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  • Copernicus  (141,348)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-02-17
    Description: Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is a major source of uncertainty for ice and ocean mass balance estimates derived from satellite gravimetry. In Antarctica the gravimetric effect of cryospheric mass change and GIA are of the same order of magnitude. Inverse estimates from geodetic observations hold some promise for mass signal separation. Here, we investigate the combination of satellite gravimetry and altimetry and demonstrate that the choice of input data sets and processing methods will influence the resultant GIA inverse estimate. This includes the combination that spans the full GRACE record (April 2002–August 2016). Additionally, we show the variations that arise from combining the actual time series of the differing data sets. Using the inferred trends, we assess the spread of GIA solutions owing to (1) the choice of different degree-1 and C20 products, (2) viable candidate surface-elevation-change products derived from different altimetry missions corresponding to different time intervals, and (3) the uncertainties associated with firn process models. Decomposing the total-mass signal into the ice mass and the GIA components is strongly dependent on properly correcting for an apparent bias in regions of small signal. Here our ab initio solutions force the mean GIA and GRACE trend over the low precipitation zone of East Antarctica to be zero. Without applying this bias correction, the overall spread of total-mass change and GIA-related mass change using differing degree-1 and C20 products is 68 and 72 Gt a−1, respectively, for the same time period (March 2003–October 2009). The bias correction method collapses this spread to 6 and 5 Gt a−1, respectively. We characterize the firn process model uncertainty empirically by analysing differences between two alternative surface mass balance products. The differences propagate to a 10 Gt a−1 spread in debiased GIA-related mass change estimates. The choice of the altimetry product poses the largest uncertainty on debiased mass change estimates. The spread of debiased GIA-related mass change amounts to 15 Gt a−1 for the period from March 2003 to October 2009. We found a spread of 49 Gt a−1 comparing results for the periods April 2002–August 2016 and July 2010–August 2016. Our findings point out limitations associated with data quality, data processing, and correction for apparent biases.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-03-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-05-25
    Description: The late Pleistocene Yedoma Ice Complex is an ice-rich and organic-bearing type of permafrost deposit widely distributed across Beringia and is assumed to be especially prone to deep degradation with warming temperature, which is a potential tipping point of the climate system. To better understand Yedoma formation, its local characteristics, and its regional sedimentological composition, we compiled the grain-size distributions (GSDs) of 771 samples from 23 Yedoma locations across the Arctic; samples from sites located close together were pooled to form 17 study sites. In addition, we studied 160 samples from three non-Yedoma ice-wedge polygon and floodplain sites for the comparison of Yedoma samples with Holocene depositional environments. The multimodal GSDs indicate that a variety of sediment production, transport, and depositional processes were involved in Yedoma formation. To disentangle these processes, a robust endmember modeling analysis (rEMMA) was performed. Nine robust grain-size endmembers (rEMs) characterize Yedoma deposits across Beringia. The study sites of Yedoma deposits were finally classified using cluster analysis. The resulting four clusters consisted of two to five sites that are distributed randomly across northeastern Siberia and Alaska, suggesting that the differences are associated with rather local conditions. In contrast to prior studies suggesting a largely aeolian contribution to Yedoma sedimentation, the wide range of rEMs indicates that aeolian sedimentation processes cannot explain the entire variability found in GSDs of Yedoma deposits. Instead, Yedoma sedimentation is controlled by local conditions such as source rocks and weathering processes, nearby paleotopography, and diverse sediment transport processes. Our findings support the hypothesis of a polygenetic Yedoma origin involving alluvial, fluvial, and niveo-aeolian transport; accumulation in ponding waters; and in situ frost weathering as well as postdepositional processes of solifluction, cryoturbation, and pedogenesis. The characteristic rEM composition of the Yedoma clusters will help to improve how grain-size-dependent parameters in permafrost models and soil carbon budgets are considered. Our results show the characteristic properties of ice-rich Yedoma deposits in the terrestrial Arctic. Characterizing and quantifying site-specific past depositional processes is crucial for elucidating and understanding the trajectories of this unique kind of ice-rich permafrost in a warmer future.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-07-08
    Description: The ESA Earth Explorer CryoSat-2 was launched on 8 April 2010 to monitor the precise changes in the thickness of terrestrial ice sheets and marine floating ice. To do that, CryoSat orbits the planet at an altitude of around 720 km with a retrograde orbit inclination of 92∘ and a quasi repeat cycle of 369 d (30 d subcycle). To reach the mission goals, the CryoSat products have to meet the highest quality standards to date, achieved through continual improvements of the operational processing chains. The new CryoSat Ice Baseline-D, in operation since 27 May 2019, represents a major processor upgrade with respect to the previous Ice Baseline-C. Over land ice the new Baseline-D provides better results with respect to the previous baseline when comparing the data to a reference elevation model over the Austfonna ice cap region, improving the ascending and descending crossover statistics from 1.9 to 0.1 m. The improved processing of the star tracker measurements implemented in Baseline-D has led to a reduction in the standard deviation of the point-to-point comparison with the previous star tracker processing method implemented in Baseline-C from 3.8 to 3.7 m. Over sea ice, Baseline-D improves the quality of the retrieved heights inside and at the boundaries of the synthetic aperture radar interferometric (SARIn or SIN) acquisition mask, removing the negative freeboard pattern which is beneficial not only for freeboard retrieval but also for any application that exploits the phase information from SARIn Level 1B (L1B) products. In addition, scatter comparisons with the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Project (BGEP; https://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre, last access: October 2019) and Operation IceBridge (OIB; Kurtz et al., 2013) in situ measurements confirm the improvements in the Baseline-D freeboard product quality. Relative to OIB, the Baseline-D freeboard mean bias is reduced by about 8 cm, which roughly corresponds to a 60 % decrease with respect to Baseline-C. The BGEP data indicate a similar tendency with a mean draft bias lowered from 0.85 to −0.14 m. For the two in situ datasets, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) is also well reduced from 14 to 11 cm for OIB and by a factor of 2 for the BGEP. Observations over inland waters show a slight increase in the percentage of good observations in Baseline-D, generally around 5 %–10 % for most lakes. This paper provides an overview of the new Level 1 and Level 2 (L2) CryoSat Ice Baseline-D evolutions and related data quality assessment, based on results obtained from analyzing the 6-month Baseline-D test dataset released to CryoSat expert users prior to the final transfer to operations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: We present a new near-global coupled biogeochemical ocean-circulation model configuration. The configuration features a horizontal discretization with a grid spacing of less than 11 km in the Southern Ocean and gradually coarsens in meridional direction to more than 200 km at 64∘ N, where the model is bounded by a solid wall. The underlying code framework is the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)'s Modular Ocean Model coupled to the Biogeochemistry with Light, Iron, Nutrients and Gases (BLING) ecosystem model of Galbraith et al. (2010). The configuration is unique in that it features both a relatively equilibrated oceanic carbon inventory and an eddying ocean circulation based on a realistic model geometry/bathymetry – a combination that has been precluded by prohibitive computational cost in the past. Results from a simulation with climatological forcing and a sensitivity experiment with increasing winds suggest that the configuration is sufficiently equilibrated to explore Southern Ocean carbon uptake dynamics on decadal timescales. The configuration is dubbed MOMSO, a Modular Ocean Model Southern Ocean configuration.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Print ISSN: 0424-7116
    Electronic ISSN: 2199-9090
    Topics: Geosciences , History
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Spectroscopy of the hydroxyl (OH) airglow has been a commonly used way to remotely sense temperatures in the mesopause region for many decades. This technique relies on the OH rotational state populations to be thermalized through collisions with the surrounding gas into a Boltzmann distribution characterized by the local temperature. However, deviations of the rotational populations from a Boltzmann distribution characterized by a single temperature have been observed and attributed to an incomplete thermalization of the OH from its initial, non-thermodynamic-equilibrium distribution. Here we address an additional cause for the apparent amount of excess population in the higher rotational levels of the OH airglow brought about by integrating these OH emissions through vertical gradients in the atmospheric temperature. We find that up to 40 % of the apparent excess population, currently attributed to incomplete thermalization, can be due to the vertical temperature gradients created by waves. Additionally, we find that the populations of the different upper vibrational levels are affected differently. These effects need to be taken into account in order to assess the true extent of non-thermodynamic-equilibrium effects on the OH rotational populations.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: An extensive network of GPS sites on the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streams shows strong tidal modulation of horizontal ice flow at a range of frequencies. A particularly strong (horizontal) response is found at the fortnightly (Msf) frequency. Since this tidal constituent is absent in the (vertical) tidal forcing, this observation implies the action of some non-linear mechanism. Another striking aspect is the strong amplitude of the flow perturbation, causing a periodic reversal in the direction of ice shelf flow in some areas and a 10 %–20 % change in speed at grounding lines. No model has yet been able to reproduce the quantitative aspects of the observed tidal modulation across the entire Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf. The cause of the tidal ice flow response has, therefore, remained an enigma, indicating a serious limitation in our current understanding of the mechanics of large-scale ice flow. A further limitation of previous studies is that they have all focused on isolated regions and interactions between different areas have, therefore, not been fully accounted for. Here, we conduct the first large-scale ice flow modelling study to explore these processes using a viscoelastic rheology and realistic geometry of the entire Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf, where the best observations of tidal response are available. We evaluate all relevant mechanisms that have hitherto been put forward to explain how tides might affect ice shelf flow and compare our results with observational data. We conclude that, while some are able to generate the correct general qualitative aspects of the tidally induced perturbations in ice flow, most of these mechanisms must be ruled out as being the primary cause of the observed long-period response. We find that only tidally induced lateral migration of grounding lines can generate a sufficiently strong long-period Msf response on the ice shelf to match observations. Furthermore, we show that the observed horizontal short-period semidiurnal tidal motion, causing twice-daily flow reversals at the ice front, can be generated through a purely elastic response to basin-wide tidal perturbations in the ice shelf slope. This model also allows us to quantify the effect of tides on mean ice flow and we find that the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf flows, on average, ∼ 21 % faster than it would in the absence of large ocean tides.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions are fundamentally uncertain because no proxy is a direct record of a single environmental variable of interest; all proxies are indirect and sensitive to multiple forcing factors. One productive approach to reducing proxy uncertainty is the integration of information from multiple proxy systems with complementary, overlapping sensitivity. Mostly, such analyses are conducted in an ad hoc fashion, either through qualitative comparison to assess the similarity of single-proxy reconstructions or through step-wise quantitative interpretations where one proxy is used to constrain a variable relevant to the interpretation of a second proxy. Here we propose the integration of multiple proxies via the joint inversion of proxy system and paleoenvironmental time series models in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. The “Joint Proxy Inversion” (JPI) method provides a statistically robust approach to producing self-consistent interpretations of multi-proxy datasets, allowing full and simultaneous assessment of all proxy and model uncertainties to obtain quantitative estimates of past environmental conditions. Other benefits of the method include the ability to use independent information on climate and environmental systems to inform the interpretation of proxy data, to fully leverage information from unevenly and differently sampled proxy records, and to obtain refined estimates of proxy model parameters that are conditioned on paleo-archive data. Application of JPI to the marine Mg∕Ca and δ18O proxy systems at two distinct timescales demonstrates many of the key properties, benefits, and sensitivities of the method, and it produces new, statistically grounded reconstructions of Neogene ocean temperature and chemistry from previously published data. We suggest that JPI is a universally applicable method that can be implemented using proxy models of wide-ranging complexity to generate more robust, quantitative understanding of past climatic and environmental change.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: We present an extensive parametric exploration of the feasibility of “spontaneous” subduction initiation, i.e., lithospheric gravitational collapse without any external forcing, at a transform fault (TF). We first seek candidates from recent subduction initiation events at an oceanic TF that could fulfill the criteria of spontaneous subduction and retain three natural cases: Izu–Bonin–Mariana, Yap, and Matthew and Hunter. We next perform an extensive exploration of conditions allowing for the spontaneous gravitational sinking of the older oceanic plate at a TF using 2-D thermomechanical simulations. Our parametric study aims at better delimiting the ranges of mechanical properties necessary to achieve the old plate sinking (OPS). The explored parameter set includes the following: crust and TF densities, brittle and ductile rheologies, and the width of the weakened region around the TF. We focus on characterizing the OPS conditions in terms of (1) the reasonable vs. unrealistic values of the mechanical parameters and (2) a comparison to modern cases of subduction initiation in a TF setting. When modeled, OPS initiates following one of two distinct modes, depending mainly on the thickness of the overlying younger plate. The asthenosphere may rise up to the surface above the sinking old plate, provided that the younger plate remains motionless (verified for ages ≥5 Myr, mode 1). For lower younger plate ages (typically ≤2 Myr), the younger plate is dragged toward the older plate, resulting in a double-sided subduction (mode 2). When triggered, spontaneous OPS is extremely fast. The parameters that exert the strongest control over whether OPS can occur or not are the brittle properties of the shallow part of the lithosphere, which affect the plate resistance to bending, the distance away from the TF over which weakening is expected, and the crust density. We find that at least one mechanical parameter has to be assigned an unrealistic value and at least two other ones must be set to extreme ranges to achieve OPS, which we do not consider realistic. Furthermore, we point out inconsistencies between the processes and consequences of lithospheric instability, as modeled in our experiments and geological observations of subduction infancy, for the three natural candidates of subduction initiation by spontaneous OPS. We conclude that spontaneous instability of the thick older plate at a TF evolving into mature subduction is an unlikely process of subduction initiation in modern Earth conditions.
