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  • Copernicus Publications (EGU)  (720)
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  • 1
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Ocean Science Discussions . pp. 1-43.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-17
    Description: he characteristics of the main water masses in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated and defined as Source Water Types (SWTs) from their formation area by six key properties based on the GLODAPv2 observational data. These include both conservative (potential temperature and salinity) and non-conservative (oxygen, silicate, phosphate and nitrate) variables. For this we divided the Atlantic Ocean into four vertical layers by distinct potential densities in the shallow and intermediate water column, and additionally by concentration of silicate in the deep waters. The SWTs in the upper/central water layer originates from subduction during winter and are defined as central waters, formed in four distinct areas; East North Atlantic Central water (ENACW), West North Atlantic Central Water (WNACW), East South Atlantic Central Water (ESACW) and West South Atlantic Central Water (WSACW). Below the upper/central layer the intermediate layer consist of three main SWTs; Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Subarctic Intermediate Water (SAIW) and Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW). The North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is the dominating SWT in the deep and overflow layer, and is divided into upper and lower NADW based on the different origins and properties. The origin of both the upper and lower NADW is the Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the Iceland–Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the only natural SWT in the bottom layer and this SWT is redefined as North East Atlantic Bottom Water (NEABW) in the north of equator due to the change of key properties, especial silicate. Similar with NADW, two additional SWTS, Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW), are defined in the Weddell Sea in order to understand the origin of AABW. The definition of water masses in biogeochemical space is useful for, in particular, chemical and biological oceanography to understand the origin and mixing history of water samples.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-17
    Description: We present a new near-global coupled biogeochemical ocean-circulation model configuration. The configuration features a horizontal discretization with a grid spacing of less than 11km in the Southern Ocean and gradually coarsens in meridional direction to more than 200km at 64°N where the model is bounded by a solid wall. The underlying code framework is GFDL's Modular Ocean Model coupled to the Biology Light Iron Nutrients and Gasses (BLING) ecosystem model of Galbraith et al. (2010). The configuration is cutting-edge in that it features both a relatively equilibrated oceanic carbon inventory and a realistic representation of eddy kinetic energy – a combination that has, to-date, been precluded by prohibitive computational cost. Results from a simulation with climatological forcing and a sensitivity experiment with increasing winds suggest that the configuration is suited to explore Southern Ocean Carbon uptake dynamics on decadal timescales. Further, the fidelity of simulated bottom water temperatures off and on the Antarctic Shelf suggest that the configuration may be used to provide boundary conditions to ice-sheet models. The configuration is dubbed MOMSO a Modular Ocean Model Southern Ocean configuration.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Ocean Science Discussions . pp. 1-32.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-17
    Description: The distribution of the main water masses in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated with the Optimal Multi-Parameter (OMP) method. The properties of the main water masses in the Atlantic Ocean are described in a companion article; here these definitions are used to map out the general distribution of those water masses. Six key properties, including conservative (potential temperature and salinity) and non-conservative (oxygen, silicate, phosphate and nitrate), are incorporated into the OMP analysis to determine the contribution of the water masses in the Atlantic Ocean based on the GLODAP v2 observational data. To facilitate the analysis the Atlantic Ocean is divided into four vertical layers based on potential density. Due to the high seasonal variability in the mixed layer, this layer is excluded from the analysis. Central waters are the main water masses in the upper/central layer, generally featuring high potential temperature and salinity and low nutrient concentrations and are easily distinguished from the intermediate water masses. In the intermediate layer, the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) from the south can be detected to ~30°N, whereas the Subarctic Intermediate Water (SAIW), having similarly low salinity to the AAIW flows from the north. Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) flows from the Strait of Gibraltar as a high salinity water. NADW dominates the deep and overflow layer both in the North and South Atlantic. In the bottom layer, AABW is the only natural water mass with high silicate signature spreading from the Antarctic to the North Atlantic. Due to the change of water mass properties, in this work we renamed to North East Antarctic Bottom Water NEABW north of the equator. Similarly, the distributions of Labrador Sea Water (LSW), Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), and Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) forms upper and lower portion of NADW, respectively roughly south of the Grand Banks between ~50 and 66°N. In the far south the distributions of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) are of significance to understand the formation of the AABW.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19 (3). pp. 1819-1834.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Eddy covariance measurements show gas transfer velocity suppression at medium to high wind speed. A wind-wave interaction described by the transformed Reynolds number is used to characterize environmental conditions favoring this suppression. We take the transformed Reynolds number parameterization to review the two most cited wind speed gas transfer velocity parameterizations: Nightingale et al. (2000) and Wanninkhof (1992, 2014). We propose an algorithm to adjust k values for the effect of gas transfer suppression and validate it with two directly measured dimethyl sulfide (DMS) gas transfer velocity data sets that experienced gas transfer suppression. We also show that the data set used in the Nightingale 2000 parameterization experienced gas transfer suppression. A compensation of the suppression effect leads to an average increase of 22% in the k vs. u relationship. Performing the same correction for Wanninkhof 2014 leads to an increase of 9.85 %. Additionally, we applied our gas transfer suppression algorithm to global air-sea flux climatologies of CO2 and DMS. The global application of gas transfer suppression leads to a decrease of 11% in DMS outgassing. We expect the magnitude of Reynolds suppression on any global air-sea gas exchange to be about 10%
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: The northward flow of the upper limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is fed by waters entering the South Atlantic from the Indian Ocean mainly via the Agulhas Current (AC) system and by waters entering from the Pacific through Drake Passage (DP), commonly referred to as the “warm” and “cold” water routes, respectively. However, there is no final consensus on the relative importance of these two routes for the upper limb's volume transport and thermohaline properties. In this study we revisited the AC and DP contributions by performing Lagrangian analyses between the two source regions and the North Brazil Current (NBC) at 6∘ S in a realistically forced high-resolution (1∕20∘) ocean model. Our results agree with the prevailing conception that the AC contribution is the major source for the upper limb transport of the AMOC in the tropical South Atlantic. However, they also suggest a non-negligible DP contribution of around 40 %, which is substantially higher than estimates from previous Lagrangian studies with coarser-resolution models but now better matches estimates from Lagrangian observations. Moreover, idealized analyses of decadal changes in the DP and AC contributions indicate that the ongoing increase in Agulhas leakage indeed may have induced an increase in the AC contribution to the upper limb of the AMOC in the tropics, while the DP contribution decreased. In terms of thermohaline properties, our study highlights the fact that the AC and DP contributions cannot be unambiguously distinguished by their temperature, as the commonly adopted terminology may imply, but rather by their salinity when entering the South Atlantic. During their transit towards the NBC the bulk of DP waters experiences a net density loss through a net warming, whereas the bulk of AC waters experiences a slight net density gain through a net increase in salinity. Notably, these density changes are nearly completely captured by Lagrangian particle trajectories that reach the surface mixed layer at least once during their transit, which amount to 66 % and 49 % for DP and AC waters, respectively. This implies that more than half of the water masses supplying the upper limb of the AMOC are actually formed within the South Atlantic and do not get their characteristic properties in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: The North Atlantic carbon sink is a prominent component of global climate, storing large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this basin’s CO2 uptake variability presents challenges for future climate prediction. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the processes that give rise to year-to-year (interannual) and decade-to-decade (decadal) variability in the North Atlantic’s dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) inventory is lacking. Here, we numerically simulate the oceanic response to human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change from the industrial era to the year 2100. The model distinguishes how different physical, chemical, and biological processes modify the basin’s DIC inventory; the saturation, soft tissue, and carbonate pumps, anthropogenic emissions, and other processes causing air-sea disequilibria. There are four ‘natural’ pools (saturation, soft tissue, carbonate, and disequilibrium), and an ‘anthropogenic’ pool. Interannual variability of the North Atlantic DIC inventory arises primarily due to temperature- and alkalinity-induced changes in carbon solubility (saturation concentrations). A mixture of saturation and anthropogenic drivers cause decadal variability. Multidecadal variability results from the opposing effects of saturation versus soft tissue carbon, and anthropogenic carbon uptake. By the year 2100, the North Atlantic gains 66Pg (1Pg = 1015 grams) of anthropogenic carbon, and the natural carbon pools collectively decline by 4.8Pg. The first order controls on interannual variability of the North Atlantic carbon sink size are therefore largely physical, and the biological pump emerges as an important driver of change on multidecadal timescales. Further work should identify specifically which physical processes underlie the interannual saturation-dominated DIC variability documented here.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: We present Nemo-Nordic, a Baltic and North Sea model based on the NEMO ocean engine. Surrounded by highly industrialized countries, the Baltic and North seas and their assets associated with shipping, fishing and tourism are vulnerable to anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Ocean models providing reliable forecasts and enabling climatic studies are important tools for the shipping infrastructure and to get a better understanding of the effects of climate change on the marine ecosystems. Nemo-Nordic is intended to be a tool for both short-term and long-term simulations and to be used for ocean forecasting as well as process and climatic studies. Here, the scientific and technical choices within Nemo-Nordic are introduced, and the reasons behind the design of the model and its domain and the inclusion of the two seas are explained. The model's ability to represent barotropic and baroclinic dynamics, as well as the vertical structure of the water column, is presented. Biases are shown and discussed. The short-term capabilities of the model are presented, especially its capabilities to represent sea level on an hourly timescale with a high degree of accuracy. We also show that the model can represent longer timescales, with a focus on the major Baltic inflows and the variability in deep-water salinity in the Baltic Sea.
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  • 8
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 32 (4). pp. 1101-1120.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Proxy data and observations suggest that large tropical volcanic eruptions induce a poleward shift of the North Atlantic jet stream in boreal winter. However, there is far from universal agreement in models on this effect and its mechanism, and the possibilities of a corresponding jet shift in the Southern Hemisphere or the summer season have received little attention. Using a hierarchy of simplified atmospheric models, this study examines the impact of stratospheric aerosol on the extratropical circulation over the annual cycle. In particular, the models allow the separation of the dominant shortwave (surface cooling) and longwave (stratospheric warming) impacts of volcanic aerosol. It is found that stratospheric warming shifts the jet poleward in both summer and winter hemispheres. The experiments cannot definitively rule out the role of surface cooling, but provide no evidence that it shifts the jet poleward. Further study with simplified models demonstrates that the response to stratospheric warming is remarkably generic and does not depend critically on the boundary conditions (e.g., the planetary wave forcing) or the atmospheric physics (e.g., the treatment of radiative transfer and moist processes). It does, however, fundamentally involve both zonal-mean and eddy circulation feedbacks. The timescales, seasonality, and structure of the response provide further insight into the mechanism, as well as its connection to modes of intrinsic natural variability. These findings have implications for the interpretation of comprehensive model studies and for post-volcanic prediction
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  • 9
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 16 . pp. 2033-2047.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: The Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) hosts the Peruvian upwelling system, which represents one of the most productive areas in the world ocean. High primary production followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) in the world ocean where dissolved oxygen (O2) concentrations reach well below 1 µmol kg−1. The high productivity leads to an accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the surface layers that may serve as a substrate for heterotrophic respiration. However, the importance of DOM utilization for O2 respiration within the Peruvian OMZ remains unclear so far. Here, we evaluate the diapycnal fluxes of O2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen, dissolved hydrolysable amino acids (DHAA) and dissolved combined carbohydrates (DCCHO) and the composition of DOM in the ETSP off Peru to learn, whether labile DOM is reaching into the core of the OMZ and how important DOM utilization might be for O2 attenuation. The observed diapycnal 2 flux (50 mmol O2 m−2 day−1 at max) was limited to the upper 80 m of the water column, the flux attenuation of ~1 µmol L−1day−1, was comparable to previously published O2 consumption rates for the North and South Pacific OMZs. The diapycnal DOM flux (31 mmol C m−2 day−1 at max) was limited to ~30 m water depth, suggesting that the labile DOM is already utilized within the upper part of the shallow oxycline off Peru. The analyses of DCCHO and DHAA composition support this finding, suggesting that DOM undergoes comprehensive remineralization already within the upper part of the oxycline, as the DOM within the core of the OMZ was found to be largely altered. Estimated by a simple equation for carbon combustion, aerobic respiration of DCCHO and DHAA, supplied by diapycnal mixing (0.46 µmol L−1 day−1 at max), could account for up to 38 % of the diapycnal O2 supply in the upper oxycline, which suggests that DOM utilization may play a significant role for shape of the upper Peruvian oxycline.
