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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-08
    Description: In this study, we present results obtained from modelling the mid-Pliocene warm period using the Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009) with the two different sets of boundary conditions prescribed for the two phases of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Boundary conditions, model forcing, and modelling methodology of the two phases of PlioMIP, tagged PlioMIP1 and PlioMIP2,differ considerably in palaeogeography, in particular with regards to the state of ocean gateways, ice-masks, vegetation and topography. Further differences between model setups as suggested for PlioMIP1 and PlioMIP2 consider updates to the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), that is specified as 405 and 400 parts per million by volume (ppmv) for PlioMIP1 and PlioMIP2, respectively, as well as minor differences in the concentrations of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) due to changes in the protocol of the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) from phase 3 to phase 4. With this manuscript, we bridge the gap between our contributions to PlioMIP1 (Stepanek and Lohmann, 2012) and PlioMIP2 (Stepanek et al., 2019). We highlight some of the effects that differences in the chosen Mid-Pliocene model setup (PlioMIP2 vs. PlioMIP1) have on the climate state as derived with the COSMOS, as this information will be valuable in the framework of the model-model and model-data-comparison within PlioMIP2. We evaluate the model sensitivity to improved mid-Pliocene boundary conditions using PlioMIP’s core mid-Pliocene experiments for PlioMIP1 and PlioMIP2, and present further simulations where we test model sensitivity to variations in palaeogeography, orbit and concentration of CO2. Firstly,we highlight major changes in boundary conditions from PlioMIP1 to PlioMIP2 and also the limitations recorded from the initial effort. The results derived from of our simulations show that COSMOS simulates a mid-Pliocene climate state that is 0.08 K colder in PlioMIP2, if compared to PlioMIP1. On one hand, high-latitude warming,which is supported by proxy evidence of the mid-Pliocene, is underestimated in simulations of both PlioMIP1 andPlioMIP2. On the other hand, spatial variations in surface air temperature (SAT), sea surface temperature (SST) as well as the distribution of sea ice suggest improvement of simulated SAT and SST in PlioMIP2 if employing the updated palaeogeography. The PlioMIP2 Mid-Pliocene simulation produces warmer SSTs in the Arctic and North Atlantic Ocean than derived from the respective PlioMIP1 climate state. The difference in prescribed CO2accountsfor 1.1 K of warming in the Arctic, leading to an ice-free summer in the PlioMIP1 simulation, and a quasi-ice-free summer in PlioMIP2. Furthermore, employing different orbital forcings in simulating the Mid-Pliocene lead to pronounced annual and seasonal variations, which is not accounted for by marine and terrestrial reconstruction of the time-slice.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Spatially distributed sensitivity of simulated global groundwater heads and flows to hydraulic conductivity, groundwater recharge and surface water body parameterization〈/b〉〈br〉 Robert Reinecke, Laura Foglia, Steffen Mehl, Jonathan D. Herman, Alexander Wachholz, Tim Trautmann, and Petra Döll〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-10,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Recently, the first global groundwater models were developed to better understand surface water-groundwater interactions, and human water use impacts. However, the reliability of model outputs is limited by a lack of data as well as model assumptions required due to the necessarily coarse spatial resolution. In this study we present first global maps of model sensitivity to their parameterization and build a foundation to improve data sets and model design as well as model understanding.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The influence of reservoir traits on carbon dioxide emissions in the Belo Monte hydropower complex, Xingu River, Amazon – Brazil〈/b〉〈br〉 Kleiton R. Araújo, Henrique O. Sawakuchi, Dailson J. Bertassoli Júnior, André O. Sawakuchi, Karina D. Silva, Thiago V. Bernardi, Nicholas D. Ward, and Tatiana S. Pereira〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-53,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Little information is available about run-of-the-river carbon dioxide (CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉) emission and how reservoir type influence CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 production. With this regard we evaluated the CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 fluxes of Belo Monte hydropower complex and observed variability in CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 emission related to the type of environment, among reservoirs and the land use of flooded areas after impoundment. Our results emphasize that reservoir type could contribute on CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 emissions.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Low-cost eddy covariance: a case study of evapotranspiration overagroforestry in Germany〈/b〉〈br〉 Christian Markwitz and Lukas Siebicke〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-392,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Turbulent fluxes are usually measured by the eddy covariance method as a combination of a costly gas analyser and a sonic anemometer. In the present manuscript we present an eddy covariance set-up of low cost to measure evapotranspiration over agricultural fields. The method showed to be comparable to a conventional eddy covariance set-up and is a viable alternative when spatial replicates are required.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Low-cost eddy covariance: a case study of evapotranspiration overagroforestry in Germany〈/b〉〈br〉 Christian Markwitz and Lukas Siebicke〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-392,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Turbulent fluxes are usually measured by the eddy covariance method as a combination of a costly gas analyser and a sonic anemometer. In the present manuscript we present an eddy covariance set-up of low cost to measure evapotranspiration over agricultural fields. The method showed to be comparable to a conventional eddy covariance set-up and is a viable alternative when spatial replicates are required.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉3-D tomographic limb sounder retrieval techniques: irregular grids and Laplacian regularisation〈/b〉〈br〉 Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Stefan Ensmann, Isabell Krisch, Erik Kretschmer, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 853-872, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-853-2019, 2019〈br〉 Many limb sounder measurements from the same atmospheric region taken at different angles can be combined into a 3-D tomographic image of the atmosphere. Mathematically, this is a complex, computationally expensive, underdetermined problem that needs additional constraints (regularisation). We introduce an improved regularisation method based on physical properties of the atmosphere with a new irregular grid implementation. Simulated data tests show improved results and lower computational cost.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Measurements of Delays of Gas-Phase Compounds in a Wide Variety of Tubing Materials due to Gas-Wall Interactions〈/b〉〈br〉 Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-25,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC-VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉3-D tomographic limb sounder retrieval techniques: irregular grids and Laplacian regularisation〈/b〉〈br〉 Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Stefan Ensmann, Isabell Krisch, Erik Kretschmer, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 853-872, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-853-2019, 2019〈br〉 Many limb sounder measurements from the same atmospheric region taken at different angles can be combined into a 3-D tomographic image of the atmosphere. Mathematically, this is a complex, computationally expensive, underdetermined problem that needs additional constraints (regularisation). We introduce an improved regularisation method based on physical properties of the atmosphere with a new irregular grid implementation. Simulated data tests show improved results and lower computational cost.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Raspberry Pi based Smart Sensing Platform for Drinking Water Quality Monitoring System: A Python Framework Approach〈/b〉〈br〉 Punit Khatri, Karunesh Kumar Gupta, and Raj Kumar Gupta〈br〉 Drink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/dwes-2018-35,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for DWES〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Water quality monitoring is essential before consumption as the available water is contaminated and can cause illness in an individual. The traditional methods for water quality monitoring require sample collection at different sites and subsequent laboratory test which is labor as well as cost intensive. To, overcome this problem, a real-time water quality measurement platform is designed which can provide on-site efficient water quality monitoring.
