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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The influence of reservoir traits on carbon dioxide emissions in the Belo Monte hydropower complex, Xingu River, Amazon – Brazil〈/b〉〈br〉 Kleiton R. Araújo, Henrique O. Sawakuchi, Dailson J. Bertassoli Júnior, André O. Sawakuchi, Karina D. Silva, Thiago V. Bernardi, Nicholas D. Ward, and Tatiana S. Pereira〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., doi:10.5194/bg-2019-53,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Little information is available about run-of-the-river carbon dioxide (CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉) emission and how reservoir type influence CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 production. With this regard we evaluated the CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 fluxes of Belo Monte hydropower complex and observed variability in CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 emission related to the type of environment, among reservoirs and the land use of flooded areas after impoundment. Our results emphasize that reservoir type could contribute on CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 emissions.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The influence of reservoir traits on carbon dioxide emissions in the Belo Monte hydropower complex, Xingu River, Amazon – Brazil〈/b〉〈br〉 Kleiton R. Araújo, Henrique O. Sawakuchi, Dailson J. Bertassoli Júnior, André O. Sawakuchi, Karina D. Silva, Thiago V. Bernardi, Nicholas D. Ward, and Tatiana S. Pereira〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-53,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Little information is available about run-of-the-river carbon dioxide (CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉) emission and how reservoir type influence CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 production. With this regard we evaluated the CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 fluxes of Belo Monte hydropower complex and observed variability in CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 emission related to the type of environment, among reservoirs and the land use of flooded areas after impoundment. Our results emphasize that reservoir type could contribute on CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 emissions.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Spatially distributed sensitivity of simulated global groundwater heads and flows to hydraulic conductivity, groundwater recharge and surface water body parameterization〈/b〉〈br〉 Robert Reinecke, Laura Foglia, Steffen Mehl, Jonathan D. Herman, Alexander Wachholz, Tim Trautmann, and Petra Döll〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-10,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Recently, the first global groundwater models were developed to better understand surface water-groundwater interactions, and human water use impacts. However, the reliability of model outputs is limited by a lack of data as well as model assumptions required due to the necessarily coarse spatial resolution. In this study we present first global maps of model sensitivity to their parameterization and build a foundation to improve data sets and model design as well as model understanding.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Spatially distributed sensitivity of simulated global groundwater heads and flows to hydraulic conductivity, groundwater recharge and surface water body parameterization〈/b〉〈br〉 Robert Reinecke, Laura Foglia, Steffen Mehl, Jonathan D. Herman, Alexander Wachholz, Tim Trautmann, and Petra Döll〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-10,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Recently, the first global groundwater models were developed to better understand surface water-groundwater interactions, and human water use impacts. However, the reliability of model outputs is limited by a lack of data as well as model assumptions required due to the necessarily coarse spatial resolution. In this study we present first global maps of model sensitivity to their parameterization and build a foundation to improve data sets and model design as well as model understanding.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Low-cost eddy covariance: a case study of evapotranspiration overagroforestry in Germany〈/b〉〈br〉 Christian Markwitz and Lukas Siebicke〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-392,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Turbulent fluxes are usually measured by the eddy covariance method as a combination of a costly gas analyser and a sonic anemometer. In the present manuscript we present an eddy covariance set-up of low cost to measure evapotranspiration over agricultural fields. The method showed to be comparable to a conventional eddy covariance set-up and is a viable alternative when spatial replicates are required.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Low-cost eddy covariance: a case study of evapotranspiration overagroforestry in Germany〈/b〉〈br〉 Christian Markwitz and Lukas Siebicke〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-392,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Turbulent fluxes are usually measured by the eddy covariance method as a combination of a costly gas analyser and a sonic anemometer. In the present manuscript we present an eddy covariance set-up of low cost to measure evapotranspiration over agricultural fields. The method showed to be comparable to a conventional eddy covariance set-up and is a viable alternative when spatial replicates are required.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Assessment of Sub-Shelf Melting Parameterisations Using theOcean-Ice Sheet Coupled Model NEMO(v3.6)-Elmer/Ice(v8.3)〈/b〉〈br〉 Lionel Favier, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Adrian Jenkins, Nacho Merino, Gaël Durand, Olivier Gagliardini, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, and Pierre Mathiot〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-26,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The melting due to oceanic forcing at the base of ice shelves is the main driver of current Antarctic marine terminating glaciers. We assess various melting parameterisations ranging from simple scalings with far-field thermal driving to emulators of box and plume models, using a new Ocean-Ice Sheet coupled model. Two types of quadratic dependencies to thermal forcing show the best trade-off between the simplicity of the approach and the results accuracy in comparison to the coupled model.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Scalable Flood Level Trend Monitoring with Surveillance Cameras using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network〈/b〉〈br〉 Matthew Moy de Vitry, Simon Kramer, Jan Dirk Wegner, and João P. Leitão〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-570,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This work demonstrates a new approach to provide flood level trend information at scale by leveraging surveillance cameras. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) trained on images from news websites is used to measure flooding qualitatively. Evaluated on six surveillance videos of differing quality, the correlation between real and predicted water trend was found to be 75 % on average. If the DCNN is retrained with a few of the video frames, the average correlation is increased to 85 %.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Environment Gradient related Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in Huangmao Sea Estuary: Rates and Community Diversity〈/b〉〈br〉 Ran Jiang, Shu-Xin Zhang, Gou Wei, Rui He, Li-Ling Yang, and Xin-Sheng Chai〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-31,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Since the nitrogen related eutrophication has become a severe problem in the Pearl River Delta complex area(PRE) in South China, it is important to have further understanding of nitrogen cycles in this area. The significant geographic and climatic differences in PRE and other estuaries, up to date there is lack of studies about the microbial mediated the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium(DNRA) pathways. This study provide a better understanding of DNRA in South China estuaries.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Centennial-scale precipitation anomalies in the southern Altiplano (18° S) suggest an extra-tropical driver for the South American Summer Monsoon during the late Holocene〈/b〉〈br〉 Ignacio A. Jara, Antonio Maldonado, Leticia González, Armand Hernández, Alberto Sáez, Santiago Giralt, Roberto Bao, and Blas Valero-Garcés〈br〉 Clim. Past Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-13,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for CP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) is the most significant climate feature of South America. However, little is known about SASM variability in the past. Here we present a new SASM reconstruction from Lago Chungará in the southern Altiplano (18° S). We show important changes in SASM strength at centennial timescales. Our results suggest that SASM variability in the southern Altiplano was not only controlled by tropical features, but also influenced by an extra-tropical precipitation.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 11
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Causes for increased flood frequency in central Europe in the 19th century〈/b〉〈br〉 Stefan Brönnimann, Luca Frigerio, Mikhaël Schwander, Marco Rohrer, Peter Stucki, and Jörg Franke〈br〉 Clim. Past Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-17,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for CP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 During the 19th century flood frequency was high in Central Europe, but it was low in the mid-20th century. This paper tracks these decadal changes in flood frequency for the case of Switzerland from peak discharge data back to precipitation data and daily weather reconstructions. We find an increased frequency of flood-prone weather types during large parts of the 19th century and decreased frequency in the mid-20th century. Sea-surface temperature anomalies can only explain a small part of it.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Inconsistencies between observed, reconstructed, and simulated precipitation indices for England since the year 1650 CE〈/b〉〈br〉 Oliver Bothe, Sebastian Wagner, and Eduardo Zorita〈br〉 Clim. Past, 15, 307-334, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-307-2019, 2019〈br〉 Our understanding of future climate changes increases if different sources of information agree on past climate variations. Changing climates particularly impact local scales for which future changes in precipitation are highly uncertain. Here, we use information from observations, model simulations, and climate reconstructions for regional precipitation over the British Isles. We find these do not agree well on precipitation variations over the past few centuries.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Urban population exposure to NO〈sub〉x〈/sub〉 emissions from local shipping in three Baltic Sea harbour cities – a generic approach〈/b〉〈br〉 Martin Otto Paul Ramacher, Matthias Karl, Johannes Bieser, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Lasse Johansson〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-127,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We simulated the impact of NO〈sub〉x〈/sub〉 shipping emissions on air quality and exposure in the Baltic Sea harbour cities Rostock (Germany), Riga (Latvia) and Gdansk-Gdynia (Poland) for 2012. We found that local shipping affects total NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 with 22 %, 11 %, and 16 % in Rostock, Riga and Gdansk-Gdynia. Exposure to NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 from all emission sources was highest at home addresses (54–59 %). Emissions from shipping have a high impact on NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 exposure in the port area (50–80 %).
