within the last two thousand years. Conversely, paleomagnetic and 14C ages found for Lomo Negro eruption are consistent with literature data (Villasante- Marcos and Pav´on-Carrasco, 2014) and constrain the occurrence of this event in the XVI century CE. Finally, for Malpaso Member deposits, the two 14C datings obtained by charcoals found below and above the trachytic layer set the eruption during the Holocene epoch, between ~7300 BCE and ~4700 BCE. For the other eruptions, in two cases (Orchilla and Las Calcosas) many possible time windows during the last 14 ka have been found, whereas a few possible ages have been obtained for the others. On the whole, the resulting chronological reconstruction of the recent activity of El Hierro indicates that eruptions occurred unevenly along the three main rifts, with nine eruptions in the WNW rift, six in the NE rift, and four in the SSE rift. We document at least two periods characterized by high eruptive frequency: an old one, between 8000 BCE and 1000 BCE, with eight eruptions, three of which characterized by more evolved compositions (phonotephrite and trachyte), and a recent one, between 1000 BCE and present day, with at least seven eruptions, mainly showing basanite compositions. The new data yield a significant improvement of Holocene eruption chronology, thus are instrumental for a correct evaluation of the volcanic hazard at El Hierro.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107526
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Paleomagnetism ; El Hierro ; 04.05. Geomagnetism ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: The Gutenberg–Richter law and the Omori law are both characterized by a scaling behavior. However, their relation is still an open question. Although several hypotheses have been formulated, a comprehen- sive geophysical mechanism is still missing to explain the observed variability of the scaling exponents b-value and p-value, e.g., correlating the seismic cycle to statistical seismology and tectonic processes. In this work, a model for describing the size-frequency scaling and the temporal evolution of seismicity is proposed starting from simple assumptions. The parameter describing how the number of earthquakes decreases after a major seismic event, p, turns out to be positively correlated to the exponent of the frequency-size distribution of seismicity, b, and related to tectonics. Our findings suggest that p ≈ 23 (b + 1). It implies that a relationship between fracturing regimes, “efficiency” of the seismic process, duration of the seismic sequences and geodynamic setting exists, with outstanding potential impact on seismic hazard. On the other hand, the Gutenberg–Richter law simply reflects the tendency of the segments of the Earth’s crust to reach mechanical stability via constrained energy-budget optimization. Each perturbation has a probability of growing an earthquake or not, depending on disorder within the fault zone and the energy accumulated in the adjoining volume, mainly controlling the evolution of seismic sequences. The results are consistent with the different energy sources related to the tectonic settings, i.e., gravitational in extensional regimes, having higher b and p values, and generating lower maximum magnitude earthquakes with respect to strike-slip and contractional settings, which are rather fueled by elastic energy, showing lower b and p values, and they may generate higher magnitude events.
    Description: Published
    Description: 117511
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Gutenberg–Richter distribution ; fracturing and fault disorder ; Omori–Utsu law ; earthquake triggering ; tectonic setting ; 04.06. Seismology ; 04.07. Tectonophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: The continental margin of the Ross Sea has been consistently sensitive to the advance and retreat of the Ross Ice Sheet (RIS) between the interglacial and glacial periods. This study examines changes of the glaciomarine sedimentation on the continental slope and rise to the eastern side of Hillary Canyon in the central Ross Sea, using three gravity cores collected at increasing water depths. Besides older AMS 14C ages of bulk sediments, based on the analytical results, sediment lithology was divided into units A, B1, and B2, representing Holocene, deglacial, and glacial periods, respectively. The sedimentation rate decreased as the water depth increased, with a higher sedimentation rate in the deglacial period (unit B1) than the Holocene (unit A). Biological productivity proxies were significantly higher in glacial unit B2 than in interglacial unit A, with transitional values observed in deglacial unit B1. Biological productivity generally decreased in the Antarctic continental margin during the glacial period because of extensive sea ice coverage. The higher biogenic contents in unit B2 are primarily attributed to the increased transport of eroded and reworked shelf sediments that contained abundant biogenic components to the continental slope and rise beneath the advancing RIS. Thus, glacial sedimentation on the continental slope and rise of the central Ross Sea was generally governed by the activity of the RIS, which generated melt-water plumes and debris flows at the front of the grounding line, although the continental rise might have experienced seasonally open conditions and lateral effects due to the bottom current.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In:  EPIC3Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems (SPICE), Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems (SPICE), Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier, 457 p., pp. 143-199, ISBN: 978-0-12-815050-4
    Publication Date: 2022-03-04
    Description: Abstract Ecological and social processes of the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been intensively studied during the Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems (SPICE) program. The archipelago is of specific interest to better understand how intensive exploitation of marine resources results in the degradation of reef systems. The projects specifically targeted (1) ecological processes in coral reefs, (2) genetic structure of populations, and (3) social–ecological dynamics relating to resource use, social networks, and governance structures. A modeling component emphasized (4) the integration of different ecological, social, and environmental components. Results indicated that reef resources in the Spermonde Archipelago are intensively exploited and further stressed by pollution effluents from hinterland processes. The lack of alternative livelihoods perpetuates dependencies within the patron–client system of the artisanal fisheries and supports high exploitation and also destructive resource uses. Greater inclusion of local stakeholders in the governance may result in better conservation practices, sustainable resource use, and improved livelihoods for the people. Abstrak Selama proyek SPICE, aspek ekologis dan sosial di perairan Kepulauan Spermonde, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia, dipelajari secara intensif. Kepulauan dan perairan ini mengundang banyak perhatian untuk lebih memahami bagaimana tingkat pemanfaatan sumber daya laut yang intensif berakibat pada degradasi sistem terumbu karang. Kerangka kerja proyek penelitian SPICE, secara khusus, menargetkan kajian-kajian mengenai (a) proses ekologis dalam sistem terumbu karang, (b) struktur genetik populasi untuk menentukan konektifitasnya, dan (c) dinamika sosial-ekologi yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan sumber daya, jejaring sosial dan struktur tata kelola. Komponen pemodelan juga dimasukkan kedalam kajian mengenai (d) integrasi berbagai komponen ekologi, sosial dan lingkungan dalam karakterisasi sistem sosial-ekologis. Hasil-hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sumber daya terumbu karang di Kepulauan Spermonde sangat tereksploitasi dan terancam juga oleh limbah polusi dari proses di daratan. Kurangnya mata pencaharian alternatif memperkuat ketergantungan para nelayan tradisional pada sistem patron-klien dan meningkatkan penggunaan sumber daya yang tidak berkelanjutan dan merusak. Keikutsertaan pemangku kepentingan lokal yang lebih erat dalam tata kelola sumber daya alam Kepulauan Spermonde sangat memungkinkan hasil praktik konservasi yang lebih baik, penggunaan sumber daya berkelanjutan, dan peningkatan mata pencaharian bagi masyarakat.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , peerRev
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Description: The Monte San Nicola area (Southern Sicily) offers a spectacular exposure of open-marine sediments that were employed in 1998 for defining the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene). After the lowering of the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary to ca. 2.6 Ma in 2010, the Gelasian GSSP has been redefined as the base of both the Pleistocene Series and the Quaternary Period, which increased its importance and visibility within the scientific community. However, documentation on the Monte San Nicola reference section is still sparse. In the light of its renewed status, we decided to undertake a complete revision of the Gelasian Stage in its type area, in order to evaluate whether the succession of bio- and magnetostratigraphic events that are expected to occur in the interval of relevance are represented adequately in the local record. The results of our investigation demonstrate that the Monte San Nicola succession spans continuously from the upper Piacenzian to the lower Calabrian, and is therefore suitable to host the Unit Stratotype, or even the Astronomical Unit Stratotype, of the Gelasian Stage.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107367
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: The investigation of the role played by CO2 circulating within the mantle during partial melting and metasomatic/refertilization processes, together with a re-consideration of its storage capability and re-cycling in the lithospheric mantle, is crucial to unravel the Earth's main geodynamic processes. In this study, the combination of petrology, CO2 content trapped in bulk rock- and mineral-hosted fluid inclusions (FI), and 3D textural and volumetric characterization of intra- and inter-granular microstructures was used to investigate the extent and modality of CO2 storage in depleted and fertile (or refertilized) Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath northern Victoria Land (NVL, Antarctica). Prior to xenoliths entrainment by the host basalt, the Antarctic SCLM may have stored 0.2 vol% melt and 1.1 vol% fluids, mostly as FI trails inside mineral phases but also as inter-granular fluids. The amount of CO2 stored in FI varies from 0.1 μg(CO2)/g(sample) in olivine from the anhydrous mantle xenoliths at Greene Point and Handler Ridge, up to 187.3 μg/g in orthopyroxene from the highly metasomatized amphibole-bearing lherzolites at Baker Rocks, while the corresponding bulk CO2 contents range from 0.3 to 57.2 μg/g. Irrespective of the lithology, CO2 partitioning is favoured in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene-hosted FI (olivine: orthopyroxene = 0.10 ± 0.06 to 0.26 ± 0.09; olivine: clinopyroxene = 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.27 ± 0.14). The H2O/(H2O + CO2) molar ratios obtained by comparing the CO2 contents of FI to the H2O amount retained in pyroxene lattices vary between 0.72 ± 0.17 and 0.97 ± 0.03, which is well comparable with the values measured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Antarctic primary lavas and assumed as representative of the partition of volatiles at the local mantle conditions. From the relationships between mineral chemistry, thermo-, oxybarometric results and CO2 contents in mantle xenoliths, we speculate that relicts of CO2-depleted mantle are present at Greene Point, representing memory of a CO2-poor tholeiitic refertilization related to the development of the Jurassic Ferrar large magmatic event. On the other hand, a massive mobilization of CO2 took place before the (melt-related) formation of amphibole veins during the alkaline metasomatic event associated with the Cenozoic rift-related magmatism, in response to the storage and recycling of CO2-bearing materials into the Antarctica mantle likely induced by the prolonged Ross subduction.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106643
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: 2TR. Ricostruzione e modellazione della struttura crostale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: CO2 storage ; Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle ; Alkaline metasomatism ; Fluid inclusions ; Synchrotron X-ray microtomography ; Inter-granular fluids ; 04.01. Earth Interior ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: Understanding the sources of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils is a worldwide challenge that requires effective discrimination between geogenic and anthropogenic contributions, particularly in areas with certain geological complexity. This study aims to examine the chemical contents of 23 topsoil samples collected from the surroundings of a fossil fuel power plant in the village of Puerto Libertad (Sonoran Desert, Mexico). The study did not exclusively focus on the source identification of the priority PTEs to evaluate soil pollution. Furthermore, major oxides and immobile trace element (Zr, Hf, and REE: La→Lu) data were provided for a reliable assessment of the provenance of the soils. The relatively high SiO2 contents (65.26–75.42 wt%, anhydrous basis), the Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized REE patterns, and the uniformity of the values of the Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 1.11–2.72) and the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 31.65–51.79) suggest that the soils were derived from intermediate to felsic source rocks, controlled by the local weathering of the parent bedrocks, under a low degree of chemical weathering conditions. The PTE data were treated following a robust workflow, which included the use of the enrichment factor (EF), the Spearman rank correlation (ρ), and multivariate statistical analyses allowed the generation of significant elemental associations and the identification of pools related either to the geological background or to anthropogenic activities. The results suggesting that Mo and Zn concentrations present a moderate anthropogenic influence while the concentrations of Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd, As, Cr, and Co are predominantly of geogenic origin. Vanadium (avg. EFV = 3.4) and Ni (avg. EFNi = 4.6) were the most enriched elements in the soils. Moreover, the highest values of the integrated Nemerow Pollution Index (PIN〉3) were recorded at the sampling stations closer to the village, suggesting point-source pollution by the emissions of the power station. Finally, in this paper is traced the extent of the particulate released into the atmosphere, which can be dispersed in a wide area into the Sonoran Desert.