    Print ISSN: 1996-9457
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-9465
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of The Delft University of Technology.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Topological data analysis and machine learning for recognizing atmospheric river patterns in large climate datasets〈/b〉〈br〉 Grzegorz Muszynski, Karthik Kashinath, Vitaliy Kurlin, Michael Wehner, and Prabhat〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 613-628, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-613-2019, 2019〈br〉 We present the automated method for recognizing atmospheric rivers in climate data, i.e., climate model output and reanalysis product. The method is based on topological data analysis and machine learning, both of which are powerful tools that the climate science community often does not use. An advantage of the proposed method is that it is free of selection of subjective threshold conditions on a physical variable. This method is also suitable for rapidly analyzing large amounts of data.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Raspberry Pi based Smart Sensing Platform for Drinking Water Quality Monitoring System: A Python Framework Approach〈/b〉〈br〉 Punit Khatri, Karunesh Kumar Gupta, and Raj Kumar Gupta〈br〉 Drink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/dwes-2018-35,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for DWES〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Water quality monitoring is essential before consumption as the available water is contaminated and can cause illness in an individual. The traditional methods for water quality monitoring require sample collection at different sites and subsequent laboratory test which is labor as well as cost intensive. To, overcome this problem, a real-time water quality measurement platform is designed which can provide on-site efficient water quality monitoring.
    Print ISSN: 1996-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-9481
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of The Delft University of Technology.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Identification of key parameters controlling demographicallystructured vegetation dynamics in a Land Surface Model [CLM4.5(ED)]〈/b〉〈br〉 Elias C. Massoud, Chonggang Xu, Rosie Fisher, Ryan Knox, Anthony Walker, Shawn Serbin, Bradley Christoffersen, Jennifer Holm, Lara Kueppers, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Liang Wei, Daniel Johnson, Jeff Chambers, Charlie Koven, Nate McDowell, and Jasper Vrugt〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-6,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 2 comments)〈br〉 We conducted a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to understand behaviors of a demographic vegetation model within a land surface model. By running the model for 5000 times with changing input parameter values, we found that 1) the photosynthetic capacity controls carbon fluxes, 2) the allometry is important for tree growth, and 3) the targeted carbon storage is important for tree survival. These results can provide guidance on improved model parameterization for a better fit to observations.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Novel Aerosol Flow Reactor to Study Secondary Organic Aerosol〈/b〉〈br〉 Kelly L. Pereira, Grazia Rovelli, Young C. Song, Alfred W. Mayhew, Jonathan P. Reid, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-22,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We present the design and operation of a newly built continuous flow reactor (CFR) which can be used as a tool to gain considerable insights into the composition and physical state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The CFR was used to generate large quantities of SOA mass, allowing the use of highly accurate techniques which are not usually accessible. We demonstrate how this unique approach can be used to investigate the relationship/s between SOA formation and physiochemical properties.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Identification of key parameters controlling demographicallystructured vegetation dynamics in a Land Surface Model [CLM4.5(ED)]〈/b〉〈br〉 Elias C. Massoud, Chonggang Xu, Rosie Fisher, Ryan Knox, Anthony Walker, Shawn Serbin, Bradley Christoffersen, Jennifer Holm, Lara Kueppers, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Liang Wei, Daniel Johnson, Jeff Chambers, Charlie Koven, Nate McDowell, and Jasper Vrugt〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-6,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 2 comments)〈br〉 We conducted a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to understand behaviors of a demographic vegetation model within a land surface model. By running the model for 5000 times with changing input parameter values, we found that 1) the photosynthetic capacity controls carbon fluxes, 2) the allometry is important for tree growth, and 3) the targeted carbon storage is important for tree survival. These results can provide guidance on improved model parameterization for a better fit to observations.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Topological data analysis and machine learning for recognizing atmospheric river patterns in large climate datasets〈/b〉〈br〉 Grzegorz Muszynski, Karthik Kashinath, Vitaliy Kurlin, Michael Wehner, and Prabhat〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 613-628, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-613-2019, 2019〈br〉 We present the automated method for recognizing atmospheric rivers in climate data, i.e., climate model output and reanalysis product. The method is based on topological data analysis and machine learning, both of which are powerful tools that the climate science community often does not use. An advantage of the proposed method is that it is free of selection of subjective threshold conditions on a physical variable. This method is also suitable for rapidly analyzing large amounts of data.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Uniaxial compression of calcite single crystals at room temperature: insights into twinning activation and development〈/b〉〈br〉 Camille Parlangeau, Alexandre Dimanov, Olivier Lacombe, Simon Hallais, and Jean-Marc Daniel〈br〉 Solid Earth, 10, 307-316, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-10-307-2019, 2019〈br〉 Calcite twinning is a common deformation mechanism that mainly occurs at low temperatures. Twinning activation appears at a critical strength value, which is poorly documented and still debated. Temperature is known to influence twin thickness and shape; however, few studies have been conducted on calcite deformation at low temperatures. The goal of this work is to determine if thickness is mainly due to high temperatures and to establish the validity of a threshold twinning activation value.
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 17
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A novel post-processing algorithm for Halo Doppler lidars〈/b〉〈br〉 Ville Vakkari, Antti J. Manninen, Ewan J. O'Connor, Jan H. Schween, Pieter G. van Zyl, and Eleni Marinou〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 839-852, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-839-2019, 2019〈br〉 Commercially available Doppler lidars have been proven to be efficient tools for studying winds and turbulence in the planetary boundary layer. However, in many cases low signal is still a limiting factor for utilising measurements by these devices. Here, we present a novel post-processing algorithm for Halo Stream Line Doppler lidars, which enables an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 5 or more.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Uniaxial compression of calcite single crystals at room temperature: insights into twinning activation and development〈/b〉〈br〉 Camille Parlangeau, Alexandre Dimanov, Olivier Lacombe, Simon Hallais, and Jean-Marc Daniel〈br〉 Solid Earth, 10, 307-316, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-10-307-2019, 2019〈br〉 Calcite twinning is a common deformation mechanism that mainly occurs at low temperatures. Twinning activation appears at a critical strength value, which is poorly documented and still debated. Temperature is known to influence twin thickness and shape; however, few studies have been conducted on calcite deformation at low temperatures. The goal of this work is to determine if thickness is mainly due to high temperatures and to establish the validity of a threshold twinning activation value.
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9537
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Measurements of Delays of Gas-Phase Compounds in a Wide Variety of Tubing Materials due to Gas-Wall Interactions〈/b〉〈br〉 Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-25,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC-VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A novel post-processing algorithm for Halo Doppler lidars〈/b〉〈br〉 Ville Vakkari, Antti J. Manninen, Ewan J. O'Connor, Jan H. Schween, Pieter G. van Zyl, and Eleni Marinou〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 839-852, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-839-2019, 2019〈br〉 Commercially available Doppler lidars have been proven to be efficient tools for studying winds and turbulence in the planetary boundary layer. However, in many cases low signal is still a limiting factor for utilising measurements by these devices. Here, we present a novel post-processing algorithm for Halo Stream Line Doppler lidars, which enables an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 5 or more.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A conceptual model of organochlorine fate from a combined analysis of spatial and mid- to long-term trends of surface and ground water contamination in tropical areas (FWI)〈/b〉〈br〉 Philippe Cattan, Jean-Baptiste Charlier, Florence Clostre, Philippe Letourmy, Luc Arnaud, Julie Gresser, and Magalie Jannoyer〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 691-709, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-691-2019, 2019〈br〉 We investigated the management of long-term environmental pollution by organochlorine pesticides. We selected the case of chlordecone on the island of Martinique. We propose a conceptual model of organochlorine fate accounting for physical conditions relative to soils and geology. This model explains pollution variability in water but also the dynamics of pollution trends. It helps to identify risky areas where pollution will last for a long time and where more attention is needed.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Brief communication: Remotely piloted aircraft systems for rapid emergency response: road exposure to rockfall in Villanova di Accumoli (central Italy)〈/b〉〈br〉 Michele Santangelo, Massimiliano Alvioli, Marco Baldo, Mauro Cardinali, Daniele Giordan, Fausto Guzzetti, Ivan Marchesini, and Paola Reichenbach〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 325-335, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-325-2019, 2019〈br〉 The paper discusses the use of rockfall modelling software and photogrammetry applied to images acquired by RPAS to provide support to civil protection agencies during emergency response. The paper focuses on a procedure that was applied to define the residual rockfall risk for a road that was hit by an earthquake-triggered rockfall that occurred during the seismic sequence that hit central Italy on 24 August 2016. Road reopening conditions were decided based on the results of this study.
