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  • 1
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    Arbeitsgemeinschaft Extraterrestrische Forschung e. V. (AEF) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2004 – 8(1).2012
    Publisher: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Extraterrestrische Forschung e. V. (AEF) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1810-6528
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6536
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
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    Delft University of Technology | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Delft University of Technology , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1996-9457
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-9465
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 3
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2014 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Corporation: European Geosciences Union, EGU
    Electronic ISSN: 2198-5634
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Keywords: Geophysik, Meteorologie, Ozeanographie
    Acronym: NPGD
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  • 4
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2005 – 8.2012
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1816-1499
    Electronic ISSN: 1816-1502
    Topics: Geography
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  • 5
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9537
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2014 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Topics: Physics
    Keywords: Astronomie, Astrophysik
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  • 8
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2001 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2001 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2004 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 11
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1814-9324
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9332
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 12
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1994-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0440
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 13
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    Delft University of Technology | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Delft University of Technology , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1996-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-9481
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 14
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 2190-4979
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-4987
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 15
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.1998 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Corporation: Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
    Print ISSN: 2193-0066
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-0074
    Topics: Geosciences
    Keywords: Paläontologie
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  • 16
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 7.2005 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1029-7006
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7962
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 17
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 2190-5010
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-5029
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 18
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.1997 –
    Print: 1.1997 – 14.2010 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 33/5-6)
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Corporation: European Geosciences Union, EGU
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Acronym: HESS
    Abbreviation: Hydrol Earth Syst Sci
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  • 19
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 2191-9151
    Electronic ISSN: 2191-916X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 20
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2013 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Corporation: European Geosciences Union, EGU
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Keywords: Meteorologie, Klimaänderung, Geodynamik
    Acronym: NHESSD
    Abbreviation: Nat Haz Earth Syst Sci Discuss
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  • 21
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    Copernicus | Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Print: 1.2005 – (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 64/6)
    Publisher: Copernicus , Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
    Corporation: German Research Centre for Geosciences, GFZ , Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, IODP
    Print ISSN: 1816-8957
    Electronic ISSN: 1816-3459
    Topics: Geosciences
    Keywords: Meeresgeologie, Tiefseeforschung
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  • 22
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    Copernicus | European Geosciences Union (EGU)
    Online: 1.2014 –
    Publisher: Copernicus , European Geosciences Union (EGU)
    Topics: Geosciences
    Keywords: Bodenkunde, Pedologie
    Acronym: SOILD
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  • 23
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Corporation: European Academy of Wind Energy, EAWE
    Print ISSN: 2366-7443
    Electronic ISSN: 2366-7451
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Keywords: Windenergie ; Erneuerbare Energien
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  • 24
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Corporation: European Academy of Wind Energy, EAWE
    Electronic ISSN: 2366-7451
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Keywords: Windenergie ; Erneuerbare Energien
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  • 25
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2003 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1680-7340
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7359
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 26
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    U.R.S.I.-Landesausschuss in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2003 –
    Formerly as: Kleinheubacher Berichte  (1963–2001)
    Publisher: U.R.S.I.-Landesausschuss in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1684-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9973
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 27
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2015 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 2364-3579
    Electronic ISSN: 2364-3587
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Keywords: Ozeanographie ; Klimatologie ; Meteorologie
    Acronym: ASCMO
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  • 28
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1(1).2005 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 29
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 30
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 31