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Solar 27-day signatures in standard phase height measurements above central Europe〈/b〉〈br〉 Christian von Savigny, Dieter H. W. Peters, and Günter Entzian〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2079-2093, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2079-2019, 2019〈br〉 This study investigates solar effects in radio reflection height observations in the ionospheric D region at an altitude of about 80 km at northern midlatitudes. The analyzed time series covers almost six solar cycles. Statistically significant solar 27-day and 11-year signatures are identified. However, the driving mechanisms are not fully understood. We also provide evidence for dynamical effects on the radio reflection heights with periods close to the solar rotational cycle.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Influence of functional groups on toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: implication for toxicological evolution during atmospheric relevant aging of soot〈/b〉〈br〉 Yongchun Liu, Haotian Jiang, Chunmei Liu, Lian Wang, Bo Zhang, Hong He, and Sijin Liu〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1366,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 It has been well recognized that black carbon is toxic for human health, while it is still controversial about the influence of functionalization on its toxicity as well as the evolution of its toxicity due to chemical aging in the atmosphere. In the current study, the oxidation potential measured by dithiothreitol (DTT) decay rate and the cytotoxicity to murine macrophage cells of different functionalized carbon nanomaterials, which were used as model sample of black carbon, were investigated for understanding the role of functionalization in the toxicity of black carbon. The DTT decay rates of special black 4A (SB4A), graphene, graphene oxide, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), SWCNT-OH and SWCNT-COOH were 45.9±3.0, 58.5±6.6, 160.7±21.7, 38.9±8.9, 57.0±7.2 and 36.7±0.2 pmol min〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 μg〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉, respectively. Epoxide was found to be mainly responsible for the largest DTT decay rate of graphene oxide compared with other materials based on comprehensive characterizations. Both carboxylation and hydroxylation showed little influence on the oxidation potential of these materials, while epoxidation contributes to the enhancement of oxidation potential. All these carbon nanomaterials were toxic to murine J774 cell line. However, oxidized carbon nanomaterials (graphene oxide, SWCNT-OH and SWCNT-COOH) showed weaker cytotoxicity to J774 cell line compared with the corresponding control sample as far as the metabolic activity was considered and stronger cytotoxicity to J774 cell line regarding to the membrane integrity and DNA incorporation. These results imply that epoxidation might enhance the oxidation potential of black carbon during transport in the atmosphere.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Factors controlling pCO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 variability in the eastern Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Península)〈/b〉〈br〉 Dolores Jiménez-López, Ana Sierra, Teodora Ortega, Soledad Garrido, Nerea Hernández-Puyuelo, Ricardo Sánchez-Leal, and Jesús Forja〈br〉 Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2019-6,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for OS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The present study describes the surface distribution of the partial pressure of CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 in the continental shelf of the eastern Gulf of Cádiz. For this, eight oceanographic cruises were carried out between March 2014 and February 2016. This distribution presents a linear dependence with the temperature and it decreases with distance from the coast. The Gulf of Cádiz acts as a sink of CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 with a mean value for the study period of −0.18 ± 20 1.32 mmol m〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉 d〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0806
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0822
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Inconsistencies between observed, reconstructed, and simulated precipitation indices for England since the year 1650 CE〈/b〉〈br〉 Oliver Bothe, Sebastian Wagner, and Eduardo Zorita〈br〉 Clim. Past, 15, 307-334, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-307-2019, 2019〈br〉 Our understanding of future climate changes increases if different sources of information agree on past climate variations. Changing climates particularly impact local scales for which future changes in precipitation are highly uncertain. Here, we use information from observations, model simulations, and climate reconstructions for regional precipitation over the British Isles. We find these do not agree well on precipitation variations over the past few centuries.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Causes for increased flood frequency in central Europe in the 19th century〈/b〉〈br〉 Stefan Brönnimann, Luca Frigerio, Mikhaël Schwander, Marco Rohrer, Peter Stucki, and Jörg Franke〈br〉 Clim. Past Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-17,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for CP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 During the 19th century flood frequency was high in Central Europe, but it was low in the mid-20th century. This paper tracks these decadal changes in flood frequency for the case of Switzerland from peak discharge data back to precipitation data and daily weather reconstructions. We find an increased frequency of flood-prone weather types during large parts of the 19th century and decreased frequency in the mid-20th century. Sea-surface temperature anomalies can only explain a small part of it.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Centennial-scale precipitation anomalies in the southern Altiplano (18° S) suggest an extra-tropical driver for the South American Summer Monsoon during the late Holocene〈/b〉〈br〉 Ignacio A. Jara, Antonio Maldonado, Leticia González, Armand Hernández, Alberto Sáez, Santiago Giralt, Roberto Bao, and Blas Valero-Garcés〈br〉 Clim. Past Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-13,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for CP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) is the most significant climate feature of South America. However, little is known about SASM variability in the past. Here we present a new SASM reconstruction from Lago Chungará in the southern Altiplano (18° S). We show important changes in SASM strength at centennial timescales. Our results suggest that SASM variability in the southern Altiplano was not only controlled by tropical features, but also influenced by an extra-tropical precipitation.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Hyposalinity tolerance inthecoccolithophorid 〈i〉Emiliania huxleyi〈/i〉 under the influence of ocean acidification involves enhanced photosynthetic performance〈/b〉〈br〉 Jiekai Xu, John Beardall, and Kunshan Gao〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-4,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 A lot of papers studying Ocean acidification (OA) have been published while no related reports can be found on the combined effects of OA with decreased salinity on coccolithophores yet.Thus, we investigated the physiological responses of an Emiliania huxleyi strain grown at 2CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 concentrations and 3 levels of salinity and found cells could tolerate reduced salinity under OA as its increased light capturing capability, which suggests a potential niche extension of coccolithophores in the future.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Role of Microbial Communities in the Weathering and Stalactite Formation in Karst Topography〈/b〉〈br〉 Tung-Yi Huang, Bing-Mu Hsu, Cheng-Wei Fan, Hsin-Chi Tsai, Chien-Yi Tung, and Jung-Sheng Chen〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-12,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This study surveyed the bacterial genetic material from environment around a limestone gulch, namely scrapes on speleothem surface, dripping water through speleothem, earth under a plan limestone wall, and scrapes from the plan wall. By the estimation of bioinformatics prediction, the relative abundance of bacteria inducing calcium precipitation in scrapes of speleothems and the water were about 100 times higher than the plan wall, while weathering related bacteria were plenty on the plan wall.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Significance of substrate soil moisture content for rockfall hazard assessment〈/b〉〈br〉 Louise M. Vick, Valerie Zimmer, Christopher White, Chris Massey, and Tim Davies〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-11,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Rockfall boulders can travel long distances down slope and it is important to predict how far to prevent fatalities. A comparison of earthquake data from New Zealand during summer and full-scale rockfall experiments in the same soil during winter shows that during dry seasons boulders travel further downslope because the soil is harder. When using predictive tools, engineers and geologists should take soil conditions (and seasonal variations thereof) in to account.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Flood risk assessment due to cyclone-induced dike breaching in coastal areas of Bangladesh〈/b〉〈br〉 Md Feroz Islam, Biswa Bhattacharya, and Ioana Popescu〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 353-368, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-353-2019, 2019〈br〉 Bangladesh, one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, has a dynamic delta with 123 polders. Cyclone-induced storm surges cause severe damage to these polders. This paper presents an investigation of the inundation pattern in a polder due to dike failure caused by storm surges and identifies possible critical locations of dike breaches. Moreover, the risk of flooding was assessed and probabilistic flood maps were generated for the breaching of dikes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Millennium-length precipitation Reconstruction over South-eastern Asia: a Pseudo-Proxy Approach〈/b〉〈br〉 Stefanie Talento, Lea Schneider, Johannes Werner, and Jürg Luterbacher〈br〉 Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., doi:10.5194/esd-2019-1,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ESD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Quantifying hydroclimate variability beyond the instrumental period is essential for putting fluctuations into long-term perspective and to provide a validation for climate models. We evaluate, in a virtual set-up, the potential for generating millennium-long summer precipitation reconstructions over South-eastern Asia. We find that performing a real-world reconstruction with the current available proxy network is indeed feasible, as virtual-world reconstructions are skilfull in most areas.