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Winter 2018 major sudden stratospheric warming impact on midlatitude mesosphere from microwave radiometer measurements〈/b〉〈br〉 Yuke Wang, Valery Shulga, Gennadi Milinevsky, Aleksey Patoka, Oleksandr Evtushevsky, Andrew Klekociuk, Wei Han, Asen Grytsai, Dmitry Shulga, Valery Myshenko, and Oleksandr Antyufeyev〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1361,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 1 comment)〈br〉 The major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) dramatically changed atmospheric conditions from mesosphere to troposphere. This event is accompanied by a sharp increase in the stratosphere temperature and zonal wind reverse producing strong changes in surface weather. These changes affect even the midlatitude mesosphere, which is not widely covered by observations. Our newly installed microwave radiometer allowed studying mesospheric zonal wind to understand the SSW 2018 behavior at mid-latitudes.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Snow-darkening versus direct radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol on the Indian summer monsoon onset: role of temperature change over dust sources〈/b〉〈br〉 Zhengguo Shi, Xiaoning Xie, Xinzhou Li, Liu Yang, Xiaoxun Xie, Jing Lei, Yingying Sha, and Xiaodong Liu〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1605-1622, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1605-2019, 2019〈br〉 Asian dust is one of the important components in modern and past climate change via its effects, including snow-darkening and direct radiation. We employed model experiments to evaluate these effects on Indian monsoon and found that the monsoon onset responds significantly to both. Snow-darkening effect weakens the monsoon, but direct radiative effect intensifies it. Besides the previous Tibetan Plateau studies proposed, our work highlights the importance of temperature change over dust sources.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Influence of cloud microphysical processes on black carbon wet removal, global distributions, and radiative forcing〈/b〉〈br〉 Jiayu Xu, Jiachen Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Kan Yi, Songlin Xiang, Xiurong Hu, Yuqing Wang, Shu Tao, and George Ban-Weiss〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1587-1603, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1587-2019, 2019〈br〉 In this study, we fully describe black carbon wet removal coupled with all cloud processes from a cloud microphysics scheme in a climate model and conduct sensitivity simulations that turn off each cloud process one at a time. We find that convective scavenging, aerosol activation, ice nucleation, evaporation of rain–snow, and below-cloud scavenging dominate wet deposition of BC. In addition, the range of direct radiative forcing derived from sensitivity simulations is large, 0.09–0.33 W m〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉In-situ constraints on the vertical distribution of global aerosol〈/b〉〈br〉 Duncan Watson-Parris, Nick Schutgens, Carly Reddington, Kirsty J. Pringle, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ken S. Carslaw, and Philip Stier〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1337,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The vertical distribution of aerosol in the atmosphere affects its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and changes the amount of sunlight it absorbs or reflects. Common global measurements of aerosol provide no information about this vertical distribution. Using a global collection of in-situ aircraft measurements to compare with an aerosol-climate model (ECHAM-HAM) we explore the key processes controlling this distribution and find that wet removal plays a key role.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Streamflow forecast sensitivity to air temperature forecast calibration for 139 Norwegian catchments〈/b〉〈br〉 Trine J. Hegdahl, Kolbjørn Engeland, Ingelin Steinsland, and Lena M. Tallaksen〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 723-739, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-723-2019, 2019〈br〉 Flood forecasting relies on high-quality meteorological data. This study shows how improved temperature forecasts improve streamflow forecasts in most cases, with the degree of improvement depending on season and region. To improve temperature forecasts further, catchment-specific methods should be developed to account for these seasonal and regional differences. In short, for climates with a seasonal snow cover, higher-quality temperature forecasts clearly improve flood forecasts.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Precipitation Transition Regions over the Southern Canadian Cordillera during January–April 2010 and under a Pseudo-Global Warming Assumption〈/b〉〈br〉 Juris D. Almonte and Ronald E. Stewart〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-48,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 〈p〉The occurrence of various types of winter precipitation is an important issue over the southern Canadian Cordillera. This issue is examined from January to April of 2010 by exploiting the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model Version 3.4.1 dataset that was used to simulate both a historical reanalysis (CTRL) and a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) experiment (Liu et al., 2016). Transition regions, consisting of both liquid and solid precipitation or liquid precipitation below 0 °C, occurred on 93 % and 94 % of the days in the present and PGW future, respectively. This led to accumulated precipitation within the transition region increasing by 27 % and was associated with a rise in its average elevation by 374 m over the Coast and Insular Mountains and by 240 m over the Rocky Mountains and consequently to an eastward shift towards the higher terrain of the Rocky Mountains. Transition regions comprised of only rain and snow were most common under both the CTRL and PGW simulations although all seven transition region categories occurred. Transition region changes would enhance some of the factors leading to avalanches and would also impact ski resort operations.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The role of low-level clouds in the West African monsoon system〈/b〉〈br〉 Anke Kniffka, Peter Knippertz, and Andreas H. Fink〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1623-1647, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1623-2019, 2019〈br〉 The role of low-level clouds in the southern West Africa (SWA) energy balance and the West African monsoon system is assessed via targeted sensitivity studies with the NWP model ICON. We show for the first time that rainfall over SWA depends logarithmically on the optical thickness of low clouds, as these control the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer, vertical stability and finally convection. Small variations in clouds or aerosol have a substantial impact on precipitation.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Long-term groundwater recharge rates across India by in situ measurements〈/b〉〈br〉 Soumendra N. Bhanja, Abhijit Mukherjee, R. Rangarajan, Bridget R. Scanlon, Pragnaditya Malakar, and Shubha Verma〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 711-722, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-711-2019, 2019〈br〉 Groundwater depletion in India has been a much-debated issue in recent years. Here we investigate long-term, spatiotemporal variation in prevailing groundwater recharge rates across India. Groundwater recharge rates have been estimated based on field-scale groundwater-level measurements and the tracer injection approach; recharge rates from the two estimates compared favorably. The role of precipitation in controlling groundwater recharge is studied.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
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  • 32
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Preface: Ernst Maier-Reimer and his way of modelling the ocean〈/b〉〈br〉 Christoph Heinze and Klaus Hasselmann〈br〉 Biogeosciences, 16, 751-753, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-751-2019, 2019〈br〉
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Automatically delineating the calving front of Jakobshavn Isbræ from multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images: a deep learning approach〈/b〉〈br〉 Enze Zhang, Lin Liu, and Lingcao Huang〈br〉 The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-14,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for TC〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Conventionally, calving front positions have been manually delineated from remote sensing images. We design a novel method to automatically delineate the calving front positions of Jakobshavn Isbræ based on deep learning, the first of this kind for Greenland outlet glaciers. We generate high temporal resolution (about two measurements every month) calving fronts. Demonstrating through this successful case study on Jakobshavn Isbræ, our methodology can be applied to many other tidewater glaciers.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0440