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3591
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 32
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-4995
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 33
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2006 – 5.2010
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1815-381X
    Electronic ISSN: 1815-3828
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 34
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2013 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 2195-4771
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-478X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Keywords: Geothermie
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  • 35
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 36
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    The Micropalaeontological Society | Copernicus
    Online: 1(1).1982 –
    Publisher: The Micropalaeontological Society , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 0262-821X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 37
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2001 –
    Print: 1.2001 – 10.2010 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 48/6-7)
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Corporation: European Geosciences Union, EGU
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Acronym: NHESS
    Abbreviation: Nat Haz Earth Syst Sci
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  • 38
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    American Geophysical Union (AGU) | European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.1994 –
    Print: 1.1994 – 17.2010 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 54/1)
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU) , European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Corporation: European Geosciences Union, EGU
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Keywords: Geophysik, Meteorologie, Ozeanographie
    Acronym: NPG
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  • 39
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Corporation: International Association of Hydrological Sciences, IAHS
    Print ISSN: 2199-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 2199-899X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Keywords: Hydrologie
    Acronym: PIAHS
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  • 40
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2002 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1868-4556
    Electronic ISSN: 1868-4564
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 41
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1992-0628
    Electronic ISSN: 1992-0636
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 42
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 14(10).1996 –
    Print: 1.1983 - 2.1984; 9(1).1991; 10.1992 – 28.2010 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 5/2-4)
    Formerly as: Annales de Géophysique  (1944–1982)
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Corporation: European Geophysical Society
    Print ISSN: 0992-7689
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: ANGEO
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  • 43
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2004 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 44
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2006 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1815-3836
    Electronic ISSN: 1815-3844
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 45
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 46
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1(1).2004 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Acronym: HESSD
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  • 47
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 48
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    European Geosciences Union (EGU) | Copernicus
    Online: 1.2004 –
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (EGU) , Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1812-0806
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0822
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 49
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1(1).2014 –
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 2363-4707
    Electronic ISSN: 2363-4715
    Topics: Biology
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  • 50
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    Copernicus
    Online: 1.2005 – 7.2012
    Publisher: Copernicus
    Print ISSN: 1729-4274
    Electronic ISSN: 1729-4312
    Topics: Geography
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2015-04-23
    Description: Why is the Arkavathy River drying? A multiple-hypothesis approach in a data-scarce region Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 1905-1917, 2015 Author(s): V. Srinivasan, S. Thompson, K. Madhyastha, G. Penny, K. Jeremiah, and S. Lele Water planning decisions are only as good as our ability to explain historical trends and make reasonable predictions of future water availability. But predicting water availability can be a challenge in rapidly growing regions, where human modifications of land and waterscapes are changing the hydrologic system. Yet, many regions of the world lack the long-term hydrologic monitoring records needed to understand past changes and predict future trends. We investigated this "predictions under change" problem in the data-scarce Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy sub-basin in southern India. Inflows into TG Halli reservoir have declined sharply since the 1970s. The causes of the drying are poorly understood, resulting in misdirected or counter-productive management responses. Five plausible hypotheses that could explain the decline were tested using data from field surveys and secondary sources: (1) changes in rainfall amount, seasonality and intensity; (2) increases in temperature; (3) groundwater extraction; (4) expansion of eucalyptus plantations; and (5) fragmentation of the river channel. Our results suggest that groundwater pumping, expansion of eucalyptus plantations and, to a lesser extent, channel fragmentation are much more likely to have caused the decline in surface flows in the TG Halli catchment than changing climate. The multiple-hypothesis approach presents a systematic way to quantify the relative contributions of proximate anthropogenic and climate drivers to hydrological change. The approach not only makes a meaningful contribution to the policy debate but also helps prioritize and design future research. The approach is a first step to conducting use-inspired socio-hydrologic research in a watershed.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2015-04-23
    Description: Swath-altimetry measurements of the main stem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 1943-1959, 2015 Author(s): M. D. Wilson, M. Durand, H. C. Jung, and D. Alsdorf The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross-sectional averaging and the use of shorter reach lengths) and higher water-surface slopes (reducing the proportional impact of slope errors on discharge calculation).