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-4995
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Trend quality ozone from NPP OMPS: the version 2 processing〈/b〉〈br〉 Richard McPeters, Stacey Frith, Natalya Kramarova, Jerry Ziemke, and Gordon Labow〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 977-985, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-977-2019, 2019〈br〉 A version 2 processing of data from the OMPS nadir ozone mapper and nadir ozone profiler on Suomi NPP has now been completed. Total column ozone data from the OMPS nadir mapper now agree with data from the SBUV/2 instrument on NOAA 19, with a zonal average bias of −0.2 % over the 60° S to 60° N latitude zone. For the profile retrieval, zonal average ozone in the upper stratosphere (between 2.5 and 4 hPa) agrees with that from NOAA 19 within ±3 % and an average bias of −1.1 %.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The use of QBO, ENSO, and NAO perturbations in the evaluation of GOME-2 MetOp A total ozone measurements〈/b〉〈br〉 Kostas Eleftheratos, Christos S. Zerefos, Dimitris S. Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, John Kapsomenakis, Diego G. Loyola, Pieter Valks, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Christophe Lerot, Stacey M. Frith, Amund S. Haslerud, Ivar S. A. Isaksen, and Seppo Hassinen〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 987-1011, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-987-2019, 2019〈br〉 We examine the ability of GOME-2A total ozone data to capture variability related to known natural oscillations, such as the QBO, ENSO and NAO, with respect to other satellite datasets, ground-based data, and chemical transport model simulations. The analysis is based on the GOME-2 satellite total ozone columns for the period 2007–2016 which form part of the operational EUMETSAT AC SAF GOME-2 MetOp A GDP4.8 latest data product.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Significance of substrate soil moisture content for rockfall hazard assessment〈/b〉〈br〉 Louise M. Vick, Valerie Zimmer, Christopher White, Chris Massey, and Tim Davies〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-11,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Rockfall boulders can travel long distances down slope and it is important to predict how far to prevent fatalities. A comparison of earthquake data from New Zealand during summer and full-scale rockfall experiments in the same soil during winter shows that during dry seasons boulders travel further downslope because the soil is harder. When using predictive tools, engineers and geologists should take soil conditions (and seasonal variations thereof) in to account.
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors of flood disaster in China〈/b〉〈br〉 Pan Hu, Qiang Zhang, Chong-Yu Xu, Shao Sun, and Jiayi Fang〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-73,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 China is the country highly sensitive to flood disasters. Here we investigated flood disasters and relevant driving factors using meteorological disaster records s and also hourly rainfall data. We used the GeoDetector method to analyze potential driving factors behind flood disasters. We found increased rainstorm-induced flood disasters and increase in flood disaster frequency. Meanwhile, reduced flood-related death rates imply enhanced flood-mitigation infrastructure and facilities.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Global variability of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems〈/b〉〈br〉 Xiaolu Tang, Nuno Carvalhais, Catarina Moura, Bernhard Ahrens, Sujan Koirala, Shaohui Fan, Fengying Guan, Wenjie Zhang, Sicong Gao, Vincenzo Magliulo, Pauline Buysse, Shibin Liu, Guo Chen, Wunian Yang, Zhen Yu, Jingjing Liang, Leilei Shi, Shenyan Pu, and Markus Reichstein〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-37,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Vegetation CUE is a key measure of carbon transfer from the atmosphere to terrestrial biomass. This study modelled global CUE with published observations using random forest. CUE varied with ecosystem types and spatially decreased with latitude, challenging the previous conclusion that CUE was independent of environmental controls. Our results emphasize a better understanding of environmental controls on CUE to reduce uncertainties in prognostic land-process model simulations.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Palaeoenvironmental response of mid-latitudinal wetlands to PETM climate change (Schöningen lignite deposits, Germany)〈/b〉〈br〉 Katharina Methner, Olaf Lenz, Walter Riegel, Volker Wilde, and Andreas Mulch〈br〉 Clim. Past Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-20,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for CP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We describe the presence of a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in Paleogene lignites (Schöningen, DE) that we attribute to reflect the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Palynological data point to minor PETM-related paleovegetation changes. Paleo-North Sea wetland deposits (Schöningen; Cobham; Vasterival) therefore, share major characteristics of increased fire activity (pre-PETM), minor plant species changes, a reduced CIE, and drowning of near-coastal mires during the PETM.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Mapping trends in woody cover throughout Namibian savanna with MODIS seasonal phenological metrics and field inventory data〈/b〉〈br〉 Vladimir R. Wingate, Nikolaus J. Kuhn, Stuart R. Phinn, and Cornelis van der Waal〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-28,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 〈p〉Woody vegetation is an integral component of savannas. Here, two main change processes alter woody vegetation, namely shrub encroachment and deforestation. Both impact a range of ecosystem services and functions across scales. Accurate estimates of change, including spatial extent, rate and drivers are lacking. This is primarily due to savanna vegetation comprising woody and herbaceous vegetation, each of which exhibit divergent phenological characteristics, and vary importantly in their response to climatic and environmental factors. This study uses phenological metrics derived from the MODIS MOD13Q1 NDVI time-series to model woody cover as a function of field measurements, and to map trends across Namibia. These metrics enhance the contrasting phenological characteristics of woody and herbaceous vegetation, and standardizes their annual response to climatic and environmental factors by integrating short term variation. Trends in woody cover are excellent indicators of shrub encroachment and deforestation. Trend significance was computed using the Mann-Kendall test, while change statistics, including the rate and spatial extent of change were derived using the Theil-Sen slope. Change was evaluated in relation to drivers including land-use, population, biomes and precipitation. An overall decrease in woody cover was identified, with the most pronounced decreases found in urban and densely populated areas. Decreases in woody cover were not homogenously distributed; losses predominated in tropical desert and dry forests, but gains were found across shrub lands.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉On the timescales and length scales of the Arctic sea ice thickness anomalies: a study based on 14 reanalyses〈/b〉〈br〉 Leandro Ponsoni, François Massonnet, Thierry Fichefet, Matthieu Chevallier, and David Docquier〈br〉 The Cryosphere, 13, 521-543, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-13-521-2019, 2019〈br〉 The Arctic is a main component of the Earth's climate system. It is fundamental to understand the behavior of Arctic sea ice coverage over time and in space due to many factors, e.g., shipping lanes, the travel and tourism industry, hunting and fishing activities, mineral resource extraction, and the potential impact on the weather in midlatitude regions. In this work we use observations and results from models to understand how variations in the sea ice thickness change over time and in space.