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  • 10
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19 (5). pp. 3417-3432.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: Recent observational and modeling studies suggest that stratospheric ozone depletion not only influences the surface climate in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), but also impacts Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring, which implies a strong interaction between dynamics and chemistry. Here, we systematically analyze the importance of interactive chemistry with respect to the representation of stratosphere–troposphere coupling and in particular the effects on NH surface climate during the recent past. We use the interactive and specified chemistry version of NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model coupled to an ocean model to investigate differences in the mean state of the NH stratosphere as well as in stratospheric extreme events, namely sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs), and their surface impacts. To be able to focus on differences that arise from two-way interactions between chemistry and dynamics in the model, the specified chemistry model version uses a time-evolving, model-consistent ozone field generated by the interactive chemistry model version. We also test the effects of zonally symmetric versus asymmetric prescribed ozone, evaluating the importance of ozone waves in the representation of stratospheric mean state and variability. The interactive chemistry simulation is characterized by a significantly stronger and colder polar night jet (PNJ) during spring when ozone depletion becomes important. We identify a negative feedback between lower stratospheric ozone and atmospheric dynamics during the breakdown of the stratospheric polar vortex in the NH, which contributes to the different characteristics of the PNJ between the simulations. Not only the mean state, but also stratospheric variability is better represented in the interactive chemistry simulation, which shows a more realistic distribution of SSWs as well as a more persistent surface impact afterwards compared with the simulation where the feedback between chemistry and dynamics is switched off. We hypothesize that this is also related to the feedback between ozone and dynamics via the intrusion of ozone-rich air into polar latitudes during SSWs. The results from the zonally asymmetric ozone simulation are closer to the interactive chemistry simulations, implying that under a model-consistent ozone forcing, a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the prescribed ozone field is desirable. This suggests that a 3-D ozone forcing, as recommended for the upcoming CMIP6 simulations, has the potential to improve the representation of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. Our findings underline the importance of the representation of interactive chemistry and its feedback on the stratospheric mean state and variability not only in the SH but also in the NH during the recent past.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-06-19
    Description: This study introduces the Monash Simple Climate Model (MSCM) experiment database. The simulations are based on the Globally Resolved Energy Balance (GREB) model to study three different aspects of climate model simulations: (1) understanding processes that control the mean climate, (2) the response of the climate to a doubling of the CO2 concentration, and (3) scenarios of external forcing (CO2 concentration and solar radiation). A series of sensitivity experiments in which elements of the climate system are turned off in various combinations are used to address (1) and (2). This database currently provides more than 1300 experiments and has an online web interface for fast analysis and free access to the data. We briefly outline the design of all experiments, give a discussion of some results, put the findings into the context of previously published results from similar experiments, discuss the quality and limitations of the MSCM experiments, and also give an outlook on possible further developments. The GREB model simulation is quite realistic, but the model without flux corrections has a root mean square error in the mean state of the surface temperature of about 10 ∘C, which is larger than those of general circulation models (2 ∘C). It needs to be noted here that the GREB model does not simulate circulation changes or changes in cloud cover (feedbacks). However, the MSCM experiments show good agreement to previously published studies. Although GREB is a very simple model, it delivers good first-order estimates, is very fast, highly accessible, and can be used to quickly try many different sensitivity experiments or scenarios. It builds a basis on which conceptual ideas can be tested to first order and it provides a null hypothesis for understanding complex climate interactions in the context of response to external forcing or interactions in the climate subsystems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-06-24
    Description: Freshwater discharge from glaciers is increasing across the Artic in response to anthropogenic climate change, which raises questions about the potential downstream effects in the marine environment. Whilst a combination of long-term monitoring programmes and intensive Arctic field campaigns have improved our knowledge of glacier-ocean interactions in recent years, especially with respect to fjord/ocean circulation in the marine environment, there are extensive knowledge gaps concerning how glaciers affect marine biogeochemistry and productivity. Following two cross-cutting disciplinary International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) workshops addressing ‘The importance of glaciers for the marine ecosystem’, here we review the state of the art concerning how freshwater discharge affects the marine environment with a specific focus on marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity. Using a series of Arctic case studies (Nuup Kangerlua/Godthåbsfjord, Kongsfjorden, Bowdoin Fjord, Young Sound, and Sermilik Fjord), the interconnected effects of freshwater discharge on fjord-shelf exchange, nutrient availability, the carbonate system, and the microbial foodweb are investigated. Key findings are that whether the effect of glacier discharge on marine primary production is positive, or negative is highly dependent on a combination of factors. These include glacier type (marine- or land-terminating) and the limiting resource for phytoplankton growth in a specific spatiotemporal region (light, macronutrients or micronutrients). Glacier fjords therefore often exhibit distinct discharge-productivity relationships and multiple case-studies must be considered in order to understand the net effects of glacier discharge on Arctic marine ecosystems.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-07-01
    Description: The nature of the Ionian Sea crust has been the subject of scientific debate for more than 30 years, mainly because seismic imaging of the deep crust and upper mantle of the Ionian Abyssal Plain (IAP) has not been conclusive to date. The IAP is sandwiched between the Calabrian and Hellenic subduction zones in the central Mediterranean. To univocally confirm the proposed oceanic nature of the IAP crust as a remnant of the Tethys ocean and to confute its interpretation as a strongly thinned part of the African continental crust, a NE-SW oriented 131 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profile consisting of eight ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones was acquired in 2014. A P-wave velocity model developed from travel time forward modelling is refined by gravimetric data and synthetic modelling of the seismic data. A roughly 6km thick crust with velocities ranging from 5.1km/s to 7.2km/s, top to bottom, can be traced throughout the IAP. In the vicinity of the Medina Seamounts at the southern IAP boundary, the crust thickens to about 9km and seismic velocities decrease to 6.8km/s at the crust-mantle boundary. The seismic velocity distribution and depth of the crust-mantle boundary in the IAP document its oceanic nature, and support the interpretation of the IAP as a remnant of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere formed during the Permian and Triassic period.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: The tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the transition region between the well mixed, convective troposphere and the radiatively controlled stratosphere with air masses showing chemical and dynamical properties of both regions. The representation of the TTL in meteorological reanalysis data sets is important for studying the complex interactions of circulation, convection, trace gases, clouds and radiation. In this paper, we present the evaluation of TTL characteristics in reanalysis data sets that has been performed as part of the SPARC (Stratosphere– troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP). The most recent atmospheric reanalysis data sets all provide realistic representations of the major characteristics of the temperature structure within the TTL. There is good agreement between reanalysis estimates of tropical mean temperatures and radio occultation data, with relatively small cold biases for most data sets. Temperatures at the cold point and lapse rate tropopause levels, on the other hand, show warm biases in reanalyses when compared to observations. This tropopause-level warm bias is related to the vertical resolution of the reanalysis data, with the smallest bias found for data sets with the highest vertical resolution around the tropopause. Differences of the cold point temperature maximise over equatorial Africa, related to Kelvin wave activity and associated disturbances in TTL temperatures. Model simulations of air mass transport into the stratosphere driven by reanalyses with a warm cold point bias can be expected to have too little dehydration. Interannual variability in reanalysis temperatures is best constrained in the upper TTL, with larger differences at levels below the cold point. The reanalyses reproduce the temperature responses to major dynamical and radiative signals such as volcanic eruptions and the QBO. Long-term reanalysis trends in temperature in the upper TTL show good agreement with trends derived from adjusted radiosonde data sets indicating significant stratospheric cooling of around −0.5 to −1 K/decade. At 100 hPa and the cold point, most of the reanalyses suggest small but significant cooling trends of −0.3 to −0.6 K/decade that are statistically consistent with trends based on the adjusted radiosonde data sets. Advances of the reanalysis and observational systems over the last decades have led to a clear improvement of the TTL reanalyses products over time. Biases of the temperature profiles and differences in interannual variability clearly decreased in 2006, when densely sampled radio occultation data started being assimilated by the reanalyses. While there is an overall good agreement, different reanalyses offer different advantages in the TTL such as realistic profile and cold point temperature, continuous time series or a realistic representation of signals of interannual variability. Their use in model simulations and in comparisons with climate model output should be tailored to their specific strengths and weaknesses.
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  • 15
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Earth System Science Data, 11 . pp. 947-957.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: The coastal waters of the Baltic Sea are subject to high variations in environmental conditions, triggered by natural and anthropogenic causes. Thus, in situ measurements of water parameters can be strategic for our understanding of the dynamics in shallow water habitats. In this study we present the results of a monitoring program at low water depths (1–2.5 m), covering 13 stations along the Baltic coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The provided dataset consists of records for dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations taken twice a month and continuous readings at 10 min intervals for temperature, salinity and oxygen content. Data underwent quality control procedures and were flagged. On average, a data availability of 〉90 % was reached for the monitoring period within 2016–2018. The obtained monitoring data reveal great temporal and spatial variabilities of key environmental factors for shallow water habitats in the southwestern Baltic Sea. Therefore the presented information could serve as realistic key data for experimental manipulations of environmental parameters as well as for the development of oceanographic, biogeochemical or ecological models.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-07-25
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: Satellite observations and output from a high-resolution ocean model are used to investigate how the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico affects the Gulf Stream transport through the Florida Straits. We find that the expansion (contraction) of the Loop Current leads to lower (higher) transports through the Straits of Florida. The associated surface velocity anomalies are coherent from the southwestern tip of Florida to Cape Hatteras. A simple continuity-based argument can be used to explain the link between the Loop Current and the downstream Gulf Stream transport: as the Loop Current lengthens (shortens) its path in the Gulf of Mexico, the flow out of the Gulf decreases (increases). Anomalies in the surface velocity field are first seen to the southwest of Florida and within 4 weeks propagate through the Florida Straits up to Cape Hatteras and into the Gulf Stream Extension. In both the observations and the model this propagation can be seen as pulses in the surface velocities. We estimate that the Loop Current variability can be linked to a variability of several Sverdrups (1Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) through the Florida Straits. The exact timing of the Loop Current variability is largely unpredictable beyond a few weeks and its variability is therefore likely a major contributor to the chaotic/intrinsic variability of the Gulf Stream. However, the time lag between the Loop Current and the flow downstream of the Gulf of Mexico means that if a lengthening/shortening of the Loop Current is observed this introduces some predictability in the downstream flow for a few weeks.