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2015-04-23
    Description: The Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR): integration of water isotopes in watershed observation and riverine research Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 12, 4047-4079, 2015 Author(s): J. Halder, S. Terzer, L. I. Wassenaar, L. J. Araguás-Araguás, and P. K. Aggarwal We introduce a new online global database of riverine water stable isotopes ( Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers ) and evaluate its longer-term data holdings. Overall, 218 GNIR river stations were clustered into 3 different groups based on the seasonal variation in their isotopic composition, which was closely coupled to precipitation and snow-melt water run-off regimes. Sinusoidal fit functions revealed periodic phases within each grouping and deviations from the sinusoidal functions revealed important river alterations or hydrological processes in these watersheds. The seasonal isotopic amplitude of δ 18 O in rivers averaged 2.5 ‰, and did not increase as a function of latitude, as it does for global precipitation. Low seasonal isotopic amplitudes in rivers suggest the prevalence of mixing and storage such as occurs via lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater. The application of a catchment-constrained regionalized cluster-based water isotope prediction model (CC-RCWIP) allowed direct comparison between the expected isotopic composition for the upstream catchment precipitation with the measured isotopic composition of river discharge at observation stations. The catchment-constrained model revealed a strong global isotopic correlation between average rainfall and river discharge ( R 2 = 0.88) and the study demonstrated that the seasonal isotopic composition and variation of river water can be predicted. Deviations in data from model predicted values suggest there are important natural or anthropogenic catchment processes, like evaporation, damming, and water storage in the upstream catchment.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2015-04-23
    Description: The periglacial engine of mountain erosion – Part 1: Rates of frost cracking and frost creep Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions, 3, 285-326, 2015 Author(s): J. L. Andersen, D. L. Egholm, M. F. Knudsen, J. D. Jansen, and S. B. Nielsen With accelerating climate cooling in the late Cenozoic, glacial and periglacial erosion became more widespread on the surface of the Earth. The resultant shift in erosion patterns significantly changed the large-scale morphology of many mountain ranges worldwide. Whereas the glacial fingerprint is easily distinguished by its characteristic fjords and U-shaped valleys, the periglacial fingerprint is more subtle but potentially prevailing in some landscape settings. Previous models have advocated a frost-driven control on debris production on steep headwalls and glacial valley sides. Here we investigate the important role that periglacial processes also play in less steep parts of mountain landscapes. Understanding the influences of frost-driven processes in low-relief areas requires a focus on the consequences of an accreting soil-mantle, which characterizes such surfaces. In this paper, we present a new model that quantifies two key physical processes: frost cracking and frost creep, as a function of both temperature and sediment thickness. Our results yield new insights to how climate and sediment transport properties combine to scale the intensity of periglacial processes. The thickness of the soil-mantle strongly modulates the relation between climate and the intensity of mechanical weathering and sediment flux. Our results also point to an offset between the conditions that promote frost cracking and those that promote frost creep, indicating that a stable climate can only provide optimal conditions for one of those processes at a time. Finally, quantifying these relations also opens the possibility of including periglacial processes in large-scale, long-term landscape evolution models, as demonstrated in a companion paper.
    Electronic ISSN: 2196-6338
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2015-04-23
    Description: User awareness concerning feedback data and input observations used in reanalysis systems Advances in Science and Research, 12, 63-67, 2015 Author(s): H. Gregow, P. Poli, H. M. Mäkelä, K. Jylhä, A. K. Kaiser-Weiss, A. Obregon, D. G. H. Tan, S. Kekki, and F. Kaspar A web-based survey to assess the benefits and gaps in reanalyses as part of growing climate services was carried out in 2013–2014. The survey elicited responses from about 2500 users of climate information. One of the eleven survey points specifically addressed the observations used in reanalysis, with a multiple-choice question "Have you used reanalysis input observations and feedback data?". Almost half of the respondents admitted to not knowing what such data were about. Among the others, specific queries asked for these observations to be made available more openly. This paper summarizes the main findings in regard to use of existing reanalyses as well as user awareness and needs in regard to reanalysis feedback data and input observations. In the future, the information obtained via the survey makes it possible to perform various statistically robust analyses addressing different aspects of the use of reanalysis data.