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The 4.2 ka event in the vegetation record of the central Mediterranean〈/b〉〈br〉 Federico Di Rita and Donatella Magri〈br〉 Clim. Past, 15, 237-251, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-237-2019, 2019〈br〉 〈p〉In this paper, the variation in forest cover in the central Mediterranean region, reflected by percentage changes in the arboreal pollen record, has been examined in relation to the 4.2 ka event. A total of 36 well-dated and detailed pollen records from latitudes between 45 and 36〈span〉〈sup〉∘〈/sup〉〈/span〉 N were selected and their vegetation dynamics between 5 and 3 ka examined in relation to the physiographic and climatic features of the study area and to the influence of human activity on past vegetation, as suggested by anthropogenic pollen indicators. We have found that the sites located between 43 and 45〈span〉〈sup〉∘〈/sup〉〈/span〉 N do not show any significant vegetation change in correspondence with the 4.2 ka event. Several sites located on the Italian Peninsula between 39 and 43〈span〉〈sup〉∘〈/sup〉〈/span〉 N show a marked opening of the forest, suggesting a vegetation response to the climate instability of the 4.2 ka event. Between 36 and 39〈span〉〈sup〉∘〈/sup〉〈/span〉 N, a forest decline is always visible around 4.2 ka, and in some cases it is dramatic. This indicates that this region was severely affected by a climate change towards arid conditions that lasted a few hundred years and was followed by a recovery of forest vegetation in the Middle Bronze Age. Human activity, especially intense in southern Italy, may have been favored by this natural opening of vegetation. In Sardinia and Corsica, no clear change in vegetation is observed at the same time. We suggest that during the 4.2 ka event southern Italy and Tunisia were under the prevalent influence of a north African climate system characterized by a persistent high-pressure cell.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Diatom-oxygen isotope record from high-altitude Lake Petit (2200 m a.s.l.) in the Mediterranean Alps: shedding light on a climatic pulse at 4.2 ka〈/b〉〈br〉 Rosine Cartier, Florence Sylvestre, Christine Paillès, Corinne Sonzogni, Martine Couapel, Anne Alexandre, Jean-Charles Mazur, Elodie Brisset, Cécile Miramont, and Frédéric Guiter〈br〉 Clim. Past, 15, 253-263, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-253-2019, 2019〈br〉 A major environmental change, 4200 years ago, was recorded in the lacustrine sediments of Lake Petit (Mediterranean Alps). The regime shift was described by a modification in erosion processes in the watershed and aquatic species in the lake. This study, based on the analysis of the lake water balance by using oxygen isotopes in diatoms, revealed that these environmental responses were due to a rapid change in precipitation regime, lasting ca. 500 years.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Using GRACE in a streamflow recession to determine drainable water storage in the Mississippi River Basin〈/b〉〈br〉 Heloisa Ehalt Macedo, Ralph Edward Beighley, Cedric H. David, and John T. Reager〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-65,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The water stored under surface is very important to define the amount of water available for human and environmental applications. However, it is still a challenge to obtain measurements. NASA’s GRACE satellites provide information on total terrestrial water storage based on observations of gravity changes. Here, we relate GRACE data with streamflow measurements, providing estimations of the fraction of baseflow and total drainable storage for the Mississippi River Basin.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A conceptual model of organochlorine fate from a combined analysis of spatial and mid- to long-term trends of surface and ground water contamination in tropical areas (FWI)〈/b〉〈br〉 Philippe Cattan, Jean-Baptiste Charlier, Florence Clostre, Philippe Letourmy, Luc Arnaud, Julie Gresser, and Magalie Jannoyer〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 691-709, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-691-2019, 2019〈br〉 We investigated the management of long-term environmental pollution by organochlorine pesticides. We selected the case of chlordecone on the island of Martinique. We propose a conceptual model of organochlorine fate accounting for physical conditions relative to soils and geology. This model explains pollution variability in water but also the dynamics of pollution trends. It helps to identify risky areas where pollution will last for a long time and where more attention is needed.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Free tropospheric aerosols at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory: more oxidized and higher sulfate content compared to boundary layer aerosols〈/b〉〈br〉 Shan Zhou, Sonya Collier, Daniel A. Jaffe, and Qi Zhang〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1571-1585, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1571-2019, 2019〈br〉 Regional background aerosols in the western US were studied from a mountaintop observatory during summer. Oxygenated organics and sulfate were dominant aerosol components. However, free tropospheric aerosols were more enriched in sulfate, frequently acidic, and comprised mainly of highly oxidized low-volatility organic species. In contrast, organic aerosols in the boundary-layer-influenced air masses were less oxidized and appeared to be semivolatile.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Simultaneous state-parameter estimation of rainfall-induced landslide displacement using data assimilation〈/b〉〈br〉 Jing Wang, Guigen Nie, Shengjun Gao, and Changhu Xue〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-24,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 It is necessary to do some prevention study of landslide hazard like the early warning and deformation prediction. This research proposes a new strategy to predict displacement of the landslide. Results confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of this method in displacement prediction, which can provide assistance in early risk assessment and landslide forecasting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Heuristic Estimation of Low-Level Cloud Fraction over the Globe Based on a Decoupling Parameterization〈/b〉〈br〉 Sungsu Park and Jihoon Shin〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-104,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Cloud exerts substantial impacts on the global radiation budget and hydrological cycle. We propose a new proxy for the observed low-level cloud amount (LCA), so called, ELF (Estimated Low-level cloud fraction), and showed that ELF achieves the unprecedented best performance in diagnosing spatiotemporal variation of the observed LCA. Our study can be used to evaluate the performance of GCMs, identify the source of inaccurate simulation of LCA, and better understand climate sensitivity.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Limitations of the 1 % experiment as the benchmark idealized experiment for carbon cycle intercomparison in C〈sup〉4〈/sup〉MIP〈/b〉〈br〉 Andrew Hugh MacDougall〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 597-611, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-597-2019, 2019〈br〉 The 1 % per year exponential change in CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 concentration experiment is an idealized climate change scenario that has traditionally been used to facilitate comparison of different climate models and to create benchmark statistics. Here, we examine the limitations of this experiment for assessing the global carbon cycle and propose an alternative idealized experiment.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Limitations of the 1 % experiment as the benchmark idealized experiment for carbon cycle intercomparison in C〈sup〉4〈/sup〉MIP〈/b〉〈br〉 Andrew Hugh MacDougall〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 597-611, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-597-2019, 2019〈br〉 The 1 % per year exponential change in CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 concentration experiment is an idealized climate change scenario that has traditionally been used to facilitate comparison of different climate models and to create benchmark statistics. Here, we examine the limitations of this experiment for assessing the global carbon cycle and propose an alternative idealized experiment.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Relative humidity effect on the formation of highly oxidized molecules and new particles during monoterpene oxidation〈/b〉〈br〉 Xiaoxiao Li, Sabrina Chee, Jiming Hao, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jingkun Jiang, and James N. Smith〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1555-1570, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1555-2019, 2019〈br〉 We performed lab experiments to explore the role of relative humidity, RH, in atmospheric monoterpene oxidation and new particle formation. These studies will provide insights into the most important steps in the process, while also more accurately representing the real atmosphere. We found that the detected compounds did not change with RH, and in fact could mostly be fully explained by the autoxidation of organic peroxy radicals followed by bimolecular reactions with other peroxy radicals.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Two pathways of how remote SST anomalies drive the interannual variability of autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China〈/b〉〈br〉 Jing Wang, Zhiwei Zhu, Li Qi, Qiaohua Zhao, Jinhai He, and Julian X. L. Wang〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1521-1535, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1521-2019, 2019〈br〉 Less attention has been paid to haze weather during the autumn season. Here, we unravel the mechanism of how SST anomalies over the subtropical North Atlantic and western North Pacific drive the interannual variability of the autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. The two pathways of SST anomaly forcings can result in an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over Northeast Asia, leading to a lower-level southerly (northerly) anomaly and in turn more (fewer) haze days in this region.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Preface: Earth surveillance and space-based monitoring of the environment: integrated approaches〈/b〉〈br〉 Silas Michaelides and Charalampos Kontoes〈br〉 Adv. Geosci., 47, 17-19, https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-47-17-2019, 2019〈br〉