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) outgoing longwave flux over the 9.6 µm ozone band is a fundamental quantity for understanding chemistry–climate coupling. However, observed TOA fluxes are hard to estimate as they exhibit considerable variability in space and time that depend on the distributions of clouds, ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O), air temperature (Ta), and surface temperature (Ts). Benchmarking present-day fluxes and quantifying the relative influence of their drivers is the first step for estimating climate feedbacks from ozone radiative forcing and predicting radiative forcing evolution. To that end, we constructed observational instantaneous radiative kernels (IRKs) under clear-sky conditions, representing the sensitivities of the TOA flux in the 9.6 µm ozone band to the vertical distribution of geophysical variables, including O3, H2O, Ta, and Ts based upon the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) measurements. Applying these kernels to present-day simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) project as compared to a 2006 reanalysis assimilating satellite observations, we show that the models have large differences in TOA flux, attributable to different geophysical variables. In particular, model simulations continue to diverge from observations in the tropics, as reported in previous studies of the Atmospheric Chemistry Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) simulations. The principal culprits are tropical middle and upper tropospheric ozone followed by tropical lower tropospheric H2O. Five models out of the eight studied here have TOA flux biases exceeding 100 mW m−2 attributable to tropospheric ozone bias. Another set of five models have flux biases over 50 mW m−2 due to H2O. On the other hand, Ta radiative bias is negligible in all models (no more than 30 mW m−2). We found that the atmospheric component (AM3) of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation model and Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) have the lowest TOA flux biases globally but are a result of cancellation of opposite biases due to different processes. Overall, the multi-model ensemble mean bias is -133±98 mW m−2, indicating that they are too atmospherically opaque due to trapping too much radiation in the atmosphere by overestimated tropical tropospheric O3 and H2O. Having too much O3 and H2O in the troposphere would have different impacts on the sensitivity of TOA flux to O3 and these competing effects add more uncertainties on the ozone radiative forcing. We find that the inter-model TOA outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) difference is well anti-correlated with their ozone band flux bias. This suggests that there is significant radiative compensation in the calculation of model outgoing longwave radiation.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: The coastal Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and coastal sea off the Korean Peninsula (CSK) both suffer from human-induced eutrophication. We used a nitrogen (N) mass balance model in two different regions with different nitrogen input sources to estimate organic carbon fluxes and predict future carbon fluxes under different model scenarios. The coastal GOM receives nitrogen predominantly from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers and atmospheric nitrogen deposition is only a minor component in this region. In the CSK, groundwater and atmospheric nitrogen deposition are more important controlling factors. Our model includes the fluxes of nitrogen to the ocean from the atmosphere, groundwater and rivers, based on observational and literature data, and identifies three zones (brown, green and blue waters) in the coastal GOM and CSK with different productivity and carbon fluxes. Based on our model results, the potential primary production rate in the inner (brown water) zone are over 2 gC m−2 d−1 (GOM) and 1.5 gC m−2 d−1 (CSK). In the middle (green water) zone, potential production is from 0.1 to 2 (GOM) and 0.3 to 1.5 gC m−2 d−1 (CSK). In the offshore (blue water) zone, productivity is less than 0.1 (GOM) and 0.3 (CSK) gC m−2 d−1. Through our model scenario results, overall oxygen demand in the GOM will increase approximately 21 % if we fail to reduce riverine N input, likely increasing considerably the area affected by hypoxia. Comparing the results from the USA with those from the Korean Peninsula shows the importance of considering both riverine and atmospheric inputs of nitrogen. This has direct implications for investigating how changes in energy technologies can lead to changes in the production of various atmospheric contaminants that affect air quality, climate and the health of local populations.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: The weathering of silicates is a major control on atmospheric CO2 at geologic timescales. It was proposed to enhance this process to actively remove CO2 from the atmosphere. While there are some studies that propose and theoretically analyze the application of rock powder to agricultural land, results from field experiments are still scarce. In order to evaluate the efficiency and side effects of Enhanced Weathering (EW), a mesocosm experiment was set up and agricultural soil from Belgium was amended with olivine-bearing dunite ground to two different grain sizes, while distinguishing setups with and without crops. Based on measurements of Mg, Si, pH, and DIC, the additional weathering effect of olivine could be confirmed. Calculated weathering rates are up to 3 orders of magnitude lower than found in other studies. The calculated CO2 consumption by weathering based on the outlet water of the mesocosm systems was low with 2.3–4.9 tCO2km-2a-1 if compared with previous theoretical estimates. Suspected causes were the removal or dilution of Mg as a weathering product by processes like adsorption, mineralization, plant uptake, evapotranspiration, and/or preferential flow, not specifically addressed in previous EW experiments for CO2 consumption. The observation that Mg concentrations in the upper soil layers were about 1 order of magnitude higher than in the outlet water indicates that a careful tracking of weathering indicators like Mg in the field is essential for a precise estimate of the CO2 consumption potential of EW, specifically under global deployment scenarios with a high diversity of ecosystem settings. Porewater Mg∕Si molar ratios suggest that dissolved Si is reprecipitating, forming a cation-depleted Si layer on the reactive mineral surface of freshly ground rocks. The release of potentially harmful trace elements is an acknowledged side effect of EW. Primarily Ni and Cr are elevated in the soil solution, while Ni concentrations exceed the limits of drinking water quality. The use of olivine, rich in Ni and Cr, is not recommended, and alternative rock sources are suggested for the application.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-01-06
    Description: Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed to study the wakes of a multi-rotor wind turbine configuration comprising four identical rotors mounted on a single tower. The multi-rotor turbine wakes are compared to the wake of a conventional turbine comprising a single rotor per tower with the same frontal area, hub height and thrust coefficient. The multi-rotor turbine wakes are found to recover faster, while the turbulence intensity in the wake is smaller, compared to the wake of the conventional turbine. The differences with the wake of a conventional turbine increase as the spacing between the tips of the rotors in the multi-rotor configuration increases. The differences are also sensitive to the thrust coefficients used for all rotors, with more pronounced differences for larger thrust coefficients. The interaction between multiple multi-rotor turbines is contrasted with that between multiple single-rotor turbines by considering wind farms with five turbine units aligned perfectly with each other and with the wind direction. Similar to the isolated turbine results, multi-rotor wind farms show smaller wake losses and smaller turbulence intensity compared to wind farms comprised of conventional single-rotor turbines. The benefits of multi-rotor wind farms over single-rotor wind farms increase with increasing tip spacing, irrespective of the axial spacing and thrust coefficient. The mean velocity profiles and relative powers of turbines obtained from the LES results are predicted reasonably accurately by an analytical model assuming Gaussian radial profiles of the velocity deficits and a hybrid linear-quadratic model for the merging of wakes. These results show that a larger power density can be achieved without significantly increased fatigue loads by using multi-rotor turbines instead of conventional, single-rotor turbines.