    Print ISSN: 1992-0628
    Electronic ISSN: 1992-0636
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2015-04-23
    Description: Accuracy and precision of 14 C-based source apportionment of organic and elemental carbon in aerosols using the Swiss_4S protocol Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 8, 3933-3965, 2015 Author(s): G. O. Mouteva, S. M. Fahrni, G. M. Santos, J. T. Randerson, Y. L. Zhang, S. Szidat, and C. I. Czimczik Aerosol source apportionment remains a critical challenge for understanding the transport and aging of aerosols, as well as for developing successful air pollution mitigation strategies. The contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in carbonaceous aerosols can be quantified by measuring the radiocarbon ( 14 C) content of each carbon fraction. However, the use of 14 C in studying OC and EC has been limited by technical challenges related to the physical separation of the two fractions and small sample sizes. There is no common procedure for OC/EC 14 C analysis, and uncertainty studies have largely focused on the precision of yields. Here, we quantified the uncertainty in 14 C measurement of aerosols associated with the isolation and analysis of each carbon fraction with the Swiss_4S thermal-optical analysis (TOA) protocol. We used an OC/EC analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., OR, USA) coupled to vacuum line to separate the two components. Each fraction was thermally desorbed and converted to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in pure oxygen (O 2 ). On average 91% of the evolving CO 2 was then cryogenically trapped on the vacuum line, reduced to filamentous graphite, and measured for its 14 C content via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To test the accuracy of our set-up, we quantified the total amount of extraneous carbon introduced during the TOA sample processing and graphitization as the sum of modern and fossil ( 14 C-depleted) carbon introduced during the analysis of fossil reference materials (adipic acid for OC and coal for EC) and contemporary standards (oxalic acid for OC and rice char for EC) as a function of sample size. We further tested our methodology by analyzing five ambient airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples with a range of OC and EC concentrations and 14 C contents in an interlaboratory comparison. The total modern and fossil carbon blanks of our set-up were 0.8 ± 0.4 and 0.67 ± 0.34 μg C, respectively, based on multiple measurements of ultra-small samples. The Swiss_4S protocol and the cryo-trapping contributed 0.37 ± 0.18 μg of modern carbon and 0.13 ± 0.07 μg of fossil carbon to the estimated blanks, with consistent estimates obtained for the two laboratories. There was no difference in the background correction between the OC and EC fractions. Our set-up allowed us to efficiently isolate and trap each carbon fraction with the Swiss_4S protocol and to perform 14 C analysis of ultra-small OC and EC samples with high accuracy and low 14 C blanks.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: An overview of regional and local characteristics of aerosols in South Africa using satellite, ground, and modeling data Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 4259-4278, 2015 Author(s): S. P. Hersey, R. M. Garland, E. Crosbie, T. Shingler, A. Sorooshian, S. Piketh, and R. Burger We present a comprehensive overview of particulate air quality across the five major metropolitan areas of South Africa (Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Tshwane (Gauteng Province), the Industrial Highveld Air Quality Priority Area (HVAPA), and Durban), based on a decadal (1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009) aerosol climatology from multiple satellite platforms and detailed analysis of ground-based data from 19 sites throughout Gauteng Province. Satellite analysis was based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Aqua and Terra (550 nm) and MISR (555 nm) platforms, Ångström Exponent (α) from MODIS Aqua (550/865 nm) and Terra (470/660 nm), ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) from TOMS, and results from the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. At continentally influenced sites, AOD, α, and UVAI reach maxima (0.12–0.20, 1.0–1.8, and 1.0–1.2, respectively) during austral spring (September–October), coinciding with a period of enhanced dust generation and the maximum integrated intensity of close-proximity and subtropical fires identified by MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS). Minima in AOD, α, and UVAI occur during winter. Results from ground monitoring indicate that low-income township sites experience by far the worst particulate air quality in South Africa, with seasonally averaged PM 10 concentrations as much as 136% higher in townships that in industrial areas. We report poor agreement between satellite and ground aerosol measurements, with maximum surface aerosol concentrations coinciding with minima in AOD, α, and UVAI. This result suggests that remotely sensed data are not an appropriate surrogate for ground air quality in metropolitan South Africa.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Modeling the feedback between aerosol and meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer during a severe fog–haze event over the North China Plain Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 4279-4295, 2015 Author(s): Y. Gao, M. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Wang, P. Wang, X. Xia, M. Tao, and L. Zhu The feedback between aerosol and meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer over the North China Plain (NCP) is analyzed by conducting numerical experiments with and without the aerosol direct and indirect effects via a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem). The numerical experiments are performed for the period of 2–26 January 2013, during which a severe fog–haze event (10–15 January 2013) occurred, with the simulated maximum hourly surface PM 2.5 concentration of ~600 ug m −3 , minimum atmospheric visibility of ~0.3 km, and 10–100 hours of simulated hourly surface PM 2.5 concentration above 300 ug m −3 over NCP. A comparison of model results with aerosol feedback against observations indicates that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind, surface PM 2.5 concentration, atmospheric visibility, and aerosol optical depth reasonably well. Analysis of model results with and without aerosol feedback shows that during the fog–haze event aerosols lead to a significant negative radiative forcing of −20 to −140 W m −2 at the surface and a large positive radiative forcing of 20–120 W m −2 in the atmosphere and induce significant changes in meteorological variables with maximum changes during 09:00–18:00 local time (LT) over urban Beijing and Tianjin and south Hebei: the temperature decreases by 0.8–2.8 °C at the surface and increases by 0.1–0.5 °C at around 925 hPa, while RH increases by about 4–12% at the surface and decreases by 1–6% at around 925 hPa. As a result, the aerosol-induced equivalent potential temperature profile change shows that the atmosphere is much more stable and thus the surface wind speed decreases by up to 0.3 m s −1 (10%) and the atmosphere boundary layer height decreases by 40–200 m (5–30%) during the daytime of this severe fog–haze event. Owing to this more stable atmosphere during 09:00–18:00, 10–15~January, compared to the surface PM 2.5 concentration from the model results without aerosol feedback, the average surface PM 2.5 concentration increases by 10–50 μg m −3 (2–30%) over Beijing, Tianjin, and south Hebei and the maximum increase of hourly surface PM 2.5 concentration is around 50 (70%), 90 (60%), and 80 μg m −3 (40%) over Beijing, Tianjin, and south Hebei, respectively. Although the aerosol concentration is maximum at nighttime, the mechanism of feedback, by which meteorological variables increase the aerosol concentration most, occurs during the daytime (around 10:00 and 16:00 LT). The results suggest that aerosol induces a more stable atmosphere, which is favorable for the accumulation of air pollutants, and thus contributes to the formation of fog–haze events.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Performance assessment of a triple-frequency spaceborne cloud–precipitation radar concept using a global cloud-resolving model Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 8, 4137-4189, 2015 Author(s): J. Leinonen, M. D. Lebsock, S. Tanelli, K. Suzuki, H. Yashiro, and Y. Miyamoto Multi-frequency radars offer enhanced detection of clouds and precipitation compared to single-frequency systems, and are able to make more accurate retrievals when several frequencies are available simultaneously. An evaluation of a spaceborne three-frequency Ku/Ka/W-band radar system is presented in this study, based on modeling radar reflectivities from the results of a global cloud-resolving model with a 875 m grid spacing. To produce the reflectivities, a scattering model has been developed for each of the hydrometeor types produced by the model, as well as for melting snow. The effects of attenuation and multiple scattering on the radar signal are modeled using a radiative transfer model, while nonuniform beam filling is reproduced with spatial averaging. The combined effects of these are then quantified both globally and in five localized case studies. Two different orbital scenarios using the same radar are compared. Overall, based on the results, it is expected that the proposed radar would detect a high-quality signal in most clouds and precipitation. The main exceptions are the thinnest clouds that are below the detection threshold of the W-band channel, and at the opposite end of the scale, heavy convective rainfall where a combination of attenuation, multiple scattering and nonuniform beam filling commonly cause significant deterioration of the signal; thus, while the latter can be generally detected, the quality of the retrievals is likely to be degraded.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 4225-4239, 2015 Author(s): A. L. Van Wyngarden, S. Pérez-Montaño, J. V. H. Bui, E. S. W. Li, T. E. Nelson, K. T. Ha, L. Leong, and L. T. Iraci Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40–80 wt%) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal have the potential to produce significant organic aerosol mass and therefore could potentially impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols, especially if the products partition to the aerosol surface.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D data sets: open-access software for the atmospheric research community Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 1169-1195, 2015 Author(s): N. Žagar, A. Kasahara, K. Terasaki, J. Tribbia, and H. Tanaka This article presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulations across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass and wind fields while considering the whole model depth in contrast to the majority of studies. The paper includes the theory of normal-mode function (NMF) expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the ERA Interim reanalysis data set. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim data set reveals several aspects of the large-scale circulation after it has been partitioned into the linearly balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy while the IG modes contribute around 10% of the total wave energy. However, on sub-synoptic scales, IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Inter-comparison of energy balance and hydrological models for land surface energy flux estimation over a whole river catchment Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 2017-2037, 2015 Author(s): R. Guzinski, H. Nieto, S. Stisen, and R. Fensholt Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main link between the natural water cycle and the land surface energy budget. Therefore water-balance and energy-balance approaches are two of the main methodologies for modelling this process. The water-balance approach is usually implemented as a complex, distributed hydrological model, while the energy-balance approach is often used with remotely sensed observations of, for