    Print ISSN: 1680-7340
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Modelling Lake Titicaca's daily and monthly evaporation〈/b〉〈br〉 Ramiro Pillco Zolá, Lars Bengtsson, Ronny Berndtsson, Belen Martí-Cardona, Frederic Satgé, Franck Timouk, Marie-Paule Bonnet, Luis Mollericon, Cesar Gamarra, and José Pasapera〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 657-668, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-657-2019, 2019〈br〉 The evaporation was computed at a daily time step and compared with the estimated evaporation using mean monthly meteorological observations. We found that the most reliable method of determining the annual lake evaporation is using the heat balance approach.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Does the weighting of climate simulations result in a more reasonable quantification of hydrological impacts?〈/b〉〈br〉 Hui-Min Wang, Jie Chen, Chong-Yu Xu, Hua Chen, Shenglian Guo, Ping Xie, and Xiangquan Li〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-24,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 When using large ensembles of global climate models in hydrological impact studies, there are pragmatic questions on whether it is necessary to weight climate models and how to weight them. We use 8 methods to weight climate models straightforward based on their performances on hydrological simulations, and investigate the impacts of the assigned weights. This study concludes that the equal weighting method is still a viable and conservative method for the bias-corrected climate model ensembles.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Chemical characterisation of water-soluble ions in atmospheric particulate matter on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia〈/b〉〈br〉 Naomi J. Farren, Rachel E. Dunmore, Mohammed Iqbal Mead, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Azizan Abu Samah, Siew-Moi Phang, Brian J. Bandy, William T. Sturges, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1537-1553, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1537-2019, 2019〈br〉 During the winter monsoon, air quality on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is influenced by local emissions and aged emissions transported from highly polluted East Asian regions. Atmospheric particulate matter has been sampled at a rural coastal location, and ion chromatography has been used to make time-resolved measurements of the major atmospheric ions present. Analysis of aerosol composition and back trajectories has provided an insight into common sources and formation pathways.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The importance of the representation of air pollution emissions for the modeled distribution and radiative effects of black carbon in the Arctic〈/b〉〈br〉 Jacob Schacht, Bernd Heinold, Johannes Quaas, John Backman, Ribu Cherian, Andre Ehrlich, Andreas Herber, Wan Ting Katty Huang, Yutaka Kondo, Andreas Massling, P. R. Sinha, Bernadett Weinzierl, Marco Zanatta, and Ina Tegen〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-71,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The Arctic is warming faster than the rest of Earth. Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes to this Arctic Amplification by direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects while distributed in the air or deposited on snow and ice. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM is used to estimate the direct radiative effect (DRE). Airborne and near-surface BC measurements are used to evaluate the model and give an uncertainty range for the burden and DRE of Arctic BC caused by different emission inventories.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A global lake and reservoir volume analysis using a surface water dataset and satellite altimetry〈/b〉〈br〉 Tim Busker, Ad de Roo, Emiliano Gelati, Christian Schwatke, Marko Adamovic, Berny Bisselink, Jean-Francois Pekel, and Andrew Cottam〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 669-690, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-669-2019, 2019〈br〉 This paper estimates lake and reservoir volume variations over all continents from 1984 to 2015 using remote sensing alone. This study improves on previous methodologies by using the Global Surface Water dataset developed by the Joint Research Centre, which allowed for volume calculations on a global scale, a high resolution (30 m) and back to 1984 using very detailed lake area dynamics. Using 18 in situ volume time series as validation, our volume estimates showed a high accuracy.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
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  • 51
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Modelling Lake Titicaca's daily and monthly evaporation〈/b〉〈br〉 Ramiro Pillco Zolá, Lars Bengtsson, Ronny Berndtsson, Belen Martí-Cardona, Frederic Satgé, Franck Timouk, Marie-Paule Bonnet, Luis Mollericon, Cesar Gamarra, and José Pasapera〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 657-668, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-657-2019, 2019〈br〉 The evaporation was computed at a daily time step and compared with the estimated evaporation using mean monthly meteorological observations. We found that the most reliable method of determining the annual lake evaporation is using the heat balance approach.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Estimation of rate coefficients and branching ratios for reactions of organic peroxy radicals for use in automated mechanism construction〈/b〉〈br〉 Michael E. Jenkin, Richard Valorso, Bernard Aumont, and Andrew R. Rickard〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-44,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Organic compounds are emitted in large amounts from natural and human-influenced sources. Peroxy radicals are key intermediates formed during oxidation of organic compounds, and play a central role in mechanisms forming pollutants such as ozone and organic particles. Due to the large number of different peroxy radicals formed, it is impossible to study the rates of all of their reactions, and most have to be estimated. Updated and new estimation methods are reported for use in atmospheric models.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Current, steady-state and historical weathering rates of base cations at two forest sites in northern and southern Sweden: A comparison of three methods〈/b〉〈br〉 Sophie Casetou-Gustafson, Harald Grip, Stephen Hillier, Sune Linder, Bengt A. Olsson, Magnus Simonsson, and Johan Stendahl〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/bg-2019-47,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 More reliable mineral weathering estimates are required to ensure sustainable forest growth. Thus, weathering estimates obtained by the three different methods were compared against other major base cation fluxes at ecosystem scale in N and S Sweden. The large discrepancy in weathering rates for Ca, Mg and K between mass balance and the other methods suggest that there were additional sources for tree uptake in the soil besides weathering and measured depletion in exchangeable base cations.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Current, steady-state and historical weathering rates of base cations at two forest sites in northern and southern Sweden: A comparison of three methods〈/b〉〈br〉 Sophie Casetou-Gustafson, Harald Grip, Stephen Hillier, Sune Linder, Bengt A. Olsson, Magnus Simonsson, and Johan Stendahl〈br〉 Biogeosciences Discuss., doi:10.5194/bg-2019-47,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for BG〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 More reliable mineral weathering estimates are required to ensure sustainable forest growth. Thus, weathering estimates obtained by the three different methods were compared against other major base cation fluxes at ecosystem scale in N and S Sweden. The large discrepancy in weathering rates for Ca, Mg and K between mass balance and the other methods suggest that there were additional sources for tree uptake in the soil besides weathering and measured depletion in exchangeable base cations.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉A simplified parameterization of isoprene-epoxydiol-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) for global chemistry and climate models〈/b〉〈br〉 Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Eloise A. Marais, Zhe Peng, Benjamin A. Nault, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Jose L. Jimenez〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-9,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We developed a parameterization method for secondary organic aerosol derived from isoprene epxydiols based on the detailed chemical mechanism. Our parameterizations were tested using a box model and 3-D chemical transport model, which accurately captured the spatiotemporal distribution and response to changes on emissions, while being more computationally efficient. The method developed in this study can be applied to global climate models for long-term studies with less computational cost.