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Regulation of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions from acid organic soil drained for agriculture: Effects of land use and season〈/b〉〈br〉 Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi, Lars Elsgaard, Tim J. Clough, Rodrigo Labouriau, Vibeke Ernstsen, and Søren O. Petersen〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-14,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 〈p〉Drained organic soils are extensively used for cereal and high-value cash crop production or as grazing land, but emissions of nitrous oxide (N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O) are enhanced by the drainage and cultivation. A study was conducted to investigate the regulation of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions in a raised bog area drained for agriculture. The area has been classified as potentially acid sulfate soil, and we hypothesised that pyrite oxidation was a potential driver of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions. Two sites with rotational grass, and two sites with a potato crop, were equipped for monitoring of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions, as well as sub-soil N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O concentrations at 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth, during spring and autumn 2015. Precipitation, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, water table (WT) depth, and soil mineral N were recorded during weekly field campaigns. In late April and early September, intact cores were collected to 1 m depth at adjacent grassland and potato sites for analysis of soil properties, which included acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) to quantify, respectively, iron monosulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉), as well as total reactive iron (TRFe) and nitrite (NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉〈sup〉−〈/sup〉). Soil organic matter composition and total reduction capacity was also determined. The soil pH varied between 4.7 and 5.4. Equivalent soil gas phase concentrations of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O ranged from around 10 µL L〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 at grassland sites to several hundred µL L〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 at potato sites, in accordance with lower soil mineral N concentrations at grassland sites. Total N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions during 152–174 days were 3–6 kg N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O-N ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 for rotational grass, and 19–21 kg N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O-N ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 for potato sites. Statistical analyses by graphical models showed that soil N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O concentration in the capillary fringe was the strongest predictor for N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions in spring, and for grassland sites also in the autumn. For potato sites in the autumn, nitrate (NO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉〈sup〉−〈/sup〉) availability in the top soil, together with temperature, were the main controls on N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions. Pyrite oxidation coupled with NO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉〈sup〉−〈/sup〉 reduction could not be dismissed as a source of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O, but the total reduction capacity of the peat soil was much higher than explained by the FeS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 concentration. The concentrations of TRFe were also much higher than pyrite concentrations, and potentially chemodenitrification could have been a source of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O during WT drawdown in spring. The N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions associated with rapid soil wetting and WT rise in autumn were consistent with biological denitrification. Soil N availability and seasonal WT changes were important controls of N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O emissions.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Rate constant and secondary organic aerosol formation from the gas-phase reaction of eugenol with hydroxyl radicals〈/b〉〈br〉 Changgeng Liu, Yongchun Liu, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, and Hong He〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2001-2013, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2001-2019, 2019〈br〉 The rate constant and SOA formation for the OH-initiated reaction of eugenol were studied for the first time in an oxidation flow reactor. Significant SOA formation was observed, and SOA yield depended on precursor concentration and OH exposure. SO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 both enhanced SOA yields. In addition, NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 participated in OH-initiated reaction and produced organic nitrates. The results could be helpful for further understanding SOA formation from the atmospheric oxidation of methoxyphenols.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉VISIR-I.b: waves and ocean currents for energy efficient navigation〈/b〉〈br〉 Gianandrea Mannarini and Lorenzo Carelli〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-292,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The VISIR ship routing model is updated in order to cope with ocean currents. Currents are employed together with waves for computing optimal ship tracks in the Atlantic Ocean. These tracks show a great seasonal and regional variability, following a variable influence of waves and currents. We assess how these tracks contribute to voyage energy efficiency gains using a standard indicator of the International Maritime Organization. The new model features are validated vs. an exact benchmark.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Variability of Bulk Water Vapor Content in the Marine Cloudy Boundary Layers from Microwave and Near-Infrared Imagery〈/b〉〈br〉 Luis F. Millán, Matthew D. Lebsock, and Joao Teixeira〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-4,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The synergy of the collocated Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global estimates of marine boundary layer water vapor. AMSR provides the total column water vapor, while MODIS provides the water vapor above the cloud layers. The difference between the two gives the vapor between the surface and the cloud top, which may be interpreted as the boundary layer water vapor.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Variability of Bulk Water Vapor Content in the Marine Cloudy Boundary Layers from Microwave and Near-Infrared Imagery〈/b〉〈br〉 Luis F. Millán, Matthew D. Lebsock, and Joao Teixeira〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-4,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The synergy of the collocated Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global estimates of marine boundary layer water vapor. AMSR provides the total column water vapor, while MODIS provides the water vapor above the cloud layers. The difference between the two gives the vapor between the surface and the cloud top, which may be interpreted as the boundary layer water vapor.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Reanalysis of the 1761 transatlantic tsunami〈/b〉〈br〉 Martin Wronna, Maria Ana Baptista, and Jorge Miguel Miranda〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 337-352, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-337-2019, 2019〈br〉 We investigate the source of the 1761 earthquake and tsunami. The reanalysis of the tsunami travel times agrees with an earlier suggested source area. We check the geodynamic setting of the area and place a fault as an extension to an identified fault and use numerical modelling to distinguish between two candidate sources. One of our theories is compatible with the geodynamic setting and reproduces well the observed tsunami parameters.