example, the land surface temperature (LST) and the state of the vegetation. In this study we compare the catchment-scale output of two remote sensing models based on the two-source energy-balance (TSEB) scheme, against a hydrological model, MIKE SHE, calibrated over the Skjern river catchment in western Denmark. The three models utilize different primary inputs to estimate ET (LST from different satellites in the case of remote sensing models and modelled soil moisture and heat flux in the case of the MIKE SHE ET module). However, all three of them use the same ancillary data (meteorological measurements, land cover type and leaf area index, etc.) and produce output at similar spatial resolution (1 km for the TSEB models, 500 m for MIKE SHE). The comparison is performed on the spatial patterns of the fluxes present within the catchment area as well as on temporal patterns on the whole catchment scale in 8-year long time series. The results show that the spatial patterns of latent heat flux produced by the remote sensing models are more similar to each other than to the fluxes produced by MIKE SHE. The temporal patterns produced by the remote sensing and hydrological models are quite highly correlated ( r ≈ 0.8). This indicates potential benefits to the hydrological modelling community of integrating spatial information derived through remote sensing methodology (contained in the ET maps derived with the energy-balance models, satellite based LST or another source) into the hydrological models. How this could be achieved and how to evaluate the improvements, or lack of thereof, is still an open research question.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Effects of snow ratio on annual runoff within the Budyko framework Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 1977-1992, 2015 Author(s): D. Zhang, Z. Cong, G. Ni, D. Yang, and S. Hu A warmer climate may lead to less precipitation falling as snow in cold seasons. Such a switch in the state of precipitation not only alters temporal distribution of intra-annual runoff but also tends to yield less total annual runoff. Long-term water balance for 282 catchments across China is investigated, showing that a decreasing snow ratio reduces annual runoff for a given total precipitation. Within the Budyko framework, we develop an equation to quantify the relationship between snow ratio and annual runoff from a water–energy balance viewpoint. Based on the proposed equation, attribution of runoff change during the past several decades and possible runoff change induced by projected snow ratio change using climate experiment outputs archived in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are analyzed. Results indicate that annual runoff in northwestern mountainous and northern high-latitude areas are sensitive to snow ratio change. The proposed model is applicable to other catchments easily and quantitatively for analyzing the effects of possible change in snow ratio on available water resources and evaluating the vulnerability of catchments to climate change.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Stream temperature prediction in ungauged basins: review of recent approaches and description of a new physically-based analytical model Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 12, 4081-4155, 2015 Author(s): A. Gallice, B. Schaefli, M. Lehning, M. P. Parlange, and H. Huwald The development of stream temperature regression models at regional scales has regained some popularity over the past years. These models are used to predict stream temperature in ungauged catchments to assess the impact of human activities or climate change on riverine fauna over large spatial areas. A comprehensive literature review presented in this study shows that the temperature metrics predicted by the majority of models correspond to yearly aggregates, such as the popular annual maximum weekly mean temperature (MWMT). As a consequence, current models are often unable to predict the annual cycle of stream temperature, nor can the majority of them forecast the interannual variation of stream temperature. This study presents a new model to estimate the monthly mean stream temperature of ungauged rivers over multiple years in an Alpine country (Switzerland). Contrary to the models developed to date, which mostly rely upon statistical regression to express stream temperature as a function of physiographic and climatic variables, this one rests upon the analytical solution to a simplified version of the energy-balance equation over an entire stream network. This physically-based approach presents some advantages: (1) the functional form linking stream temperature to the predictor variables is directly obtained from first principles, (2) the spatial extent over which the predictor variables are averaged naturally arises during model development, and (3) the regression coefficients can be interpreted from a physical point of view – their values can therefore be constrained to remain within plausible bounds. The evaluation of the model over a new freely available data set shows that the monthly mean stream temperature curve can be reproduced with a root mean square error of ±1.3 °C, which is similar in precision to the predictions obtained with a multi-linear regression model. We illustrate through a simple example how the physical basis of the model can be used to gain more insight into the stream temperature dynamics at regional scales.