    Description: Published
    Description: 105158
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Environmental geochemistry ; Geogenic sources ; Anthropogenic impact ; Provenance ; Power plant pollution ; Puerto libertad ; PTEs ; Solid Earth
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: Comprehensive hydrogeochemical studies have been conducted in the Campi Flegrei volcanic aquifer since late 20th century due to the volcanic unrest. In the last decade, groundwater samples were grouped based on the dominant anion species (i.e. bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride) to explain the general hydrogeochemical processes. In this article, 44 groundwater samples are collected from Campi Flegrei aquifer to geochemically and spatially capture the main characteristics of the groundwater body. The hierarchical clustering algorithm is then performed on proportion of bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride, and the optimum number of clusters are determined regarding the results of deep hydrogeochemical investigations published in the past. The collected samples are categorized in the following groups: (1) bicarbonate-rich groundwater; (2) chlorine-rich groundwater; (3) sulfate-rich groundwater; and (4) mixed groundwater. The first group (As = 158.2 ± 169 μg/l, electric conductivity = 1,732.1 ± 1,086 μS/cm and temperature = 25.6 ± 8 ◦C) is mainly derived from poor arsenic meteoric water, but there is significant thermal/seawater contribution in the second one (As = 1,457.8 ± 2,210 μg/l, electric conductivity = 20,118.3 ± 11,139 μS/cm and temperature = 37.1 ± 20 ◦C). Interaction of the bicarbonate-rich groundwater and hydrothermal vapors gives rise to the sulfate-rich groundwater (As = 847.2 ± 679 μg/l, electric conductivity = 3,940.0 ± 540 μS/cm and temperature = 82.8 ± 3 ◦C) around Solfatara volcano. The mixed groundwater (As = 451.4 ± 388 μg/l, electric conductivity = 4,482.9 ± 4,027 μS/cm and temperature = 37.1 ± 16 ◦C) is observed where the three main groundwater groups undergo a mixing process, depending on the hydrogeology of the volcanic aquifer. Contrary to the bicarbonate- and sulfate-rich groundwater, the chlorine-rich and mixed groundwater generally occurs at low piezometric levels (approximately 〈1 m above sea level) near the coastline. The hierarchical cluster analysis provides more information about the volcanic aquifer, particularly when compositional data analysis is applied to study hydrogeochemistry of the homogeneous groundwater groups and to uncover the relationships between variables. Addressing compositional nature of data is recommended in the future studies for developing new tools that help deeper understanding of groundwater evolution in volcanic aquifers and identifying promising precursors of volcanic eruption.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106922
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: 2IT. Laboratori analitici e sperimentali
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Hierarchical cluster analysis ; Groundwater evolution ; Hydrothermal system ; Precursors of volcanic eruption ; 03.02. Hydrology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: The attention and demand for greater social protection is increasing among the populations of all European countries. It is difficult to identify which of the structures and infrastructures, sectors and regional budgets are inefficient and/or negligent in respect of providing more social protection. In the political sphere the problem is examined from a qualitative point of view, because it is essential to have a valid decisional support system that provides useful information for structural and economic intervention programs devised to improve social protection. Regional spending on social protection is a fundamental component of individual well-being. This work is precisely aimed at assessing individual well-being in terms of technical expenses efficiency in the Italian Regions. Stochastic frontier analysis and a nonparametric deterministic model structure are the tools used to investigate the social protection determinants in the paper.
    Description: Published
    Description: 100965
    Description: 4TM. Web e Social
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Data envelopment analysis ; Technical efficiency ; Efficiency analysis
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2022-05-02
    Description: We assess about 20 years of onshore and offshore subsidence along a sector of the Upper Adriatic Sea (Italy) coastal areas affected by natural soil compaction and intense anthropogenic activities such as aquifers exploitation and hydrocarbons extraction. Our approach is based on the synergistic use of independent remote sensing and in-situ geodetic data to detect and spatially characterise the deformation pattern by cross-validating the different available measurements. We collect extensive datasets from i) SAR images provided by Envisat, Cosmo- SkyMed and Sentinel-1 missions, ii) GNSS measurements from continuous stations managed by public institutions, local authorities and private companies and iii) Leveling surveys. The cross-validation analysis shows good agreement among all the independent datasets, thus providing a reliable assessment of the ongoing deformation. We detect an onshore and offshore subsidence peak of about 1/-1.5 cm/yr in the proximity of the coastline, close to Lido di Dante and Fiumi Uniti villages, and at the present offshore platform. The outcomes highlight how the integration of different remote sensing and in situ geodetic techniques is successful to retrieve deformation history in time and space in complex areas, where different natural and anthropogenic sources concur to the overall deformation pattern. Moreover, such approach provides a robust support to modelling studies for hazard assessment in both inland and shoreline areas.
    Description: Published
    Description: 102756
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2022-04-29
    Description: We carried out new geological, morphotectonic, geophysical and paleoseismological investigations on the Meduno Thrust that belongs to the Pliocene-Quaternary front of the eastern Southern Alps in Friuli (NE Italy). The study area is located in the Carnic Prealps, where a series of alluvial terraces, linked to both climatic and tectonic pulses characterises the lower reach of the Meduna Valley. In correspondence of the oblique ramp of the Meduno Thrust, the Late Pleistocene Rivalunga terrace shows a set of scarps perpendicular to the Meduno valley, often modified by human activity. In order to reconstruct the tectonic setting of the area and identify the location for digging paleoseismological trenches, integrated geophysical investigations including electrical resistivity tomography, seismic refraction and reflection, ground penetrating radar and surface wave analyses (HVSR, ReMi and MASW), were carried out across the scarps of the Rivalunga terrace. Geophysical surveys pinpointed that in correspondence of the oblique ramp, stress is accommodated by a transpressive thrust system involving all the seismo-stratigraphic horizons apart from the ploughed soil. Trenching illustrated the Meduno Thrust movements during Late Pleistocene-Holocene. Trenches exhibited both shear planes and extrados fracturing, showing deformed alluvial and colluvial units. 14C datings of the colluvial units show that the most recent fault movements occurred after 1360 CE and 1670 CE. The age of the deformed stratigraphic units compared with the earthquakes listed in current catalogues, suggests that the 1776 earthquake (Mw 5.8, Io = 8–9 MCS) could represent the last seismic event linked to the Meduno thrust activity. This study provided new quantitative constraints improving seismic hazard assessment for Carnic prealpine area.
    Description: The research developed in the framework of the agreement between the Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia - Direzione Centrale Ambiente ed Energia - Servizio Geologico, the Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (I.S.P.R.A.) and the University of Udine. The project was funded by the Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia, Direzione Centrale Ambiente ed Energia, Servizio Geologico (C.I. G.: Z0E0C5EF75, p.i. Maria Eliana Poli).
    Description: Published
    Description: 229071
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Active fault ; Paleoseismology ; Morphogenic earthquake ; Eastern Southern Alps ; Applied geophysics ; NE Italy ; 04.04. Geology ; 04.07. Tectonophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2021-11-06
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , peerRev
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2022-03-16
    Description: © 〈2021〉. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
    Description: In this paper we explore the efficiency of various machine learning techniques to determine the volcano source,the eruptive formation and the eruption period of volcanic rocks when their chemical contents are known. Withthis aim, we assembled a data set of 9800 volcanic rocks from the open-access literature. The rocks belong toeruptive formations from Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Ischia and Procida volcanoes, in the Neapolitan regionof Italy.The data set includes content of majoroxidesand trace elements,aswell asSrand Nd isotope ratios,erup-tive periods, eruption formations and volcano source. Some discrete numerical variables are missing in certainsamples resulting in data exclusion and measurement inhomogeneity. Our results indicate that, despite such is-sues, some machine learning algorithms have a very high prediction ability, i.e., at 〉70%. The achieved resultsare interesting in order to facilitate the managing of new data for volcanological reconstruction andtephrostratigraphic studies
    Description: Published
    Description: 107254
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2022-03-16
    Description: In this study we present the compositional changes of clinopyroxene (cpx), plagioclase (plg), spinel (sp), and glass experimentally solidified from an Icelandic MORB melt. The starting material was cooled at Patm and fO2 of air, in the thermal range of cooling (ΔTc) between 1300 °C (superliquidus) to 800 °C (solidus) with rates (ΔT/Δt) of 1, 7, 60, 180, 1800, and 9000 °C/h. The run products obtained at 1, 7 and 60 °C/h are holocrystalline, whilst between 60 and 180 °C/h plg disappears, and texture of cpx + sp. shifts from faceted to dendritic. As cooling rate increases, we observe that Fe2O3 decreases and Al2O3 increases in sp. and Al2O3 + Fe2O3 increase and CaO + MgO decrease in cpx. These measured variations mirror changes induced by cooling rate in cation (atoms per formula unit, a.p.f.u.) and molecular abundances of these two crystalline phases. Plg composition shows clear linear trends versus cooling rate. The chemistry of sp., cpx and, to a minor extent, plg solidified from this basaltic liquid is thus strictly related to the cooling rate condition and is similar to those observed in previous investigations on alkaline and evolved basaltic systems. In particular, cpx is the only mineral phase profusely present at all the cooling rates, showing the greatest chemical variations in terms of oxides, cations, and components. The intra-crystalline glass (≤ 50 μm from crystal rims) obtained at 180–1800 °C/h shows compositional variations related to the surrounding crystal growth, evidencing strong supersaturation phenomena (such as dendritic texture) due to the establishment of a diffusion-controlled growth regime. Chemical attributes of mineral phases are also quantitatively related with the maximum (Gmax) and average (GCSD) growth rates of sp., cpx, and plg. When compared with the starting melt composition, the chemistry of cpx suggests the attainment of near-equilibrium crystallization conditions at cooling rate ≤ 60 °C/h, whereas disequilibrium effects are found at cooling rate 〉 60 °C/h. In contrast, plg is in disequilibrium with the initial melt chemistry in all experiments. By using thermometric models, the calculated crystallization of plg takes place at temperatures much lower than those of cpx, when the crystal content is high and the diffusion of cations in the melt is slow due to the higher (residual) melt viscosity. Under such conditions and due to the effect of cooling, the system cannot return to homogeneous concentrations and, consequently, plg more effectively records the disequilibrium partitioning of cations between the growing crystal surface. The data-set reported here captures the entire (superliquidus to solidus) and intrinsic (heterogeneous site-free silicate liquid) solidification behavior from an actual MORB melt from very rapid to extremely sluggish cooling rate. Finally, all analytical relationships found in this work enable careful reconstruction of the solidification conditions of MORB melts, providing novel geo-speedometers for them at high fO2.