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Mapping rainfall hazard based on rain gauge data: an objective cross-validation framework for model selection〈/b〉〈br〉 Juliette Blanchet, Emmanuel Paquet, Pradeebane Vaittinada Ayar, and David Penot〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 829-849, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-829-2019, 2019〈br〉 We propose an objective framework for estimating rainfall cumulative distribution functions in a region when data are only available at rain gauges. Our methodology allows us to assess goodness-of-fit of the full distribution, but with a particular focus on its tail. It is applied to daily rainfall in the Ardèche catchment in the south of France. Results show a preference for a mixture of Gamma distribution over seasons and weather patterns, with parameters interpolated with a thin plate spline.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Upper tropospheric CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 and CO affected by the South Asian summer monsoon during the Oxidation Mechanism Observations mission〈/b〉〈br〉 Laura Tomsche, Andrea Pozzer, Narendra Ojha, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1915-1939, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1915-2019, 2019〈br〉 The Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) is an annual phenomenon in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere. We performed in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉) in the monsoon outflow region and in background air in the UT (Mediterranean, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea) using airborne optical absorption spectroscopy during the Oxidation Mechanism Observations mission (summer 2015). The trace gases increased within the AMA, particularly CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Variations in the summer oceanic 〈i〉p〈/i〉CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and carbon sink in Prydz Bay using the self-organizing map analysis approach〈/b〉〈br〉 Suqing Xu, Keyhong Park, Yanmin Wang, Liqi Chen, Di Qi, and Bingrui Li〈br〉 Biogeosciences, 16, 797-810, https://doi.org10.5194/bg-16-797-2019, 2019〈br〉 In this study we applied the self-organizing map (SOM) method to estimate the oceanic 〈i〉p〈/i〉CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 in Prydz Bay derived from its main controlling factors. The RMSE of the SOM-derived 〈i〉p〈/i〉CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 was 22.14 µatm compared to SOCAT datasets. Our results showed that the monthly averaged uptake of atmospheric CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 for February 2015 was 23.57±6.36 TgC. Strong potential anthropogenic CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 uptake in the 〈q〉shelf region〈/q〉 will enhance ocean acidification (OA) in the deep water of Prydz Bay and subsequently affect deep OA.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Linear Optimal Runoff Aggregate (LORA): a global gridded synthesis runoff product〈/b〉〈br〉 Sanaa Hobeichi, Gab Abramowitz, Jason Evans, and Hylke E. Beck〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 851-870, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-851-2019, 2019〈br〉 〈p〉No synthesized global gridded runoff product, derived from multiple sources, is available, despite such a product being useful for meeting the needs of many global water initiatives. We apply an optimal weighting approach to merge runoff estimates from hydrological models constrained with observational streamflow records. The weighting method is based on the ability of the models to match observed streamflow data while accounting for error covariance between the participating products. To address the lack of observed streamflow for many regions, a dissimilarity method was applied to transfer the weights of the participating products to the ungauged basins from the closest gauged basins using dissimilarity between basins in physiographic and climatic characteristics as a proxy for distance. We perform out-of-sample tests to examine the success of the dissimilarity approach, and we confirm that the weighted product performs better than its 11 constituent products in a range of metrics. Our resulting synthesized global gridded runoff product is available at monthly timescales, and includes time-variant uncertainty, for the period 1980–2012 on a 0.5〈span〉〈sup〉∘〈/sup〉〈/span〉 grid. The synthesized global gridded runoff product broadly agrees with published runoff estimates at many river basins, and represents the seasonal runoff cycle for most of the globe well. The new product, called Linear Optimal Runoff Aggregate (LORA), is a valuable synthesis of existing runoff products and will be freely available for download on 〈span〉https://geonetwork.nci.org.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/f9617_9854_8096_5291〈/span〉 (last access: 31 January 2019).〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Role of sublimation and riming on the precipitation distribution in the Kananaskis Valley, Alberta, Canada〈/b〉〈br〉 Émilie Poirier, Julie M. Thériault, and Maud Leriche〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-46,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The impact of phase changes aloft on the precipitation distribution in the Kananaskis Valley, Alberta, was studied. Model reproduces well the atmospheric conditions and the precipitation pattern. In this region, sublimation has a greater impact on the evolution of the precipitation than melting. The trajectories of hydrometeors explain the precipitation distribution in the valley, which can impact snowpacks. The amount of snow at the surface depends on the strength of the downslope flow.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Advanced calibration of magnetometers on spin-stabilized spacecraft based on parameter decoupling〈/b〉〈br〉 Ferdinand Plaschke, Hans-Ulrich Auster, David Fischer, Karl-Heinz Fornaçon, Werner Magnes, Ingo Richter, Dragos Constantinescu, and Yasuhito Narita〈br〉 Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 63-76, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-63-2019, 2019〈br〉 Raw output of spacecraft magnetometers has to be converted into meaningful units and coordinate systems before it is usable for scientific applications. This conversion is defined by 12 calibration parameters, 8 of which are more easily determined in flight if the spacecraft is spinning. We present theory and advanced algorithms to determine these eight parameters. They take into account the physical magnetometer and spacecraft behavior, making them superior to previously published algorithms.
    Print ISSN: 2193-0856
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-0864
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Landslides Data Assimilation Using TRIGRS Based on Particle Filtering〈/b〉〈br〉 Changhu Xue, Guigen Nie, Jie Dong, Shuguang Wu, Jing Wang, Xiuzhen Li, and Xiaogang Zhang〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-16,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This paper provides an approach to apply data assimilation method to stability analysis and parameter update and feedback in a landslide. The experiment is implemented by particle filter algorithm. The result FS sequence of TRIGRS output decreases continuously with time and the assimilation can effectively correct the FS of the model output. The RMSD of FS indicates the assimilation results can correct the estimation of TRIGRS output close to actual observations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Propagation to the upper atmosphere of acoustic-gravity waves from atmospheric fronts in the Moscow region〈/b〉〈br〉 Yuliya Kurdyaeva, Sergey Kulichkov, Sergey Kshevetskii, Olga Borchevkina, and Elena Golikova〈br〉 Ann. Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-16,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ANGEO〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 To simulate the vertical propagation of atmospheric waves, experimental data on pressure variations at the Earth’s surface are used. These data are associated with the meteorological source. The simulation results have allowed to the first time estimate the amplitudes of temperature wave disturbances in the upper atmosphere caused by waves from the atmospheric front. The simulations have been performed using the Lomonosov supercomputer.