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Estimation of insurance related losses resulting from coastal flooding in France Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 3, 2811-2846, 2015 Author(s): J. P. Naulin, D. Moncoulon, S. Le Roy, R. Pedreros, D. Idier, and C. Oliveros A model has been developed in order to estimate insurance-related losses caused by coastal flooding in France. The deterministic part of the model aims at identifying the potentially flood-impacted sectors and the subsequent insured losses a few days after the occurrence of a storm surge event on any part of the French coast. This deterministic component is a combination of three models: a hazard model, a vulnerability model and a damage model. The first model uses the PREVIMER system to estimate the water level along the coast. A storage-cell flood model propagates these water levels over the land and thus determines the probable inundated areas. The vulnerability model, for its part, is derived from the insurance schedules and claims database; combining information such as risk type, class of business and insured values. The outcome of the vulnerability and hazard models are then combined with the damage model to estimate the event damage and potential insured losses. This system shows satisfactory results in the estimation of the magnitude of the known losses related to the flood caused by the Xynthia storm. However, it also appears very sensitive to the water height estimated during the flood period, conditioned by the junction between sea water levels and coastal topography for which the accuracy is still limited in the system.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Estimation of the total magnetization direction of approximately spherical bodies Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 22, 215-232, 2015 Author(s): V. C. Oliveira Jr., D. P. Sales, V. C. F. Barbosa, and L. Uieda We have developed a fast total-field anomaly inversion to estimate the magnetization direction of multiple sources with approximately spherical shapes and known centres. Our method is an overdetermined inverse problem that can be applied to interpret multiple sources with different but homogeneous magnetization directions. It requires neither the prior computation of any transformation-like reduction to the pole nor the use of regularly spaced data on a horizontal grid. The method contains flexibility to be implemented as a linear or non-linear inverse problem, which results, respectively, in a least-squares or robust estimate of the components of the magnetization vector of the sources. Applications to synthetic data show the robustness of our method against interfering anomalies and errors in the location of the sources' centre. Besides, we show the feasibility of applying the upward continuation to interpret non-spherical sources. Applications to field data over the Goiás alkaline province (GAP), Brazil, show the good performance of our method in estimating geologically meaningful magnetization directions. The results obtained for a region of the GAP, near to the alkaline complex of Diorama, suggest the presence of non-outcropping sources marked by strong remanent magnetization with inclination and declination close to −70.35 and −19.81°, respectively. This estimated magnetization direction leads to predominantly positive reduced-to-the-pole anomalies, even for other region of the GAP, in the alkaline complex of Montes Claros de Goiás. These results show that the non-outcropping sources near to the alkaline complex of Diorama have almost the same magnetization direction of those ones in the alkaline complex of Montes Claros de Goiás, strongly suggesting that these sources have been emplaced in the crust within almost the same geological time interval.
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 67
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the processes of agriculture abandon Solid Earth, 6, 425-432, 2015 Author(s): A. Novara, J. Rühl, T. La Mantia, L. Gristina, S. La Bella, and T. Tuttolomondo The mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in the functioning of the ecosystem, as they regulate the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM) and CO 2 emission into the atmosphere. In this study the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on carbon sequestration was investigated, analyzing the role of earthworms in the translocation of SOM into the soil profile. For this purpose the δ 13 C difference between meadow C 4 -C soil and C 3 -C litter was used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) were collected and placed on the top of isolated C4 soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and it increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. One year after the litter position, the soil organic carbon increased up to 40% in comparison to soils not treated with litter after 120 years of abandon. The new carbon derived from C 3 litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and the leaching of dissolved organic carbon. After 1 year the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity was 6 and 13% in the soils under litter of fields abandoned for 120 and 45 years, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2015-04-28
    Description: Tracing glacier changes in Austria from the Little Ice Age to the present using a lidar-based high-resolution glacier inventory in Austria The Cryosphere, 9, 753-766, 2015 Author(s): A. Fischer, B. Seiser, M. Stocker Waldhuber, C. Mitterer, and J. Abermann Glacier inventories provide the basis for further studies on mass balance and volume change, relevant for local hydrological issues as well as for global calculation of sea level rise. In this study, a new Austrian glacier inventory has been compiled, updating data from 1969 (GI 1) and 1998 (GI 2) based on high-resolution lidar digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos dating from 2004 to 2012 (GI 3). To expand the time series of digital glacier inventories in the past, the glacier outlines of the Little Ice Age maximum state (LIA) have been digitalized based on the lidar DEM and orthophotos. The resulting glacier area for GI 3 of 415.11 ± 11.18 km 2 is 44% of the LIA area. The annual relative area losses are 0.3% yr −1 for the ~119-year period GI LIA to GI 1 with one period with major glacier advances in the 1920s. From GI 1 to GI 2 (29 years, one advance period of variable length in the 1980s) glacier area decreased by 0.6% yr −1 and from GI 2 to GI 3 (10 years, no advance period) by 1.2% yr −1 . Regional variability of the annual relative area loss is highest in the latest period, ranging from 0.3 to 6.19% yr −1 . The mean glacier size decreased from 0.69 km 2 (GI 1) to 0.46 km 2 (GI 3), with 47% of the glaciers being smaller than 0.1 km 2 in GI 3 (22%).