    Description: Published
    Description: 120765
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2022-03-16
    Description: Volcano seismology, while its value for surveillance of an active volcano is undebatable, is a very demanding field when it comes to station deployment, maintenance, and finally interpreting the measurements. Most valuable in the past was the deployment of arrays of sensors to evaluate the properties of the entire wavefield in order to classify, locate, and estimate the dominant mechanism of the corresponding sources. While very beneficial, an array of seismographs is very hard to maintain in a permanent installation at an active volcano. With the advent of new instrumentation based on fiber optic technology such as Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) with fiber optic cables as well as Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOG) the measurement of deformation and rotation, i.e., the gradient of the wavefield is feasible. The advantage of the FOG instrumentation with respect to DAS lies in the portability and ease of deployment, which is very similar to standard deployments of traditional seismometers. During a field campaign in summer 2018 we were able to install three FOGs together with classical broadband seismometers in close proximity to the active vents of Stromboli volcano (Italy). We show that with this new six-degrees-of-freedom (6DOF) measurement we are able to analyze the wavefield composition, a property normally reserved for array(s) of seismic sensors. As a first result, we can support earlier array-derived findings that a large portion of the wavefield at Stromboli volcano is formed by SV- and SH- type waves. We also present first locations of these signals facilitating the polarization properties of the combined measurement of gyroscopes and seismometers. They emphasize the benefit of recording wavefield gradients. In addition to these array-like results, the 6DOF recordings show a clear separation of at least three distinct groups of volcanic events of which two are already known and one represents a jetting event that appears nearly invisible for classical seismometers. However, rotational motions - or more general - gradients of the wavefield experience severe distortions by local velocity fluctuations and topography significantly complicating the application of 6DOF techniques at activate volcanoes.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107499
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 6 DOF ; rotational seismology ; volcanoseismology ; Stromboli ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-03-15
    Description: Single rainwater samples were collected in the city of Goma (~1,1 million inhabitants), eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, from January to June 2013 to draw a baseline for rainwater chemical composition and quality as influenced by the permanent plume of Nyiragongo volcano. This was a better period for a baseline as the neighboring Nyamulagira volcano, only 15 km apart, had no important degassing from its central crater, and hence the recorded volcanic influence on the rainwater chemistry was solely from Nyiragongo's lava lake which has been active since May 2002. The baseline for the rainwater chemistry and quality is important for this highly populated region where rainwater is the unique potable water source for the inhabitants of many villages surrounding the volcanoes, and for some of the inhabitants of the city of Goma. Our results show that samples collected at the crater rim of Nyiragongo were more acidic with pH ranging from 3.70 to 3.82, while the majority of rainwater samples collected in downtown Goma city and to the northeastern zone of the volcano had pH close to 5.7; which represents the value for rainwater from unpolluted continental areas (Berner and Berner, 2012). However, the pH was as low as 3.93 to the west of Nyiragongo volcano because the volcanic plume is directed westward by the dominant local wind direction. The western part of the city of Goma as well as the small town of Sake and many villages (e.g. Rusayo, Mubambiro, Kingi, …) are located in this zone, and experience endemic fluorosis caused by high fluoride in the available water. The mean F- in this zone was 0.38 mg/L, while the southern and northeastern zones had mean F- concentrations on 0.44 and 0.01 mg/L respectively; even though concentrations higher than the WHO guidelines were found in few samples from the western zone (1.69 mg/L) and from the southern zone (3.44 mg/L). Compared to data from Cuoco et al. (2012) obtained during the Nyamulagira 2010 eruption, and from Balagizi et al.2017 and Liotta et al., 2017 obtained during the intense degassing of both Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira lava lakes; we have noted similarity in the spatial variation of the pH, but samples from the present study showed notable lower concentrations of major elements. This is the case for fluoride which is strictly of volcanic origin. For the other major elements, anthropogenic sources, mainly the traffic and wind-blown dust; or other non-volcanic natural sources influenced their concentrations. Thus, the anions (Cl- and SO42-) and cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) from the present study are either lower compared to that previously reported in the literature for the Virunga, or are both comparable for the zones impacted by anthropogenic activities.
    Description: Published
    Description: 130859
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Endemic dental fluorosis; Nyamulagira volcano; Nyiragongo volcanic plume; Rainwater chemistry; Rainwater quality baseline
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-03-15
    Description: The origin of magmatic fluids along the East African Rift System (EARS) is a long-lived field of debate in the scientific community. Here, we investigate the chemical composition of the volcanic gas plume and fumaroles at Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira (Democratic Republic of Congo), the only two currently erupting volcanoes set on the Western Branch of the rift. Our results are in line with earlier conceptual models proposing that volcanic gas emissions along the EARS mainly reflect variable contributions of either a Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) component or a Depleted Morb Mantle (DMM) component, and deeper fluid. At Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, our study discards a major contribution of a high 3He/4He mantle plume component in the genesis of volcanic fluids beneath the area. High CO2/3He in fumaroles of both volcanoes is thought to reflect carbonate metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle source. As inferred by previous results obtained on the lava chemistry, this carbonate metasomatism would be more pronounced beneath Nyiragongo. This supports the idea of the presence of distinct metasomes within the lithospheric mantle beneath the Western Branch of the rift.
    Description: Published
    Description: 120811
    Description: 1V. Storia eruttiva
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: East African Rift System ; Volcano ; Gas chemistry ; 04.08. Volcanology ; 04.01. Earth Interior
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2022-03-17
    Description: Coccolithophores were collected at 21 stations during summer 2016, from coastal and offshore areas of the Central Mediterranean Sea, to describe the ecology of the coccolithophore community integrating information on their abundance, environmental parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and fluorescence) and oceanographic data. Emiliania huxleyi dominated the assemblage from surface to intermediate layers, while Florisphaera profunda was more abundant in the deep photic zone. Principal Component Analysis revealed that the distribution of coccolithophore taxa was influenced by environmental parameters: K-strategist taxa were related to warm surface waters, whereas lower photic zone taxa were influenced by the development of a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum and high salinity values, well below the thermocline. These results confirmed that a vertical species zonation, as a typical feature of low-middle latitude, characterizes the Central Mediterranean during summer. The distribution of F. profunda once again confirmed its use as a proxy of Deep Chlorophyll Maximum development and paleoproductivity estimates. Gephyrocapsa spp. (=total Gephyrocapsa), and in particular G. oceanica, were more abundant along the Atlantic Water pathway. Finally, the high concentration value of Helicosphaera carteri, recorded in the Ligurian Sea at an offshore station, suggested an expansion of the opportunist nature of this taxon from coastal environments to the offshore areas characterized by high turbidity and high productivity.
    Description: Published
    Description: 101995
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Living coccolithophores ; Helicosphaera carteri ; Oceanography ; Ecology ; Central Mediterranean Sea ; coccolithophore ecology and oceanography
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2022-03-17
    Description: A high resolution study of calcareous nannofossils has been performed on samples from the Sapropel S1interval deposited in the North Ionian Sea, with the aim to assess the paleoenvironmental changes in the photic zone during this crucial interval in Mediterranean circulation. Calcareous nannofossil data have been integrated with planktonic foraminiferal data recently published from which the paleoclimatic curve has been constructed. Placoliths (namely Emiliania huxleyi) and Florisphaera profunda distributions, along with that of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber white, evidence that, after a progressive weakening of surface water mixing, a deep chlorophyll maximum developed just prior to the sapropel deposition. We suggest that these changes took place as a response to enhanced precipitation conditions and riverine discharge as testified by increasing trend of reworked coccoliths and the occurrence of lower salinity taxon Braarudosphaera bigelowii. Calcareous nannofossils also point out that the oceanographic (water column stratification, reduced bottom water ventilation) and biogeochemical (increased primary production) processes that occurred during the S1 formation were particularly dominant during the earliest part of the older S1 warm phase (S1a). Our results support than some reventilation events of the shallow depth of studied site (665 m) occurred to some extent, particularly during the final phases of S1a. The distribution of holococcoliths, more abundant during the cold interruption phase S1i, seems confirm that the preservation of these tiny and delicate coccoliths, highly susceptible to dissolution, is enhanced under seafloor re-ventilation conditions. Finally, we tentatively suggest that preservation also plays a significant role in the distribution of the warm upper photic zone taxa, particularly during the warm S1b interval.