    Print ISSN: 0992-7689
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Linearization of the effect of slit function changes for improving OMI ozone profile retrievals〈/b〉〈br〉 Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Kang Sun, Kelly Chance, and Jae-Hwan Kim〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-47,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This work improves OMI ozone profile retrievals by accounting for spectral fit residuals caused by the slit function errors as a pseudo absorbers in optimal estimation based spectral fitting process.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Multivariate stochastic bias corrections with optimal transport〈/b〉〈br〉 Yoann Robin, Mathieu Vrac, Philippe Naveau, and Pascal Yiou〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 773-786, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-773-2019, 2019〈br〉 Bias correction methods are used to calibrate climate model outputs with respect to observations. In this article, a non-stationary, multivariate and stochastic bias correction method is developed based on optimal transport, accounting for inter-site and inter-variable correlations. Optimal transport allows us to construct a joint distribution that minimizes energy spent in bias correction. Our methodology is tested on precipitation and temperatures over 12 locations in southern France.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Isotopic and chromatographic fingerprinting of the sources of dissolved organic carbon in a shallow coastal aquifer〈/b〉〈br〉 Karina T. Meredith, Andy Baker, Martin S. Andersen, Denis M. O'Carroll, Helen Rutlidge, Liza K. McDonough, Phetdala Oudone, Eliza Bryan, and Nur Syahiza Zainuddin〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-627,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Dissolved organic carbon within groundwater and processes controlling it, remain largely unknown. Groundwater is lower compared to surface waters. The average groundwater concentration at this coastal site was five times higher than the global median, doubling with depth, but with no change in chromatographic character. The lack of oxygen limited the rate of organic matter processing leading to enhanced preservation. Changes in coastal hydrology could lead to the flux of unreacted organic carbon.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A Review and Synthesis of Future Earth System Change in the Interior of Western Canada: Part I – Climate and Meteorology〈/b〉〈br〉 Ronald E. Stewart, Kit K. Szeto, Barrie R. Bonsal, John M. Hanesiak, Bohdan Kochtubajda, Yanping Li, Julie M. Thériault, Chris M. DeBeer, Benita Y. Tam, Zhenhua Li, Zhuo Liu, Jennifer A. Bruneau, Sébastien Marinier, and Dominic Matte〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-51,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This article examines future atmospheric-related phenomena across the interior of western Canada. Changes in large scale atmospheric circulation and extent of warming vary with season and these generally lead to increases in factors associated with extremes such as spring and early summer floods and drought, although not necessarily summer convection. The northward movement of the 0 °C isotherm will furthermore be associated with changes to hazardous conditions such as freezing rain.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Assimilation of GNSS tomography products into WRF using radio occultation data assimilation operator〈/b〉〈br〉 Natalia Hanna, Estera Trzcina, Gregor Möller, Witold Rohm, and Robert Weber〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-419,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 In the study, the potential of GNSS tomography as an important supplementary data source for Numerical Weather Prediction models was examined. We used the two GNSS tomography models (TUW, WUELS) in different configurations. The GNSS tomography outputs were assimilated into the WRF model using a radio occultation observations operator (non-standard approach). Promising results show the improvement in the weather forecasting of relative humidity and temperature during heavy precipitation events.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Assimilation of GNSS tomography products into WRF using radio occultation data assimilation operator〈/b〉〈br〉 Natalia Hanna, Estera Trzcina, Gregor Möller, Witold Rohm, and Robert Weber〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-419,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 In the study, the potential of GNSS tomography as an important supplementary data source for Numerical Weather Prediction models was examined. We used the two GNSS tomography models (TUW, WUELS) in different configurations. The GNSS tomography outputs were assimilated into the WRF model using a radio occultation observations operator (non-standard approach). Promising results show the improvement in the weather forecasting of relative humidity and temperature during heavy precipitation events.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Ideas and perspectives: Carbon leaks from flooded land: do we need to replumb the inland water active pipe?〈/b〉〈br〉 Gwenaël Abril and Alberto V. Borges〈br〉 Biogeosciences, 16, 769-784, https://doi.org10.5194/bg-16-769-2019, 2019〈br〉 Based on classical concepts in ecology, and a literature survey, we highlight the importance of flooded land as a preferential source of atmospheric carbon to aquatic systems at the global scale. Studies in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems could be reconciled by considering the occurrence of an efficient wetland CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 pump to river systems. New methodological approaches coupling hydrology and ecology are also necessary to improve scientific knowledge on carbon fluxes at the land–water interface.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Mitigation of ionospheric signatures in Swarm GPS gravity field estimation using weighting strategies〈/b〉〈br〉 Lucas Schreiter, Daniel Arnold, Veerle Sterken, and Adrian Jäggi〈br〉 Ann. Geophys., 37, 111-127, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-37-111-2019, 2019〈br〉 Comparing Swarm GPS-only gravity fields to the ultra-precise GRACE K-Band gravity field schematic errors occurs around the geomagnetic equator. Due to the end of the GRACE mission, and the gap to the GRACE-FO mission, only Swarm can provide a continuous time series of gravity fields. We present different and assess different approaches to remove the schematic errors and thus improve the quality of the Swarm gravity fields.
    Print ISSN: 0992-7689
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Ideas and perspectives: Carbon leaks from flooded land: do we need to replumb the inland water active pipe?〈/b〉〈br〉 Gwenaël Abril and Alberto V. Borges〈br〉 Biogeosciences, 16, 769-784, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-769-2019, 2019〈br〉 Based on classical concepts in ecology, and a literature survey, we highlight the importance of flooded land as a preferential source of atmospheric carbon to aquatic systems at the global scale. Studies in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems could be reconciled by considering the occurrence of an efficient wetland CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 pump to river systems. New methodological approaches coupling hydrology and ecology are also necessary to improve scientific knowledge on carbon fluxes at the land–water interface.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Model-Measurement Consistency and Limits of Bioaerosol Abundance Over the Continental United States〈/b〉〈br〉 Maria A. Zawadowicz, Karl D. Froyd, Anne E. Perring, Daniel M. Murphy, Dominick V. Spracklen, Colette L. Heald, Peter R. Buseck, and Daniel J. Cziczo〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-101,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 In our paper, we report measurements of small particles of biological origin (for example, fragments of bacteria, pollen or fungal spores) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We use a recently-developed identification technique based on airborne mass spectrometry in conjunction with an extensive aircraft dataset. We show that biological particles are present at altitudes up to 10 km and we quantify typical concentrations.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Impacts of short-term mitigation measures on PM〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉 and radiative effects: a case study at a regional background site near Beijing, China〈/b〉〈br〉 Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Nan Li, Wenting Dai, Yunfei Wu, Jie Tian, Yaqing Zhou, Meng Wang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Yang Chen, Renjian Zhang, Shuyu Zhao, Chongshu Zhu, Yongming Han, Xuexi Tie, and Junji Cao〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1881-1899, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1881-2019, 2019〈br〉 〈p〉Measurements at a background site near Beijing showed that pollution controls implemented during the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (NCCPC) were effective in reducing PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉. Mass concentrations of PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 and its major chemical components were 20.6 %–43.1 % lower during the NCCPC-control period compared with a non-control period, and differences were greater on days with stable meteorological conditions. A receptor model showed that PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 from traffic-related emissions, biomass burning, industrial processes, and mineral dust was 38.5 %–77.8 % lower during the NCCPC-control versus non-control period, but differences in PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 from coal burning were small, and secondary sources were higher during the NCCPC-control period. During one pollution episode in the non-control period, secondary sources dominated, and the WRF-Chem model showed that the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region contributed 73.6 % of PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 mass. A second pollution episode was linked to biomass burning, and BTH contributed 46.9 % of PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 mass. Calculations based on Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) algorithms showed that organic matter was the largest contributor to light extinction during the non-control period whereas 〈span〉NH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉NO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉〈/span〉 was the main contributor during the NCCPC. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible radiation model showed that the average direct radiative forcing (DRF) values at the Earth's surface were 〈span〉−14.0〈/span〉 and 〈span〉−19.3〈/span〉 W m〈span〉〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉〈/span〉 during the NCCPC-control and non-control periods, respectively, and the DRF for the individual PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 components were 22.7 %–46.7 % lower during the NCCPC. The information and dataset from this study will be useful for developing air pollution control strategies in the BTH region and for understanding associated aerosol radiative effects.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Relationship between Asian monsoon strength and transport of surface aerosols to the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL): interannual variability and decadal changes〈/b〉〈br〉 Cheng Yuan, William K. M. Lau, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1901-1913, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1901-2019, 2019〈br〉 Using MERRA-2 reanalysis daily data from 2001 to 2015, we found that during strong South Asian summer monsoon years, the Asian monsoon anticyclone is more expansive and shifted northward. All the CO, carbonaceous aerosols and dust are found to be more abundant in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). ATAL trends are associated with increasing strength of the AMA, with earlier and enhanced vertical transport of ATAL constituents by enhanced overshooting convection over the transport regions.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Climate changes in interior semi-arid Spain from the last interglacial to the late Holocene〈/b〉〈br〉 Dongyang Wei, Penélope González-Sampériz, Graciela Gil-Romera, Sandy P. Harrison, and I. Colin Prentice〈br〉 Clim. Past Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-16,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for CP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 El Cañizar de Villarquemado provides a pollen record from semi-arid Spain since before the last interglacial. We use modern pollen–climate relationships to reconstruct changes in seasonal temperature and moisture, accounting for CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 effects on plants, and show coherent climate changes on glacial–interglacial and orbital timescales. The low glacial CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 means moisture changes are less extreme than suggested by the vegetation shifts, and driven by evapotranspiration rather than rainfall changes.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Landslides Data Assimilation Using TRIGRS Based on Particle Filtering〈/b〉〈br〉 Changhu Xue, Guigen Nie, Jie Dong, Shuguang Wu, Jing Wang, Xiuzhen Li, and Xiaogang Zhang〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-16,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This paper provides an approach to apply data assimilation method to stability analysis and parameter update and feedback in a landslide. The experiment is implemented by particle filter algorithm. The result FS sequence of TRIGRS output decreases continuously with time and the assimilation can effectively correct the FS of the model output. The RMSD of FS indicates the assimilation results can correct the estimation of TRIGRS output close to actual observations.