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Systematic identification of external influences in multi-year microseismic recordings using convolutional neural networks〈/b〉〈br〉 Matthias Meyer, Samuel Weber, Jan Beutel, and Lothar Thiele〈br〉 Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 171-190, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-7-171-2019, 2019〈br〉 Monitoring rock slopes for a long time helps to understand the impact of climate change on the alpine environment. Measurements of seismic signals are often affected by external influences, e.g., unwanted anthropogenic noise. In the presented work, these influences are automatically identified and removed to enable proper geoscientific analysis. The methods presented are based on machine learning and intentionally kept generic so that they can be equally applied in other (more generic) settings.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Permafrost distribution in steep slopes in Norway: measurements, statistical modelling and geomorphological implication〈/b〉〈br〉 Florence Magnin, Bernd Etzelmüller, Sebastian Westermann, Ketil Isaksen, Paula Hilger, and Reginald L. Hermanns〈br〉 Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2018-90,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ESurf〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 〈p〉Permafrost in steep slopes has been increasingly studied since the early 2000s in conjunction with a growing number of rock-slope failures, which likely resulted from permafrost degradation. In Norway, rock-slope destabilization is a widespread phenomenon and a major source of risk for the population and infrastructure. However, the lack of precise understanding of the permafrost distribution in steep slopes hinders the assessment of its role in these destabilizations. This study proposes the first nation-wide permafrost probability map for the steep slopes of Norway (CryoWall map). It is based on a multiple linear regression model fitted with multi-annual rock surface temperature (RST) measurements, collected at 25 rock-wall sites, spread across a latitudinal transect (59–69° N) over mainland Norway. The CryoWall map suggests that discontinuous permafrost widely occurs above 1300–1400 and 1600–1700 m a.s.l. in the north and south slopes of southern Norway (59° N), respectively. This lower altitudinal limit decreases in northern Norway (70° N) by about 500 ± 50 m, with more pronounced decrease for south faces, in reason of the insolation patterns largely driven by midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. Similarly, the mean annual RST differences between north and south faces of similar elevation range around 1.5 °C in northern Norway and 3.5 °C in southern Norway. The CryoWall map is evaluated against direct ice observations in steep slopes and discussed in the context of former permafrost studies in various types of terrains in Norway. We show that permafrost can occur at much lower elevations in steep rock slopes than in other terrains, especially in north faces. We demonstrate that the CryoWall map is a valuable basis for further investigations related to permafrost in steep slopes in both practical concerns and fundamental science.〈/p〉
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Shallow geophysical techniques to investigate the groundwater table at the Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt〈/b〉〈br〉 Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin, Khalid S. Essa, Mohamed A. S. Youssef, Hakan Karsli, Zein E. Diab, and Nilgun Sayil〈br〉 Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 29-43, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-29-2019, 2019〈br〉 Integrated geophysical techniques (ERT, SSR, and GPR) along the conducted profiles at the Great Pyramids of Giza have been successfully used to investigate the groundwater table and support hazard mitigation. The groundwater table elevation is 15 m under the Great Sphinx, which is safe, and at the Nazlet El-Samman it is 16–17 m.
    Print ISSN: 2193-0856
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-0864
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Study on Site Amplification Factor Correction for Earthquake Early Warning System〈/b〉〈br〉 Quancai Xie, Qiang Ma, Jingfa Zhang, and Haiying Yu〈br〉 Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-400,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for NHESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 This paper make deep evluation of a new mthod for modelling site amplification factor. Though implement this method and make simulation for different cases, we can find that this method show better performance than the previous method and JMA Report. We will better understanding the advantage and disadvantage of this method, although there are some problems needed to consider carefully and to be solved, it shows good potential to be used in the future earthquake early waring system in the world.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Impact of humidity biases on light precipitation occurrence: observations versus simulations〈/b〉〈br〉 Sophie Bastin, Philippe Drobinski, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Olivier Bock, Romain Roehrig, Clemente Gallardo, Dario Conte, Marta Domínguez Alonso, Laurent Li, Piero Lionello, and Ana C. Parracho〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1471-1490, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1471-2019, 2019〈br〉 This paper uses colocated observations of temperature, precipitation and humidity to investigate the triggering of precipitation. It shows that there is a critical value of humidity above which precipitation picks up. This critical value depends on 〈i〉T〈/i〉 and varies spatially. It also analyses how this dependency is reproduced in regional climate simulations over Europe. Models with too little and too light precipitation have both lower critical value of humidity and higher probability to exceed it.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Diagnosing spatial error structures in CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 mole fractions and XCO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 column mole fractions from atmospheric transport〈/b〉〈br〉 Thomas Lauvaux, Liza I. Díaz-Isaac, Marc Bocquet, and Nicolas Bousserez〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1113,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 A small-size ensemble of mesoscale simulations has been filtered to characterize the spatial structures of transport errors in atmospheric CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 mixing ratios. The extracted error structures in in situ and column CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 show similar length scales compared to other meteorological variables, including seasonality, which could be used as proxies in regional inversion systems.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Impacts of meteorology and emissions on summertime surface ozone increases over central eastern China between 2003 and 2015〈/b〉〈br〉 Lei Sun, Likun Xue, Yuhang Wang, Longlei Li, Jintai Lin, Ruijing Ni, Yingying Yan, Lulu Chen, Juan Li, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1455-1469, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1455-2019, 2019〈br〉 We quantified the detailed impacts of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions on surface O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 increase in central eastern China between 2003 and 2015 using GEOS-Chem. The emission change plays a more important role than the meteorological change, while the regions with a larger O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 increase are more sensitive to meteorology. NMVOC emission change dominated the O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 increase in eastern CEC, while NO〈sub〉〈i〉x〈/i〉〈/sub〉 emission change led to an O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 increase in western and central CEC and O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 decrease in urban areas.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Organic aerosol source apportionment in Zurich using an extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (EESI-TOF): Part II, biomass burning influences in winter〈/b〉〈br〉 Lu Qi, Mindong Chen, Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Yandong Tong, Amelie Bertrand, Christoph Hueglin, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-64,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Current understanding of OA sources is limited by the chemical resolution of existing real-time measurement technology. We describe the first wintertime deployment of a novel extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which provides near-molecular OA measurements with high time resolution. We show that biomass combustion strongly influences winter OA. Via factor analysis, aging-dependent signatures and time contributions of biomass combustion-derived OA are resolved.