    Print ISSN: 2366-7443
    Electronic ISSN: 2366-7451
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-01-03
    Description: Although much effort has been put into studying air pollution, our knowledge of the mechanisms of frequently occurring intense haze episodes in China is still limited. In this study, using 3 years of measurements of air pollutants at three different height levels on a 325 m Beijing meteorology tower, we found that a positive aerosol–boundary layer feedback mechanism existed at three vertical observation heights during intense haze polluted periods within the mixing layer. This feedback was characterized by a higher loading of PM2.5 with a shallower mixing layer. Modelling results indicated that the presence of PM2.5 within the boundary layer led to reduced surface temperature, relative humidity and mixing layer height during an intensive haze episode. Measurements showed that the aerosol–boundary layer feedback was related to the decrease in solar radiation, turbulent kinetic energy and thereby suppression of the mixing layer. The feedback mechanism can explain the rapid formation of intense haze episodes to some extent, and we suggest that the detailed feedback mechanism warrants further investigation from both model simulations and field observations.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: A critical aspect of predicting soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations is the lack of available soil information; where information on soil characteristics is available, it is usually focused on regions of high agricultural interest. To date, in Chile, a large proportion of the SOC data have been collected in areas of intensive agricultural or forestry use; however, vast areas beyond these forms of land use have few or no soil data available. Here we present a new SOC database for the country, which is the result of an unprecedented national effort under the framework of the Global Soil Partnership. This partnership has helped build the largest database of SOC to date in Chile, named the Chilean Soil Organic Carbon database (CHLSOC), comprising 13 612 data points compiled from numerous sources, including unpublished and difficult-to-access data. The database will allow users to fill spatial gaps where no SOC estimates were publicly available previously. Presented values of SOC range from 6×10-5 % to 83.3 %, reflecting the variety of ecosystems that exist in Chile. The database has the potential to inform and test current models that predict SOC stocks and dynamics at larger spatial scales, thus enabling benefits from the richness of geochemical, topographic and climatic variability in Chile. The database is freely available to registered users at https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/NMYS3 (Pfeiffer et al., 2019b) under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: To estimate the global co-variability between mineral dust aerosol and cloud glaciation, we combined an aerosol model reanalysis with satellite retrievals of cloud thermodynamic phase. We used the CALIPSO-GOCCP product from the A-Train satellite constellation to assess whether clouds are composed of liquid or ice and the MACC reanalysis to estimate the dust mixing ratio in the atmosphere. Night-time retrievals within a temperature range from +3 to −42 ∘C for the period 2007–2010 were included. The results confirm that the cloud thermodynamic phase is highly dependent on temperature and latitude. However, at middle and high latitudes, at equal temperature and within narrow constraints for humidity and static stability, the average frequency of fully glaciated clouds increases by +5 to +10 % for higher mineral dust mixing ratios. The discrimination between humidity and stability regimes reduced the confounding influence of meteorology on the observed relationship between dust and cloud ice. Furthermore, for days with similar mixing ratios of mineral dust, the cloud ice occurrence frequency in the Northern Hemisphere was found to be higher than in the Southern Hemisphere at −30 ∘C but lower at −15 ∘C. This contrast may suggest a difference in the susceptibility of cloud glaciation to the presence of dust. Based on previous studies, the differences at −15 ∘C could be explained by higher feldspar fractions in the Southern Hemisphere, while the higher freezing efficiency of clay minerals in the Northern Hemisphere may explain the differences at −30 ∘C.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: The dynamics of biochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems are tightly coupled to local meteorological conditions. Understanding these interactions is an essential prerequisite for predicting, e.g. the response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change. However, many empirical studies in this field rely on correlative approaches and only very few studies apply causal discovery methods. Here we explore the potential for a recently proposed causal graph discovery algorithm to reconstruct the causal dependency structure underlying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Using artificial time series with known dependencies that mimic real-world biosphere–atmosphere interactions we address the influence of non-stationarities, i.e. periodicity and heteroscedasticity, on the estimation of causal networks. We then investigate the interpretability of the method in two case studies. Firstly, we analyse three replicated eddy covariance datasets from a Mediterranean ecosystem. Secondly, we explore global Normalised Difference Vegetation Index time series (GIMMS 3g), along with gridded climate data to study large-scale climatic drivers of vegetation greenness. We compare the retrieved causal graphs to simple cross-correlation-based approaches to test whether causal graphs are considerably more informative. Overall, the results confirm the capacity of the causal discovery method to extract time-lagged linear dependencies under realistic settings. For example, we find a complete decoupling of the net ecosystem exchange from meteorological variability during summer in the Mediterranean ecosystem. However, cautious interpretations are needed, as the violation of the method's assumptions due to non-stationarities increases the likelihood to detect false links. Overall, estimating directed biosphere–atmosphere networks helps unravel complex multidirectional process interactions. Other than classical correlative approaches, our findings are constrained to a few meaningful sets of relations, which can be powerful insights for the evaluation of terrestrial ecosystem models.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: Predicting the response of forests to climate and land-use change depends on models that can simulate the time-varying distribution of different tree sizes within a forest – so-called forest demography models. A necessary condition for such models to be trustworthy is that they can reproduce the tree-size distributions that are observed within existing forests worldwide. In a previous study, we showed that demographic equilibrium theory (DET) is able to fit tree-diameter distributions for forests across North America, using a single site-specific fitting parameter (μ) which represents the ratio of the rate of mortality to growth for a tree of a reference size. We use a form of DET that assumes tree-size profiles are in a steady state resulting from the balance between a size-independent rate of tree mortality and tree growth rates that vary as a power law of tree size (as measured by either trunk diameter or biomass). In this study, we test DET against ForestPlots data for 124 sites across Amazonia, fitting, using maximum likelihood estimation, to both directly measured trunk diameter data and also biomass estimates derived from published allometric relationships. Again, we find that DET fits the observed tree-size distributions well, with best-fit values of the exponent relating growth rate to tree mass giving a mean of ϕ=0.71 (0.31 for trunk diameter). This finding is broadly consistent with exponents of ϕ=0.75 (ϕ=1/3 for trunk diameter) predicted by metabolic scaling theory (MST) allometry. The fitted ϕ and μ parameters also show a clear relationship that is suggestive of life-history trade-offs. When we fix to the MST value of ϕ=0.75, we find that best-fit values of μ cluster around 0.25 for trunk diameter, which is similar to the best-fit value we found for North America of 0.22. This suggests an as yet unexplained preferred ratio of mortality to growth across forests of very different types and locations.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: Upcoming telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) or the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) may soon be able to characterize, through transmission, emission or reflection spectroscopy, the atmospheres of rocky exoplanets orbiting nearby M dwarfs. One of the most promising candidates is the late M-dwarf system TRAPPIST-1, which has seven known transiting planets for which transit timing variation (TTV) measurements suggest that they are terrestrial in nature, with a possible enrichment in volatiles. Among these seven planets, TRAPPIST-1e seems to be the most promising candidate to have habitable surface conditions, receiving ∼66 % of the Earth's incident radiation and thus needing only modest greenhouse gas inventories to raise surface temperatures to allow surface liquid water to exist. TRAPPIST-1e is, therefore, one of the prime targets for the JWST atmospheric characterization. In this context, the modeling of its potential atmosphere is an essential step prior to observation. Global climate models (GCMs) offer the most detailed way to simulate planetary atmospheres. However, intrinsic differences exist between GCMs which can lead to different climate prediction and thus observability of gas and/or cloud features in transmission and thermal emission spectra. Such differences should preferably be known prior to observations. In this paper we present a protocol to intercompare planetary GCMs. Four testing cases are considered for TRAPPIST-1e, but the methodology is applicable to other rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone. The four test cases included two land planets composed of modern-Earth and pure-CO2 atmospheres and two aqua planets with the same atmospheric compositions. Currently, there are four participating models (LMDG, ROCKE-3D, ExoCAM, UM); however, this protocol is intended to let other teams participate as well.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Satellite instruments provide a vantage point for studying aerosol loading consistently over different regions of the world. However, the typical lifetime of a single satellite platform is on the order of 5–15 years; thus, for climate studies, the use of multiple satellite sensors should be considered. Discrepancies exist between aerosol optical depth (AOD) products due to differences in their information content, spatial and temporal sampling, calibration, cloud masking, and algorithmic assumptions. Users of satellite-based AOD time-series are confronted with the challenge of choosing an appropriate dataset for the intended application. In this study, 16 monthly AOD products obtained from different satellite sensors and with different algorithms were inter-compared and evaluated against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) monthly AOD. Global and regional analyses indicate that products tend to agree qualitatively on the annual, seasonal and monthly timescales but may be offset in magnitude. Several approaches were then investigated to merge the AOD records from different satellites and create an optimised AOD dataset. With few exceptions, all merging approaches lead to similar results, indicating the robustness and stability of the merged AOD products. We introduce a gridded monthly AOD merged product for the period 1995–2017. We show that the quality of the merged product is as least as good as that of individual products. Optimal agreement of the AOD merged product with AERONET further demonstrates the advantage of merging multiple products. This merged dataset provides a long-term perspective on AOD changes over different regions of the world, and users are encouraged to use this dataset.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Ice formed in the subglacial environment can contain some of the highest concentrations of solutes, nutrients, and microbes found in glacier systems, which can be released to downstream freshwater and marine ecosystems and glacier forefields. Despite the potential ecological importance of basal ice, our understanding of its spatial and temporal biogeochemical variability remains limited. We hypothesize that the basal thermal regime of glaciers is a dominant control on subglacial biogeochemistry because it influences the degree to which glaciers mobilize material from the underlying substrate and controls the nature and extent of biogeochemical activity that occurs at glacier beds. Here, we characterize the solutes, nutrients, and microbes found in the basal regions of a cold-based glacier and three polythermal glaciers and compare them to those found in overlying glacier ice of meteoric origin. Compared to meteoric glacier ice, basal ice from polythermal glaciers was consistently enriched in major ions, dissolved organic matter (including a specific fraction of humic-like fluorescent material), and microbes and was occasionally enriched in dissolved phosphorus and reduced nitrogen (NH4+) and in a second dissolved component of humic-like fluorescent material. In contrast, the biogeochemistry of basal ice from the cold-based glacier was remarkably similar to that of meteoric glacier ice. These findings suggest that a glacier's basal thermal regime can play an important role in determining the mix of solutes, nutrients, and microbes that are acquired from subglacial substrates or produced in situ.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
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    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Major geomagnetic storms are caused by unusually intense solar wind southward magnetic fields that impinge upon the Earth's magnetosphere (Dungey, 1961). How can we predict the occurrence of future interplanetary events? Do we currently know enough of the underlying physics and do we have sufficient observations of solar wind phenomena that will impinge upon the Earth's magnetosphere? We view this as the most important challenge in space weather. We discuss the case for magnetic clouds (MCs), interplanetary sheaths upstream of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and solar wind high-speed streams (HSSs). The sheath- and CIR-related magnetic storms will be difficult to predict and will require better knowledge of the slow solar wind and modeling to solve. For interplanetary space weather, there are challenges for understanding the fluences and spectra of solar energetic particles (SEPs). This will require better knowledge of interplanetary shock properties as they propagate and evolve going from the Sun to 1 AU (and beyond), the upstream slow solar wind and energetic “seed” particles. Dayside aurora, triggering of nightside substorms, and formation of new radiation belts can all be caused by shock and interplanetary ram pressure impingements onto the Earth's magnetosphere. The acceleration and loss of relativistic magnetospheric “killer” electrons and prompt penetrating electric fields in terms of causing positive and negative ionospheric storms are reasonably well understood, but refinements are still needed. The forecasting of extreme events (extreme shocks, extreme solar energetic particle events, and extreme geomagnetic storms (Carrington events or greater)) are also discussed. Energetic particle precipitation into the atmosphere and ozone destruction are briefly discussed. For many of the studies, the Parker Solar Probe, Solar Orbiter, Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS), Arase, and SWARM data will be useful.
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Understanding Earth system dynamics in light of ongoing human intervention and dependency remains a major scientific challenge. The unprecedented availability of data streams describing different facets of the Earth now offers fundamentally new avenues to address this quest. However, several practical hurdles, especially the lack of data interoperability, limit the joint potential of these data streams. Today, many initiatives within and beyond the Earth system sciences are exploring new approaches to overcome these hurdles and meet the growing interdisciplinary need for data-intensive research; using data cubes is one promising avenue. Here, we introduce the concept of Earth system data cubes and how to operate on them in a formal way. The idea is that treating multiple data dimensions, such as spatial, temporal, variable, frequency, and other grids alike, allows effective application of user-defined functions to co-interpret Earth observations and/or model–data integration. An implementation of this concept combines analysis-ready data cubes with a suitable analytic interface. In three case studies, we demonstrate how the concept and its implementation facilitate the execution of complex workflows for research across multiple variables, and spatial and temporal scales: (1) summary statistics for ecosystem and climate dynamics; (2) intrinsic dimensionality analysis on multiple timescales; and (3) model–data integration. We discuss the emerging perspectives for investigating global interacting and coupled phenomena in observed or simulated data. In particular, we see many emerging perspectives of this approach for interpreting large-scale model ensembles. The latest developments in machine learning, causal inference, and model–data integration can be seamlessly implemented in the proposed framework, supporting rapid progress in data-intensive research across disciplinary boundaries.
