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  • Other Sources  (1,017)
  • Articles (OceanRep)  (1,017)
  • Copernicus Publications (EGU)  (751)
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  • Articles (OceanRep)  (1,017)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-09-06
    Description: In late May 2005 unusual high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation were observed over central Europe. In Northern Germany the measured irradiance of erythemally effective radiation exceeded the climatological mean by more than about 20%. An extreme low ozone event for the season coincided with high solar elevation angles and high pressure induced clear sky conditions leading to the highest value of erythemal UV-radiation ever observed over this location in May since 1994. This hereafter called "ozone mini-hole" was caused by an elevation of tropopause height accompanied with a poleward advection of ozone-poor air from the tropics. The resultant increase in UV-radiation is of particular significance for human health. Dynamically induced low ozone episodes that happen in late spring can considerably enhance the solar UV-radiation in mid latitudes and therefore contribute to the UV-burden of people living in these regions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Early diagenetic features are noticed in the vicinity of carbonate platforms. Planktonic foraminifera of two tropical Atlantic deep-sea sediment cores show the strict relation between micro-scale euhydral crystallites of inorganic precipitates, higher oxygen isotope values and Mg/Ca ratios, and lower Sr/Ca ratios than expected for their pelagic environment in the time interval of ~100 000–550 000 calendar years before present. Laser ablation Mg/Ca (Sr/Ca) of crystallite-bearing foraminiferal chamber walls revealed 4–6 times elevated (2–3 times depleted) ratios, when ablating the diagenetic overgrowth. Crystalline overgrowth in proportion of 10–20% are estimated to cause the observed geochemical alteration. The extent of foraminiferal Mg/Ca alteration, moreover, seems to be controlled by the composition of the bulk sediment, especially the content of high-magnesium calcite. Anomalous ratios of 〉6 mmol/mol only occur, when high-magnesium calcite has dissolved within the sediment. The older parts (back to ~800 kyrs) of the records are characterized by similar trends of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca. We discuss possible scenarios to accommodate the obtained geochemical information.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: In January 2003, a major inflow of cold and oxygen-rich North Sea Water terminated an ongoing stagnation period in parts of the central Baltic Sea. In order to investigate the role of North Sea Water inflow in the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), we measured dissolved and atmospheric N〈2O at 26 stations in the southern and central Baltic Sea in October 2003. At the time of our cruise, water renewal had proceeded to the eastern Gotland Basin, whereas the western Gotland Basin was still unaffected by the inflow. The deep water renewal was detectable in the distributions of temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentrations as well as in the distribution of the N2O concentrations: Shallow stations in the Kiel Bight and Pomeranian Bight were well-ventilated with uniform N2O concentrations near equilibrium throughout the water column. In contrast, stations in the deep basins, such as the Bornholm and the Gotland Deep, showed a clear stratification with deep water affected by North Sea Water. Inflowing North Sea Water led to changed environmental conditions, especially enhanced oxygen (O2) or declining hydrogen sulphide (H2S) concentrations, thus, affecting the conditions for the production of N2O. Pattern of N2O profiles and correlations with parameters like oxygen and nitrate differed between the basins. Because of the positive correlation between ΔN2O and AOU in oxic waters the dominant production pathway seems to be nitrification rather than denitrification. Advection of N2O by North Sea Water was found to be of minor importance. A rough budget revealed a significant surplus of in situ produced N2O after the inflow. However, due to the permanent halocline, it can be assumed that the N2O produced does not reach the atmosphere. Hydrographic aspects therefore are decisive factors determining the final release of N2O produced to the atmosphere.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We investigate the significance of in situ dissolution of calcium carbonate above its saturation horizons using observations from the open subpolar North Atlantic [sNA] and to a lesser extent a 3-D biogeochemical model. The sNA is particularly well suited for observation-based detections of in situ, i.e. shallow-depth CaCO3 dissolution [SDCCD] as it is a region of high CaCO3 production, deep CaCO3 saturation horizons, and precisely-defined pre-formed alkalinity. Based on the analysis of a comprehensive alkalinity data set we find that SDCCD does not appear to be a significant process in the open sNA. The results from the model support the observational findings by indicating that there is not a significant need of SDCCD to explain observed patterns of alkalinity in the North Atlantic. Instead our investigation points to the importance of mixing processes for the redistribution of alkalinity from dissolution of CaCO3 from below its saturation horizons. However, mixing has recently been neglected for a number of studies that called for SDCCD in the sNA and on global scale.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: To commemorate the publication of the 25th Volume of the Journal of Micropalaeontology, the first issue of which came out in 1982, this celebratory review article was commissioned. Officers of each TMS Group (Ostracod, Foraminifera, Palynology, Nannofossil, Microvertebrate and Silicofossil) were requested to reflect over the last 25 years and assess the major advances and innovations in each of their disciplines. It is obvious from the presentations that all Groups report that research has moved on from the basic, but essential descriptive phase, i.e. taxonomy and establishing biostratigraphies, to the utilization of new technologies and application to issues of the day such as climate change and global warming. However, we must not lose sight of the fact that the foundation of micropalaeontology is observation and the building block for all these new and exciting innovations and developments is still good taxonomy. Briefly, the most obvious conclusion that can be drawn from this review is that micropalaeontology as a science is in relatively good health, but we have to ensure that the reported advancements will sustain and progress our discipline. There is one issue that has not really been highlighted in these contributions – we need to make sure that there are enough people being trained in micropalaeontology to maintain development. The last 25 years has seen a dramatic decrease in the number of post-graduate MSc courses in micropalaeontology. For example, in the UK, in the 1980s and early 1990s there were five specific MSc courses to choose ...