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉On the sources and sinks of atmospheric VOCs: An integrated analysis of recent aircraft campaigns over North America〈/b〉〈br〉 Xin Chen, Dylan B. Millet, Hanwant B. Singh, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Steven S. Brown, John D. Crounse, Joost A. de Gouw, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Brian G. Heikes, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Tomas Mikoviny, Kyung-Eun Min, Markus Müller, J. Andrew Neuman, Daniel W. O'Sullivan, Jeff Peischl, Gabriele G. Pfister, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Stephen Shertz, Victoria Treadaway, Patrick R. Veres, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, and Bin Yuan〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-115,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air quality and modify the lifetimes of other pollutants. We combine a high-resolution 3D atmospheric model with an ensemble of aircraft observations to perform an integrated analysis of the VOC budget over North America. We find that biogenic emissions provide the main source of VOC reactivity even in most major cities. Our findings point to key gaps in current models related to oxygenated VOCs and to the distribution of VOCs in the free troposphere.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds to acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) production in the southeastern US during SOAS 2013〈/b〉〈br〉 Shino Toma, Steve Bertman, Christopher Groff, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Paul Romer, Kaitlin Duffey, Paul Wooldridge, Ronald Cohen, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Abigail R. Koss, Joost de Gouw, Allen Goldstein, Weiwei Hu, and Jose L. Jimenez〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1867-1880, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1867-2019, 2019〈br〉 Acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) were measured near the ground in Alabama using GC in summer 2013 to study biosphere–atmosphere interactions. APN were lower than measured in the SE USA over the past 2 decades. Historical data showed APN in 2013 was limited by NO〈sub〉〈i〉x〈/i〉〈/sub〉 and production was dominated by biogenic precursors more than in the past. Isoprene-derived MPAN correlated with isoprene hydroxynitrates as NO〈sub〉〈i〉x〈/i〉〈/sub〉-dependent products. MPAN varied with aerosol growth, but not with N-containing particles.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Relationship between Asian monsoon strength and transport of surface aerosols to the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL): interannual variability and decadal changes〈/b〉〈br〉 Cheng Yuan, William K. M. Lau, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1901-1913, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1901-2019, 2019〈br〉 Using MERRA-2 reanalysis daily data from 2001 to 2015, we found that during strong South Asian summer monsoon years, the Asian monsoon anticyclone is more expansive and shifted northward. All the CO, carbonaceous aerosols and dust are found to be more abundant in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). ATAL trends are associated with increasing strength of the AMA, with earlier and enhanced vertical transport of ATAL constituents by enhanced overshooting convection over the transport regions.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Detection and classification of laminae in balloon-borne ozonesonde profiles: application to the long-term record from Boulder, Colorado〈/b〉〈br〉 Kenneth Minschwaner, Anthony T. Giljum, Gloria L. Manney, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Bryan J. Johnson, and Allen F. Jordan〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1853-1865, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1853-2019, 2019〈br〉 We analyzed balloon measurements of ozone between the surface and 25 km altitude above Boulder, Colorado, and developed an algorithm to detect and classify layers of either unusually high or unusually low ozone. These layers range in vertical thickness from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. We found that these laminae are an important contributor to the overall variability in ozone, especially in the transition region between the troposphere and stratosphere.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Impact of air pollution control measures and regional transport on carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter in urban Beijing, China: Insights gained from long-term measurement〈/b〉〈br〉 Dongsheng Ji, Wenkang Gao, Willy Maenhaut, Jun He, Zhe Wang, Jiwei Li, Wupeng Du, Lili Wang, Yang Sun, Jinyuan Xin, Bo Hu, and Yuesi Wang〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-42,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This study reveals an obvious decreasing trend in OC and EC concentrations in urban Beijing. Higher concentrations were related to air masses originating from the northeast sector at wind speeds of approximately 5 km/h. The potential source regions of the carbonaceous aerosols stretched to broader areas in the northwestern and western regions where coal mining and coal-fired power generation activities are intensive, which is almost consistent with the MEIC inventory for China.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Impacts of short-term mitigation measures on PM〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉 and radiative effects: a case study at a regional background site near Beijing, China〈/b〉〈br〉 Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Nan Li, Wenting Dai, Yunfei Wu, Jie Tian, Yaqing Zhou, Meng Wang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Yang Chen, Renjian Zhang, Shuyu Zhao, Chongshu Zhu, Yongming Han, Xuexi Tie, and Junji Cao〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1881-1899, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1881-2019, 2019〈br〉 〈p〉Measurements at a background site near Beijing showed that pollution controls implemented during the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (NCCPC) were effective in reducing PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉. Mass concentrations of PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 and its major chemical components were 20.6 %–43.1 % lower during the NCCPC-control period compared with a non-control period, and differences were greater on days with stable meteorological conditions. A receptor model showed that PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 from traffic-related emissions, biomass burning, industrial processes, and mineral dust was 38.5 %–77.8 % lower during the NCCPC-control versus non-control period, but differences in PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 from coal burning were small, and secondary sources were higher during the NCCPC-control period. During one pollution episode in the non-control period, secondary sources dominated, and the WRF-Chem model showed that the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region contributed 73.6 % of PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 mass. A second pollution episode was linked to biomass burning, and BTH contributed 46.9 % of PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 mass. Calculations based on Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) algorithms showed that organic matter was the largest contributor to light extinction during the non-control period whereas 〈span〉NH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉NO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉〈/span〉 was the main contributor during the NCCPC. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible radiation model showed that the average direct radiative forcing (DRF) values at the Earth's surface were 〈span〉−14.0〈/span〉 and 〈span〉−19.3〈/span〉 W m〈span〉〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉〈/span〉 during the NCCPC-control and non-control periods, respectively, and the DRF for the individual PM〈span〉〈sub〉2.5〈/sub〉〈/span〉 components were 22.7 %–46.7 % lower during the NCCPC. The information and dataset from this study will be useful for developing air pollution control strategies in the BTH region and for understanding associated aerosol radiative effects.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Characterization of Transport Regimes and the Polar Dome during Arctic Spring and Summer using in-situ Aircraft Measurements〈/b〉〈br〉 Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Daniel Kunkel, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Hannes Schulz, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Megan D. Willis, Julia Burkart, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-70,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We present airborne trace gas measurements in the European and Canadian Arctic for July 2014 and April 2015. Based on CO and CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 in-situ data as well as 10-day kinematic back trajectories we characterize the prevailing transport regimes and derive a tracer based diagnostic for the determination of the polar dome boundary. Using the tracer derived boundary the analysis of the recent transport history of air masses within the polar dome reveals significant differerences between spring and summer.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The land–sea coastal border: a quantitative definition by considering the wind and wave conditions in a wave-dominated, micro-tidal environment〈/b〉〈br〉 Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla, Jue Lin-Ye, Manuel García-León, Vicente Gràcia, and Elena Pallarès〈br〉 Ocean Sci., 15, 113-126, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-15-113-2019, 2019〈br〉 A quantitative definition for the coastal border isotropy of met-ocean processes is proposed. Wind velocity and significant wave height anisotropies are examined along four transects at the north-western Mediterranean coast. Both decrease offshore, determining a coastal fringe of width of 2–4 km. The joint probability structure reflects a decoupling near the coast and a stronger dependence in the bay-like part, where the wave field is being more actively generated by the overlaying wind.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Annual Characterization of Regional Hydrological Drought using Auxiliary Information under Global Warming Scenario〈/b〉〈br〉 Zulfiqar Ali, Ijaz Hussain, and Muhammad Faisal〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-373,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Climate change and global warming scenario increase the odds of worsening drought. Therefore, precise characterization and regional monitoring of drought are the major challenge. In this paper, we provide a new way to formulate and improve temporal data of precipitation for the Standardized Drought Index (SDI) type tools. Results show that improved estimates are good candidates for modelling and monitoring hydrological drought with more precision.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Synthesis and Characterization of Erbium Trioxide Nanoparticles as Photo-Catalytic for Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye〈/b〉〈br〉 Rifat Mohammed Dakhil, Tayser Sumer Gaaz, Ahmed Al-Amiery, Mohd S. Takriff, and Abdul Amir H. Kadhum〈br〉 Drink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/dwes-2018-40,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for DWES〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The present work focuses on the photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) on Erbium trioxide nanoparticles 〈q〉Er〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 NPs〈/q〉. The results revealed that, the photo-catalytic activity of the prepared Er〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 NPs towards methyl orange (MB) photo-degradation was manifested.