    Print ISSN: 2190-4979
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-4987
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) are intermediate products in the tropospheric oxidation of the majority of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). CHOCHO is also a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. CHOCHO and HCHO are released from biogenic, anthropogenic, and pyrogenic sources. CHOCHO and HCHO tropospheric lifetimes are typically considered to be short during the daytime at mid-latitudes (e.g. several hours), as they are rapidly removed from the atmosphere by their photolysis, oxidation by OH, and uptake on particles or deposition. At night and at high latitudes, tropospheric lifetimes increase to many hours or even days. Previous studies demonstrated that CHOCHO and HCHO vertical column densities (VCDs) are well retrieved from space-borne observations using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). In this study, we present CHOCHO and HCHO VCDs retrieved from measurements by TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument), launched on the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) platform in October 2017. We observe strongly elevated amounts of CHOCHO and HCHO during the 2018 fire season in British Columbia, Canada, where a large number of fires occurred in August. CHOCHO and HCHO plumes from individual fire hot spots are observed in air masses travelling over distances of up to 1500 km, i.e. much longer than expected for the relatively short tropospheric lifetime expected for CHOCHO and HCHO. Comparison with simulations by the particle dispersion model FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) indicates that effective lifetimes of 20 h and more are needed to explain the observations of CHOCHO and HCHO if they decay in an effective first-order process. FLEXPART used in the study calculates accurately the transport. In addition an exponential decay, in our case assumed to be photochemical, of a species along the trajectory is added. We have used this simple approach to test our assumption that CHOCHO and HCHO are created in the fires and then decay at a constant rate in the plume as it is transported. This is clearly not the case and we infer that CHOCHO and HCHO are either efficiently recycled during transport or continuously formed from the oxidation of longer-lived precursors present in the plume, or possibly a mixture of both. We consider the best explanation of the observed CHOCHO and HCHO VCD in the plumes of the fire is that they are produced by oxidation of longer-lived precursors, which were also released by the fire and present in the plume.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: We revisit the concept of the cloud vertical structure (CVS) classes we have previously employed to classify the planet's cloudiness (Oreopoulos et al., 2017). The CVS classification reflects simple combinations of simultaneous cloud occurrence in the three standard layers traditionally used to separate low, middle, and high clouds and was applied to a dataset derived from active lidar and cloud radar observations. This classification is now introduced in an atmospheric global climate model, specifically a version of NASA's GEOS-5, in order to evaluate the realism of its cloudiness and of the radiative effects associated with the various CVS classes. Such classes can be defined in GEOS-5 thanks to a subcolumn cloud generator paired with the model's radiative transfer algorithm, and their associated radiative effects can be evaluated against observations. We find that the model produces 50 % more clear skies than observations in relative terms and produces isolated high clouds that are slightly less frequent than in observations, but optically thicker, yielding excessive planetary and surface cooling. Low clouds are also brighter than in observations, but underestimates of the frequency of occurrence (by ∼20 % in relative terms) help restore radiative agreement with observations. Overall the model better reproduces the longwave radiative effects of the various CVS classes because cloud vertical location is substantially constrained in the CVS framework.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: Observations of vertically resolved turbulence and cloud microphysics in a mixed-phase altocumulus cloud are presented using in situ measurements from an instrumented aircraft. The turbulence spectrum is observed to have an increasingly negative skewness with distance below cloud top, suggesting that long-wave radiative cooling from the liquid cloud layer is an important source of turbulence kinetic energy. Turbulence measurements are presented from both the liquid cloud layer and ice virga below. Vertical profiles of both bulk and microphysical liquid and ice cloud properties indicate that ice is produced within the liquid layer cloud at a temperature of −30 ∘C. These high-resolution in situ measurements support previous remotely sensed observations from both ground-based and space-borne instruments and could be used to evaluate numerical model simulations of altocumulus clouds at spatial scales from eddy-resolving models to global numerical weather prediction models and climate simulations.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: To investigate the characteristics of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in the semiarid region of East Asia, PM2.5 and size-resolved particles in the urban atmosphere of Xi'an, inland China, during the winter and summer of 2017 were collected and analyzed for optical properties and chemical compositions. Methanol extracts (MeOH extracts) were more light-absorbing than water extracts (H2O extracts) in the optical wavelength of 300–600 nm and well correlated with nitrophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (r 〉 0.78). The light absorptions (absλ=365 nm) of H2O extracts and MeOH extracts in winter were 28±16 and 49±32 M m−1, respectively, which are about 10 times higher than those in summer, mainly due to the enhanced emissions from biomass burning for house heating. Water-extracted BrC predominately occurred in the fine mode (
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: Quantifying bed-load transport is paramount to the effective management of rivers with sand or gravel-dominated bed material. However, a practical and scalable field methodology for reliably estimating bed load remains elusive. A popular approach involves calculating transport from the geometry and celerity of migrating bedforms, extracted from time series of bed elevation profiles (BEPs) acquired using echo sounders. There are various echo sounder sampling methodologies to extract bed elevation profiles. Using two sets of repeat multibeam sonar surveys with high spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, we compute bed load using three field techniques (one actual and two simulated) for acquiring BEPs: repeat multibeam, single-beam, and multiple single-beam sonar. Significant differences in flux arise between repeat multibeam and single-beam sonar. Multibeam and multiple single-beam sonar systems can potentially yield comparable results, but the latter relies on knowledge of bedform geometries and flow that collectively inform optimal beam spacing and sampling rate. These results serve as a guide for design of optimal sampling and for comparing transport estimates from different sonar configurations.
    Print ISSN: 2196-6311
    Electronic ISSN: 2196-632X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: We calculate the variation of spectral solar irradiance in the umbral shadow of the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 and compare it to observations. Starting from the Sun's and Moon's positions, we derive a realistic profile of the lunar shadow at the top of the atmosphere, including the effect of solar limb darkening. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo model MYSTIC (Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres) is used to simulate the transfer of solar radiation through the Earth's atmosphere. Among the effects taken into account are the atmospheric state (pressure, temperature), concentrations of major gas constituents and the curvature of the Earth, as well as the reflectance and elevation of the surrounding area. We apply the model to the total solar eclipse on 21 August 2017 at a position located in Oregon, USA, where irradiance observations were performed for wavelengths between 306 and 1020 nm. The influence of the surface reflectance, the ozone profile, the mountains surrounding the observer and aerosol is investigated. An increased sensitivity during totality is found for the reflectance, aerosol and topography, compared to non-eclipse conditions. During the eclipse, the irradiance at the surface not only depends on the total ozone column (TOC) but also on the vertical ozone distribution, which in general complicates derivations of the TOC from spectral surface irradiance. The findings are related to an analysis of the prevailing photon path and its difference compared to non-eclipse conditions. Using the most realistic estimate for each parameter, the model is compared to the irradiance observations. During totality, the relative difference between model and observations is less than 10 % in the spectral range from 400 to 1020 nm. Slightly larger deviations occur in the ultraviolet range below 400 and at 665 nm.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-02-19
    Description: Geological uncertainty quantification is critical to subsurface modeling and prediction, such as groundwater, oil or gas, and geothermal resources, and needs to be continuously updated with new data. We provide an automated method for uncertainty quantification and the updating of geological models using borehole data for subsurface developments within a Bayesian framework. Our methodologies are developed with the Bayesian evidential learning protocol for uncertainty quantification. Under such a framework, newly acquired borehole data directly and jointly update geological models (structure, lithology, petrophysics, and fluids), globally and spatially, without time-consuming model rebuilding. To address the above matters, an ensemble of prior geological models is first constructed by Monte Carlo simulation from prior distribution. Once the prior model is tested by means of a falsification process, a sequential direct forecasting is designed to perform the joint uncertainty quantification. The direct forecasting is a statistical learning method that learns from a series of bijective operations to establish “Bayes–linear-Gauss” statistical relationships between model and data variables. Such statistical relationships, once conditioned to actual borehole measurements, allow for fast-computation posterior geological models. The proposed framework is completely automated in an open-source project. We demonstrate its application by applying it to a generic gas reservoir dataset. The posterior results show significant uncertainty reduction in both spatial geological model and gas volume prediction and cannot be falsified by new borehole observations. Furthermore, our automated framework completes the entire uncertainty quantification process efficiently for such large models.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: The deep-ocean carbon cycle, especially carbon sequestration and outgassing, is one of the mechanisms to explain variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations on millennial and orbital timescales. However, the potential role of subtropical North Pacific subsurface waters in modulating atmospheric CO2 levels on millennial timescales is poorly constrained. An increase in the respired CO2 concentration in the glacial deep-ocean due to biological pump generally corresponds to deoxygenation in the ocean interior. This link thus offers a chance to study oceanic ventilation and coeval export productivity based on redox-controlled sedimentary geochemical parameters. Here, we investigate a suite of geochemical proxies in a sediment core from the Okinawa Trough to understand sedimentary oxygenation variations in the subtropical North Pacific over the last 50 000 years (50 ka). Our results suggest that enhanced mid-depth western subtropical North Pacific (WSTNP) sedimentary oxygenation occurred during cold intervals and after 8.5 ka, while oxygenation decreased during the Bölling-Alleröd (B/A) and Preboreal. The enhanced oxygenation during cold spells is linked to the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), while interglacial increase after 8.5 ka is linked to an intensification of the Kuroshio Current due to strengthened northeast trade winds over the tropics. The enhanced formation of the NPIW during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) was likely driven by the perturbation of sea ice formation and sea surface salinity oscillations in the high-latitude North Pacific. The diminished sedimentary oxygenation during the B/A due to a decreased NPIW formation and enhanced export production, indicates an expansion of the oxygen minimum zone in the North Pacific and enhanced CO2 sequestration at mid-depth waters, along with the termination of atmospheric CO2 concentration increase. We attribute the millennial-scale changes to an intensified NPIW and enhanced abyss flushing during deglacial cold and warm intervals, respectively, closely related to variations in North Atlantic Deep Water formation.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: A dataset containing quality-controlled wind observations from 222 tall towers has been created. Wind speed and wind direction measurements covering the 1984–2017 period have been collected from existing tall towers around the world in an effort to boost the utilization of these non-standard atmospheric datasets, especially within the wind energy and research fields. Observations taken at several heights greater than 10 m above ground level have been retrieved from various sparse datasets and compiled in a unique collection with a common format, access, documentation and quality control. For the last, a total of 18 quality control checks have been considered to ensure the high quality of the wind records. Non-quality-controlled temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure data from the towers have also been obtained and included in the dataset. The Tall Tower Dataset (Ramon and Lledó, 2019a) is published in the repository EUDAT and made available at https://doi.org/10.23728/b2share.136ecdeee31a45a7906a773095656ddb.