    Description: Published
    Description: 103599
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Sapropel S1 ; Calcareous nannofossils ; Planktonic foraminifera ; North Ionian Sea ; Mediterranean ; Hydrosphere
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-03-17
    Description: The understanding of fault-slip behaviour in carbonates has an important societal impact due to the widespread occurrence and propagation of earthquakes in these rocks. Fault rock variations in carbonates are systematically controlled by the lithology of the faulted protolith: cataclasis and hydraulic fracturing with evidence of past seismic slip commonly affect fault rocks in competent limestone formations whereas widespread pressure-solution and sliding along clay foliation are observed in marly rocks. We performed a series of friction experiments on carbonatic fault rocks sampled from mature thrusts (〉2km displacement) in the Apennines of Italy. We sheared both intact wafers and powdered fault materials at low (10MPa) and in situ(53MPa) normal stress under room-humidity and water-saturated conditions. We used velocity steps (1 to 300μm/s) and slide–hold–slide (3–1000 s holds) to assess the frictional stability and healing behaviour of these rocks. We observe that cataclastic fault rocks derived from competent limestones are characterized by high friction coefficients coupled with significant post-slip restrengthening and velocity-weakening behaviour. Conversely, intact foliated marly tectonites, sheared under the same conditions, show low friction, null post-slip healing and stable velocity-strengthening behaviour suggesting that these rocks deform aseismically. To extrapolate these opposite mechanical behaviours to the entire fault surface we developed a fault model integrating our mechanical data, field observations and balanced geological cross-sections. The mechanical heterogeneities highlighted in the model provide constraints for the distribution of fault patches with higher seismogenic potential.
    Description: Published
    Description: 307–318
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: friction carbonates earthquakes fault
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2022-03-29
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , peerRev
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2022-03-21
    Description: Changbaishan, an intraplate volcano, is characterized by an approximately 6 km wide summit caldera and last erupted in 1903. Changbaishan experienced a period of unrest between 2002 and 2006. The activity developed in three main stages, including shield volcano (basalts), cone-construction (trachyandesites to trachytes with minor basalts), and caldera-forming stages (trachytes to comendites). This last stage is associated with one of the more energetic eruptions of the last millennium on Earth, the 946 CE, VEI 7 Millennium Eruption (ME), which emitted over 100 km3 of pyroclastics. Compared to other active calderas, the plumbing system of Changbaishan and its evolution mechanisms remain poorly constrained. Here, we merge new whole-rock, glass, mineral, isotopic, and geobarometry data with geophysical data and present a model of the plumbing system. The results show that the volcano is characterized by at least three main magma reservoirs at different depths: a basaltic reservoir at the Moho/lower crust depth, an intermediate reservoir at 10–15 km depth, and a shallower reservoir at 0.5–3 km depth. The shallower reservoir was involved in the ME eruption, which was triggered by a fresh trachytic melt entering a shallower reservoir where a comenditic magma was stored. The trachytes and comendites originate from fractional crystallization processes and minor assimilation of upper crust material, while the less evolved melts assimilate lower crust material. Syn-eruptive magma mingling occurred during the ME eruption phase. The magma reservoirs of the caldera-forming stage partly reactivate those of the cone-construction stage. The depth of the magma storage zones is controlled by the layering of the crust. The plumbing system of Changbaishan is vertically extensive, with crystal mush reservoirs renewed by the replenishment of new trachytic to trachyandesitic magma from depth. Unlike other volcanoes, evidence of a basaltic recharge is lacking. The interpretation of the signals preceding possible future eruptions should consider the multi-level nature of the Changbaishan plumbing system. A new arrival of magma may destabilize a part of or the entire system, thus triggering eruptions of different sizes and styles. The reference model proposed here for Changbaishan represents a prerequisite to properly understand periods of unrest to potentially anticipate future volcanic eruptions and to identify the mechanisms controlling the evolution of the crust below volcanoes.
    Description: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41972313 and 41790453), Engineering Research Center of Geothermal Resources Development Technology and Equipment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, China, INGV Ricerca Libera.
    Description: Published
    Description: 101171
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2022-03-21
    Description: The presence of weak phyllosilicates in mature carbonate fault zones has been invoked to explain weak faults. However, the relation between frictional strength, fault stability, mineralogical composition, and fabric of fault gouge, composed of strong and weak minerals, is poorly constrained. We used a biaxial apparatus to systematically shear different mixtures of shale (68% clay, 23% quartz and 4% plagioclase) and calcite, as powdered gouge, at room temperature, under constant normal stresses of 30, 50, 100 MPa and under room-dry and pore fluid-saturated conditions, i.e. CaCO3-equilibrated water. We performed 30 friction experiments during which velocity-stepping and slide-hold-slide tests were employed to assess frictional stability and to measure frictional healing, respectively. Our frictional data indicate that the mineralogical composition of fault gouges significantly affects frictional strength, stability, and healing as well as the presence of CaCO3-equilibrated water. Under room-dry condition, the increasing shale content determines a reduction in frictional strength, from μ = 0.71 to μ = 0.43, a lowering of the healing rates and a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening behavior. Under wet condition, with increasing shale content we observe a more significant reduction in frictional strength (μ = 0.65–0.37), a near-zero healing and a velocity strengthening behavior. Microstructural investigations evidence a transition from localized deformation promoted by grain size reduction, in calcite-rich samples, to a more distributed deformation with frictional sliding along clay-enriched shear planes in samples with shale content greater than 50%. For faults cutting across sedimentary sequences composed of carbonates and clay-rich sediments, our results suggest that clay concentration and its ability to form foliated and interconnected networks promotes important heterogeneities in fault strength and slip behavior.
    Description: Published
    Description: 228811
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Carbonate faults ; Fault slip behavior ; 04.02. Exploration geophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2022-03-21
    Description: The 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence is characterized by remarkable rupture complexity, including highly heterogeneous slip across multiple faults in an extensional tectonic regime. The dense coverage and high quality of geodetic and seismic data allow us to image intriguing details of the rupture kinematics of the largest earthquake of the sequence, the Mw 6.5 October 30th, 2016 Norcia earthquake, such as an energetically weak nucleation phase. Several kinematic models suggest multiple fault planes rupturing simultaneously, however, the mechanical viability of such models is not guaranteed. Using 3D dynamic rupture and seismic wave propagation simulations accounting for two fault planes, we constrain “families” of spontaneous dynamic models informed by a high-resolution kinematic rupture model of the earthquake. These families differ in their parameterization of initial heterogeneous shear stress and strength in the framework of linear slip weakening friction. First, we dynamically validate the kinematically inferred two-fault geometry and rake inferences with models based on only depth-dependent stress and constant friction coefficients. Then, more complex models with spatially heterogeneous dynamic parameters allow us to retrieve slip distributions similar to the target kinematic model and yield good agreement with seismic and geodetic observations. We discuss the consistency of the assumed constant or heterogeneous static and dynamic friction coefficients with mechanical properties of rocks at 3-10 km depth characterizing the Italian Central Apennines and their local geological and lithological implications. We suggest that suites of well-fitting dynamic rupture models belonging to the same family generally exist and can be derived by exploiting the trade-offs between dynamic parameters. Our approach will be applicable to validate the viability of kinematic models and classify spontaneous dynamic rupture scenarios that match seismic and geodetic observations as well as geological constraints.
    Description: T.U., T., D.L., and A.-A. Gabriel are supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (TEAR, agreement No. 852992 and ChEESE, grant no. 823844), the German Research Foundation (DFG project grants no. GA 2465/2-1 and GA 2465/3-1) and by KAUST-CRG (grant no. ORS-2017-CRG6 3389.02). E.T. was supported by Progetti di Ricerca Sapienza (RM120172A2EAC019). Computing resources were provided by the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ, project no. pr63qo on SuperMUC-NG).
    Description: Published
    Description: 117237
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: earthquake source ; dynamic rupture ; high-performance computing ; frictional heterogeneity ; 04.06. Seismology ; 05.05. Mathematical geophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-03-22
    Description: Crustal seismicity is in general confined within the seismogenic layer, which is bounded at depth by processes related to the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) and in the shallow region by fault zone consolidation state and mineralogy. In the past 10-15 years, high resolution seismological and geodetic data have shown that faulting within and around the traditional seismogenic zone occurs in a large variety of slip modes. Frictional and structural heterogeneities have been invoked to explain such differences in fault slip mode and behaviour. However, an integrated and comprehensive picture remains extremely challenging because of difficulties to properly characterize fault rocks at seismogenic depths. Thus, the central-northern Apennines provide a unique opportunity because of the integration of deep-borehole stratigraphy and seismic reflection profiles with high resolution seismological data and outcrop studies. These works show that seismic sequences are limited within the sedimentary cover (depth 〈 9-10 km), suggesting that the underlaying basement plays a key-role in dictating the lower boundary of the seismogenic zone. Here we integrate structural data on exhumed outcrops of basement rocks with laboratory friction data to shed light on the mechanics of the Apenninic basement. Structural data highlight heterogeneous and pervasive deformation where foliated and phyllosilicate-rich rocks surround more competent quartz-rich lenses up to hundreds of meters in thickness. Phyllosilicate horizons deform predominantly by folding and foliation-parallel frictional sliding whereas quartz-rich lenses are characterized by brittle signatures represented by extensive fracturing and minor faulting. Laboratory experiments revealed that quartz-rich lithologies have relatively high friction, μ ≈ 0.51, velocity-strengthening to neutral behaviour, and elevated healing rates. On the contrary, phyllosilicate-rich (muscovite and chlorite) lithologies show low friction, 0.23 〈 μ 〈 0.31, a marked velocity strengthening behaviour that increases with increasing sliding velocity and negligible rates of frictional healing. Our integrated approach suggests that in the Apenninic basement deformation occurs along shear zones distributed on thickness up-to several kilometres, where the frictionally stable, foliated, and phyllosilicate-rich horizons favour aseismic deformation and therefore confine the depth of major earthquake ruptures and the seismogenic zone.
    Description: Published
    Description: 117444
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: The increasing dinosaur record from Italy questioned classic palaeogeographic scenarios for the Central Mediterranean area and suggest the proximity of landmass areas and a geographical connection between Gondwana and Laurasia during Cretaceous times. Besides several track-sites and exceptionally-preserved specimens (e.g. Scipionyx samniticus), the Italian dinosaur record also consists of isolated bones, among which the bone fragment of a theropod discovered in north-western Sicily. The bone occurs in a shallowwater carbonate succession (i.e. Pizzo Muletta, Palermo Mountains) pertaining to the Panormide Carbonate Platform (PCP). The bone was previously ascribed to the Cenomanian, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a land bridge connecting Gondwana and Adria via PCP. More recently, new sedimentological and biostratigraphic studies on the Pizzo Muletta succession have been carried out. The obtained results allow to predate the stratigraphic position of the dinosaur bone to the late Aptianeearly Albian and to assess a detailed AptianeCenomanian evolution of this sector of the PCP. In particular, the karstic overprint of Cenomanian rudist limestones indicate a subaerial exposure of the platform preceding its drowning during latest Cenomanian times. The new assumptions allow to extend the temporal duration of the intermittent land bridge between Gondwana and Laurasia at least from Aptian to Cenomanian times and to add further evidences of the dominant tectonic control affecting the Western Tethys during Cretaceous times.