    Print ISSN: 1996-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-9481
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of The Delft University of Technology.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Incorporating Wind Sheltering and Sediment Heat Flux into 1-D Models of Small Boreal Lakes: A Case Study with the Canadian Small Lake Model V2.0〈/b〉〈br〉 Murray D. MacKay〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-258,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Lakes interact with their surroundings through flux exchange at their bottom sediments and with the atmosphere at the surface, and these linkages must be represented in climate and weather prediction models in order to completely elucidate the role of lakes in the climate system. Here schemes for the inclusion of wind sheltering and sediment heat flux simple enough to be included in any one dimensional lake model are presented, along with example simulations of the Canadian Small Lake Model.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Apparent discrepancy of Tibetan ice core δ〈sup〉18〈/sup〉O records may be attributed to misinterpretation of chronology〈/b〉〈br〉 Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Hongxi Pang, Shuangye Wu, Theo M. Jenk, and Margit Schwikowski〈br〉 The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2018-295,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for TC〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The apparent discrepancy between the Holocene δ〈sup〉18〈/sup〉O records of the Guliya and the Chongce ice cores may be attributed to a possible misinterpretation of the Guliya ice core chronology.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Faulting patterns in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge potentially influence groundwater flow paths〈/b〉〈br〉 Nimrod Inbar, Eliahu Rosenthal, Fabien Magri, Marwan Alraggad, Peter Möller, Akiva Flexer, Joseph Guttman, and Christian Siebert〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 763-771, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-763-2019, 2019〈br〉 In areas of enigmatic hydrology, water scarcity, and transboundary water resources, management strategies should rely on comprehensive modeling which must be based on realistic geometry, including all relevant structural features. Based on available geophysical and geological data, a new faulting pattern in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge is suggested as a basis for hydrogeological modeling. Furthermore, unexpected pull-apart basin rim fault evolution is discussed in the context of tectonic collision.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Evaluation of differential absorption radars in the 183 GHz band for profiling water vapour in ice clouds〈/b〉〈br〉 Alessandro Battaglia and Pavlos Kollias〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-14,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This work investigates the potential of an innovative differential absorption radar in retrieving relative humidity inside ice clouds. The radar exploits the strong spectral dependence of the water vapour absorption for frequency close to the 183 GHz water vapour band. Results show that observations from a system with 4–6 frequencies can provide novel information for understanding the formation and growth of ice crystals.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Systematic comparison of five machine-learning methods in classification and interpolation of soil particle size fractions using different transformed data〈/b〉〈br〉 Mo Zhang and Wenjiao Shi〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-584,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 1 comment)〈br〉 We systematically analyzed both direct (or indirect) soil texture classification and soil particle size fractions (psf) interpolation using five machine learning methods combined with untransformed and log ratio transformed data. The results showed that random forest had notable consequences for soil psf interpolation and soil texture classification (indirect performed better). Our systematic comparison helps to elucidate the processing and selection of compositional data in spatial simulation.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Contributions of different anthropogenic volatile organic compound sources to ozone formation at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region and its policy implications〈/b〉〈br〉 Zhuoran He, Xuemei Wang, Zhenhao Ling, Jun Zhao, Hai Guo, Min Shao, and Zhe Wang〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1293,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 In this study, source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their contributions to photochemical O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 formation was analyzed by the Positive Matrix Factorization model and an observation-based model for data collected at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Furthermore, the policies for controlling VOC were brief reviewed. The findings could provide quantitative information on devising appropriate measures on the VOCs, NOx, and O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 pollution in PRD.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Uncertainty in predicting the Eurasian snow: Intercomparison of land surface models coupled to a regional climate model〈/b〉〈br〉 Da-Eun Kim and Seon Ki Park〈br〉 The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-15,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for TC〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 An accurate prediction of the Eurasian snow is essentially important in predicting the climate and weather phenomena in Asia. Regional climate models are mostly coupled with several land surface models (LSMs) in which the land surface process parameters are calculated under their own physical principles and parameterization schemes. We show that prediction of the Eurasian snow cover is sensitive to the choice of LSMs coupled to regional climate models, and hence the future climate projections.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Contributions of different anthropogenic volatile organic compound sources to ozone formation at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region and its policy implications〈/b〉〈br〉 Zhuoran He, Xuemei Wang, Zhenhao Ling, Jun Zhao, Hai Guo, Min Shao, and Zhe Wang〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1293,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 In this study, source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their contributions to photochemical O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 formation was analyzed by the Positive Matrix Factorization model and an observation-based model for data collected at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Furthermore, the policies for controlling VOC were brief reviewed. The findings could provide quantitative information on devising appropriate measures on the VOCs, NOx, and O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 pollution in PRD.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The influence of sample geometry on the permeability of a porous sandstone〈/b〉〈br〉 Michael J. Heap〈br〉 Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 55-61, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-55-2019, 2019〈br〉 To better understand the influence of sample geometry on laboratory measurements of permeability, the permeabilities of sandstone samples with different lengths and diameters were measured. Despite the large range in length, aspect ratio, and volume, the permeabilities of the samples are near identical. This is due to a homogeneous porosity structure and the small grain/pore size with respect to the minimum tested diameter and length. More tests are now needed to help develop such guidelines.
    Print ISSN: 2193-0856
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-0864
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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