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Mesospheric semidiurnal tides and near-12-hour waves through jointly analyzing five longitudinally-distributed specular meteor radars at boreal midlatitudes〈/b〉〈br〉 Maosheng He and Jorge L. Chau〈br〉 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1320,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ACP〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We propose an approach to resolve waves with different spatial scales at a given frequency using ground-based detectors from few longitudinal sectors. The approach is used to study near-12-hour waves. Our results suggest that broadly-reported enhancements of two solar nonmigrating tides during sudden stratospheric warming events are just low-frequency-resolved signatures of two neighboring waves. The tides do not enhance.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Numerical issues of the Total Exchange Flow (TEF) analysis framework for quantifying estuarine circulation〈/b〉〈br〉 Marvin Lorenz, Knut Klingbeil, Parker MacCready, and Hans Burchard〈br〉 Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-147,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for OS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Estuaries are areas where riverine and oceanic waters meet and mix. The exchange flow of an estuary describes the water properties of the inflowing and outflowing water. These can be described by simple bulk values for volume fluxes and salinities. This work focuses on the numerics of one computational method for these values, the Total Exchange Flow. We show that only the so called dividing salinity method is able to reliably calculate the correct values, even for complex situations.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Technical Note: On the confounding similarity of two water balance formulas – Turc-Mezentsev 〈i〉vs〈/i〉 Tixeront-Fu〈/b〉〈br〉 Vazken Andréassian and Tewfik Sari〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-39,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 1 comment)〈br〉 In this Technical Note, we present two water balance formulas: the Turc-Mezentsev and the Tixeront-Fu formulas. These formulas have a striking numerical similarity, which we discuss in detail, and try to interpret mathematically and hydrologically.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Modeling anaerobic soil organic carbon decomposition in Arctic polygon tundra: insights into soil geochemical influences on carbon mineralization〈/b〉〈br〉 Jianqiu Zheng, Peter E. Thornton, Scott L. Painter, Baohua Gu, Stan D. Wullschleger, and David E. Graham〈br〉 Biogeosciences, 16, 663-680, https://doi.org10.5194/bg-16-663-2019, 2019〈br〉 Arctic warming exposes soil carbon to increased degradation, increasing CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 emissions. Models underrepresent anaerobic decomposition that predominates wet soils. We simulated microbial growth, pH regulation, and anaerobic carbon decomposition in a new model, parameterized and validated with prior soil incubation data. The model accurately simulated CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 production and strong influences of water content, pH, methanogen biomass, and competing electron acceptors on CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 production.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Hydrodynamic simulation of the effects of in-channel large woody debris on the flood hydrographs of a low mountain range creek, Ore Mountains, Germany〈/b〉〈br〉 Daniel Rasche, Christian Reinhardt-Imjela, Achim Schulte, and Robert Wenzel〈br〉 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-35,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for HESS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 〈p〉Fifteen years after introducing the European Union's water framework directive (WFD), most of the German surface water bodies are still far away from having the targeted good ecological status or potential. One reason are insufficient hydromorphological diversities such as riverbed structure including the absence of natural woody debris in the channels. The presence of large woody debris (LWD) in river channels can improve the hydromorphological and hydraulic characteristics of rivers and streams and therefore act positively on a river’s ecology. On the contrary, floating LWD is a potential threat for anthropogenic goods and infrastructure during flood events. Concerning the contradiction of potential risks as well as positive ecological impacts, addressing the physical effects of large woody debris is highly important, for example to identify river sections in which large woody debris can remain or can be reintroduced.〈/p〉 〈p〉Hydrodynamic models offer the possibility of investigating the hydraulic effects of fastened large woody debris. In such models roughness coefficients are commonly used to implement LWD, however, because of the complexity of the shape of LWD elements this approach seems to be too simple and not appropriate to simulate its diverse effects especially on flood hydrographs. Against this background a two-dimensional hydraulic model is set up for a mountain creek to simulate the hydraulic effects of LWD and to test different methods of LWD implementation.〈/p〉 〈p〉The study area comprises a 282 m long reach of the Ullersdorfer Teichbächel, a creek in the Ore Mountains (South-eastern Germany). In previous studies, field experiments with artificially generated flood events have been performed with and without LWD in the channel. Discharge time series from the experiments allow a validation of the model outputs with field observations. Methodically, in-channel roughness coefficients are changed iteratively for retrieving the best fit between mean simulated and observed flood hydrographs with and without LWD at the downstream reach outlet. In addition, roughness values are modified at LWD positions only and, simplified discrete elements representing LWD were incorporated into the calculation mesh.〈/p〉 〈p〉In general, the model results reveal a good simulation of the observed flood hydrographs of the field experiments without in-channel large woody debris. This indicates the applicability of the model used in the studied reach of a creek in low mountain ranges. The best fit of simulation and mean observed hydrograph with in-channel LWD can be obtained when increasing in-channel roughness through decreasing Strickler coefficients by 30 % in the entire reach or 55 % at LWD positions only. However, the increase of roughness in the entire reach shows a better simulation of the observed hydrograph, indicating that LWD elements affect sections beyond their own dimensions i.e. by forming downstream wake fields. The best fit in terms of the hydrograph's general shape can be achieved by integrating discrete elements into the calculation mesh. The emerging temporal shift between simulation and observation can be attributed to mesh impermeability and element dimensions causing too intense water retention and flow alteration. The results illustrate that the mean observed hydrograph can be satisfactorily modelled using roughness coefficients. Nevertheless, discrete elements result in a better fitting shape of the simulated hydrograph.〈/p〉 〈p〉In conclusion, a time-consuming and work-intensive mesh manipulation is suitable for analysing detailed flow conditions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on small spatio-temporal scale. Here, a close-to-nature design of discrete LWD objects is essential to retrieve accurate results. In contrast, the reach-wise adjustment of in-channel roughness coefficients is useful in larger scale model applications such as 1D-hydrodynamic or rainfall-runoff simulations on catchment scale.〈/p〉
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Numerical issues of the Total Exchange Flow (TEF) analysis framework for quantifying estuarine circulation〈/b〉〈br〉 Marvin Lorenz, Knut Klingbeil, Parker MacCready, and Hans Burchard〈br〉 Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-147,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for OS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Estuaries are areas where riverine and oceanic waters meet and mix. The exchange flow of an estuary describes the water properties of the inflowing and outflowing water. These can be described by simple bulk values for volume fluxes and salinities. This work focuses on the numerics of one computational method for these values, the Total Exchange Flow. We show that only the so called dividing salinity method is able to reliably calculate the correct values, even for complex situations.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0806
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0822
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉The impact of a new high-resolution ocean model on the Met Office North-West European Shelf forecasting system〈/b〉〈br〉 Marina Tonani, Peter Sykes, Robert R. King, Niall McConnell, Anne-Christine Pequignet, Enda O'Dea, Jennifer A. Graham, Jeff Polton, and John Siddorn〈br〉 Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2019-4,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for OS〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 A new high resolution ocean model at 1.5 km has replaced the 7 km system for delivering short term forecasts of the North-West European shelf Seas. The products, temperature, salinity, currents, sea surface height, are available on the Copernicus Marine Service catalogue. This study is focus on the high resolution impact on the quality of the products delivered to the users. Results show that the high resolution model is better resolving the variability of the physical variables.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0806