    Description: Published
    Description: 104919
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Leucititic rocks, K-foiditic in composition are volumetrically important in the Colli Albani (also known as Alban Hills) volcanic district (Central Italy) especially during the most explosive phases of activity (〉200 km3). The Colli Albani tephra in distal (〉500 km) deposits indicates that K-foiditic magma chambers fed large explosive eruptions (i.e., tens of km3 of pyroclastic rocks). Major oxides, trace elements and Raman spectra were measured on the glasses and minerals occurring in the K-foiditic scoria clasts of the ~530 kyr-old Tufo del Palatino, erupted in the Colli Albani volcanic district. The Colli Albani pre-eruptive magmatic system is characterized by the aH2O 〈 1 and high CO2 activ- ity in the melt, as testified by the CO3 in the clinopyroxene melt inclusions, by the early crystallization of CO3-bearing apatite and by the high CO2 activity in the free volatile phase that led to crystallization of calcium carbonate in the scoria clast vesicles. The K-foiditic magmas plot on the Cpx + Lc + melt divariant surface of the Ol-Cpx-Lc-Mel- H2O-CO2, P ≥ 0.2 GPa and T ≤ 1100 °C. The assimilation of cold carbonate by hot magmas is an important open- system process allowing the establishment of aH20 〈 1 condition in the volatile-rich, Colli Albani magma chambers where the stability fields of the olivine and phlogopite are reduced in favor of clinopyroxene and leucite. Trace ele- ment modelling indicates large amount of carbonate assimilation (~12.4 wt%) involved in the differentiation process that origins the K-foiditic magmas starting from a K-rich, phonotephritic parental magma. The large amount of as- similate carbonate is consistent with the peculiar distribution of the latent heat across the crystallization interval of the phonotephritic parental magma. The isenthalpic assimilation process is very efficient in the phonotephritic magma because the crystallization of clinopyroxene and leucite in equilibrium with a K-foiditic melt proceeds over a relatively large temperature interval (〉200 °C) and the K-foiditic melt shows low viscosity (104Pa·s at 1000 °C). Actually, the low melt viscosity, that increases the growth rate, and the large temperature interval of crys- tallization are intrinsic factors that increase the release of the latent heat of crystallization from the phonotephritic parental magma. Extrinsic factors enhancing the assimilation process efficiency are the thickness (〉4 km) and the depth (down to 5–7 km) of the carbonate substrate in the Colli Albani volcanic district.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106239
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: New analyses of marine terraces in the Tyrrhenian Sea margin of Basilicata - northern Calabria (southern Italy) have been carried out. In the study area, c. 25 km in length, an impressive flight of marine terraces occurs, with the highest terraces reaching ~160 m a.s.l. Detailed geomorphological-stratigraphical analyses on remnants of paleoshorelines located within 60 m a.s.l. have shown that the rocky coast of the investigated coastal stretch has been affected by multiple relative sea-level fluctuations, during which reworking of older shorelines has occurred. Dating of the coral Cladocora caespitosa and speleothems, either predating or postdating single paleoshorelines, has allowed the construction of a chronological framework for the identified relative sea-level markers, and their correlation with MIS 7, MIS 6e and distinct peaks of MIS 5. A mean uplift rate of c. 0.25 mm/y since the Last Interglacial has been quantified, one order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. The uplift rate value has been used to infer the elevations of MIS 5a, 5c and 6e sea level peaks, which are higher than those reported in most sea level curves worldwide, although consistent with several findings from the western Mediterranean. Our results demonstrate that a mere sequential correlation may be misleading in the interpretation of flights of marine terraces and indicates that multiple age controls are crucial to unravelling the complex interaction between uplift and sea-level fluctuations in uplifted coastal areas. The reconstructed MIS 5a, 5c and 6e sea level paleo-elevations, besides contributing to the assessment of late Quaternary sea-level fluctuations in the Mediterranean Sea, may contribute to constrain coeval ice sheets volume variations.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107978
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Marine terraces ; morpho-stratigraphy ; Geochronological dating ; MIS 5 ; MIS 6e ; Tyrrhenian margin
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: The behaviour of dry and wet volcanic granular flows is one of the main research topics in present day geophysics and volcanology. It involves various disciplines (e.g. sedimentology, geophysics, fluid dynamics) and investigation techniques (e.g. field studies, laboratory experiments, computational fluid dynamics). The vast interest is justified by the complex nature of these flows and their very dangerous nature that threaten millions of people around the world. In the last decade, computational fluid dynamics has become one of the main instruments used to reproduce past events of volcanic granular flows or to predict their behaviour and potential hazard. In this study, we tested two of the most used codes for simulating volcanic granular flows, TITAN2D and FLO2D, against well studied natural cases (the 1998 wet granular flows in the Sarno area and the 2005 block and ash flows at Colima volcano) and large-scale experiments on granular flows. Comparison between simulated parameters and real ones were carried out in order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the two numerical codes. TITAN2D results showed how the basal friction angle is fundamental to control numerical simulations and its dependence on the topographic complexities, DEM resolution and slope-angle ratio. Simulation of large scale experiments offered a good relationship between slope angle ratio at break in slope and basal friction angle, which is useful for application to small drainage basins with not complex channel morphology. FLO2D suffers the lack of rheometric parameters for volcaniclastic material, but is less sensitive of DEM resolution with respect to TITAN2D.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107146
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Glacial-interglacial variations in ice volume and sea level are essential components of the Pleistocene global climate evolution. Deciphering the timing of change of these key climate parameters with respect to the insolation forcing is central to understanding the processes controlling glacial terminations. Here we exploit the sensitivity of the Paleo Tiber River (central Italy) to sea-level forced changes in the base level and the frequent occurrence of datable tephra layers in its sedimentary successions to reconstruct the timing of the relative sea-level (RSL) change between 450 and 403 ka, i.e., across the glacial termination (T-V) that marks the transition between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 and MIS 11. The analysis hinges on new stratigraphic data, tephra geochemical fingerprinting, and 40Ar/39Ar dating from a fluvial section that represents the inland counterpart of the near mouth, coastal aggradational succes- sions of the San Paolo Formation (SPF). Tephra correlation indicates that the morpho-stratigraphic record of the inland section is as sensitive to the sea-level change as its coastal counterparts, which makes it ideal to complement previous RSL reconstructions from the Tiber River catchment basin, thereby providing a more detailed picture of the sea-level history across T-V. Combined sedimentological and morphological proxies of the composed inland-coastal SPF record document the occurrence of two phases of relatively rapid sea-level rise, here interpreted as meltwater pulse (MWP) events. The earlier MWP occurred between ~450 and ~445 ka and matches a relatively minor episode of the sea-level rise documented in an existing RSL record, while the younger MWP at ~430 ka corresponds to the high amplitude sea-level rise that marks T-V. We find that both MWPs coincide with episodes of ice-rafted debris deposition in the North Atlantic (Heinrich-like events) and with attendant Southern Hemi- sphere warming, plausibly associated with the bipolar seesaw.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106976
    Description: 5A. Ricerche polari e paleoclima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 34
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2022-02-10
    Description: The airborne magnetic method was established a few decades ago, as a strong tool in mining and petroleum exploration. Several economically relevant discoveries are often credited to aeromagnetism. Geological reconnaissance and mapping, deep crustal and upper mantle studies, environmental characterization, and national and international security issues can greatly benefit from the aeromagnetic method, as compared with other geophysical prospecting schemes. The rapid rate of coverage and the low cost per unit area explored represent just a few among the many advantages of the technique. Consequently, large-scale airborne magnetic surveys have been carried out in various parts of the globe. The amount of direct discoveries of ore bodies by means of aeromagnetism is impressive. Large magnetic iron deposits found in the early 1960s are in Southern California, Missouri, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Quebec, Ontario, and elsewhere. In the field of petroleum exploration, the method has also been used, although with less direct application. Depth to magnetic basement estimation in sedimentary basins narrows down areas of interest where to conduct exploration surveys in detail by means of more costly methods. The most relevant use of airborne magnetic results is crustal imaging and characterization. Nowadays, geology is interpreted in three dimensions using a digital aeromagnetic map.
    Description: Published
    Description: 675-688
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Description: 1V. Storia eruttiva
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 6V. Pericolosità vulcanica e contributi alla stima del rischio
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: 5A. Ricerche polari e paleoclima
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Description: 2TR. Ricostruzione e modellazione della struttura crostale
    Description: 6SR VULCANI – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Keywords: aeromagnetism ; potential fields ; magnetic anomaly ; 04.02. Exploration geophysics ; 04.05. Geomagnetism ; 04.07. Tectonophysics ; 04.08. Volcanology ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book chapter
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: Unravelling the physical state and properties of mantle rocks is crucial for understanding both plate tectonics, seismic activity, and volcanism. In this context, the knowledge of accurate elastic parameters of constituent mineral phases, and their variations with pressure (P) and temperature (T), is an essential requirement, that coupled with the thermal state of the lithosphere can provide a better understanding of its petrophysics and thermochemical structure. In this paper, we present an assessment of the thermoelastic parameters [in the form of P–V–T–K Equations of State (EoS)] of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel and garnet based on X-Ray diffraction data and direct elastic measurements available in literature. The newly developed EoS are appropriate to describe the elastic behaviour of these phases under the most relevant P–T conditions and bulk compositions of the Earth’s mantle. In combination with the published EoS for mantle olivine and magnesiochromite, these EoS are suitable to calculate the physical properties of mantle peridotites and their variation with P and T. Thanks to these EoS, we can evaluate how the variations in bulk composition and thermal regimes affect the density structure of the lithospheric mantle. Accordingly, the density structure of fertile and depleted peridotitic systems was calculated along the 35, 45 and 60 mWm􀀀 2 geothermal gradients at P comprised between 1 and 8 GPa. Under very cold geothermal gradients, the density of both fertile and depleted peridotitic systems progressively increases with depth, whereas under relatively hot conditions a first downwards decrease from 1 to ca 3 GPa is observed, followed by an increase downward. In mantle sections characterized by intermediate geotherms (45 mWm􀀀 2), the behaviour of the two systems differs up to ca 4 GPa, as the density of the depleted system remains nearly constant down to this depth whereas it moderately increases in the fertile system. The results of our simplified parameterisation, in agreement with classical thermodynamic modelling, indicate that the density structure of the lithospheric mantle is predominantly controlled by the P – T gradient variations, with some compositional control mostly arising at cold-intermediate thermal conditions. Integrated by geophysical and thermodynamic modelling, the newly developed and selected EoS could provide an alternative strategy to infer the elastic properties of mineral phases and peridotite rocks, under the most relevant P–T conditions and compositions of the Earth’s mantle, without requiring sets of end-member properties and solution models.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106483
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: Although often speculated, the link between theMiddle Triassic shoshonitic magmatismat the NE margin of the Adria plate and the subduction-related metasomatismof the Southern Alps Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) has never been constrained. In this paper, a detailed geochemical and petrological characterization of the lavas, dykes and ultramafic cumulates belonging to the shoshonitic magmatic event that shaped the Dolomites (Southern Alps) was used tomodel the composition and evolution of the underlying SCLMin the time comprised between the Variscan subduction and the opening of the Alpine Tethys. Geochemical models and numerical simulations enabled us to define that 5–7% partial melting of an amphibole + phlogopite-bearing spinel lherzolite, similar to the Finero phlogopite peridotite, can account for the composition of the primitive Mid-Triassic SiO2- saturated to -undersaturated melts with shoshonitic affinity (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7032–0.7058; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51219–0.51235; Mg # ~ 70; ~1.1 wt% H2O). By taking into account the H2O content documented in mineral phases from the Finero phlogopite peridotite, it is suggested that the Mid-Triassic SCLM source was able to preserve a significant enrichment and volatile content (600–800 ppm H2O) for more than 50 Ma, i.e. since the slab-related metasomatismconnected to the Variscan subduction. The partialmelting of a Finero-like SCLM represents the exhaustion of the subduction-related signature in the Southern Alps lithosphere that predated the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic asthenospheric upwelling related to the opening of the Alpine Tethys.