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: Global climatologies of the seawater CO2 chemistry variables are necessary to assess the marine carbon cycle in depth. The climatologies should adequately capture seasonal variability to properly address ocean acidification and similar issues related to the carbon cycle. Total alkalinity (A(T)) is one variable of the seawater CO2 chemistry system involved in ocean acidification and frequently measured. We used the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2.2019 (GLODAPv2) to extract relationships among the drivers of the A(T) variability and A(T) concentration using a neural network (NNGv2) to generate a monthly climatology. The GLODAPv2 quality-controlled dataset used was modeled by the NNGv2 with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 5.3 mu mol kg(-1). Validation tests with independent datasets revealed the good generalization of the network. Data from five ocean time-series stations showed an acceptable RMSE range of 3-6.2 mu mol kg(-1). Successful modeling of the monthly A(T) variability in the time series suggests that the NNGv2 is a good candidate to generate a monthly climatology. The climatological fields of A(T) were obtained passing through the NNGv2 the World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) monthly climatologies of temperature, salinity, and oxygen and the computed climatologies of nutrients from the previous ones with a neural network. The spatiotemporal resolution is set by WOA13: 1 degrees x 1 degrees in the horizontal, 102 depth levels (0-5500 m) in the vertical and monthly (0-1500 m) to annual (1550-5500 m) temporal resolution. The product is distributed through the data repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC; https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/8644, Broullon et al., 2019).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-08-19
    Description: Oceanic eddies are an important component in preconditioning the central Labrador Sea (LS) for deep convection and in restratifying the convected water. This study investigates the different sources and impacts of Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) and its temporal variability in the LS with the help of a 52-year long hindcast simulation of a 1/20° ocean model. Irminger Rings (IR) are generated in the West Greenland Current (WGC) between 60 and 62°N, mainly affect preconditioning and limit the northward extent of the convection area. The IR exhibit a seasonal cycle and decadal variations linked to the WGC strength, varying with the circulation of the subpolar gyre. The mean and temporal variations of IR generation can be attributed to changes in deep ocean baroclinic and upper ocean barotropic instabilities at comparable magnitudes. The main source of EKE and restratification in the central LS are Convective Eddies (CE). They are generated by baroclinic instabilities near the bottom of the mixed layer during and after convection. The CE have a mid-depth core and reflect the hydrographic properties of the convected water mass with a distinct minimum in potential vorticity. Their seasonal to decadal variability is tightly connected to the local atmospheric forcing and the associated air-sea heat fluxes. A third class of eddies in the LS are the Boundary Current Eddies shed from the Labrador Current (LC). Since they are mostly confined to the vicinity of the LC, these eddies appear to exert only minor influence on preconditioning and restratification.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: Industrial interest in deep-sea mineral extraction began decades ago and today it is at an all-time high, accelerated by global demand for metals. Several seafloor ecosystem disturbance experiments were performed beginning in the 1970’s, including the DISturbance and reCOLonization experiment (DISCOL) conducted in the Peru Basin in 1989. A large seafloor disturbance was created by repeatedly plowing the seafloor over an area of ~ 10.8 km2. Though a number of studies in abyssal mining regions have evaluated megafaunal biodiversity and ecosystem responses, few have included quantitative and detailed data on fishes or scavengers despite their ecological importance as top predators. We used towed camera transects and baited camera data to evaluate the fish community at the DISCOL site. The abyssal fish community was relatively diverse with 16 taxa dominated by Ipnops meadi. Fish density was lower in ploughed habitat during the several years following disturbance but thereafter increased over time in part due to changes in regional environmental conditions. 26 years post disturbance there were no differences in overall total fish densities between reference and experimental areas, but the dominant fish, I. meadi, still exhibited much lower densities in ploughed habitat suggesting only partial fish community recovery. The scavenging community was dominated by eelpouts (Pachycara spp), hermit crabs (Probeebei mirabilis) and shrimp. The large contribution of hermit crabs appears unique amongst abyssal scavenger studies worldwide. The abyssal fish community at DISCOL was similar to that in the more northerly Clarion Clipperton Zone, though some species have only been observed at DISCOL thus far. Also, further species level identifications are required to refine this assessment. Additional studies across the polymetallic nodule provinces of the Pacific are required to further evaluate the environmental drivers of fish density and diversity and species biogeographies, which will be important for the development of appropriate management plans aimed at minimizing human impact from deep-sea mining.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-09-02
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 22
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    Unknown
    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions . pp. 1-31.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-02
    Description: The westerly phase of the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) was reversed during Northern Hemisphere winter 2015/2016 for the first time since records began in 1953. Recent studies proposed that Rossby waves propagating from the extratropics played an important role during the reversal event in 2015/2016. Building upon these studies, we separated the extratropical Rossby waves into different wavenumbers and time-scales by analyzing the combined ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis zonal wind, meridional wind, vertical velocity and potential vorticity daily mean data from 1958 to 2017. We find that both synoptic and quasi-stationary Rossby waves are dominant contributors to the reversal event in 2015/2016 in the tropical lower stratosphere. By comparing the results for 2015/2016 with two additional events (1959/1960 and 2010/2011), we find that the largest differences in Rossby wave momentum fluxes are related to synoptic-scale Rossby waves of periods from 5–20 days. We demonstrate for the first time, that these enhanced synoptic Rossby waves at 40 hPa in the tropics in February 2016 originate from the extratropics as well as from local wave generation. The strong Rossby wave activity in 2016 in the tropics happened at a time with weak westerly zonal winds. This coincidence of anomalous factors did not happen in any of the previous events. In addition to the anomalous behavior in the tropical lower stratosphere in 2015/16, we explored the forcing of the unusually long-lasting westerly zonal wind phase in the upper stratosphere (at 20 hPa). Our results reveal that mainly enhanced Kelvin wave activity contributed to this feature. This was in close relation with the strong El Niño event in 2015/2016, which forced more Kelvin waves in the equatorial troposphere. The easterly or very weak westerly zonal winds present around 30–70 hPa allowed these Kelvin waves to propagate vertically and deposit their momentum around 20 hPa, maintaining the westerlies there.
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  • 23
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    Unknown
    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19 (17). pp. 11089-11103.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-19
    Description: It is an open question how localized elevated emissions of bromoform (CHBr3) and other very short-lived halocarbons (VSLHs), found in coastal and upwelling regions, and low background emissions, typically found over the open ocean, impact the atmospheric VSLH distribution. In this study, we use the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART to simulate atmospheric CHBr3 resulting from assumed uniform background emissions, and from elevated emissions consistent with those derived during three tropical cruise campaigns. The simulations demonstrate that the atmospheric CHBr3 distributions in the uniform background emissions scenario are highly variable with high mixing ratios appearing in regions of convergence or low wind speed. This relation holds on regional and global scales. The impact of localized elevated emissions on the atmospheric CHBr3 distribution varies significantly from campaign to campaign. The estimated impact depends on the strength of the emissions and the meteorological conditions. In the open waters of the western Pacific and Indian oceans, localized elevated emissions only slightly increase the background concentrations of atmospheric CHBr3, even when 1∘ wide source regions along the cruise tracks are assumed. Near the coast, elevated emissions, including hot spots up to 100 times larger than the uniform background emissions, can be strong enough to be distinguished from the atmospheric background. However, it is not necessarily the highest hot spot emission that produces the largest enhancement, since the tug-of-war between fast advective transport and local accumulation at the time of emission is also important. Our results demonstrate that transport variations in the atmosphere itself are sufficient to produce highly variable VSLH distributions, and elevated VSLHs in the atmosphere do not always reflect a strong localized source. Localized elevated emissions can be obliterated by the highly variable atmospheric background, even if they are orders of magnitude larger than the average open ocean emissions.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Particle sinking is a major form of transport for photosynthetically fixed carbon to below the euphotic zone via the biological carbon pump (BCP). Oxygen (O2) depletion may improve the efficiency of the BCP. However, the mechanisms by which O2 deficiency can enhance particulate organic matter (POM) vertical fluxes are not well understood. Here, we investigate the composition and vertical fluxes of POM in two deep basins of the Baltic Sea (GB: Gotland Basin and LD: Landsort Deep). The two basins showed different O2 regimes resulting from the intrusion of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea that ventilated the water column below 140 m in GB, but not in LD, during the time of sampling. In June 2015, we deployed surface-tethered drifting sediment traps in oxic surface waters (GB: 40 and 60 m; LD: 40 and 55 m), within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ; GB: 110 m and LD: 110 and 180 m) and at recently oxygenated waters by the North Sea inflow in GB (180 m). The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the different O2 conditions in the water column of GB and LD affected the composition and vertical flux of sinking particles and caused differences in export efficiency between those two basins. The composition and vertical flux of sinking particles were different in GB and LD. In GB, particulate organic carbon (POC) flux was 18 % lower in the shallowest trap (40 m) than in the deepest sediment trap (at 180 m). Particulate nitrogen (PN) and Coomassie stainable particle (CSP) fluxes decreased with depth, while particulate organic phosphorus (POP), biogenic silicate (BSi), chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparent exopolymeric particle (TEP) fluxes peaked within the core of the OMZ (110 m); this coincided with the presence of manganese oxide-like (MnOx-like) particles aggregated with organic matter. In LD, vertical fluxes of POC, PN and CSPs decreased by 28 %, 42 % and 56 %, respectively, from the surface to deep waters. POP, BSi and TEP fluxes did not decrease continuously with depth, but they were higher at 110 m. Although we observe a higher vertical flux of POP, BSi and TEPs coinciding with abundant MnOx-like particles at 110 m in both basins, the peak in the vertical flux of POM and MnOx-like particles was much higher in GB than in LD. Sinking particles were remarkably enriched in BSi, indicating that diatoms were preferentially included in sinking aggregates and/or there was an inclusion of lithogenic Si (scavenged into sinking particles) in our analysis. During this study, the POC transfer efficiency (POC flux at 180 m over 40 m) was higher in GB (115 %) than in LD (69 %), suggesting that under anoxic conditions a smaller portion of the POC exported below the euphotic zone was transferred to 180 m than under reoxygenated conditions present in GB. In addition, the vertical fluxes of MnOx-like particles were 2 orders of magnitude higher in GB than LD. Our results suggest that POM aggregates with MnOx-like particles formed after the inflow of oxygen-rich water into GB, and the formation of those MnOx–OM-rich particles may alter the composition and vertical flux of POM, potentially contributing to a higher transfer efficiency of POC in GB. This idea is consistent with observations of fresher and less degraded organic matter in deep waters of GB than LD.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: A strong oxygen deficient layer is located in the upper layer of the tropical Pacific Ocean and at deeper depths in the North Pacific. Processes related to climate change (upper ocean warming, reduced ventilation) are expected to change ocean oxygen and nutrient inventories. In most ocean basins, a decrease in oxygen (‘deoxygenation’) and an increase of nutrients has been observed in subsurface layers. Deoxygenation trends are not linear and there could be other influences on oxygen and nutrient trends and variability. Here oxygen and nutrient time series since 1950 in the Pacific Ocean were investigated at 50 to 300 m depth, as this layer provides critical pelagic habitat for biological communities. In addition to trends related to ocean warming the oxygen and nutrient trends show a strong influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the tropical and the eastern Pacific, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) especially in the North Pacific. In the Oyashio Region the PDO, the NPGO, the North Pacific Index (NPI) and a 18.6 year nodal tidal cycle overlay the long-term trend. In most regions oxygen increases and nutrients decrease in the 50 to 300 m layer during the negative PDO phase, with opposite trends during the positive PDO phase. The PDO index encapsulates the major mode of surface temperature variability in the Pacific and oxygen and nutrients trends throughout the basin can be described in the context of the PDO phases. An influence of the subtropical-tropical cell in the tropical Pacific cannot be proven with the available data. El Niño and La Niña years often influence the oxygen and nutrient distribution during the event in the eastern tropical Pacific, but do not have a multi-year influence on the trends.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Throughout the last few decades and in the near future CO2–induced ocean acidification is potentially a big threat to marine calcite-shelled animals (e.g., brachiopods, bivalves, corals and gastropods). Despite the great number of studies focusing on the effects of acidification on shell growth, metabolism, shell dissolution and shell repair, the consequences on biomineral formation remain poorly understood, and only few studies addressed contemporarily the impact of acidification on shell microstructure and geochemistry. In this study, a detailed microstructure and stable isotope geochemistry investigation was performed on nine adult brachiopod specimens of Magellania venosa (Dixon, 1789), grown in the natural environment as well as in controlled culturing experiments at different pH conditions (ranging 7.35 to 8.15±0.05) over different time intervals (214 to 335 days). Details of shell microstructural features, such as thickness of the primary layer, density and size of endopunctae and morphology of the basic structural unit of the secondary layer were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) were tested from the secondary shell layer along shell ontogenetic increments in both dorsal and ventral valves. Based on our comprehensive dataset, we observed that, under low pH conditions, M. venosa produced a more organic-rich shell with higher density of and larger endopunctae, and smaller secondary layer fibres, when subjected to about one year of culturing. Also, increasingly negative δ13C and δ18O values are recorded by the shell produced during culturing and are related to the CO2–source in the culture setup. Both the microstructural changes and the stable isotope results are similar to observations on brachiopods from the fossil record and strongly support the value of brachiopods as robust archives of proxies for studying ocean acidification events in the geologic past.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Phytoplankton calcifiers contribute to global carbon cycling through their dual formation of calcium carbonate and particulate organic carbon (POC). The carbonate might provide an efficient export pathway for the associated POC to the deep ocean, reducing the particles' exposure to biological degradation in the upper ocean and increasing the particle settling rate. Previous work has suggested ballasting of POC by carbonate might increase in a warming climate, in spite of increasing carbonate dissolution rates, because calcifiers benefit from the widespread nutrient limitation arising from stratification. We compare the biogeochemical responses of three models containing (1) a single mixed phytoplankton class, (2) additional explicit small phytoplankton and calcifiers, and (3) additional explicit small phytoplankton and calcifiers with a prognostic carbonate ballast model, to two rapid changes in atmospheric CO2. The first CO2 scenario represents a rapid (151-year) transition from a stable icehouse climate (283.9 ppm) into a greenhouse climate (1263 ppm); the second represents a symmetric rapid transition from a stable greenhouse climate into an icehouse climate. We identify a slope change in the global net primary production response with a transition point at about 3.5 ∘C global mean sea surface temperature change in all models, driven by a combination of physical and biological changes. We also find that in both warming and cooling scenarios, the application of a prognostic carbonate ballast model moderates changes in carbon export production, suboxic volume, and nitrate sources and sinks, reducing the long-term model response to about one-third that of the calcifier model without ballast. Explicit small phytoplankton and calcifiers, and carbonate ballasting, increase the physical separation of nitrate sources and sinks through a combination of phytoplankton competition and lengthened remineralization profile, resulting in a significantly higher global nitrate inventory in this model compared to the single phytoplankton type model (15 % and 32 % higher for icehouse and greenhouse climates). Higher nitrate inventory alleviates nitrate limitation, increasing phytoplankton sensitivity to changes in physical limitation factors (light and temperature). This larger sensitivity to physical forcing produces stronger shifts in ocean phosphate storage between icehouse and greenhouse climates. The greenhouse climate is found to hold phosphate and nitrate deeper in the ocean, despite a shorter remineralization length scale than the icehouse climate, because of the longer residence times of the deep water masses. We conclude the global biogeochemical impact of calcifiers extends beyond their role in global carbon cycling, and that the ecological composition of the global ocean can affect how ocean biogeochemistry responds to climate forcing.