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: The predicted rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions will increase CO2 concentrations and decrease seawater pH in the upper ocean. Recent studies have revealed effects of pCO2 induced changes in seawater chemistry on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. To test whether the predicted increase in pCO2 will directly or indirectly (via changes in phytoplankton dynamics) affect abundance, activities, and community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during phytoplankton bloom development, we have aerated mesocosms with CO2 to obtain triplicates with three different partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2): 350 μatm (1×CO2), 700 μatm (2×CO2) and 1050 μatm (3×CO2). The development of a phytoplankton bloom was initiated by the addition of nitrate and phosphate. In accordance to an elevated carbon to nitrogen drawdown at increasing pCO2, bacterial production (BPP) of free-living and attached bacteria as well as cell-specific BPP (csBPP) of attached bacteria were related to the C:N ratio of suspended matter. These relationships significantly differed among treatments. However, bacterial abundance and activities were not statistically different among treatments. Solely community structure of free-living bacteria changed with pCO2 whereas that of attached bacteria seemed to be independent of pCO2 but tightly coupled to phytoplankton bloom development. Our findings imply that changes in pCO2, although reflected by changes in community structure of free-living bacteria, do not directly affect bacterial activity. Furthermore, bacterial activity and dynamics of heterotrophic bacteria, especially of attached bacteria, were tightly correlated to phytoplankton development and, hence, may also potentially depend on changes in pCO2.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: The subtropical Indian Ocean along 32° S was for the first time simultaneously sampled in 2002 for inorganic carbon and transient tracers. The vertical distribution and inventory of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) from five different methods: four data-base methods (ΔC*, TrOCA, TTD and IPSL) and a simulation from the OCCAM model are compared and discussed along with the observed CFC-12 and CCl4 distributions. In the surface layer, where carbon-based methods are uncertain, TTD and OCCAM yield the same result (7±0.2 molC m−2), helping to specify the surface CANT inventory. Below the mixed-layer, the comparison suggests that CANT penetrates deeper and more uniformly into the Antarctic Intermediate Water layer limit than estimated from the much utilized ΔC* method. Significant CFC-12 and CCl4 values are detected in bottom waters, associated with Antarctic Bottom Water. In this layer, except for ΔC* and OCCAM, the other methods detect significant CANT values. Consequently, the lowest inventory is calculated using the ΔC* method (24±2 molC m−2) or OCCAM (24.4±2.8 molC m−2) while TrOCA, TTD, and IPSL lead to higher inventories (28.1±2.2, 28.9±2.3 and 30.8±2.5 molC m−2 respectively). Overall and despite the uncertainties each method is evaluated using its relationship with tracers and the knowledge about water masses in the subtropical Indian Ocean. Along 32° S our best estimate for the mean CANT specific inventory is 28±2 molC m−2. Comparison exercises for data-based CANT methods along with time-series or repeat sections analysis should help to identify strengths and caveats in the CANT methods and to better constrain model simulations.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III) experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm). Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1). With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.
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  • 9
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 10 (3). pp. 197-210.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: We develop the theory of cyclic Markov chains and apply it to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictability problem. At the core of Markov chain modelling is a partition of the state space such that the transition rates between different state space cells can be computed and used most efficiently. We apply a partition technique, which divides the state space into multidimensional cells containing an equal number of data points. This partition leads to mathematical properties of the transition matrices which can be exploited further such as to establish connections with the dynamical theory of unstable periodic orbits. We introduce the concept of most and least predictable states. The data basis of our analysis consists of a multicentury-long data set obtained from an intermediate coupled atmosphere-ocean model of the tropical Pacific. This cyclostationary Markov chain approach captures the spring barrier in ENSO predictability and gives insight also into the dependence of ENSO predictability on the climatic state.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Monomethylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA) and diethylamine (DEA) were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm) indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC) content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines). This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.
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