    Description: Published
    Description: 105856
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: Plutons in crustal shear zones may exploit inherited structures, interfere with strain localizing or be deformed passively. To constrain the relative timing of such tectono-magmatic relationships in natural settings is not always straight-forward. We here present sandbox-type analogue model experiments simulating magma emplacement into simple and transtensional crustal shear zones to test the diagnostic potential of pluton shape with respect to timing and setting. Observations based on surface deformation and intrusion shape exemplify the interplay between evolving and inherited tectonic structures and magma uprising. We observe markedly asymmetric intrusions in association with dikes reflecting the regional stresses, fault pattern and finite strain field. At the same time, the presence of an intrusion modifies the tectonic evolution, but only transiently, resulting in short-lived faults, reactivation and inversion. Diagnostic attributes include the pluton’s aspect ratio, its orientation and amplitude as well as dike association. Accordingly, syn-tectonic intrusions show the highest pluton amplitudes, but only intermediate elongation compared to other scenarios. They are oriented parallel to Riedel shears in simple shear, respectively to the compression direction in transtension. Post-tectonic intrusions are least elongated, have medium amplitudes and exploit Riedel shears. Pre-tectonic intrusions are characterized by lowest amplitudes but the highest aspect ratios and are parallel to the finite elongation direction. Intrusions in transtensional shear zones are generally of less elongate than those in simple shear zones. Experimental results are tested against observations from natural examples validating the diagnostic potential of pluton shape for the timing and the tectonic setting of the emplacement.
    Description: Published
    Description: 104417
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2022-02-16
    Description: In seismic modelling, fault planes are normally assumed to be flat due to the lack of data which can constrain fault morphology. However, incorporating 3D fault morphology is important for modelling several phenomena, for example calculating mainshock induced stress changes. We utilize a data-analytical method to unveil the 3D rupture morphology of faults using unsupervised clustering techniques applied to earthquake hypocenters in seismic sequences. We apply this method to the 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence which involved a MW 6.1 mainshock on April 6th. We use a dataset of about 50,000 relocated events, mostly microearthquakes, reaching magnitude of completeness equal to 0.7. Clustering distinguishes the earthquakes as occurring in three main clusters along with other minor fault segments. We then represent the morphology of the main Paganica fault system (responsible for the largest mainshock) using splines. This method shows promise as a step toward robustly and quickly obtaining 3D rupture morphologies where earthquake sequences have been monitored. The 3D model is presented interactively online, and the processing is presented in an interactive Jupyter Notebook (https://bit.ly/2MnCFdj).
    Description: Published
    Description: 228756
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Fault morphology Clustering L’Aquila earthquake sequence ; Clustering ; L’Aquila earthquake sequence
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-02-22
    Description: The westernmost Mediterranean hosts part of the plate boundary between the European and African tectonic plates. Based on the scattered instrumental seismicity, this boundary has been traditionally interpreted as a wide zone of diffuse deformation. However, recent seismic images and seafloor mapping studies support that most of the plate convergence may be accommodated in a few tectonic structures, rather than in a broad region. Historical earthquakes with magnitudes Mw 〉 6 and historical tsunamis support that the low-to-moderate instrumental seismicity might also have led to underestimation of the seismogenic and tsunamigenic potential of the area. We evaluate the largest active faults of the westernmost Mediterranean: the reverse Alboran Ridge, and the strike-slip Carboneras, Yusuf and Al-Idrissi fault systems. For the first time, we use a dense grid of modern seismic data to characterize the entire dimensions of the main fault systems, accurately describe the geometry of these structures and estimate their seismic source parameters. Tsunami scenarios have been tested based on 3D-surfaces and seismic source parameters, using both uniform and heterogeneous slip distributions. The comparison of our results with previous studies, based on limited information on the fault geometry and kinematics, indicates that accurate fault geometries and heterogeneous slip distributions are needed to properly assess the seismic and tsunamigenic potential in this area. Based on fault scaling relations, the four fault systems have a large seismogenic potential, being able to generate earthquakes with Mw 〉 7. The reverse Alboran Ridge Fault System has the largest tsunamigenic potential, being able to generate a tsunami wave amplitude greater than 3 m in front of the coasts of Southern Spain and Northern Africa.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106749
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Western Mediterranean ; Seismogenic potential ; Tsunamigenic potential ; Numerical modelling ; Active faults ; Active seismic data ; 04.04. Geology ; 04.07. Tectonophysics ; 04.06. Seismology ; 05.08. Risk
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-02-21
    Description: This work presents hydrochemical results for groundwater and dissolved gas samples collected from a thermal and cold aquifer in the Juchipila Basin, in southern Sierra Madre Occidental, central Mexico. Thermal springs in the Juchipila Basin reach temperatures of 60 ◦C, these manifestations are not related to recent or active volcanism as are all the known geothermal fields in Mexico. The thermal waters (〉32 ◦C) are Na-HCO3 and Na-SO4 type, with an anomalous concentration of F, B, Li, and As. Their chemistry likely results from water-rock interaction processes. The cold waters (〈32 ◦C) have a Ca-HCO3 composition typical of recent infiltration and shallow flow, but they have an anomalous concentration of NO3. The δ2H and δ18O indicate a common meteoric source for the warm and cold water plotting along an evaporation line. The waters have higher CO2 and He concentrations than the air-saturated water. The helium composition is mainly atmospheric and terrigenous with a mantle helium contribution of up to 14%. This suggests that faults affecting the region are deeply rooted, permitting mantle helium uprise. Geothermometry gives mean reservoir temperatures of 58–102 ◦C. Based on these results, we propose a model of hydrothermal circulation in the Juchipila Basin, in which rainwater infiltrates deeply through the graben edges fault system, dissolves ions and crustal helium, incorporates mantle helium, while heated by the geothermal gradient, and eventually surges and mixes with the cold, shallow aquifer along faults cutting the whole succession within the graben.
    Description: Published
    Description: 102076
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Hydrogeochemical processes ; Helium isotopes ; Water stable isotopes ; Unconventional geothermal system ; Mexico
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-02-21
    Description: Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, aka drones) are being used to map macro-litter on the environment. Sixteen qualified researchers (operators), with different expertise and nationalities, were invited to identify, mark and categorize the litter items (manual image screening, MS) on three UAS images collected at two beaches. The coefficient of concordance (W) among operators varied between 0.5 and 0.7, depending on the litter parameter (type, material and colour) considered. Highest agreement was obtained for the type of items marked on the highest resolution image, among experts in litter surveys (W = 0.86), and within territorial subgroups (W = 0.85). Therefore, for a detailed categorization of litter on the environment, the MS should be performed by experienced and local operators, familiar with the most common type of litter present in the target area. This work provides insights for future operational improvements and optimizations of UAS-based images analysis to survey environmental pollution.
    Description: Published
    Description: 112542
    Description: 5A. Ricerche polari e paleoclima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Coastal pollution; Plastics; Remote sensing; Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); Waste management
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2022-02-24
    Description: We investigated the late Quaternary throw distribution of the main normal fault that ruptured during the Mw 6.5 2016 earthquake in central Italy by means of a high-resolution structure-from-motion (SfM)-derived Digital Surface Model (DSM). We focused on a key area along the Cordone del Vettore fault (CDV), which is part of the Vettore-Bove fault system (VBFS). The CDV displays a prominent compound post-glacial scarp that allowed the reconstruction of the along-strike cumulative throw distribution. We propose a geometric approach to calculate the CDV fault throw distribution from the reconstruction of a displaced glaciation-related erosional surface, used as a geomorphic marker, and a series of closely spaced cross profiles. The proposed calculation accounts for both the slip vector direction and the degraded scarp top, including field data on fault dip angles. Following this approach, we recognized two scarps with a minimum average fault throw of ~21 m and ~35 m for this section of the investigated fault strand. The correlation with the possible post-LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) deglaciation phases of the erosional surface suggests a minimum scarp age of 25–27 ka cal BP. Such an age provides a reasonable CDV fault throw rate of ~0.8 mm/a, comparable with known long-term throw rates of the VBFS and active Apennines normal faults. By comparing the reconstructed long-term Cordone del Vettore throw distribution with the 2016 coseismic one, ~24 2016-like surface faulting events are required to generate the main cumulative scarp, under the assumption of constant slip per event. This, along with the age of the scarp, yields an average earthquake recurrence time interval of ~1100 a. These results suggest the presence of multiple regional markers that correlates with different LGM (if not pre-LGM) major glacial phases, whose erosional processes allow the preservation of pre-existing bedrock fault scarp remnants.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107784
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: earthquake ; surface rupture ; active tectonics ; geomorphology ; 04.04. Geology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2022-02-24
    Description: Dissolution of clinopyroxene (cpx) in a K-basaltic melt from the Campi Flegrei Volcanic District (Italy) has been investigated through dissolution and dissolution-crystallization experiments at pressure of 0.8 GPa, superliquidus temperature of 1350 ◦C, and dwell times between 0.5 and 1 h. The obtained dissolution rates range from 7.9⋅10− 6 cm s− 1 to 6.1⋅10− 6 cm s− 1 as a function of dwell time. In the dissolution-crystallization experiment (1300 ◦C; 0.8 GPa; 2 h), the formation of overgrowth rims accompanied by new cpx crystals suggests that the injection of recharge magmas in basaltic reservoir may lead to inverse or oscillatory zonation. The interaction between cpx and K-basaltic melt at ~1570 ◦C was studied by in situ radiography using synchrotron radiation combined with the Paris-Edinburgh press. This resulted in cpx resorption to occur depending on the temperature conditions with respect to the liquidus temperature of the cpx (TcpxL). The calculated cpx dissolution rates are ~5⋅10− 3 cm s− 1 at T ≤ TcpxL and ~ 3⋅10− 2 cm s− 1 at T ≥ TcpxL. The role of crystal dissolution in the estimation of magma residence times has been also tested for a natural magmatic system by interpolating the dissolution rates (~10− 5–10− 6 cm s− 1) with the textural data of cpx phenocrysts from the Agnano-Monte Spina pyroclastic deposit at Campi Flegrei caldera (Campanian region, Italy). Results from calculations indicate that the time required for partial or complete resorption of phenocrysts varies from ~0.5 to ~40 h, and that the effect of crystal dissolution may be relevant to estimate magma residence times whether signifcant dissolution occurs during magma mixing processes.