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: The influence of tropospheric ozone on the surface ozone concentrations is investigated at the monitoring station of JRC Ispra, based on 10 years of measurements (2006–2015) of surface ozone data. In situ hourly measurements of ozone and other air pollutants, meteorological parameters, and weekly averaged 7Be (as an indicator of upper-tropospheric–stratospheric influence) and 210Pb measurements (as an indicator of boundary layer influence) have been used for the analysis. In addition, IASI + GOME-2 and IASI ozone satellite data have also been used. It is observed that frequently 7Be and ozone weekly peaks coincide, which might be explained by the impact of deep atmospheric subsidence on surface ozone, particularly during late spring and early summer. Based on this observation, a detailed analysis of selected 7Be and ozone episodes occurring during that period of the year has been performed in order to further elucidate the mechanisms of tropospheric influence on the surface pollutant concentrations. For the analysis, composite NOAA/ESRL reanalysis synoptic meteorological charts in the troposphere have been used as well as IASI satellite ozone measurements and NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectories. The JRC station hourly measurements during subsidence episodes show very low values of local pollution parameters (e.g., NOx, 222Rn, nephelometer data, PM10), close to zero. Conversely, during these periods ozone levels usually reach values around 45–60 ppb during the afternoon hours but also show significantly higher values than the average during the night and morning hours, which is a sign of direct tropospheric influence on the surface ozone concentrations.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: Anelasticity may decrease the shear modulus of the asthenosphere by 8 %–10 % at semidiurnal tidal periods compared with the reference 1 s period of seismological Earth models. We show that such anelastic effects are likely to be significant for ocean tide loading displacement at the M2 tidal period around the East China Sea. By comparison with tide gauge observations, we establish that from nine selected ocean tide models (DTU10, EOT11a, FES2014b, GOT4.10c, HAMTIDE11a, NAO99b, NAO99Jb, OSU12, and TPXO9-Atlas), the regional model NAO99Jb is the most accurate in this region and that related errors in the predicted M2 vertical ocean tide loading displacements will be 0.2–0.5 mm. In contrast, GPS observations on the Ryukyu Islands (Japan), with an uncertainty of 0.2–0.3 mm, show 90th-percentile discrepancies of 1.3 mm with respect to ocean tide loading displacements predicted using the purely elastic radial Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We show that the use of an anelastic PREM-based Earth model reduces these 90th-percentile discrepancies to 0.9 mm. Use of an anelastic radial Earth model consisting of a regional average of the laterally varying S362ANI model reduces the 90th-percentile to 0.7 mm, which is of the same order as the sum of the remaining errors due to uncertainties in the ocean tide model and the GPS observations.
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: Cryoconite is rich in natural and artificial radioactivity, but a discussion about its ability to accumulate radionuclides is lacking. A characterization of cryoconite from two Alpine glaciers is presented here. Results confirm that cryoconite is significantly more radioactive than the matrices usually adopted for the environmental monitoring of radioactivity, such as lichens and mosses, with activity concentrations exceeding 10 000 Bq kg−1 for single radionuclides. This makes cryoconite an ideal matrix to investigate the deposition and occurrence of radioactive species in glacial environments. In addition, cryoconite can be used to track environmental radioactivity sources. We have exploited atomic and activity ratios of artificial radionuclides to identify the sources of the anthropogenic radioactivity accumulated in our samples. The signature of cryoconite from different Alpine glaciers is compatible with the stratospheric global fallout and Chernobyl accident products. Differences are found when considering other geographic contexts. A comparison with data from literature shows that Alpine cryoconite is strongly influenced by the Chernobyl fallout, while cryoconite from other regions is more impacted by events such as nuclear test explosions and satellite reentries. To explain the accumulation of radionuclides in cryoconite, the glacial environment as a whole must be considered, and particularly the interaction between ice, meltwater, cryoconite and atmospheric deposition. We hypothesize that the impurities originally preserved into ice and mobilized with meltwater during summer, including radionuclides, are accumulated in cryoconite because of their affinity for organic matter, which is abundant in cryoconite. In relation to these processes, we have explored the possibility of exploiting radioactivity to date cryoconite.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: The abundance and speciation of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) is important for understanding their impacts on human health, cloud formation, and ecosystems. Towards this, we have developed a protocol for quantifying PBAP collected from large volumes of air with a portable wet-walled cyclone bioaerosol sampler. A flow cytometry (FCM) protocol was then developed to quantify and characterize the PBAP populations from the sampler, which were confirmed against epifluorescence microscopy. The sampling system and FCM analysis were used to study PBAP in Atlanta, GA, over a 2-month period and showed clearly defined populations of nucleic-acid-containing particles: low nucleic acid-content particles above threshold (LNA-AT) and high nucleic acid-content particles (HNA) likely containing wet-ejected fungal spores and pollen. We find that the daily-average springtime PBAP concentration (1 to 5 µm diameter) ranged between 1.4×104 and 1.1×105 m−3. The LNA-AT population dominated PBAP during dry days (72±18 %); HNA dominated the PBAP during humid days and following rain events, where HNA comprised up to 92 % of the PBAP number. Concurrent measurements with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4A) showed that fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) and total FCM counts are similar; HNA (from FCM) moderately correlated with ABC-type FBAP concentrations throughout the sampling period (and for the same particle size range, 1–5 µm diameter). However, the FCM LNA-AT population, possibly containing bacterial cells, did not correlate with any FBAP type. The lack of correlation of any WIBS FBAP type with the LNA-AT suggests that airborne bacterial cells may be more difficult to unambiguously detect with autofluorescence than currently thought. Identification of bacterial cells even in the FCM (LNA-AT population) is challenging, given that the fluorescence level of stained cells at times may be comparable to that seen from abiotic particles. HNA and ABC displayed the highest concentration on a humid and warm day after a rain event (14 April 2015), suggesting that both populations correspond to wet-ejected fungal spores. Overall, information from both instruments combined reveals a highly dynamic airborne bioaerosol community over Atlanta, with a considerable presence of fungal spores during humid days and an LNA-AT population dominating the bioaerosol community during dry days.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions is receiving a lot of attention because of its relevance for climate mitigation. Complementary to official reported bottom-up emission inventories, quantification can be done with an inverse modelling framework, combining atmospheric transport models, prior gridded emission inventories and a network of atmospheric observations to optimize the emission inventories. An important aspect of such a method is a correct quantification of the uncertainties in all aspects of the modelling framework. The uncertainties in gridded emission inventories are, however, not systematically analysed. In this work, a statistically coherent method is used to quantify the uncertainties in a high-resolution gridded emission inventory of CO2 and CO for Europe. We perform a range of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the effect of uncertainties in different inventory components, including the spatial and temporal distribution, on the uncertainty in total emissions and the resulting atmospheric mixing ratios. We find that the uncertainties in the total emissions for the selected domain are 1 % for CO2 and 6 % for CO. Introducing spatial disaggregation causes a significant increase in the uncertainty of up to 40 % for CO2 and 70 % for CO for specific grid cells. Using gridded uncertainties, specific regions can be defined that have the largest uncertainty in emissions and are thus an interesting target for inverse modellers. However, the largest sectors are usually the best-constrained ones (low relative uncertainty), so the absolute uncertainty is the best indicator for this. With this knowledge, areas can be identified that are most sensitive to the largest emission uncertainties, which supports network design.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: In this paper, an analytical wake model with a double-Gaussian velocity distribution is presented, improving on a similar formulation by Keane et al. (2016). The choice of a double-Gaussian shape function is motivated by the behavior of the near-wake region that is observed in numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The method is based on the conservation of momentum principle, while stream-tube theory is used to determine the wake expansion at the tube outlet. The model is calibrated and validated using large eddy simulations replicating scaled wind turbine experiments. Results show that the tuned double-Gaussian model is superior to a single-Gaussian formulation in the near-wake region.
    Print ISSN: 2366-7443
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Description: This study provides dissolved and particulate 230Th and 232Th results as well as particulate 234Th data collected during expeditions to the central Arctic Ocean (GEOTRACES, an international project to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of trace elements; sections GN04 and GIPY11). Constructing a time series of dissolved 230Th from 1991 to 2015 enables the identification of processes that control the temporal development of 230Th distributions in the Amundsen Basin. After 2007, 230Th concentrations decreased significantly over the entire water column, particularly between 300 and 1500 m. This decrease is accompanied by a circulation change, evidenced by a concomitant increase in salinity. A potentially increased inflow of water of Atlantic origin with low dissolved 230Th concentrations leads to the observed depletion in dissolved 230Th in the central Arctic. Because atmospherically derived tracers (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)) do not reveal an increase in ventilation rate, it is suggested that these interior waters have undergone enhanced scavenging of Th during transit from Fram Strait and the Barents Sea to the central Amundsen Basin. The 230Th depletion propagates downward in the water column by settling particles and reversible scavenging.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: Stratospheric water vapour (SWV) is a climatically important atmospheric constituent due to its impacts on the radiation budget and atmospheric chemical composition. Despite the important role of SWV in the climate system, the processes controlling the distribution and variation in water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are not well understood. In order to better understand the mechanism of transport of water vapour through the tropopause, this study uses the high-resolution Global Environmental Multiscale model of the Environment and Climate Change Canada to simulate a lower stratosphere moistening event over North America. Satellite remote sensing and aircraft in situ observations are used to evaluate the quality of model simulation. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the processes that influence the lower stratosphere water vapour budget, particularly the direct water vapour transport and the moistening due to the ice sublimation. In the high-resolution simulations with horizontal grid spacing of less than 2.5 km, it is found that the main contribution to lower stratospheric moistening is the upward transport caused by the breaking of gravity waves. In contrast, for the lower-resolution simulation with horizontal grid spacing of 10 km, the lower stratospheric moistening is dominated by the sublimation of ice. In comparison with the aircraft in situ observations, the high-resolution simulations predict the water vapour content in the UTLS well, while the lower-resolution simulation overestimates the water vapour content. This overestimation is associated with the overly abundant ice in the UTLS along with a sublimation rate that is too high in the lower stratosphere. The results of this study affirm the strong influence of overshooting convection on the lower stratospheric water vapour and highlight the importance of both dynamics and microphysics in simulating the water vapour distribution in the UTLS region.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is an intersection area between the Anatolian and Eurasian plates. The Arabian Plate, which squeezes the Anatolian Plate from the south between the Eurasian Plate and itself, is also responsible for this formation. This tectonic motion causes the Anatolian Plate to move westwards with almost a 20 mm yr−1 velocity, which has caused destructive earthquakes in history. Block boundaries that form the faults are generally locked to the bottom of the seismogenic layer because of the friction between blocks and are responsible for these discharges. However, there are also some unique events observed around the world, which may cause partially or fully free-slipping faults. This phenomenon is called “aseismic creep” and may occur through the entire seismogenic zone or at least to some depths. Additionally, it is a rare event in the world located in two reported segments along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), which are İsmetpaşa and Destek. In this study, we established GPS networks covering those segments and made three campaigns between 2014 and 2016. Considering the long-term geodetic movements of the blocks (Anatolian and Eurasian plates), surface velocities and fault parameters are calculated. The results of the model indicate that aseismic creep still continues with rates of 13.2±3.3 mm yr−1 at İsmetpaşa and 9.6±3.1 mm yr−1 at Destek. Additionally, aseismic creep behavior is limited to some depths and decays linearly to the bottom of the seismogenic layer at both segments. This study suggests that this aseismic creep behavior will not prevent medium- to large-scale earthquakes in the long term.