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The open ocean is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O), an atmospheric trace gas attributable to global warming and ozone depletion. Intense sea-to-air N2O fluxes occur in major oceanic upwelling regions such as the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP). The ETSP is influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation that leads to inter-annual variations in physical, chemical, and biological properties in the water column. In October 2015, a strong El Niño event was developing in the ETSP; we conduct field observations to investigate (1) the N2O production pathways and associated biogeochemical properties and (2) the effects of El Niño on water column N2O distributions and fluxes using data from previous non-El Niño years. Analysis of N2O natural abundance isotopomers suggested that nitrification and partial denitrification (nitrate and nitrite reduction to N2O) were occurring in the near-surface waters; indicating that both pathways contributed to N2O effluxes. Higher-than-normal sea surface temperatures were associated with a deepening of the oxycline and the oxygen minimum layer. Within the shelf region, surface N2O supersaturation was nearly an order of magnitude lower than that of non-El Niño years. Therefore, a significant reduction of N2O efflux (75 %–95 %) in the ETSP occurred during the 2015 El Niño. At both offshore and coastal stations, the N2O concentration profiles during El Niño showed moderate N2O concentration gradients, and the peak N2O concentrations occurred at deeper depths during El Niño years; this was likely the result of suppressed upwelling retaining N2O in subsurface waters. At multiple stations, water-column inventories of N2O within the top 1000 m were up to 160 % higher than those measured in non-El Niño years, indicating that subsurface N2O during El Niño could be a reservoir for intense N2O effluxes when normal upwelling is resumed after El Niño.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Sea surface salinity is one of the most important parameters to reconstruct in paleoclimatology, reflecting amongst others the hydrological cycle, paleo-density, ice volume, and regional and global circulation of water masses. Recent culture studies and a Red Sea field study revealed a significant positive relation between salinity and Na incorporation within benthic and planktonic foraminiferal shells. However, these studies reported varying partitioning of Na between and within the same species. The latter could be associated with ontogenetic variations, most likely spine loss. Varying Na concentrations were observed in different parts of foraminiferal shells, with especially spines and regions close to the primary organic sheet being enriched in Na. In this study, we unravel the Na composition of different components of the planktonic foraminiferal shell wall using Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) and solution-ICP-MS. A model is presented to interpret EPMA data for spines and spine bases to quantitatively assess differences in composition and contribution to whole shell Na/Ca signals. The same model can also be applied to other spatial inhomogeneities observed in foraminiferal shell chemistry, like elemental (e.g. Mg, Na, S) banding and/or hotspots. The relative contribution of shell calcite, organic linings, spines and spine bases to whole shell Na chemistry is considered quantitatively. This study shows that whereas the high Na areas may be susceptible to taphonomy, the Na chemistry of the shell itself seems relatively robust. Comparing both shell and spine Na/Ca values with salinity shows that shell chemistry records salinity, albeit with a very modest slope.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The sedimentary stable nitrogen isotope compositions of bulk organic matter (δ15Nbulk) and silicon isotope composition of diatoms (δ30SiBSi) both mainly reflect the degree of past nutrient utilization by primary producers. However, in ocean areas where anoxic and suboxic conditions prevail, the δ15Nbulk signal ultimately recorded within the sediments is also influenced by water column denitrification causing an increase in the subsurface δ15N signature of dissolved nitrate (δ15NO3−) upwelled to the surface. Such conditions are found in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru, where at present an increase in subsurface δ15NO3− from North to South along the shelf is observed due to ongoing denitrification within the pole-ward flowing subsurface waters, while the δ30Si signature of silicic acid (δ30Si(OH)4) at the same time remains unchanged. Here, we present three new δ30SiBSi records between 11° S and 15° S and compare these to previously published δ30SiBSi and δ15Nbulk records from Peru covering the past 600 years. We present a new approach to calculate past subsurface δ15NO3− signatures based on the correlation of δ30SiBSi and δ15Nbulk signatures at a latitudinal resolution for different time periods. Our results show source water δ15NO3− compositions during the last 200 years, the Current Warm Period (CWP) and during short-term arid events prior to that, which are close to modern values increasing southward from 7 to 10 ‰ (between 11° S and 15° S). In contrast, humid conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) reflect consistently low δ15NO3− values between 6 and 7.5‰. Furthermore, we are able to relate the short-term variability in both isotope compositions to changes in the ratio of nutrients (NO3− : Si(OH)4) taken up by different dominating phytoplankton groups (diatoms and non-siliceous phytoplankton) under the variable climatic conditions of the past 600 years.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Long-term measurements of volcanic gas emissions conducted during the recent decade suggest that under certain conditions the magnitude or chemical composition of volcanic emissions exhibits periodic variations with a period of about two weeks. A possible cause of such a periodicity can be attributed to the Earth tidal potential. The phenomenology of such a link has been debated for long, but no quantitative model has yet been proposed. The aim of this paper is to elucidate whether a causal link from the tidal forcing to variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations and derive a periodical vertical magma displacement in the conduit with an amplitude of 0.1–1 m, depending on geometry and physical state of the magmatic system. We find that while the tide-induced vertical magma displacement has presumably no significant direct effect on the volatile solubility, the differential magma flow across the radial conduit profile may result in a significant increase of the bubble coalescence rate in a depth of several kilometres by up to several ten percent. Because bubble coalescence facilitates separation of gas from magma and thus enhances volatile degassing, we argue that the derived tidal variation may propagate to a manifestation of varying volcanic degassing behaviour. The presented model provides a first basic framework which establishes an analytical understanding of the link between the Earth tides and volcanic degassing.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The early Eocene (56 to 48 million years ago) is inferred to have been the most recent time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Global mean temperatures were also substantially warmer than present day. As such, study of early Eocene climate provides insight into how a super-warm Earth system behaves and offers an opportunity to 10 evaluate climate models under conditions of high greenhouse gas forcing. The Deep Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a systematic model-model and model-data intercomparison of three early Paleogene time slices: latest Paleocene, Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and early Eocene climatic optimum. A previous article outlined the model experimental design for climate model simulations. In this article, we outline the methodologies to be used for the compilation and analysis of climate proxy data, primarily proxies for temperature and CO2. This paper establishes the protocols for a concerted and 15 coordinated effort to compile the climate proxy records across a wide geographic range. The resulting climate "atlas" will be used to constrain and evaluate climate models for the three selected time intervals, and provide insights into the mechanisms that control these warm climate states. We provide version 0.1 of this database, in anticipation that this will be expanded in subsequent publications.
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  The Cryosphere, 13 . pp. 815-825.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Surface melting is a major driver of Greenland's mass loss. Yet, the mechanisms that trigger melt are still insufficiently understood because seasonally based studies blend processes initiating melt with positive feedbacks. Here, we focus on the triggers of melt by examining the synoptic atmospheric conditions associated with 313 rapid melt increases, detected in a satellite-derived melt extent product, equally distributed throughout the year over the period 1979–2012. By combining reanalysis and weather station data, we show that melt is initiated by a cyclone-driven, southerly flow of warm, moist air, which gives rise to large-scale precipitation. A decomposition of the synoptic atmospheric variability over Greenland suggests that the identified, melt-triggering weather pattern accounts for ∼40 % of the net precipitation, but increases in the frequency, duration and areal extent of the initiated melting have shifted the line between mass gain and mass loss as more melt and rainwater run off or accumulate in the snowpack. Using a regional climate model, we estimate that the initiated melting more than doubled over the investigated period, amounting to ∼28 % of the overall surface melt and revealing that, despite the involved mass gain, year-round precipitation events are participating in the ice sheet's decline.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The aim of the GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014, R/V Pourquoi Pas?) was to provide a better understanding of trace metal biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic Ocean. As marine particles play a key role in the global biogeochemical cycle of trace elements in the ocean, we discuss the distribution of particulate iron (PFe), in relation to the distribution of particulate aluminium (PAl), manganese (PMn), and phosphorus (PP). Overall, 32 full vertical profiles were collected for trace metal analyses, representing more than 500 samples. This resolution provides a solid basis for assessing concentration distributions, elemental ratios, size fractionation, and adsorptive scavenging processes in key areas of the thermohaline overturning circulation. Total particulate iron concentrations ranged from as low as 9 pmol L−1 in surface waters of the Labrador Sea to 304 nmol L−1 near the Iberian margin, while median PFe concentrations of 1.15 nmol L−1 were measured over the sub-euphotic ocean interior. Within the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the ratio of PFe to PAl was identical to the continental crust molar ratio (0.21 mol mol−1), indicating the important influence of crustal particles in the water column. Overall, the lithogenic component explained more than 87% of PFe variance along the section. Within the Irminger and Labrador basins, the formation of biogenic particles led to an increase in the PFe∕PAl ratio (up to 0.64 mol mol−1) compared to the continental crust ratio. Continental margins induce high concentrations of particulate trace elements within the surrounding water masses (up to 10 nmol L−1 of PFe). For example, horizontal advection of PFe was visible more than 250 km away from the Iberian margin. Additionally, several benthic nepheloid layers were observed more than 200 m above the seafloor along the transect, especially in the Icelandic, Irminger, and Labrador basins, suspending particles with high PFe content of up to 89 nmol L−1.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Atmospheric deposition is an important source of micronutrients to the ocean, but atmospheric deposition fluxes remain poorly constrained in most ocean regions due to the limited number of field observations of wet and dry atmospheric inputs. Here we present the distribution of dissolved aluminium (dAl), as a tracer of atmospheric inputs, in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean along GEOTRACES sections GA01, GA06, GA08, and GA10. We used the surface mixed layer concentrations of dAl to calculate atmospheric deposition fluxes using a simple steady state model. We have optimized the aerosol Al fractional solubility, dAl residence time within the surface mixed layer and depth of the surface mixed layer for each separate cruise to calculate the atmospheric deposition fluxes. We calculated the lowest deposition fluxes of 0.15 ± 0.1 and 0.27 ± 0.13 g m−2 yr−1 for the South and North Atlantic Ocean (〉 40° S and 〉 40° N), respectively, and highest fluxes of 2.67 ± 1.96 and 3.82 ± 2.72 g m−2 yr−1 for the South East Atlantic and tropical Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Overall, our estimations are comparable to atmospheric dust deposition model estimates and reported field-based atmospheric deposition estimates. We note that our estimates diverge from atmospheric dust deposition model flux estimates in regions influenced by riverine Al inputs and in upwelling regions. As dAl is a key trace element in the GEOTRACES Programme, the approach presented in this study allows calculations of atmospheric deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution for remote ocean regions.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Upwelling systems play a key role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and are also of local relevance due to their high productivity and fish resources. To capture and understand the high spatial and temporal variability in physical and biogeochemical parameters found in these regions, novel measurement techniques have to be combined in an interdisciplinary manner. Here we use high-resolution glider-based physical–biogeochemical observations in combination with ship-based underwater vision profiler, sensor and bottle data to investigate the drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability across the shelf break off Mauritania in June 2014. Distinct oxygen and nitrate variability shows up in our glider data. High-oxygen and low-nitrate anomalies were clearly related to water mass variability and probably linked to ocean transport. Low-oxygen and high-nitrate patches co-occurred with enhanced turbidity signals close to the seabed, which suggests locally high microbial respiration rates of resuspended organic matter near the sea floor. This interpretation is supported by high particle abundance observed by the underwater vision profiler and enhanced particle-based respiration rate estimates close to the seabed. Discrete in situ measurements of dissolved organic carbon and amino acids suggest the formation of dissolved organic carbon due to particle dissolution near the seabed fueling additional microbial respiration. During June an increase in the oxygen concentration on the shelf break of about 15 µmol kg−1 was observed. These changes go along with meridional circulation changes but cannot be explained by typical water mass property changes. Thus our high-resolution interdisciplinary observations highlight the complex interplay of remote and local physical–biogeochemical drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability off Mauritania, which cannot be captured by classical shipboard observations alone.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We present consistent annual mean atmospheric histories and growth rates for the mainly anthropogenic halogenated compounds HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116, which are all potentially useful oceanic transient tracers (tracers of water transport within the ocean), for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere with the aim of providing input histories of these compounds for the equilibrium between the atmosphere and surface ocean. We use observations of these halogenated compounds made by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of East Anglia (UEA). Prior to the direct observational record, we use archived air measurements, firn air measurements and published model calculations to estimate the atmospheric mole fraction histories. The results show that the atmospheric mole fractions for each species, except HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b, have been increasing since they were initially produced. Recently, the atmospheric growth rates have been decreasing for the HCFCs (HCFC-22, HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b), increasing for the HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23) and stable with little fluctuation for the PFCs (PFC-14 and PFC-116) investigated here. The atmospheric histories (source functions) and natural background mole fractions show that HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125 and HFC-23 have the potential to be oceanic transient tracers for the next few decades only because of the recently imposed bans on production and consumption. When the atmospheric histories of the compounds are not monotonically changing, the equilibrium atmospheric mole fraction (and ultimately the age associated with that mole fraction) calculated from their concentration in the ocean is not unique, reducing their potential as transient tracers. Moreover, HFCs have potential to be oceanic transient tracers for a longer period in the future than HCFCs as the growth rates of HFCs are increasing and those of HCFCs are decreasing in the background atmosphere. PFC-14 and PFC-116, however, have the potential to be tracers for longer periods into the future due to their extremely long lifetimes, steady atmospheric growth rates and no explicit ban on their emissions. In this work, we also derive solubility functions for HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116 in water and seawater to facilitate their use as oceanic transient tracers. These functions are based on the Clark–Glew–Weiss (CGW) water solubility function fit and salting-out coefficients estimated by the poly-parameter linear free-energy relationships (pp-LFERs). Here we also provide three methods of seawater solubility estimation for more compounds. Even though our intention is for application in oceanic research, the work described in this paper is potentially useful for tracer studies in a wide range of natural waters, including freshwater and saline lakes, and, for the more stable compounds, groundwaters.