    Description: Published
    Description: 120533
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: During the 2016–2017 Central Italy earthquake sequence, a series of moderate to large earthquakes M 〉 5 occurred near the Amatrice and Norcia towns. These events are recorded on a dense seismic network, providing relevant observational evidence of complex earthquakes in time and space. In this work, we used this substantial data set to study the ground-motion characteristics of the Norcia earthquake M6.5 on October 30, 2016, through a broadband ground-motion simulation. Three-component broadband seismograms are generated to cover the entire frequency band of engineering interest. Low and high frequencies are computed considering the heterogeneous slip rupture model of Scognamiglio et al. (2018) [1]. High frequencies are calculated using a stochastic approach including P, SV, and SH waves, while low frequencies are obtained through a forward simulation of the kinematic model at the various stations. To predict earthquake-induced ground motions in the area, we adopted region-specific attenuation and source scaling parameters derived by Malagnini et al. (2011) [2]. Ground-motion parameters, including peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and spectral amplitudes, are calculated at the selected sites adopting physics-based parameters to understand better the earthquake fault rupture, the wave propagation, and their impacts on the seismic hazard assessment in the region. We showed that combining the fault rupture history over the entire frequency spectrum of engineering interest, the attenuation characteristics of the seismic wave propagation, and the properly defined site responses can improve the prediction of ground motions and time histories, especially in near seismic sources.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106866
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Ground-motion simulation ; Hybrid Method ; 30 October 2016 Norcia earthquake ; Site effects ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: Gypsum plasterboards are nowadays very appreciated in buildings, mainly due to their lightness, thermal insulation and suitable sound transmission loss when used in double walls. However thermal and acoustic features of gypsum plasterboard can be enhanced. In the present study an innovative method, consisting in the direct addition of a pre-manufactured foam to gypsum pastes is used to increase the gypsum porosity improving sound absorption, lightness and thermal insulation features. In this aim, the role of both different amounts and dilutions of a vegetal foaming agent on the main physical, mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the gypsum was experimentally investigated. Moreover, also X-ray computed micro tomography technique (Micro- CT) was carried out in order to investigate the 3D internal microstructure of the materials. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the foaming agent in increasing the gypsum porosity, with a linear correlation between densities and mechanical strengths. Moreover, the presence of large bubbles, mainly connected each other, involved in a strong reduction of the thermal coefficient (λ), from 0.57 W/m∙K of REF sample to 0.25 W/m∙K of LG10_5% sample, and in a strong increase of the normal sound absorption coefficient (α0), from 0.06 of REF sample to 0.20 of LG10_5% sample. Finally, in the light of the results obtained by the present research, the use of a pre-whipped vegetal foaming agent represents a suitable way to obtain lightweight gypsum-based materials with enhanced thermal and acoustic properties.
    Description: Published
    Description: 124948
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: The coastal vulnerability along the Mediterranean coasts is increasing, especially in response to the occurrence of tropical-like cyclones, known as Medicanes, which have become more intense than in the past. A peculiar case was the impact of Medicane Zorbas in September 2018 along the coasts of south-eastern Sicily, where it caused inland flooding and damages to the socio-economic activities. Here, Zorbas effects are reconstructed through post-event geomorphological surveys, interviews with direct witness and analyses of video recorded by surveillance systems or found in social media. These data allowed us to assess the flooding extent on seven coastal sectors located between Thapsos Peninsula and Marzamemi. Flooding caused by Zorbas appears to be greater than those produced by the main seasonal storms affecting the areas from 2015 to 2019; nevertheless, it is comparable with the flooding generated by Medicane Qendresa that impacted south-eastern Sicily in 2014. Wave propagation and extreme water level modelling, performed for the main storm events that occurred in the area since 2005, and analyses of data recorded by tide gauges of Catania, Porto Palo di Capo Passero and Malta since 2008, showed that Medicanes generate greater flooding than seasonal storms because they can induce higher and longer surge along the coastline. Collected data indicated that the surge generated by Zorbas reached a maximum value between about 0.8 m and 1.2 m above mean sea level (msl) along the coast of south-eastern Sicily. Results highlighted the need to better evaluate the coastal hazard related to the propagation of Medicanes, especially in the context of future climate change when these events will probably be characterized by longer duration and greater intensity than at the present.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106556
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: In the last decades, investigating geochemistry of sea sediments has been challenging in the eastern sector of Pozzuoli Bay, source of the metal(loid)s has been a matter of debate and the proposed origin of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) has been occasionally inconsistent. In this study, compositional data analysis (CoDA) was used because the results are independent of the measurement unit, the selected subgroup of elements and the order of chemicals in the dataset. The robust variant of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were positively correlated with mud and organic matter in the sediments deposited in front of the former industrial site. Concentrations of these metals decrease along the cores and in the distal zone. Nevertheless, Al, As, V, Fe, Cr, Ni and sand form an association along the coast which strengthens with increasing distance from fumaroles in the proximal zone. It suggests that arsenic was mainly originated from the pyroclastic deposits of Campi Flegrei and some of the seepages with hydrothermal component, supported by low contribution of the variables in robust PCA of the sediments from distal zone. Therefore, this pioneering article suggests CoDA as a powerful tool for answering the long-lasting questions over sediment geochemistry in polluted areas.
    Description: Published
    Description: 129955
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Bagnoli industrial site; Campi Flegrei; Fractal analysis; Isometric log-ratio; Robust principal component analysis; Symmetric coordinate
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: During the middle Eocene to early Oligocene Earth transitioned from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate state. The interval comprises the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO; ~40 Ma) and a subsequent long-term cooling trend that culminated in the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ~34 Ma) with the Oi-1 glaciation. Here, we present a refined calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and an orbitally tuned age model for the Monte Cagnero (MCA) section spanning the middle Eocene to the early Oligocene (~41 to ~33 Ma). Spectral analysis of magnetic susceptibility (MS) data displays strong cyclicities in the orbital frequency band allowing us to tune the identified 405 kyr eccentricity minima in the MS record to their equivalents in the astronomical solution. Our orbitally tuned age model allows us to estimate the position and duration of polarity chrons (C18 to C13) and compare them with other standard and orbitally tuned ages. We were also able to constrain the timing and duration of the MECO event, which coincides with a minimum in the 2.4 Myr and 405 kyr eccentricity cycles. Our study corroborates the previous estimated age for the base of the Rupelian stage (33.9 Ma) and estimates the base of the Priabonian stage in the MCA section to be at 37.4 Ma. Finally, calcareous nannofossils with known paleoenvironmental preferences suggest a gradual shift from oligotrophic to meso-eutrophic conditions with an abrupt change at ~36.8 Ma. Besides, nannofossil assemblages suggest that enhanced nutrient availability pre- ceded water cooling at the late Eocene. Altogether, this evidence points to a poorly developed water column stratification prior to the cooling trend.
    Description: Published
    Description: 110563
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: 5A. Ricerche polari e paleoclima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: In our original paper (Buono et al., 2020), we investigated the dynamics of degassing (e.g., bubble nucleation and growth, degassing styles and regimes) of H2O-, CO2- and H2O-CO2-rich evolved alkaline melts over a wide range of variables (final pressures, decompression rates, volatile compositions and contents, temperatures) through a comprehensive review of previous and new HP (high pressure)-HT (high temperature) decompression experiments. The criticism of Allabar and Nowak regards a restricted part of our results, i.e., those concerning homogeneous bubble nucleation from our new experiments on H2O-rich melts. Their aim is refusing the classical nucleation theory (CNT), widely accepted in literature to explain homogeneous bubble nucleation in magmas, for evolved alkaline melts in favour of the spinodal decomposition. We found that the Authors of the Comment do not provide any new evidence in support of their thesis, but they keep only arbitrary and erroneous conjectures of our new experimental data. As we stated in our original paper, the evaluation of the specific bubble nucleation mechanism (CNT vs. spinodal decomposition) is beyond the scope of our research, as appropriate studies on both experimental and natural products would be necessary to shed light on this complex issue.
    Description: Published
    Description: 103654
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: Bagnoli Coroglio is an urban district of the City of Naples (South Italy), which fronts the Tyrrhenian Sea for nearly 3 km. It is part of the Campi Flegrei caldera, one of the most explosive volcanic areas in Europe. The need for redeveloping the site after the intense industrial activities of the twentieth century has prompted a remarkable research effort to investigate the pollution's degree, nature, and extent at both the land and seafloor. This article focuses on releasing thermal waters from a natural channel as a source of arsenic contamination in the Bagnoli marine sediments; the thermal waters originate from the nearby Agnano hot-springs and have been conveying artificially to the track since the mid-XIX century. As a first part of the outcomes, the work describes the flow regime that characterizes the marine area. The analysis has been conducted via numerical simulations carried out with the software package Delft3D, developed by Deltares, which employs dynamically interfacing modules to account for wave propagation, generation of currents, and presence of coastal structures. Climatic inputs to the software (waves, winds, and tide) have specifically been gathered and analyzed within this research. The numerical study has permitted to furnish, for the first time, a clear and systematic view of the hydrodynamic forcings that characterize the area under investigation. In particular, a leading role in the transport of pollutants could be played by rip current systems, whose characteristics vary with climate intensity (waves and wind) and coastal structures characteristics. Due to its inherently dynamic nature, the proposed approach seems especially desirable in situations where different contamination sources are compared. As such, it could be successfully applied to other sites also.