    Print ISSN: 2193-0856
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-0864
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Residual pressure can be preserved in mineral inclusions, e.g. quartz-in-garnet, after exhumation due to differential expansion between inclusion and host crystals. Raman spectroscopy has been applied to infer the residual pressure and provides information on the entrapment temperature and pressure conditions. However, the amount of residual pressure relaxation cannot be directly measured. An underestimation or overestimation of residual pressure may lead to significant errors between calculated and actual entrapment pressure. This study focuses on three mechanisms responsible for the residual pressure modification: (1) viscous creep; (2) plastic yield; (3) proximity of inclusion to the thin-section surface. Criteria are provided to quantify how much of the expected residual pressure is modified due to these three mechanisms. An analytical solution is introduced to demonstrate the effect of inclusion depth on the residual pressure field when the inclusion is close to the thin-section surface. It is shown that for a quartz-in-garnet system, the distance between the thin-section surface and inclusion centre needs to be at least 3 times the inclusion radius to avoid pressure release. In terms of viscous creep, representative case studies on a quartz-in-garnet system show that viscous relaxation may occur from temperatures as low as 600–700 ∘C depending on the particular pressure–temperature (P–T) path and various garnet compositions. For quartz entrapped along the prograde P–T path and subject to viscous relaxation at peak T above 600–700 ∘C, its residual pressure after exhumation may be higher than predicted from its true entrapment conditions. Moreover, such a viscous resetting effect may introduce apparent overstepping of garnet nucleation that is not related to reaction affinity.
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Simulating ensembles of extreme events is a necessary task to evaluate their probability distribution and analyze their meteorological properties. Algorithms of importance sampling have provided a way to simulate trajectories of dynamical systems (like climate models) that yield extreme behavior, like heat waves. Such algorithms also give access to the return periods of such events. We present an adaptation based on circulation analogues of importance sampling to provide a data-based algorithm that simulates extreme events like heat waves in a realistic way. This algorithm is a modification of a stochastic weather generator, which gives more weight to trajectories with higher temperatures. This presentation outlines the methodology using European heat waves and illustrates the spatial and temporal properties of simulations.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Karst systems are characterized by a high subsurface heterogeneity, and their complex recharge processes are difficult to characterize. Experimental methods to study karst systems mostly focus on analysing the entire aquifer. Despite their important role in recharge processes, the soil and epikarst receive limited attention, and the few available studies were performed at sites of similar latitudes. In this paper, we describe a new monitoring network that allows for the improvement of the understanding of soil and epikarst processes by including different karst systems with different land-cover types in different climate regions. Here, we present preliminary data form the network and elaborate on their potential to answer research questions about the role of soil and epikarst on karstic water flow and storage. The network measures soil moisture at multiple points and depths to understand the partitioning of rainfall into infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge processes. We installed soil moisture probes at five different climate regions: Puerto Rico (tropical), Spain (Mediterranean), the United Kingdom (humid oceanic), Germany (humid mountainous), and Australia (dry semi-arid). At each of the five sites, we defined two 20 m×20 m plots with different land-use types (forest and grassland). At each plot, 15 soil moisture profiles were randomly selected and probes at different depths from the topsoil to the epikarst (in total over 400 soil moisture probes) were installed. Covering the spatio-temporal variability of flow processes through a large number of profiles, our monitoring network will allow researchers to develop a new conceptual understanding of evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge processes in karst regions across different climate regions and land-use types, and this will provide the base for quantitative assessment with physically based modelling approaches in the future.
    Print ISSN: 2193-0856
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: A train of likely Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) vortices with plasma transport across the magnetopause has been observed by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) at the duskside of the magnetopause. This unique event occurs when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) abruptly turns northward, which is the immediate change to facilitate the K–H instability. Two THEMIS spacecraft, TH-A and TH-E, separated by 3 RE, periodically encountered the duskside magnetopause and the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) with a period of 2 min and tailward propagation of 212 km s−1. Despite surface waves also explaining some of the observations, the rotations in the bulk velocity observation, a distorted magnetopause with plasma parameter fluctuations and the magnetic field perturbations, as well as a high-velocity low-density feature indicate the possible formation of rolled-up K–H vortices at the duskside of the magnetopause. The coexistence of magnetosheath ions with magnetospheric ions and enhanced energy flux of hot electrons is identified in the K–H vortices. These transport regions appear more periodic at the upstream spacecraft and more dispersive at the downstream location, indicating significant transport can occur and evolve during the tailward propagation of the K–H waves. There is still much work to do to fully understand the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism. The observations of the direct response to the northward turning of the IMF, the possible evidence of plasma transport within the vortices, involving both ion and electron fluxes, can provide additional clues as to the K–H mechanism.
    Print ISSN: 0992-7689
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Specified dynamics (SD) schemes relax the circulation in climate models toward a reference meteorology to simulate historical variability. These simulations are widely used to isolate the dynamical contributions to variability and trends in trace gas species. However, it is not clear if trends in the stratospheric overturning circulation are properly reproduced by SD schemes. This study assesses numerous SD schemes and modeling choices in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Whole Atmosphere Chemistry Climate Model (WACCM) to determine a set of best practices for reproducing interannual variability and trends in tropical stratospheric upwelling estimated by reanalyses. Nudging toward the reanalysis meteorology as is typically done in SD simulations does not accurately reproduce lower-stratospheric upwelling trends present in the underlying reanalysis. In contrast, nudging to anomalies from the climatological winds or anomalies from the zonal-mean winds and temperatures better reproduces trends in lower-stratospheric upwelling, possibly because these schemes do not disrupt WACCM's climatology. None of the schemes substantially alter the structure of upwelling trends – instead, they make the trends more or less AMIP-like. An SD scheme's performance in simulating the acceleration of the shallow branch of the mean meridional circulation from 1980 to 2017 hinges on its ability to simulate the downward shift of subtropical lower-stratospheric wave momentum forcing. Key to this is not nudging the zonal-mean temperature field. Gravity wave momentum forcing, which drives a substantial fraction of the upwelling in WACCM, cannot be constrained by nudging and presents an upper limit on the performance of these schemes.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: The framework of the single point uncertainty developed at the Institute of Manufacturing Metrology (FMT) presents a methodology to determine and evaluate the local measurement uncertainty for a measurement setup by local comparison of a measurement series with an associated reference geometry. This approach, which was originally developed and optimized for the processing of complete areal measurements of work pieces using industrial X-ray computed tomography, was now also extended to line scans found in dimensional testing using tactile coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). The targets of the investigation are spur (involute) steel gear wheels, which can be dimensionally characterized by both helix and profile scans using a CMM in scanning mode in combination with a rotatory table. A second measurement procedure is characterized by a single scan of the complete gear profile without the usage of a rotatory table, using the “free-form scan” CMM functionality. The modification of the single point uncertainty framework in order to determine the single point precision of repeated gear wheel measurements was implemented successfully for gear measurements using the Zeiss Gear Pro evaluation software in combination with a rotatory table as well as unassisted free-form scans of the same gear. The examinations yielded abnormally high random measurement errors, which could not fully be explained within our examinations and was for the most part caused by the accuracy of the used rotatory table of the CMM. The alternative measurement method showed that the CMM system is capable of measuring very precisely in scanning mode if the changes in the curvature of the scan trajectory are favourable.
    Print ISSN: 2194-8771
    Electronic ISSN: 2194-878X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a nitrifying biofilm reactor were investigated with N2O isotopocules. The nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O (15N-SP) indicated the contribution of producing and consuming pathways in response to changes in oxygenation level (from 0 % to 21 % O2 in the gas mix), temperature (from 13.5 to 22.3 ∘C) and ammonium concentrations (from 6.2 to 62.1 mg N L−1). Nitrite reduction, either nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic denitrification, was the main N2O-producing pathway under the tested conditions. Difference between oxidative and reductive rates of nitrite consumption was discussed in relation to NO2- concentrations and N2O emissions. Hence, nitrite oxidation rates seem to decrease as compared to ammonium oxidation rates at temperatures above 20 ∘C and under oxygen-depleted atmosphere, increasing N2O production by the nitrite reduction pathway. Below 20 ∘C, a difference in temperature sensitivity between hydroxylamine and ammonium oxidation rates is most likely responsible for an increase in N2O production via the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway (nitrification). A negative correlation between the reaction kinetics and the apparent isotope fractionation was additionally shown from the variations of δ15N and δ18O values of N2O produced from ammonium. The approach and results obtained here, for a nitrifying biofilm reactor under variable environmental conditions, should allow for application and extrapolation of N2O emissions from other systems such as lakes, soils and sediments.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: During the manufacturing of work pieces, geometrical deviations from the intended nominal geometry of the designer are inevitable. The procedure of conformance testing defined in ISO 14253-1:2018-07 is used to ensure the function of a work piece by verifying the geometrical compliance with pre-defined tolerance specifications. Depending on the measurement setup used for the validation step, it is possible that the local measurement uncertainty is too large in order to provide a meaningful conformance evaluation. This paper aims to demonstrate the complete workflow of the determination of the locally defined single point uncertainty and its components (systematic and random measurement error, respectively) for a given measurement task. It was shown for an optical measurement setup in combination with an industrial X-ray computed tomography reference measurement system that different necessary colouring methods of polymer (POM) gear wheels, which are required to enable measurements using structured-light scanning, have a measurable influence on the local distribution of the measurement uncertainty. Because of the fact that the presented method is dependent on a discrete surface sampling, the effects of different polygonization settings during the creation of the areal measurement result were evaluated in order to rate the reduced data complexity against the hereby possibly increased measurement uncertainty. The gained information regarding the local measurement uncertainty of a measurement setup can then be used for downstream processes in various use cases, e.g. for the improvement of holistic tolerance simulation models or the improvement of geometrical measurements using weighted regression analysis. Additionally, the visualization of the areal distribution of the measurement uncertainty enables a powerful tool to optimize the used measurement setup.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: The physician Leonardo Vordoni recorded sea heights at Trieste from 1782 to 1794 because of his interest in studying the connections between tides and the course of diseases that he attributed to the same forces. The data, expressed in Paris feet and inches (1 ft = 12 in. = 32.4845 cm), consist of heights measured on a pole, relative to the green algae belt corresponding to the mean high water. The measurements were reported in a manuscript that was recently found in the correspondence received by Giuseppe Toaldo, an astronomer in Padua. The observations were made twice a day until June 1791 and more frequently afterwards; the data from July 1791 onwards reasonably describe both the astronomical tide and the inverted-barometer (IB) effect. The low frequency of observations and poor metadata information seriously limit the scientific value of the data set, which, therefore, has mainly a historical value. In comparisons with modern data, the amplitude of sea level variations appears rather large, as if a unit shorter than the Paris foot was used. Moreover, an anomalously large decadal trend exists, which might be due to the pole sinking into the sea floor. The sea heights were digitized and are available through SEANOE (SEA scieNtific Open data Edition; https://doi.org/10.17882/62598; Raicich, 2019a).