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Moisture transport in observations and reanalyses as a proxy for snow accumulation in East Antarctica〈/b〉〈br〉 Ambroise Dufour, Claudine Charrondière, and Olga Zolina〈br〉 The Cryosphere, 13, 413-425, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-13-413-2019, 2019〈br〉 The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is thicker and larger than its western counterpart. Whether it gains or loses mass depends in part on the snowfall but this is difficult to measure and model inside the continent. Fortunately, the weather balloons launched from a network of stations along the coast provide an indirect estimate. Indeed, they track the water vapour that will eventually precipitate inland. It turns out there has been no consistent change in moisture transport from 1980 to 2017.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0440
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Gas transfer velocities of CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 in subtropical monsoonal climate streams and small rivers〈/b〉〈br〉 Siyue Li, Rong Mao, Yongmei Ma, and Vedula V. S. S. Sarma〈br〉 Biogeosciences, 16, 681-693, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-681-2019, 2019〈br〉 We provide a first determination of 〈i〉k〈/i〉 in human-impacted subtropical streams and small rivers. High and highly variable 〈i〉k〈/i〉 values reflect different controls on water turbulence. New models of 〈i〉k〈/i〉 are developed using water depth and flow velocity. We show that previous estimates of riverine CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 evasion from subtropical streams and small rivers are conservative and highlight the importance of incorporating scale-appropriate 〈i〉k〈/i〉 measurements into extensive 〈i〉p〈/i〉CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 investigations for accurate C budgets.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉glmGUI v1.0: an R-based Geographical User Interface and toolbox for GLM (General Lake Model) simulations〈/b〉〈br〉 Thomas Bueche, Marko Wenk, Benjamin Poschlod, Filippo Giadrossich, Mario Pirastru, and Mark Vetter〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-314,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 1 comment)〈br〉 The R-based Geographical User Interface glmGUI provides tools for pre- and postprocessing of General Lake Model (GLM) simulations, including an autocalibration, parameter sensitivity analysis, and several plot options. The model parameters can be analyzed and calibrated for the simulation output variables water temperature and lake level. The toolbox is tested for two sites (Lake Ammersee, Germany, and Lake Baratz, Italy).
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Spatial and temporal patterns of sediment storage and erosion following a wildfire and extreme flood〈/b〉〈br〉 Daniel J. Brogan, Peter A. Nelson, and Lee H. MacDonald〈br〉 Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2018-98,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ESurf〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We used high-resolution topography collected over four years to investigate how two watersheds in Colorado responded to the June 2012 High Park Fire and an extreme flood in September 2013. After the fire, sediment eroded from the hillslopes and deposited in valley bottoms, and the large flood eroded much of this deposited sediment. Patterns of erosion and deposition were related to landscape characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall, which may inform future post-fire treatment strategy.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉What do we do with model simulation crashes? Recommendations for global sensitivity analysis of earth and environmental systems models〈/b〉〈br〉 Razi Sheikholeslami, Saman Razavi, and Amin Haghnegahdar〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-17,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The ever-growing complexity of the Earth and Environmental Systems Models will pose many types of software development and implementation issues such as parameter-induced simulation crashes which are mainly caused by violation of the numerical stability conditions. Here, we present a new strategy to cope with crashed simulations when performing sensitivity analysis. Our results show that this strategy can scale well to the dimensionality of the model, sample size, and the number crashes.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉What do we do with model simulation crashes? Recommendations for global sensitivity analysis of earth and environmental systems models〈/b〉〈br〉 Razi Sheikholeslami, Saman Razavi, and Amin Haghnegahdar〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-17,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 The ever-growing complexity of the Earth and Environmental Systems Models will pose many types of software development and implementation issues such as parameter-induced simulation crashes which are mainly caused by violation of the numerical stability conditions. Here, we present a new strategy to cope with crashed simulations when performing sensitivity analysis. Our results show that this strategy can scale well to the dimensionality of the model, sample size, and the number crashes.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Spatial and temporal patterns of sediment storage and erosion following a wildfire and extreme flood〈/b〉〈br〉 Daniel J. Brogan, Peter A. Nelson, and Lee H. MacDonald〈br〉 Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2018-98,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for ESurf〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 We used high-resolution topography collected over four years to investigate how two watersheds in Colorado responded to the June 2012 High Park Fire and an extreme flood in September 2013. After the fire, sediment eroded from the hillslopes and deposited in valley bottoms, and the large flood eroded much of this deposited sediment. Patterns of erosion and deposition were related to landscape characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall, which may inform future post-fire treatment strategy.
    Electronic ISSN: 2196-6338
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉glmGUI v1.0: an R-based Geographical User Interface and toolbox for GLM (General Lake Model) simulations〈/b〉〈br〉 Thomas Bueche, Marko Wenk, Benjamin Poschlod, Filippo Giadrossich, Mario Pirastru, and Mark Vetter〈br〉 Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-314,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for GMD〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 1 comment)〈br〉 The R-based Geographical User Interface glmGUI provides tools for pre- and postprocessing of General Lake Model (GLM) simulations, including an autocalibration, parameter sensitivity analysis, and several plot options. The model parameters can be analyzed and calibrated for the simulation output variables water temperature and lake level. The toolbox is tested for two sites (Lake Ammersee, Germany, and Lake Baratz, Italy).
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Climatological moisture sources for the Western North American Monsoon through a Lagrangian approach: their influence on precipitation intensity〈/b〉〈br〉 Paulina Ordoñez, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Pedro Ribera, David Gallego, Carlos Abraham Ochoa-Moya, and Arturo Ignacio Quintanar〈br〉 Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 59-72, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-10-59-2019, 2019〈br〉 The identification of moisture sources for a region is of prominent importance regarding the characterization of precipitation. In this work, the moisture sources for the western North American monsoon (WNAM) region are identified; these sources are the Gulf of California, the WNAM itself, eastern Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. We find that rainfall intensity over the WNAM region is related to the amount of moisture transported from the Caribbean Sea and eastern Mexico during the preceding days.
    Print ISSN: 2190-4979
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-4987
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈b〉Retrieval of CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉, CO and N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O using ground- based FTIR data and validation against satellite observations over the Shadnagar, India〈/b〉〈br〉 Mahesh Pathakoti, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Biswadip Gharai, Sesha Sai Mullapudi Venkata Rama, Rajan Kumar Sundaran, and Wei Wang〈br〉 Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-7,2019〈br〉 〈b〉Manuscript under review for AMT〈/b〉 (discussion: open, 0 comments)〈br〉 Present study retrieved improved dry column averaged concentrations of CO2, CH4, CO and N2O using Solar Spectra over the Shadnagar region of India using GFIT model. It is the only site which is equipped with FTIR 125M for measuring the solar spectra to retrieve the precise column GHG while meeting the TCCON standards. Present study also attempted preliminary validation of satellite retrieved column averaged concentrations of CO2 and CO against ground-based FTIR retrieved concentrations.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
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