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  • 38
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36 . pp. 281-296.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The turbulent dissipation rate ɛ is a key parameter to many oceanographic processes. Recently gliders have been increasingly used as a carrier for microstructure sensors. Compared to conventional ship-based methods, glider-based microstructure observations allow for long duration measurements under adverse weather conditions, and at lower costs. The incident water velocity U is an input parameter for the calculation of the dissipation rate. Since U can not be measured using the standard glider sensor setup, the parameter is normally computed from a steady-state glider flight model. As ɛ scales with U2 or U4, depending whether it is computed from temperature or shear microstructure, flight model errors can introduce a significant bias. This study is the first to use measurements of in-situ glider flight, obtained with a profiling Doppler velocity log and an electromagnetic current meter, to test and calibrate a flight model, extended to include inertial terms. Compared to a previously suggested flight model, the calibrated model removes a bias of approximately 1 cm s−1 in the incident water velocity, which translates to roughly a factor of 1.2 in estimates of the dissipation rate. The results further indicate that 90% of the estimates of the dissipation rate from the calibrated model are within a factor of 1.1 and 1.2 for measurements derived from microstructure temperature sensors and shear probes, respectively. We further outline the range of applicability of the flight model.
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  • 39
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 16 (9). pp. 1865-1881.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and N2O impinge on the Earth system, which in turn modulates atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The underlying feedback mechanisms are complex and, at times, counterintuitive. So-called Earth system models have recently matured to standard tools tailored to assess these feedback mechanisms in a warming world. Applications for these models range from being targeted at basic process understanding to the assessment of geo-engineering options. A problem endemic to all these applications is the need to estimate poorly known model parameters, specifically for the biogeochemical component, based on observational data (e.g., nutrient fields). In the present study, we illustrate with an Earth system model that through such an approach biases and other model deficiencies in the physical ocean circulation model component can reciprocally compensate for biases in the pelagic biogeochemical model component (and vice versa). We present two model configurations that share a remarkably similar steady state (based on ad hoc measures) when driven by historical boundary conditions, even though they feature substantially different configurations (parameter sets) of ocean mixing and biogeochemical cycling. When projected into the future the similarity between the model responses breaks. Metrics such as changes in total oceanic carbon content and suboxic volume diverge between the model configurations as the Earth warms. Our results reiterate that advancing the understanding of oceanic mixing processes will reduce the uncertainty of future projections of oceanic biogeochemical cycles. Related to the latter, we suggest that an advanced understanding of oceanic biogeochemical cycles can be used for advancements in ocean circulation modules.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Deciphering the dynamics of dissolved oxygen in the mid-depth ocean during the last deglaciation is essential to understand the influence of climate change on modern oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Many paleo-proxy records from the Eastern Pacific Ocean indicate an extension of oxygen depleted conditions during the deglaciation but the degree of deoxygenation has not been quantified to date. The Peruvian OMZ, one of the largest OMZs in the world, is a key area to monitor such changes in near-bottom water oxygenation in relation to changing climatic conditions. Here, we analysed the potential to use the composition of foraminiferal assemblages from the Peruvian OMZ as a quantitative redox-proxy. A multiple regression analysis was applied to a joint dataset of living (rose Bengal stained, fossilizable calcareous species) benthic foraminiferal distributions from the Peruvian continental margin. Bottom-water oxygen concentrations ([O2]BW) during sampling were used as dependant variable. The correlation was significant (R2 = 0.82; p 〈 0.05) indicating that the foraminiferal assemblages are rather governed by oxygen availability than by the deposition of particulate organic matter (R2 = 0.53; p = 0.31). We applied the regression formula to four sediment cores from the northern part of the Peruvian OMZ between 3° S and 8° S and 600 m to 1250 m water depths; thereby recording oxygenation changes at the lower boundary of the Peruvian OMZ. Each core displayed a similar trend of decreasing oxygen levels since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The overall [O2]BW change from the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene was constrained to 30 μmol/kg at the lower boundary of the OMZ, whereas at shallower depths [O2]BW was relatively stable along the deglaciation. The deoxygenation trend was time-transgressive. It commenced at the southern core, and gradually spread to deeper waters and to the northernmost core location. This pattern indicates a gradual expansion of the OMZ during the last deglaciation, as a result of increasing surface productivity in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific and decreasing advective oxygen supply to intermediate waters off Peru.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Peruvian Upwelling System is characterized by high primary productivity fuelled by the supply of nutrients in a highly dynamic boundary circulation. The intraseasonal evolution of the physical and biogeochemical properties is analysed based on shipboard observations and remote sensing conducted between April and June 2017 off central Peru. The poleward transport in the subsurface Peru Chile Undercurrent was highly variable and strongly intensified between mid and end of May. This intensification was likely caused by a first baroclinic mode downwelling coastal trapped wave excited at the equator at about 95° W that propagated poleward along the South American coast. The intensified poleward flow shortens the time of water mass advection from the equatorial current system to the study site. The impact of the anomalous advection is mostly noticed in the nitrogen cycle because during the shorter time needed for poleward advection less fixed nitrogen loss occurs within the waters. This causes a strong increase of nitrate concentrations and a decrease in the nitrogen deficit. These changes suggest that the advection caused by the coastal trapped wave supersedes the simultaneous effect of anomalous downwelling in terms of nutrient response.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-09-25
    Description: Here we present a comprehensive attempt to correlate aragonitic Na∕Ca ratios from Desmophyllum pertusum (formerly known as Lophelia pertusa), Madrepora oculata and a caryophylliid cold-water coral (CWC) species with different seawater parameters such as temperature, salinity and pH. Living CWC specimens were collected from 16 different locations and analyzed for their Na∕Ca ratios using solution-based inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) measurements. The results reveal no apparent correlation with salinity (30.1–40.57 g kg−1) but a significant inverse correlation with temperature (−0.31±0.04  mmolmol−1∘C−1). Other marine aragonitic organisms such as Mytilus edulis (inner aragonitic shell portion) and Porites sp. exhibit similar results highlighting the consistency of the calculated CWC regressions. Corresponding Na∕Mg ratios show a similar temperature sensitivity to Na∕Ca ratios, but the combination of two ratios appears to reduce the impact of vital effects and domain-dependent geochemical variation. The high degree of scatter and elemental heterogeneities between the different skeletal features in both Na∕Ca and Na∕Mg, however, limit the use of these ratios as a proxy and/or make a high number of samples necessary. Additionally, we explore two models to explain the observed temperature sensitivity of Na∕Ca ratios for an open and semi-enclosed calcifying space based on temperature-sensitive Na- and Ca-pumping enzymes and transport proteins that change the composition of the calcifying fluid and consequently the skeletal Na∕Ca ratio.
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  • 43
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2019 (490). pp. 1-44.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: We combine available observational data sets with Lagrangian atmospheric modelling in order to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of the CHBr3 injection into the stratosphere. Regional maxima with mixing ratios of up to 0.4–0.5 ppt at 17 km altitude are diagnosed to be over Central America (1) and over the Maritime Continent/West Pacific (2), both of which are confirmed by high-altitude aircraft campaigns. The CHBr3 maximum over Central America is caused by the co-occurrence of convectively-driven short transport time scales and strong regional sources, which in conjunction drive the seasonality of CHBr3 injection. Model results at a daily resolution reveal isolated, exceptionally high CHBr3 values in this region which are confirmed by measurements during the ACCENT campaign and do not occur in spatially or temporally averaged model fields. CHBr3 injection over the West Pacific is centered south of the equator due to strong oceanic sources underneath prescribed by the here applied bottom-up emission inventory. The globally strongest stratospheric CHBr3 injection of up to 0.6 ppt is diagnosed to occur over the region of India, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea (3), however, no data from aircraft campaigns are available to confirm this finding. Interannual variability of stratospheric CHBr3 injection of 10–20 % is to a large part driven by the variability of coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation systems. Long-term changes, on the other hand, correlate with the regional SST trends resulting in positive trends of stratospheric CHBr3 injection over the West Pacific and Asian monsoon region and negative trends over the East Pacific. For the tropical mean, these opposite regional trends balance each other out resulting in a relatively weak positive trend of 0.017 ± 0.012 ppt Br/dec for 1979–2013, corresponding 3 % Br/dec. The overall contribution of CHBr3 together with CH2Br2 to the stratospheric halogen loading accounts for 4.7 ppt Br, in good agreement with existing studies, with 50 %/50 % being injected in form of source and product gases, respectively.