    Print ISSN: 2190-5010
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-5029
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: As wind turbines in a wind farm interact with each other, a control problem arises that has been extensively studied in the literature: how can we optimize the power production of a wind farm as a whole? A traditional approach to this problem is called induction control, in which the power capture of an upstream turbine is lowered for the benefit of downstream machines. In recent simulation studies, an alternative approach, where the induction factor is varied over time, has shown promising results. In this paper, the potential of this dynamic induction control (DIC) approach is further investigated. Only periodic variations, where the input is a sinusoid, are studied. A proof of concept for this periodic DIC approach will be given by the execution of scaled wind tunnel experiments, showing for the first time that this approach can yield power gains in real-world wind farms. Furthermore, the effects on the damage equivalent loads (DEL) of the turbine are evaluated in a simulation environment. These indicate that the increase in DEL on the excited turbine is limited.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-02-19
    Description: We provide a review of the environmental threats and gaps in monitoring programmes in European coastal waters based on previous studies, an online questionnaire, and an in-depth assessment of observation scales. Our findings underpin the JERICO-NEXT1 monitoring strategy for the development and integration of coastal observatories in Europe and support JERICO-RI2 in providing high-value physical, chemical, and biological datasets for addressing key challenges at a European level. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of environmental threats in European coastal environments. Participants in the online questionnaire provided new insights into gaps between environmental threats and monitoring of impacts. In total, 36 national representatives, scientists, and monitoring authorities from 12 European countries (Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, UK) completed the questionnaire, and 38 monitoring programmes were reported. The main policy drivers of monitoring were identified as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), Regional Seas Conventions (e.g. OSPAR), and local drivers. Although policy drivers change over time, their overall purposes remain similar. The most commonly identified threats to the marine environment were marine litter, shipping, contaminants, organic enrichment, and fishing. Regime change was identified as a pressure by 67 % of respondents. The main impacts of these pressures or threats were identified by the majority of respondents (〉 70 %) to be habitat loss or destruction, underwater noise, and contamination, with 60 % identifying undesirable disturbance (e.g. oxygen depletion), changes in sediment and/or substrate composition, changes in community composition, harmful microorganisms, and invasive species as impacts. Most respondents considered current monitoring of threats to be partially adequate or not adequate. The majority of responses were related to the spatial and/or temporal scales at which monitoring takes place and inadequate monitoring of particular parameters. Suggestions for improved monitoring programmes included improved design, increased monitoring effort, and better linkages with research and new technologies. Improved monitoring programmes should be fit for purpose, underpin longer-term scientific objectives which cut across policy and other drivers, and consider cumulative effects of multiple pressures. JERICO-RI aims to fill some of the observation gaps in monitoring programmes through the development of new technologies. The science strategy for JERICO-RI will pave the way to a better integration of physical, chemical, and biological observations into an ecological process perspective.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-02-19
    Description: The basis and challenge of strongly coupled data assimilation (CDA) is the accurate representation of cross-domain covariances between various coupled subsystems with disparate spatio-temporal scales, where often one or more subsystems are unobserved. In this study, we explore strong CDA using ensemble Kalman filtering methods applied to a conceptual multiscale chaotic model consisting of three coupled Lorenz attractors. We introduce the use of the local attractor dimension (i.e. the Kaplan–Yorke dimension, dimKY) to prescribe the rank of the background covariance matrix which we construct using a variable number of weighted covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs). Specifically, we consider the ability to track the nonlinear trajectory of each of the subsystems with different variants of sparse observations, relying only on the cross-domain covariance to determine an accurate analysis for tracking the trajectory of the unobserved subdomain. We find that spanning the global unstable and neutral subspaces is not sufficient at times where the nonlinear dynamics and intermittent linear error growth along a stable direction combine. At such times a subset of the local stable subspace is also needed to be represented in the ensemble. In this regard the local dimKY provides an accurate estimate of the required rank. Additionally, we show that spanning the full space does not improve performance significantly relative to spanning only the subspace determined by the local dimension. Where weak coupling between subsystems leads to covariance collapse in one or more of the unobserved subsystems, we apply a novel modified Kalman gain where the background covariances are scaled by their Frobenius norm. This modified gain increases the magnitude of the innovations and the effective dimension of the unobserved domains relative to the strength of the coupling and timescale separation. We conclude with a discussion on the implications for higher-dimensional systems.
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-02-19
    Description: Limiting fuel sulfur content (FSC) is a widely adopted approach for reducing ship emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM), particularly in emission control areas (ECAs), but its impact on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is still not well understood. In this study, emissions from ships at berth in Guangzhou, southern China, were characterized before and after the implementation of the fuel switch policy (IFSP) with an FSC limit of 0.5 % in the Pearl River Delta ECA (ECA-PRD). After IFSP, the emission factors (EFs) of SO2 and PM2.5 for the coastal vessels decreased by 78 % and 56 % on average, respectively; however, the EFs of the VOCs were 1807±1746 mg kg−1, approximately 15 times that of 118±56.1 mg kg−1 before IFSP. This dramatic increase in the emissions of the VOCs might have been largely due to the replacement of high-sulfur residual fuel oil with low-sulfur diesel or heavy oils, which are typically richer in short-chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, reactive alkenes surpassed alkanes to become the dominant group among the VOCs, and low-carbon-number VOCs, such as ethylene, propene and isobutane, became the dominant species after IFSP. As a result of the largely elevated EFs of the reactive alkenes and aromatics after IFSP, the emitted VOCs per kilogram of fuel burned had nearly 29 times greater ozone formation potential (OFP) and approximately 2 times greater secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP) than those before IFSP. Unlike the coastal vessels, the river vessels in the region used diesel fuels consistently and were not affected by the fuel switch policy, but the EFs of their VOCs were 90 % greater than those of the coastal vessels after IFSP, with approximately 120 % greater fuel-based OFP and 70 %–140 % greater SOAFP. The results from this study suggest that while the fuel switch policy could effectively reduce SO2 and PM emissions, and thus help control PM2.5 pollution, it will also lead to greater emissions of reactive VOCs, which may threaten ozone pollution control in harbor cities. This change for coastal or ocean-going vessels, in addition to the large amounts of reactive VOCs from the river vessels, raises regulatory concerns for ship emissions of reactive VOCs.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: The Bay of Bengal (BoB) has long stood as a biogeochemical enigma, with subsurface waters containing extremely low, but persistent, concentrations of oxygen in the nanomolar range which – for some, yet unconstrained, reason – are prevented from becoming anoxic. One reason for this may be the low productivity of the BoB waters due to nutrient limitation and the resulting lack of respiration of organic material at intermediate waters. Thus, the parameters determining primary production are key in understanding what prevents the BoB from developing anoxia. Primary productivity in the sunlit surface layers of tropical oceans is mostly limited by the supply of reactive nitrogen through upwelling, riverine flux, atmospheric deposition, and biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation. In the BoB, a stable stratification limits nutrient supply via upwelling in the open waters, and riverine or atmospheric fluxes have been shown to support only less than one-quarter of the nitrogen for primary production. This leaves a large uncertainty for most of the BoB's nitrogen input, suggesting a potential role of N2 fixation in those waters. Here, we present a survey of N2 fixation and carbon fixation in the BoB during the winter monsoon season. We detected a community of N2 fixers comparable to other oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) regions, with only a few cyanobacterial clades and a broad diversity of non-phototrophic N2 fixers present throughout the water column (samples collected between 10 and 560 m water depth). While similar communities of N2 fixers were shown to actively fix N2 in other OMZs, N2 fixation rates were below the detection limit in our samples covering the water column between the deep chlorophyll maximum and the OMZ. Consistent with this, no N2 fixation signal was visible in δ15N signatures. We suggest that the absence of N2 fixation may be a consequence of a micronutrient limitation or of an O2 sensitivity of the OMZ diazotrophs in the BoB. Exploring how the onset of N2 fixation by cyanobacteria compared to non-phototrophic N2 fixers would impact on OMZ O2 concentrations, a simple model exercise was carried out. We observed that both photic-zone-based and OMZ-based N2 fixation are very sensitive to even minimal changes in water column stratification, with stronger mixing increasing organic matter production and export, which can exhaust remaining O2 traces in the BoB.
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    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020-02-13
    Description: Numerical modeling provides an opportunity to quantify the reaction of lakes to alterations in their environment, such as changes in climate or hydrological conditions. The one-dimensional hydrodynamic General Lake Model (GLM) is an open-source software and widely used within the limnological research community. Nevertheless, no interface to process the input data and run the model and no tools for an automatic parameter calibration yet exist. Hence, we developed glmGUI, a graphical user interface (GUI) including a toolbox for an autocalibration, parameter sensitivity analysis, and several plot options. The tool is provided as a package for the freely available scientific code language R. The model parameters can be analyzed and calibrated for the simulation output variables water temperature and lake level. The glmGUI package is tested for two sites (lake Ammersee, Germany, and lake Baratz, Italy), distinguishing size, mixing regime, hydrology of the catchment area (i.e., the number of inflows and their runoff seasonality), and climatic conditions. A robust simulation of water temperature for both lakes (Ammersee: RMSE =1.17 ∘C; Baratz: RMSE =1.30 ∘C) is achieved by a quick automatic calibration. The quality of a water temperature simulation can be assessed immediately by means of a difference plot provided by glmGUI, which displays the distribution of the spatial (vertical) and temporal deviations. The calibration of the lake-level simulations of lake Ammersee for multiple hydrological inputs including also unknown inflows yielded a satisfactory model fit (RMSE =0.20 m). This shows that GLM can also be used to estimate the water balance of lakes correctly. The tools provided by glmGUI enable a less time-consuming and simplified parameter optimization within the calibration process. Due to this, i.e., the free availability and the implementation in a GUI, the presented R package expands the application of GLM to a broader field of lake modeling research and even beyond limnological experts.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-02-13
    Description: Rivers are dynamical systems that are thought to evolve towards a steady-state configuration. Then, geomorphic parameters, such as channel width and slope, are constant over time. In the mathematical description of the system, the steady state corresponds to a fixed point in the dynamic equations in which all time derivatives are equal to zero. In alluvial rivers, steady state is characterized by grade. This can be expressed as a so-called order principle: an alluvial river evolves to achieve a state in which sediment transport is constant along the river channel and is equal to transport capacity everywhere. In bedrock rivers, steady state is thought to be achieved with a balance between channel incision and uplift. The corresponding order principle is the following: a bedrock river evolves to achieve a vertical bedrock incision rate that is equal to the uplift rate or base-level lowering rate. In the present work, considerations of process physics and of the mass balance of a bedrock channel are used to argue that bedrock rivers evolve to achieve both grade and a balance between channel incision and uplift. As such, bedrock channels are governed by two order principles. As a consequence, the recognition of a steady state with respect to one of them does not necessarily imply an overall steady state. For further discussion of the bedrock channel evolution towards a steady state, expressions for adjustment timescales are sought. For this, a mechanistic model for lateral erosion of bedrock channels is developed, which allows one to obtain analytical solutions for the adjustment timescales for the morphological variables of channel width, channel bed slope, and alluvial bed cover. The adjustment timescale to achieve steady cover is of the order of minutes to days, while the adjustment timescales for width and slope are of the order of thousands of years. Thus, cover is adjusted quickly in response to a change in boundary conditions to achieve a graded state. The resulting change in vertical and lateral incision rates triggers a slow adjustment of width and slope, which in turn affects bed cover. As a result of these feedbacks, it can be expected that a bedrock channel is close to a graded state most of the time, even when it is transiently adjusting its bedrock channel morphology.