    Description: Published
    Description: 146811
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Anthropogenic contamination sources; Marine circulation; Numerical modeling; Pollutants advection; Rip currents; Seabed contamination by arsenic
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy of middle Eocene – lower Oligocene sediments from ODP Hole 709 C, equatorial Indian Ocean. The new bio-magnetostratigraphic analyses have resulted in an accurate biochronology of the interval span- ning Chrons C20r (middle Eocene) to C12r, in which 29 bioevents were investigated, in a 12 myr interval. The magnetostratigraphic signal is less clear across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but becomes more reliable at the top of Chron C13n to Chron C12r (early Oligocene). Quantitative analyses of calcareous nannofossil as- semblages allowed recognition of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) and the long cooling trend leading to the glacial state starting in the early Oligocene. We identify two hiatuses, in the lower middle Eocene and across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT). Across the latter unconformity, a major transition from oligotrophic to eutrophic favoring nannofossil taxa highlights the enhanced sea surface nutrient availability during the transition to the early Oligocene glacial system. Finally, a late Oligocene warming event is recorded at this site by the increase in calcareous nannofossil taxa that preferred warm water.
    Description: Published
    Description: 102051
    Description: 5A. Ricerche polari e paleoclima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-02-11
    Description: This investigation presents for the first time the seasonal and solar cycle variations of the daytime F-layer multiple stratifications (F3 and F4 layers) near the southern crest of the EIA in two different longitudinal sectors of South America. To perform the study, the ionograms recorded from 2007 to 2015 at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W), Brazil (eastern sector), and at Tucuman (26.9° S, 65.4° W), Argentina (western sector), are considered. Both sites present a frequency of occurrence of the F3 and F4 layers which is directly proportional to the solar activity, and an annual variation with a maximum in spring/summer and a minimum in autumn/winter. The main result that came out from the analysis is that the frequency of occurrence of the F3 and F4 layers is higher in the western sector than in the eastern sector, and this could be attributed to a different gravity waves activity characterizing the two longitudinal sectors.
    Description: Published
    Description: 59-70
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2022-02-07
    Description: We address the potential for methane to exist in the subsurface of Mars, focusing on its generation, accumulation in sealed traps, and seepage to the atmosphere. We discuss two abiotic processes that could have produced subsurface methane, even if life never developed on the planet. Compared to Earth, accumulations of methane on Mars are likely to be limited, and those that are present may be better sealed by the thick and planetwide cryosphere. Releases are thus expected to be minor and episodic. We emphasize the importance of long-term, continuous monitoring of predicted release sites, as limited, episodic releases could be easy to miss. Moreover, we note that numerous scenarios of methane fluxes from terrestrial analogs may explain non-detections by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), as they can produce atmospheric concentrations below the TGO limit of detection. Our work does not negate the potential for meteoric/cometary sources of methane, but it does illustrate the strength of the case for subsurface sourcing. Finally, we provide a map of potential locations of release and discuss remaining uncertainties and a path forward.
    Description: Published
    Description: 149-174
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book chapter
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-02-14
    Description: East Java is characterised by a complex interaction of volcanic and tectonic processes and it is marked by isolated eruptive centres scattered across the back-arc sedimentary basins. In 2006 a large sediment hosted geothermal system named Lusi, pierced the Kendeng basin in East Java and since then it continues in a relentless eruption of mud breccia. To investigate the spatial and structural relationships between the volcanic arc and the back-arc domains, we perform a local earthquake tomography. The inversion of regional earthquakes recorded by our seismic network (for about two years) shows sharp Vp and Vp/Vs transitions. We observe a marked reduction of P-wave velocities and a high Vp/Vs ratio in the back-arc basins. Our study highlights a clear connection between the plumbing system of the volcanic arc and the northern sedimentary province. We propose a conceptual model suggesting that magmas and hydrothermal fluids may migrate from the middle to the upper crust into the sedimentary basins capitalising on existing thrust faults. Such low angle faults, promoted by the compressional regime of the region, link the magmatic domain to the northern sedimentary provinces. This process may represent the early phase of volcanic arc migration when magma-derived fluids are focused into fractured and permeable geological structures. Our conceptual model would not only help to understand the occurrence of the abundant mantle-derived fluids sampled across the back-arc, but it is also consistent with the occurrence of isolated magmatic and hybrid systems piercing across sedimentary environments in the back-arc of Java.
    Description: Published
    Description: 117258
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2022-02-14
    Description: Archaeological sites are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of weather-related events, which may lead to irreparable damages to cultural heritage. Here an assessment of the debris-flow hazard for the UNESCO site of Roman Villa del Casale (Italy) is carried out, through a combination of historical analyses, field surveys, geomorphological and hydrological investigations and two-dimensional hydraulic numerical modelling, all performed at river catchment scale. Historical analyses reveal that the site has been hit by several landslides in the far and recent past. This is presently confirmed by the high level of exposure to the impact of rain-triggered debris-flow events, due to the position of the Villa at a closure section of the related river basin and to the hydro- geomorphological characteristics of the basin itself. By applying the proposed approach, a scenario analysis is carried out. Results allow one to highlight the dynamics of the impact of debris flows, thanks to space and time- dependent maps about deposition areas, water depth and speed values, and to identify the most vulnerable archaeological elements within the study site. The numerical simulations are also used to test the efficiency of the existing hydraulic defense systems and to support the implementation of an early warning system for the site protection. Here, we also synthetize the design of the architecture of the wireless monitoring network, the sensor technology adopted to develop an effective real time environmental monitoring system and management plat-form, to construct a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) - early warning and reporting system, which can be applied as a prevention measure.
    Description: Published
    Description: 102509
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Hydraulic risk, Archaeological excavation, Cultural heritage, WSN Monitoring, EWS Scenario analysis ; 03.02. Hydrology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2022-02-14
    Description: Como historic centre, located at the SW branch of Lake Como (northern Italy), is prone to subside because of a thick sequence of late Pleistocene to Holocene glacio-lacustrine, palustrine and alluvial sediments in the subsoil. After the 1950s, the combination of natural causes and anthropogenic activities amplified subsidence-induced differential settlements at building foundation depths, resulting in damage on the superstructures. This work presents the first subsidence vulnerability analysis of the historic buildings in Como city centre by combining hydrogeological and stratigraphic features, in situ damage investigations, and remote sensing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired by Cosmo-SkyMed mission. First, the relationships between local hydrogeological features and vertical displacements retrieved by SAR Interferometry (InSAR) analysis were qualitatively assessed. This highlighted that cumulative vertical InSAR-derived settlements have a stronger linear correlation with the groundwater level rather than the thickness of compressible soil units at the city scale. The largest vertical displacements are located in the NW sector of the city centre and along the shore of Lake Como, where they remark the pre-Roman shoreline. Then, the cause-effect relationships between building damage severity and Subsidence-Related Intensity (SRI) parameters were investigated using a probabilistic approach based on empirical fragility curves. To this aim, two InSAR-derived SRI parameters were tested for both masonry and reinforced concrete buildings: differential settlements and relative rotations. The former resulted to relate better to distinct damage levels in Como historic centre. The analyses performed can contribute to the management of the inestimable architectural and cultural heritage of Como historic centre.
    Description: Published
    Description: 102115
    Description: 5IT. Osservazioni satellitari
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Subsidence of Como urban area
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-02-14
    Description: Microplastic presence in benthic marine systems is a widely discussed topic. The influence of the natural matrix on microplastic distribution within the sedimentary matrix is often overlooked. Marine sediments from the western inner Oslofjord, Norway, were investigated for temporal trends, with a particular focus on the relationship between sediment grain-sizes and microplastic distribution. Density separation, optical microscopy and chemical validation were used to categorize microplastics. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.71 MPs g − 1 dry weight (dw). Fibres were the most common (76%), followed by fragments and films (18%, 6%). Common polymers were polyesters (50%), polypropylene (18%), polymethylmethacrylate (9%), rayon and viscose (5%) and elastane (4%). Microplastics appear to accumulate preferentially according to their morphology and polymer type in certain sediment grain-sizes. Microplastics inputs to the Oslofjord appear to derive from a wastewater treatment plant in the vicinity. Although, the redistribution of microplastics within the fjord needs further investigation.
    Description: This project was supported by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) and the Erasmus+ Programme (EU).
    Description: Published
    Description: 113076
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Accumulation ; Plastic pollution ; Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ; Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) ; Sediment core ; FT-IR ; Microplastics ; Marine sediments
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-02-14
    Description: Magnetic skyrmions are emerging as key elements of unconventional operations having unique properties such as small size and low current manipulation. In particular, it is possible to design skyrmion-based neurons and synapses for neuromorphic computing in devices where skyrmions move along the current direction (zero skyrmion Hall angle). Here, we show that, for a given graph, skyrmions can be used in optimization problems facing the calculation of the shortest path. Our tests show a solution with the same path length as computed with Algorithm. In addition, we also discuss how skyrmions act as positive feedback on this type of problem giving rise to a self-reinforcement of the path which is a possible solution.
    Description: Published
    Description: 167977
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect; Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-02-11
    Description: In this study we present a procedure for the topographic classification of Italy, taking advantage of existing high resolution digital elevation models (DEM), with the support of routines embedded in Geographic Information Systems. The proposed method is based on morphometric analyses of a DEM, allowing for hilltop ridge detection, slope computation, identification of reliefs with potential topographic site effects, and topographic classification according to the indications of the current European and Italian seismic codes. The developed procedure can be applied worldwide and has a potential engineering interest for a fast and accurate topographic classification of a site, for both scientific and application purposes. The topographic classification of Italy is tested on several well known cases of topographic amplification and it is adopted for the topographic classification of Italian accelerometric stations.
    Description: The study has partially benefited from funding provided by the Italian Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri–Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC)—Agreement B2, DPC-INGV. This paper does not necessarily represent DPC official opinions and policies.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106848
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: DEM ; Topographic classification ; EC8 ; NTC18 ;