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  • 44
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 16 (9). pp. 2033-2047.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) hosts the Peruvian upwelling system, which represents one of the most productive areas in the world ocean. High primary production followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world ocean, where dissolved oxygen (O2) concentrations reach less than 1 µmol kg−1. The high productivity leads to an accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the surface layers that may serve as a substrate for heterotrophic respiration. However, the importance of DOM utilization for O2 respiration in the Peruvian upwelling system in general and for shaping the upper oxycline in particular remains unclear so far. This study reports the first estimates of diapycnal fluxes and supply of O2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen, dissolved hydrolysable amino acids (DHAA) and dissolved combined carbohydrates (DCCHO) for the ETSP off Peru. Diapycnal flux and supply estimates were obtained by combining measured vertical diffusivities and solute concentration gradients. They were analysed together with the molecular composition of DCCHO and DHAA to infer the transport of labile DOM into the upper OMZ and the potential role of DOM utilization for the attenuation of the diapycnal O2 flux that ventilates the OMZ. The observed diapycnal O2 flux (50 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 at maximum) was limited to the upper 80 m of the water column; the O2 supply of ∼1 µmol kg−1 d−1 was comparable to previously published O2 consumption rates for the North and South Pacific OMZs. The diapycnal DOM flux (31 mmol C m−2 d−1 at maximum) was limited to ∼30 m water depth, suggesting that the labile DOM is extensively consumed within the upper part of the shallow oxycline off Peru. The analyses of DCCHO and DHAA composition support this finding, suggesting that DOM undergoes comprehensive remineralization within the upper part of the oxycline, as the DOM within the core of the OMZ was found to be largely altered. Estimated by a simple equation for carbon combustion, aerobic respiration of DCCHO and DHAA, supplied by diapycnal mixing (0.46 µmol kg−1 d−1 at maximum), could account for up to 38 % of the diapycnal O2 supply in the upper oxycline, which suggests that DOM utilization plays a significant role for shaping the upper oxycline in the ETSP.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Previous studies have suggested that enhanced weathering and benthic phosphorus (P) fluxes, triggered by climate warming, can increase the oceanic P inventory on millennial timescales, promoting ocean productivity and deoxygenation. In this study, we assessed the major uncertainties in projected P inventories and their imprint on ocean deoxygenation using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity for the same business-as-usual carbon dioxide (CO2) emission scenario until the year 2300 and subsequent linear decline to zero emissions until the year 3000. Our set of model experiments under the same climate scenarios but differing in their biogeochemical P parameterizations suggest a large spread in the simulated oceanic P inventory due to uncertainties in (1) assumptions for weathering parameters, (2) the representation of bathymetry on slopes and shelves in the model bathymetry, (3) the parametrization of benthic P fluxes and (4) the representation of sediment P inventories. Considering the weathering parameters closest to the present day, a limited P reservoir and prescribed anthropogenic P fluxes, we find a +30 % increase in the total global ocean P inventory by the year 5000 relative to pre-industrial levels, caused by global warming. Weathering, benthic and anthropogenic fluxes of P contributed +25 %, +3 % and +2 %, respectively. The total range of oceanic P inventory changes across all model simulations varied between +2 % and +60 %. Suboxic volumes were up to 5 times larger than in a model simulation with a constant oceanic P inventory. Considerably large amounts of the additional P left the ocean surface unused by phytoplankton via physical transport processes as preformed P. In the model, nitrogen fixation was not able to adjust the oceanic nitrogen inventory to the increasing P levels or to compensate for the nitrogen loss due to increased denitrification. This is because low temperatures and iron limitation inhibited the uptake of the extra P and growth by nitrogen fixers in polar and lower-latitude regions. We suggest that uncertainties in P weathering, nitrogen fixation and benthic P feedbacks need to be reduced to achieve more reliable projections of oceanic deoxygenation on millennial timescales.
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  • 46
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Ocean Science, 15 . pp. 1159-1175.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Diatoms account for 40 % of marine primary production and are considered to be key players in the biological carbon pump. Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to affect diatoms primarily by changing the availability of CO2 as a substrate for photosynthesis or through altered ecological interactions within the marine food web. Yet, there is little consensus how entire diatom communities will respond to increasing CO2. To address this question, we synthesized the literature from over a decade of OA-experiments with natural diatom communities to uncover: 1) if and how bulk diatom communities respond to elevated CO2; 2) if shifts within the diatom communities could be expected and how they are expressed with respect to taxonomic affiliation and size structure. We found that diatom communities responded to high CO2 in ~60 % of the experiments and in this case more often positively (56 %) than negatively (32 %; 12 % did not report the direction of change). Shifts among different diatom species were observed in 65 % of the experiments. Our synthesis supports the hypothesis that high CO2 particularly favors larger species as 12 out of 13 experiments which investigated cell size found a shift towards larger species. Unraveling winners and losers with respect to taxonomic affiliation was difficult due to a limited database, but there is evidence that the genus Pseudo-nitzschia could be among the losers. We conclude that OA-induced changes in diatom competitiveness and assemblage structure must be classified as a “risk for ecosystem services” due to the pivotal role diatoms play in trophic transfer and biogeochemical cycles.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: The Agulhas Current, the western boundary current of the South Indian Ocean, has been shown to play an important role in the connectivity between the Indian and Atlantic oceans. The greater Agulhas Current system is highly dominated by mesoscale dynamics. To investigate their influence on the regional and global circulations, a family of high-resolution ocean general circulation model configurations based on the NEMO code has been developed. Horizontal resolution refinement is achieved by embedding “nests” covering the South Atlantic and the western Indian oceans at 1/10∘ (INALT10) and 1/20∘ (INALT20) within global hosts with coarser resolutions. Nests and hosts are connected through two-way interaction, allowing the nests not only to receive boundary conditions from their respective host but also to feed back the impact of regional dynamics onto the global ocean. A double-nested configuration at 1/60∘ resolution (INALT60) has been developed to gain insights into submesoscale processes within the Agulhas Current system. Large-scale measures such as the Drake Passage transport and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation are rather robust among the different configurations, indicating the important role of the hosts in providing a consistent embedment of the regionally refined grids into the global circulation. The dynamics of the Agulhas Current system strongly depend on the representation of mesoscale processes. Both the southward-flowing Agulhas Current and the northward-flowing Agulhas Undercurrent increase in strength with increasing resolution towards more realistic values, which suggests the importance of improving mesoscale dynamics as well as bathymetric slopes along this narrow western boundary current regime. The exploration of numerical choices such as lateral boundary conditions and details of the implementation of surface wind stress forcing demonstrates the range of solutions within any given configuration.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Ballast water treatment is required for vessels to prevent the introduction of potentially invasive neobiota. Some treatment methods use chemical disinfectants which produce a variety of halogenated compounds as disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the most abundant DBP from oxidative ballast water treatment is bromoform (CHBr3) where we find an average concentration of 894±560nmolL-1 (226±142μgL-1) in the undiluted ballast water from measurements and literature. Bromoform is a relevant gas for atmospheric chemistry and ozone depletion, especially in the tropics where entrainment into the stratosphere is possible. The spread of DBPs in the tropics over months to years is assessed here for the first time. With Lagrangian trajectories based on the NEMO-ORCA12 model velocity field, we simulate DBP spread in the sea surface and try to quantify the oceanic bromoform concentration and emission to the atmosphere from ballast water discharge at major harbours in the tropical region of Southeast Asia. The exemplary simulations of two important regions, Singapore and the Pearl River Delta, reveal major transport pathways of the DBPs and the anthropogenic bromoform concentrations in the sea surface. Based on our simulations, we expect DBPs to spread into the open ocean, along the coast and also an advection with monsoon-driven currents into the North Pacific and Indian Ocean. Furthermore, anthropogenic bromoform concentrations and emissions are predicted to increase locally around large harbours. In the sea surface around Singapore we estimate an increase in bromoform concentration by 9% compared to recent measurement. In a moderate scenario where 70% of the ballast water is chemically treated bromoform emissions to the atmosphere can locally exceed 1000pmolm-2h-1 and double climatological emissions. In the Pearl River Delta all bromoform is directly outgassed which leads to an additional bromine (Br) input into the atmosphere of 495kmolBr (∼42tCHBr3) a-1. From Singapore ports the additional atmospheric Br input is calculated as 312kmolBr (∼26tCHBr3) a-1. We estimate the global anthropogenic Br input from ballast water into the atmosphere of up to 13Mmola-1. This is 0.1% global Br input from background bromoform emissions and thus probably not relevant for stratospheric ozone depletion.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Oceanic emissions of the climate-relevant trace gases carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) are a major source to their atmospheric budget. Their current and future emission estimates are still uncertain due to incomplete process understanding and therefore inexact quantification across different biogeochemical regimes. Here we present the first concurrent measurements of both gases together with related fractions of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool, i.e., solid-phase extractable dissolved organic sulfur (DOSSPE, n=24, 0.16±0.04 µmol L−1), chromophoric (CDOM, n=76, 0.152±0.03), and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM, n=35), from the Peruvian upwelling region (Guayaquil, Ecuador to Antofagasta, Chile, October 2015). OCS was measured continuously with an equilibrator connected to an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer at the surface (29.8±19.8 pmol L−1) and at four profiles ranging down to 136 m. CS2 was measured at the surface (n=143, 17.8±9.0 pmol L−1) and below, ranging down to 1000 m (24 profiles). These observations were used to estimate in situ production rates and identify their drivers. We find different limiting factors of marine photoproduction: while OCS production is limited by the humic-like DOM fraction that can act as a photosensitizer, high CS2 production coincides with high DOSSPE concentration. Quantifying OCS photoproduction using a specific humic-like FDOM component as proxy, together with an updated parameterization for dark production, improves agreement with observations in a 1-D biogeochemical model. Our results will help to better predict oceanic concentrations and emissions of both gases on regional and, potentially, global scales.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Particle aggregation determines the particle flux length scale and affects the marine oxygen concentration and thus the volume of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that are of special relevance for ocean nutrient cycles and marine ecosystems and that have been found to expand faster than can be explained by current state-of-the-art models. To investigate the impact of particle aggregation on global model performance, we carried out a sensitivity study with different parameterisations of marine aggregates and two different model resolutions. Model performance was investigated with respect to global nutrient and oxygen concentrations, as well as extent and location of OMZs. Results show that including an aggregation model improves the representation of OMZs. Moreover, we found that besides a fine spatial resolution of the model grid, the consideration of porous particles, an intermediate-to-high particle sinking speed and a moderate-to-high stickiness improve the model fit to both global distributions of dissolved inorganic tracers and regional patterns of OMZs, compared to a model without aggregation. Our model results therefore suggest that improvements not only in the model physics but also in the description of particle aggregation processes can play a substantial role in improving the representation of dissolved inorganic tracers and OMZs on a global scale. However, dissolved inorganic tracers are apparently not sufficient for a global model calibration, which could necessitate global model calibration against a global observational dataset of marine organic particles.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-10-08
    Description: The stable isotopic composition of particulate organic carbon (δ13CPOC) in the surface waters of the global ocean can vary with the aqueous CO2 concentration ([CO2(aq)]) and affects the trophic transfer of carbon isotopes in the marine food web. Other factors such as cell size, growth rate and carbon concentrating mechanisms decouple this observed correlation. Here, the variability in δ13CPOC is investigated in surface waters across the south subtropical convergence (SSTC) in the Atlantic Ocean, to determine carbon isotope fractionation (ϵp) by phytoplankton and the contrasting mechanisms of carbon uptake in the subantarctic and subtropical water masses. Our results indicate that cell size is the primary determinant of δ13CPOC across the Atlantic SSTC in summer. Combining cell size estimates with CO2 concentrations, we can accurately estimate "p within the varying surface water masses in this region. We further utilize these results to investigate future changes in "p with increased anthropogenic carbon availability. Our results suggest that smaller cells, which are prevalent in the subtropical ocean, will respond less to increased [CO2(aq)] than the larger cells found south of the SSTC and in the wider Southern Ocean. In the subantarctic water masses, isotopic fractionation during carbon uptake will likely increase, both with increasing CO2 availability to the cell, but also if increased stratification leads to decreases in average community cell size. Coupled with decreasing δ13C of [CO2(aq)] due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions, this change in isotopic fractionation and lowering of δ13CPOC may propagate through the marine food web, with implications for the use of δ13CPOC as a tracer of dietary sources in the marine environment.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-10-09
    Description: Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) are volatile sulfur gases that are naturally formed in seawater and exchanged with the atmosphere. OCS is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, and CS2 is its most important precursor. They have gained interest due to their direct (OCS) or indirect (CS2 via oxidation to OCS) contribution to the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer. Furthermore, OCS serves as a proxy to constrain terrestrial CO2 uptake by vegetation. Oceanic emissions of both gases contribute a major part to their atmospheric concentration. Here we present a database of previously published and unpublished, mainly ship-borne measurements in seawater and the marine boundary layer for both gases, available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.905430 (Lennartz et al., 2019). The database contains original measurements as well as data digitalized from figures in publications from 42 measurement campaigns, i.e. cruises or time series stations, ranging from 1982 to 2019. OCS data cover all ocean basins except for the Arctic Ocean, as well as all months of the year, while the CS2 dataset shows large gaps in spatial and temporal coverage. Concentrations are consistent across different sampling and analysis techniques for OCS. The database is intended to support the identification of global spatial and temporal patterns and to facilitate the evaluation of model simulations.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-10-14