    Print ISSN: 2196-6311
    Electronic ISSN: 2196-632X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: We investigate the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration utilising data from 147 primary forest soils (0–30 cm depth) sampled in eight different countries across the Amazon Basin. Sampled across 14 different World Reference Base soil groups, our data suggest that stabilisation mechanism varies with pedogenetic level. Specifically, although SOC concentrations in Ferralsols and Acrisols were best explained by simple variations in clay content – this presumably being due to their relatively uniform kaolinitic mineralogy – this was not the case for less weathered soils such as Alisols, Cambisols and Plinthosols for which interactions between Al species, soil pH and litter quality are argued to be much more important. Although for more strongly weathered soils the majority of SOC is located within the aggregate fraction, for the less weathered soils most of the SOC is located within the silt and clay fractions. It thus seems that for highly weathered soils SOC storage is mostly influenced by surface area variations arising from clay content, with physical protection inside aggregates rendering an additional level of protection against decomposition. On the other hand, most of the SOC in less weathered soils is associated with the precipitation of aluminium–carbon complexes within the fine soil fraction, with this mechanism enhanced by the presence of high levels of aromatic, carboxyl-rich organic matter compounds. Also examined as part of this study were a relatively small number of arenic soils (viz. Arenosols and Podzols) for which there was a small but significant influence of clay and silt content variations on SOM storage, with fractionation studies showing that particulate organic matter may account for up to 0.60 of arenic soil SOC. In contrast to what were in all cases strong influences of soil and/or litter quality properties, after accounting for these effects neither wood productivity, above-ground biomass nor precipitation/temperature variations were found to exert any significant influence on SOC stocks. These results have important implications for our understanding of how Amazon forest soils are likely to respond to ongoing and future climate changes.
    Print ISSN: 2199-3971
    Electronic ISSN: 2199-398X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: Forest soils represent a major stock of organic carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere, but the dynamics of soil organic C (SOC) stock are poorly quantified, largely due to lack of direct field measurements. In this study, we investigated the 20-year changes in SOC stocks in eight permanent forest plots, which represent boreal (1998–2014), temperate (1992–2012), subtropical (1987–2008), and tropical forest biomes (1992–2012) across China. SOC contents increased significantly from the 1990s to the 2010s, mostly in the upper 0–20 cm soil depth, and soil bulk densities do not change significantly during the same period. As a result, the averaged SOC stocks increased significantly from 125.2±85.2 Mg C ha−1 in the 1990s to 133.6±83.1 Mg C ha−1 in the 2010s across the forest plots, with a mean increase of 127.2–907.5 kg C ha−1 yr−1. This SOC accumulation resulted primarily from increasing leaf litter and fallen logs, which accounts 3.6 %–16.3 % of above-ground net primary production. Our findings provided direct evidence that China's forest soils have been acting as significant C sinks, although their strength varies in forests with different climates.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: Changes in morphology during ontogeny can have profound impacts on the physiology and biology of a species. Studies of ontogenetic disparity through time are rare because of the lack of preservation of developmental stages in the fossil record. As they grow by incremental chamber accretion and retain evidence of growth in their shell, planktic foraminifera are an ideal group for the study ontogenetic disparity through the evolution of a higher taxon. Here, we quantify different developmental stages in Jurassic foraminifers and infer the evolutionary implications of the shape of these earliest representatives of the group. Using a Zeiss Xradia micro-CT scanner, the development of Globuligerina bathoniana and Globuligerina oxfordiana from the Bathonian sediments of Gnaszyn, Poland, and Globuligerina balakhmatovae and Globuligerina tojeiraensis from the Kimmeridgian Tojeira Formation of Portugal was reconstructed. Disparity is low through the early evolution of planktic foraminifers. The number of chambers and range in surface area per unit volume are lower than in modern specimens. We interpret this morphology as an indication of opportunistic behaviour. The low morphological plasticity during the juvenile stage suggests that strong constraints on the juveniles, described in the modern ocean, were already acting on Jurassic specimens. The high surface area per unit volume in these developmental stages points towards the need to satisfy a higher metabolic demand than in the adult specimens. We are interpreting the lower chamber numbers as indicative of short life cycles and potentially rapid reproduction, both of which may have allowed these species to exploit the nutrient-rich waters of the Jurassic Tethys Ocean.
    Print ISSN: 0262-821X
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4978
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of Micropalaeontological Society.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: Vegetation and hydrology are important controlling factors in peatland methane dynamics. This study aimed at investigating the role of vegetation components, sedges, dwarf shrubs, and Sphagnum mosses, in methane fluxes of a boreal fen under natural and experimental water level drawdown conditions. We measured the fluxes during growing seasons 2001–2004 using the static chamber technique in a field experiment where the role of the ecosystem components was assessed via plant removal treatments. The first year was a calibration year after which the water level drawdown and vegetation removal treatments were applied. Under natural water level conditions, plant-mediated fluxes comprised 68 %–78 % of the mean growing season flux (1.73±0.17 g CH4 m−2 month−1 from June to September), of which Sphagnum mosses and sedges accounted for one-fourth and three-fourths, respectively. The presence of dwarf shrubs, on the other hand, had a slightly attenuating effect on the fluxes. In water level drawdown conditions, the mean flux was close to zero (0.03±0.03 g CH4 m−2 month−1) and the presence and absence of the plant groups had a negligible effect. In conclusion, water level acted as a switch; only in natural water level conditions did vegetation regulate the net fluxes. The results are relevant for assessing the response of fen peatland fluxes to changing climatic conditions, as water level drawdown and the consequent vegetation succession are the major projected impacts of climate change on northern peatlands.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: Partitioning carbon fluxes is key to understanding the process underlying ecosystem response to change. This study used soil and canopy fluxes with stable isotopes (13C) and radiocarbon (14C) measurements in an 18 km2, 50-year-old, dry (287 mm mean annual precipitation; nonirrigated) Pinus halepensis forest plantation in Israel to partition the net ecosystem's CO2 flux into gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) and (with the aid of isotopic measurements) soil respiration flux (Rs) into autotrophic (Rsa), heterotrophic (Rh), and inorganic (Ri) components. On an annual scale, GPP and Re were 655 and 488 g C m−2, respectively, with a net primary productivity (NPP) of 282 g C m−2 and carbon-use efficiency (CUE = NPP ∕ GPP) of 0.43. Rs made up 60 % of the Re and comprised 24±4 %Rsa, 23±4 %Rh, and 13±1 %Ri. The contribution of root and microbial respiration to Re increased during high productivity periods, and inorganic sources were more significant components when the soil water content was low. Comparing the ratio of the respiration components to Re of our mean 2016 values to those of 2003 (mean for 2001–2006) at the same site indicated a decrease in the autotrophic components (roots, foliage, and wood) by about −13 % and an increase in the heterotrophic component (Rh∕Re) by about +18 %, with similar trends for soil respiration (Rsa∕Rs decreasing by −19 % and Rh∕Rs increasing by +8 %, respectively). The soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased across the same observation period by 36 % and 9 % in the wet and dry periods, respectively. Low rates of soil carbon loss combined with relatively high belowground carbon allocation (i.e., 38 % of canopy CO2 uptake) and low sensitivity to temperature help explain the high soil organic carbon accumulation and the relatively high ecosystem CUE of the dry forest.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: Finding observational evidence of land surface and atmosphere interactions is crucial for understanding the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer, as well as for model evaluation, and in particular for large-eddy simulation (LES) models. In this study, the influence of a heterogeneous land surface on the spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor is assessed. Ground-based remote sensing measurements from a scanning microwave radiometer (MWR) are used in a long-term study over 6 years to characterize spatial heterogeneities in integrated water vapor (IWV) during clear-sky conditions at the Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE). The resulting deviations from the mean of the scans reveal a season- and direction-dependent IWV that is visible throughout the day. Comparisons with a satellite-derived spatial IWV distribution show good agreement for a selection of satellite overpasses during convective situations but no clear seasonal signal. With the help of a land use type classification and information on the topography, the main types of regions with a positive IWV deviation were determined to be agricultural fields and nearby open pit mines. Negative deviations occurred mainly above elevated forests and urban areas. In addition, high-resolution large-eddy simulations (LESs) are used to investigate changes in the water vapor and cloud fields for an altered land use input.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: The transition, in extent and characteristics, of atmospheric emissions caused by the modernization of the heavy-duty on-road fleet was studied utilizing roadside measurements. Emissions of particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and particle volatility were measured from 556 individual heavy-duty trucks (HDTs). Substantial reductions in PM, BC, NOx, CO, and to a lesser extent PN were observed from Euro III to Euro VI HDTs by 99 %, 98 %, 93 %, and 57 % for the average emission factors of PM, BC, NOx, and CO, respectively. Despite significant total reductions in NOx emissions, the fraction of NO2 in the NOx emissions increased continuously from Euro IV to Euro VI HDTs. Larger data scattering was evident for PN emissions in comparison to solid particle number (SPN) for Euro VI HDTs, indicating a highly variable fraction of volatile particle components. Particle size distributions of Euro III to enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle (EEV) HDTs were bimodal, whereas those of Euro VI HDTs were nucleation mode dominated. High emitters disproportionately contributed to a large fraction of the total emissions with the highest-emitting 10 % of HDTs in each pollutant category being responsible for 65 % of total PM, 70 % of total PN, and 44 % of total NOx emissions. Euro VI HDTs, which accounted for 53 % of total kilometres driven by Swedish HDTs, were estimated to only contribute to 2 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 47 % of PM, BC, NOx, and PN emissions, respectively. A shift to a fleet dominated by Euro VI HDTs would promote a transition of atmospheric emissions towards low PM, BC, NOx, and CO levels. Nonetheless, reducing PN, SPN, and NO2 emissions from Euro VI HDTs is still important to improve air quality in urban environments.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: Recent advances in fluorescence imaging facilitate actualistic studies of organisms used for palaeoceanographic reconstructions. Observations of cytoskeleton organisation and dynamics in living foraminifera foster understanding of morphogenetic and biomineralisation principles. This paper describes the organisation of a foraminiferal actin cytoskeleton using in vivo staining based on fluorescent SiR-actin. Surprisingly, the most distinctive pattern of SiR-actin staining in foraminifera is the prevalence of SiR-actin-labelled granules (ALGs) within pseudopodial structures. Fluorescent signals obtained from granules dominate over dispersed signals from the actin meshwork. SiR-actin-labelled granules are small (around 1 µm in diameter) actin-rich structures, demonstrating a wide range of motility behaviours, from almost stationarily oscillating around certain points to exhibiting rapid motion. These labelled microstructures are present both in Globothalamea (Amphistegina, Ammonia) and Tubothalamea (Quinqueloculina). They are found to be active in all kinds of pseudopodial ectoplasmic structures, including granuloreticulopodia, globopodia, and lamellipodia, as well as within the endoplasm. Several hypotheses are set up to explain either specific or non-specific actin staining. Two hypotheses regarding their function are proposed if specific actin labelling is taken into account: (1) granules are involved in endocytosis and intracellular transport of different kinds of cargo, or (2) they transport prefabricated and/or recycled actin fibres to the sites where they are needed. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. The first hypothesis is based on the presence of similar actin structures in fungi, fungi-like protists, and some plant cells. The later hypothesis is based on the assumption that actin granules are analogous to tubulin paracrystals responsible for efficient transport of tubulin. Actin patches transported in that manner are most likely involved in maintaining shape, rapid reorganisation, and elasticity of pseudopodial structures, as well as in adhesion to the substrate. Finally, our comparative studies suggest that a large proportion of SiR-actin-labelled granules probably represent fibrillar vesicles and elliptical fuzzy-coated vesicles often identified in transmission electron microscope images.
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  • 67