    Description: This study evaluates the potential usefulness of the halogenated compounds HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116 as the time-dependent oceanographic transient tracers in order to better constrain ocean ventilation processes. We collected seawater samples and improved on an established analytical technique, the Medusa-Aqua system, to simultaneous measure them, and estimate their stability in seawater following previous work on the atmospheric history and solubility. HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a and HFC-125 have been measured in profiles in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time. We estimated the historic surface saturation anomalies of transient tracers in the Mediterranean Sea by evaluating the historic record. Their stability in seawater was estimated by analysis of their ocean partial lifetimes, seawater surface saturations and concentrations compared to CFC-12 measurements by a well-established technique. Of the investigated compounds, HCFC-141b was found to be the most promising transient tracer in the ocean; it fulfills several essential requirements by virtue of well-documented atmospheric history, established seawater solubility, inertness in seawater and feasible measurements and indication of conservative behavior in seawater by having mean ages in agreement to be expected from both CFC-12 and SF6 observations. However, more information on degradation is needed to further identify its stability in seawater, and HCFC-141b has restrictions on production and consumption imposed by the Montreal Protocol leading to its decreasing atmospheric mole fractions since 2017. The most potential oceanic transient tracers were PFC-14 and PFC-116 due to their stability in seawater, the long and well-documented atmospheric concentrations histories and constructed seawater solubility functions, although the low solubility in seawater creates challenging measurement conditions (i.e. low concentration). Measurements of PFCs can be potentially improved by modifying the Medusa-Aqua analytical system. With the exception of providing the information on the novel potential alternative oceanic transient tracers, this study also provides a method on how to evaluate the feasibility for a compound to be a transient tracer in the ocean.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-10-23
    Description: Sediments in oxygen-depleted marine environments can be an important sink or source of bio-essential trace metals in the ocean. However, the key mechanisms controlling the release from or burial of trace metals in sediments are not exactly understood. Here, we investigate the benthic biogeochemical cycling of Fe and Cd in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. We combine bottom water profiles, pore water profiles, as well as benthic fluxes determined from pore water profiles and in-situ from benthic chamber incubations along a depth transect at 12° S. In agreement with previous studies, both concentration-depth profiles and in-situ benthic fluxes indicate a Fe release from sediments into bottom waters. Diffusive Fe fluxes and Fe fluxes from benthic chamber incubations are roughly consistent (0.3–17.1 mmol m−2 y−1), indicating that diffusion is the main transport mechanism of dissolved Fe across the sediment-water interface. The occurrence of mats of sulfur oxidizing bacteria on the seafloor represents an important control on the spatial distribution of Fe fluxes by regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations and, potentially, Fe sulfide precipitation within the surface sediment. Removal of dissolved Fe after its release to anoxic bottom waters is rapid in the first 4 m away from the seafloor (half-life 〈 3 min) which hints to oxidative removal by nitrite or interaction with particles in the benthic boundary layer. Benthic flux estimates of Cd are indicative of a flux into the sediment within the oxygen minimum zone. Fluxes from benthic chamber incubations (up to 22.6 µmol m−2 y−1) exceed the diffusive fluxes (〈 1 µmol m−2 y−1) by a factor 〉 25, indicating that downward diffusion of Cd across the sediment-water interface is of subordinate importance for Cd removal from benthic chambers. As Cd removal in benthic chambers co-varies with H2S concentrations in the pore water of surface sediments, we argue that Cd removal is mediated by precipitation of CdS within the chamber. A mass balance approach, taking into account the contributions of diffusive fluxes and fluxes measured in benthic chambers as well as Cd delivery with organic material suggests that CdS precipitation in the near-bottom water could make an important contribution to the overall Cd mass accumulation in the sediment solid phase. According to our results, the solubility of trace metal sulfide minerals (Cd 〈〈 Fe) is a key-factor controlling trace metal removal and consequently the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary fluxes. We argue that depending on their sulfide solubility, sedimentary source or sink fluxes of trace metals will change differentially as a result of declining oxygen concentrations and an associated expansion of sulfidic surface sediments. Such a trend could cause a change in the trace metal stoichiometry of upwelling water masses with potential consequences for marine ecosystems in the surface ocean.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-10-23
    Description: High-resolution optical and hydroacoustic seafloor data acquired in 2015 enabled the reconstruction of disturbance tracks of a past Benthic Impact Experiment that was conducted in 1989 in the Peru Basin in the course of former German environmental impact studies associated with manganese nodule mining. Based on this information, the disturbance level of the experiment regarding the plough impact and distribution and re-deposition of sediment from the evolving sediment plume was assessed qualitatively. Through this, the evolution over the 26 years of a number of the total 78 disturbance tracks could be analyzed which highlights the considerable difference between natural sedimentation in the deep-sea and sedimentation of a resettled sediment plume. Such plumes are seen as one of the most concerning impact associated with potential Mn-nodule mining. Problems in data processing became eminent while dealing with old data from the late 80s, at a time when GPS was just invented and underwater navigation was in an infant stage. However, even today the uncertainties of underwater navigation and the use of a variety of acoustical and optical sensors at different resolutions require detailed post-processing in terms of absolute geographic positioning to improve the overall accuracy of the data. In this study, a ship-based bathymetric map of the survey area was used as absolute geographic reference and a workflow was applied successfully resulting in the most accurate geo-referenced dataset of the DISCOL Experimental Area to date. The new field data were acquired with sensors attached to GEOMARs AUV Abyss and the 0.5 × 1° EM122 multibeam system of RV SONNE during cruise SO242 -1 while the old data first needed to be found and compiled before they could be digitized and properly georeferenced for the presented joined analyses.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: Mining of polymetallic nodules in abyssal seafloor sediments promises to address the growing worldwide demand for metallic minerals. Given that prospective mining operations are likely to have profound impacts on deep seafloor communities, industrial investment has been accompanied by scientific involvement for the assessment of baseline conditions and provision of guidelines for environmentally sustainable mining practices. Benthic meiofaunal communities were studied in four prospective mining areas of the Clarion–Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean, arranged in a southeast–northwest fashion coinciding with the productivity gradient in the area. Additionally, samples were collected from the Area of Particular Environmental Interest no. 3 (APEI-3) in the northwest of the CCZ, where mining will be prohibited and which should serve as a “source area” for the biota within the larger CCZ. Total densities in the 0–5 cm upper layer of the sediment were influenced by sedimentary characteristics, water depth and nodule density at the various sampling locations, indicating the importance of nodules for meiofaunal standing stock. Nematodes were the most abundant meiobenthic taxon, and their assemblages were typically dominated by a few genera (generally 2–6) accounting for 40 %–70 % of all individuals, which were also widely spread along the CCZ and shared among all sampled license areas. However, almost half of the communities consisted of rare genera, each contributing less than 5 % to the overall abundances and displaying a distribution which was usually restricted to a single license area. The same observations (dominant and widely spread versus rare and scattered) could be made for the species of one of the dominant genera, Halalaimus, implying that it might be mainly these rare genera and species that will be vulnerable to mining-induced changes in their habitat.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) document major perturbations of the global carbon cycle with repercussions on the Earth’s climate and ocean circulation that are relevant to understand future climate trends. Here, we compare sedimentation patterns, nutrient cycling, organic carbon accumulation and carbon isotope variability across Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events OAE1a and OAE2 in two drill cores with unusually high sedimentation rates from the Vocontian Basin (southern France) and Tarfaya Basin (southern Morocco). OAE1a and OAE2 exhibit remarkable similarities in the evolution of their δ13C excursion with long-lasting negative carbon isotope excursions preceding the onset of both anoxic events, supporting the view that OAEs were triggered by massive emissions of volcanic CO2 into the atmosphere. Based on analysis of cyclic sediment variations, we estimated the duration of the individual phases within the carbon isotope excursions. For both events, we identify: (1) a precursor phase lasting ~ 430 kyr and ~ 130 kyr, (2) an onset phase of ~ 390 and ~ 70 kyr, (3) a peak phase of ~ 600 and ~ 90 kyr, (4) a plateau phase of ~ 1400 and ~ 200 kyr and (5) a recovery phase of ~ 630 and ~ 440 kyr, respectively. The total duration of the positive carbon isotope excursion is estimated as 3400 kyr and 790 kyr and that of the main carbon accumulation phase as 980 kyr and 180 kyr, for OAE1a and OAE 2 respectively. The extended duration of the peak, plateau and recovery phases requires fundamental changes in global nutrient cycles either (1) through excess nutrient inputs to the oceans by increasing continental weathering and river discharge or (2) through nutrient-recycling from the marine sediment reservoir. We investigated the role of phosphorus on the development of carbon accumulation by analysing phosphorus speciation across OAE2 and the mid-Cenomanian Event (MCE) in the Tarfaya Basin. The ratios of organic carbon and total nitrogen to reactive phosphorus (Corg/Preact and Ntotal/Preact) prior to OAE2 and the MCE hover close to or below the Redfield ratio characteristic of marine organic matter. Decreases in reactive phosphorus resulting in Corg/Preact and Ntotal/Preact above the Redfield ratio during the later phase of OAE2 and the MCE indicate leakage from the sedimentary column into the water column under the influence of intensified and expanded oxygen minimum zones. These results suggest that a positive feedback loop, rooted in the benthic phosphorus cycle, contributed to increased marine productivity and carbon burial over an extended period of time during OAEs.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: With the mining of polymetallic nodules from the deep sea seafloor again approaching commercial viability, decisions must be taken on how to most efficiently regulate and monitor physical and community disturbance in these remote ecosystems. Image based approaches allow non-destructive assessment of larger fauna abundances to be derived from survey data, with repeat surveys of areas possible to allow time series data collection. At time of writing key underwater imaging platforms commonly used to map seafloor fauna abundances are Automated Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and towed camera "Ocean Floor Observation Systems" (OFOSs). These systems are highly customisable, with mounted cameras, illumination systems and deployment protocols rapidly changing over time, and even within survey cruises. In this study 8 image datasets were collected from a discrete area of polymetallic nodule rich seafloor by an AUV and several OFOSs deployed at various altitudes above the seafloor. A fauna identification catalogue was used by 5 annotators to estimate the abundances of 20 fauna categories from the different data sets. Results show that for many categories of megafauna differences in image resolution greatly influenced the estimations of fauna abundance determined by the annotators. This is an important finding for the development of future monitoring legislation for these areas. When and if commercial exploitation of these marine resources commences, to ensure best monitoring practice, unambiguous rules on how camera-based monitoring surveys should be conducted, and with what equipment, must be put in place.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas, and it is involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Its oceanic production is mainly influenced by dissolved nutrient and oxygen (O2) concentrations in the water column. Here we examined the seasonal and annual variations in dissolved N2O at the Boknis Eck (BE) Time Series Station located in Eckernförde Bay (southwestern Baltic Sea). Monthly measurements of N2O started in July 2005. We found a pronounced seasonal pattern for N2O with high concentrations (supersaturations) in winter and early spring and low concentrations (undersaturations) in autumn when hypoxic or anoxic conditions prevail. Unusually low N2O concentrations were observed during October 2016–April 2017, which was presumably a result of prolonged anoxia and the subsequent nutrient deficiency. Unusually high N2O concentrations were found in November 2017 and this event was linked to the occurrence of upwelling which interrupted N2O consumption via denitrification and potentially promoted ammonium oxidation (nitrification) at the oxic–anoxic interface. Nutrient concentrations (such as nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) at BE have been decreasing since the 1980s, but oxygen concentrations in the water column are still decreasing. Our results indicate a close coupling of N2O anomalies to O2 concentration, nutrients, and stratification. Given the long-term trends of declining nutrient and oxygen concentrations at BE, a decrease in N2O concentration, and thus emissions, seems likely due to an increasing number of events with low N2O concentrations.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-11-07
    Description: Controlled manipulation of environmental conditions within large enclosures in the ocean, so-called pelagic mesocosms, has become a standard method to explore potential responses of marine plankton communities to anthropogenic change. Among the challenges of interpreting mesocosm data is the often uncertain role of vertical mixing, which usually is not observed directly. To account for mixing nonetheless, two pragmatic assumptions are common: either that the water column is homogeneously mixed or that it is divided into two water bodies with a horizontal barrier inhibiting turbulent exchange. In this study, we present a model-based reanalysis of vertical turbulent diffusion in the mesocosm experiments PeECE III and KOSMOS 2013. Our diffusivity estimates indicate intermittent mixing events along with stagnating periods and yield simulated temperature and salinity profiles that are consistent with the observations. Here, we provide the respective diffusivities as a comprehensive data product in the Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). This data product will help to guide forthcoming model studies that aim at deepening our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the PeECE III and KOSMOS 2013 mesocosms, such as the CO2-related changes in marine carbon export. In addition, we make our model code available, providing an adjustable tool to simulate vertical mixing in any other pelagic mesocosm. The data product and the model code are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.905311 (Mathesius et al., 2019).
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-11-07
    Description: We investigate the climate mitigation potential and collateral effects of direct injections of captured CO2 into the deep ocean as a possible means to close the gap between an intermediate CO2 emissions scenario and a specific temperature target, such as the 1.5 ∘C target aimed for by the Paris Agreement. For that purpose, a suite of approaches for controlling the amount of direct CO2 injections at 3000 m water depth are implemented in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. Following the representative concentration pathway RCP4.5, which is a medium mitigation CO2 emissions scenario, cumulative CO2 injections required to meet the 1.5 ∘C climate goal are found to be 390 Gt C by the year 2100 and 1562 Gt C at the end of simulations, by the year 3020. The latter includes a cumulative leakage of 602 Gt C that needs to be reinjected in order to sustain the targeted global mean temperature. CaCO3 sediment and weathering feedbacks reduce the required CO2 injections that comply with the 1.5 ∘C target by about 13 % in 2100 and by about 11 % at the end of the simulation. With respect to the injection-related impacts we find that average pH values in the surface ocean are increased by about 0.13 to 0.18 units, when compared to the control run. In the model, this results in significant increases in potential coral reef habitats, i.e., the volume of the global upper ocean (0 to 130 m depth) with omega aragonite 〉 3.4 and ocean temperatures between 21 and 28 ∘C, compared to the control run. The potential benefits in the upper ocean come at the expense of strongly acidified water masses at depth, with maximum pH reductions of about −2.37 units, relative to preindustrial levels, in the vicinity of the injection sites. Overall, this study demonstrates that massive amounts of CO2 would need to be injected into the deep ocean in order to reach and maintain the 1.5 ∘C climate target in a medium mitigation scenario on a millennium timescale, and that there is a trade-off between injection-related reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels accompanied by reduced upper-ocean acidification and adverse effects on deep-ocean chemistry, particularly near the injection sites.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-11-11
    Description: The amount of additional future temperature change following a complete cessation of CO2 emissions is a measure of the unrealized warming to which we are committed due to CO2 already emitted to the atmosphere. This "zero emissions commitment" (ZEC) is also an important quantity when estimating the remaining carbon budget - a limit on the total amount of CO2 emissions consistent with limiting global mean temperature at a particular level. In the recent IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 degrees C, the carbon budget framework used to calculate the remaining carbon budget for 1.5 degrees C included the assumption that the ZEC due to CO2 emissions is negligible and close to zero. Previous research has shown significant uncertainty even in the sign of the ZEC. To close this knowledge gap, we propose the Zero Emissions Commitment Model Intercomparison Project (ZECMIP), which will quantify the amount of unrealized temperature change that occurs after CO2 emissions cease and investigate the geophysical drivers behind this climate response. Quantitative information on ZEC is a key gap in our knowledge, and one that will not be addressed by currently planned CMIP6 simulations, yet it is crucial for verifying whether carbon budgets need to be adjusted to account for any unrealized temperature change resulting from past CO2 emissions. We request only one top-priority simulation from comprehensive general circulation Earth system models (ESMs) and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) - a branch from the 1% CO2 run with CO2 emissions set to zero at the point of 1000 PgC of total CO2 emissions in the simulation - with the possibility for additional simulations, if resources allow. ZECMIP is part of CMIP6, under joint sponsorship by C4MIP and CDR-MIP, with associated experiment names to enable data submissions to the Earth System Grid Federation. All data will be published and made freely available.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-11-11
    Description: Deeply rooted thrust zones are key features of tectonic processes and the evolution of mountain belts. Exhumed and deeply-eroded orogens like the Scandinavian Caledonides allow to study such systems from the surface. Previous seismic investigations of the Seve Nappe Complex have shown indications for a strong but discontinuous reflectivity of this thrust zone, which is only poorly understood. The correlation of seismic properties measured on borehole cores with surface seismic data constrains the origin of this reflectivity. In this study, we compare seismic velocities measured on cores to in situ velocities measured in the borehole. The core and downhole velocities deviate by up to 2 km/s. However, velocities of mafic rocks are generally in close agreement. Seismic anisotropy increases from about 5 to 26 % at depth, indicating a transition from gneissic to schistose foliation. We suggest that differences in the core and downhole velocities are most likely the result of microcracks mainly due to depressurization. Thus, seismic velocity can help to identify mafic rocks on different scales whereas the velocity signature of other lithologies is obscured in core-derived velocities. Metamorphic foliation on the other hand has a clear expression in seismic anisotropy. These results will aid in the evaluation of core-derived seismic properties of high-grade metamorphic rocks at the COSC-1 borehole and elsewhere. In particular, they show that core log seismic integration via synthetic seismograms requires wireline logging data in any but mafic lithologies.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-11-11
    Description: Tephra layers produced by volcanic eruptions are widely used for correlation and dating of various deposits and landforms, for synchronization of disparate paleoenvironmental archives, and for reconstruction of magma origin. Here we present our original database TephraKam, which includes chemical compositions of volcanic glass in tephra and welded tuffs from the Kamchatka volcanic arc. The database contains 7049 major element analyses obtained by electron microprobe and 738 trace element analyses obtained by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) on 487 samples collected in proximity of their volcanic sources in all volcanic zones in Kamchatka. The samples characterize about 300 explosive eruptions, which occurred in Kamchatka from the Pliocene until historic times. Precise or estimated ages for all samples are based on published 39Ar/40Ar dates of rocks and 14C dates of host sediments, statistical age modelling and geologic relationships with dated units. All data in TephraKam is supported by information about source volcanoes and analytical details. Using the data, we present an overview of geochemical variations of Kamchatka volcanic glasses and discuss application of this data for precise identification of tephra layers, their source volcanoes, temporal and spatial geochemical variations of pyroclastic rocks in Kamchatka.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-11-15
    Description: Ground-based atmospheric observations of CO2, δ(O2∕N2), N2O, and CH4 were used to make estimates of the air–sea fluxes of these species from the Lüderitz and Walvis Bay upwelling cells in the northern Benguela region, during upwelling events. Average flux densities (±1σ) were 0.65±0.4 µmol m−2 s−1 for CO2, −5.1±2.5 µmol m−2 s−1 for O2 (as APO), 0.61±0.5 nmol m−2 s−1 for N2O, and 4.8±6.3 nmol m−2 s−1 for CH4. A comparison of our top-down (i.e., inferred from atmospheric anomalies) flux estimates with shipboard-based measurements showed that the two approaches agreed within ±55 % on average, though the degree of agreement varied by species and was best for CO2. Since the top-down method overestimated the flux density relative to the shipboard-based approach for all species, we also present flux density estimates that have been tuned to best match the shipboard fluxes. During the study, upwelling events were sources of CO2, N2O, and CH4 to the atmosphere. N2O fluxes were fairly low, in accordance with previous work suggesting that the evasion of this gas from the Benguela is smaller than for other eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS). Conversely, CH4 release was quite high for the marine environment, a result that supports studies that indicated a large sedimentary source of CH4 in the Walvis Bay area. These results demonstrate the suitability of atmospheric time series for characterizing the temporal variability of upwelling events and their influence on the overall marine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the northern Benguela region.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-11-27
    Description: Due to its remoteness, the deep-sea floor remains an understudied ecosystem of our planet. The patchiness of existing data sets makes it difficult to draw conclusions about processes that apply to a wider area. In our study we show how different settings and processes determine sediment heterogeneity on small spatial scales. We sampled solid phase and pore water from the upper 10 m of an approximately 7.4 × 13 km2 large area in the Peru Basin, south-east equatorial Pacific Ocean, at 4100 m water depth. Samples were analyzed for trace metals including rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) as well as for particulate organic carbon (POC), CaCO3, and nitrate. The analyses revealed a surprisingly high small-scale heterogeneity of the deep-sea sediment composition. While some cores have the typical green layer from Fe(II) in the clay minerals, this layer is missing in other cores, i.e. showing a tan color associated with Fe(III) in the clay minerals. This is due to varying organic carbon contents: nitrate is depleted at 2–3 m depth in cores with higher total organic carbon contents, but is present throughout cores with lower POC contents, thus inhibiting the Fe(III)-to-Fe(II) reduction pathway in organic matter degradation. REY show shale-normalized (SN) patterns similar to seawater with a relative enrichment of heavy REY over light REY, positive LaSN anomaly, negative CeSN anomaly, as well as positive YSN anomaly and correlate with the Fe-rich clay layer and in some cores also with P. We, therefore, propose that Fe-rich clay minerals, such as nontronite, as well as phosphates are the REY-controlling phases in these sediments. Variability is also seen in dissolved Mn and Co concentrations, which might be due to dissolving nodules in the suboxic sediment, as well as in concentration peaks of U, Mo, As, V, and Cu in two cores, which might be related to deposition of different material at lower lying areas.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-11-27
    Description: Thriving benthic communities were observed in the oxygen minimum zones along the southwestern African margin. On the Namibian margin, fossil cold-water coral mounds were overgrown by sponges and bryozoans, while the Angolan margin was characterized by cold-water coral mounds covered by a living coral reef. To explore why benthic communities differ in both areas, present-day environmental conditions were assessed, using conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) transects and bottom landers to investigate spatial and temporal variations of environmental properties. Near-bottom measurements recorded low dissolved oxygen concentrations on the Namibian margin of 0–0.15 mL L−1 (≜0 %–9 % saturation) and on the Angolan margin of 0.5–1.5 mL L−1 (≜7 %–18 % saturation), which were associated with relatively high temperatures (11.8–13.2 ∘C and 6.4–12.6 ∘C, respectively). Semidiurnal barotropic tides were found to interact with the margin topography producing internal waves. These tidal movements deliver water with more suitable characteristics to the benthic communities from below and above the zone of low oxygen. Concurrently, the delivery of a high quantity and quality of organic matter was observed, being an important food source for the benthic fauna. On the Namibian margin, organic matter originated directly from the surface productive zone, whereas on the Angolan margin the geochemical signature of organic matter suggested an additional mechanism of food supply. A nepheloid layer observed above the cold-water corals may constitute a reservoir of organic matter, facilitating a constant supply of food particles by tidal mixing. Our data suggest that the benthic fauna on the Namibian margin, as well as the cold-water coral communities on the Angolan margin, may compensate for unfavorable conditions of low oxygen levels and high temperatures with enhanced availability of food, while anoxic conditions on the Namibian margin are at present a limiting factor for cold-water coral growth. This study provides an example of how benthic ecosystems cope with such extreme environmental conditions since it is expected that oxygen minimum zones will expand in the future due to anthropogenic activities.
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  • 68
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Solid Earth, 10 (6). pp. 1989-2000.
    Publication Date: 2019-11-26
    Description: Measurements of seismic velocity as a function of depth are generally restricted to borehole locations and are therefore sparse in the world's oceans. Consequently, in the absence of measurements or suitable seismic data, studies requiring knowledge of seismic velocities often obtain these from simple empirical relationships. However, empirically derived velocities may be inaccurate, as they are typically limited to certain geological settings, and other parameters potentially influencing seismic velocities, such as depth to basement, crustal age, or heatflow, are not taken into account. Here, we present a machine learning approach to predict seismic p-wave velocity (vp) as a function of depth (z) for any marine location. Based on a training dataset consisting of vp(z) data from 333 boreholes and 38 geological and spatial predictors obtained from publically available global datasets, a prediction model was created using the Random Forests method. In 60 % of the tested locations, the predicted seismic velocities were superior to those calculated empirically. The results indicate a promising potential for global prediction of vp(z) data, which will allow improving geophysical models in areas lacking first-hand velocity data.
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