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2015-04-30
    Description: Variability of daily winter wind speed distribution over Northern Europe during the past millennium in regional and global climate simulations Climate of the Past Discussions, 11, 1479-1518, 2015 Author(s): S. E. Bierstedt, B. Hünicke, E. Zorita, S. Wagner, and J. J. Gómez-Navarro We analyse the variability of the probability distribution of daily wind speed in wintertime over Northern and Central Europe in a series of global and regional climate simulations covering the last centuries, and reanalysis products covering approximately the last 60 years. The focus of the study lies in identifying the link between the variations in the wind speed distribution to the regional near-surface temperature, to the meridional temperature gradient and to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The climate simulations comprise three simulations, each conducted with a global climate model that includes a different version of the atmospheric model ECHAM. Two of these global simulations have been regionalised with the regional climate models MM5 and CCLM. The reanalysis products are the global NCEP/NCAR meteorological reanalysis version 1 and a regional reanalysis conducted with a regional atmospheric model driven at its domain boundaries by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Our main result is that the link between the daily wind distribution and the regional climate drivers is strongly model dependent. The global models tend to behave similarly, although they show some discrepancies. The two regional models also tend to behave similarly to each other, but surprisingly the results derived from each regional model strongly deviates from the results derived from its driving global model. The links between wind speed and large-scale drivers derived from the reanalysis data sets overall tend to resemble those of the global models. In addition, considering multi-centennial time scales, we find in two global simulations a long term tendency for the probability distribution of daily wind speed to widen through the last centuries. The cause for this widening is likely the effect of the deforestation prescribed in these simulations. We conclude that no clear systematic relationship between the mean temperature, the temperature gradient and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation, with the daily wind speed statistics can be inferred from these simulations. The understanding of past and future changes in the distribution of wind speeds, and thus of wind speed extremes, will require a~detailed analysis of the representation of the interaction between large-scale and small-scale dynamics.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2015-04-29
    Description: Element uptake, accumulation, and resorption in leaves of mangrove species with different mechanisms of salt regulation Web Ecology, 15, 3-13, 2015 Author(s): E. Medina, W. Fernandez, and F. Barboza Element uptake from substrate and resorption capacity of nutrients before leaf shedding are frequently species-specific and difficult to determine in natural settings. We sampled populations of Rhizophora mangle (salt-excluding species) and Laguncularia racemosa (salt-secreting species) in a coastal lagoon in the upper section of the Maracaibo strait in western Venezuela to estimate accumulation and resorption of mineral elements. Leaves collected fortnightly during 4~months within the rainy season were stratified as young, adult, old, and senescent. We measured changes in concentration of essential elements (N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe) and Na (elemental analyzer and plasma spectrometer), leaf succulence (water/area), and specific leaf area (area/mass) and calculated relative resorption or accumulation of elements in senescent leaves before abscission. Succulence was similar in young leaves of both species and increased with age, more abruptly in L. racemosa . Concentrations of N, K, and Mg were higher in R. mangle , whereas those of P, Na, Ca, and S were higher in L. racemosa . Concentration of K per unit leaf water decreased with age in both species; however, Na concentration in R. mangle remained at a similar level until increasing markedly in senescent leaves, whereas in L. racemosa it increased throughout the leaf lifespan. Relative changes based on leaf mass, leaf area, or whole leaf did not differ statistically. On a leaf mass basis both species showed resorption of C, N, P, and K and accumulation of S, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Fe. However, R. mangle was more efficient restricting Na and S uptake, resorbing P, and accumulating Fe than L. racemosa . The P / N resorption ratio is 〉 1 in R. mangle and 〈 1 in L. racemosa . We conclude that those differences are related to higher root permeability to Na and S salts in the salt-secreting species and to higher P requirements of R. mangle compared to L. racemosa . Our results give a comprehensive picture of nutrient dynamics in the foliage of mangrove species with contrasting mechanisms of salt regulation.
    Print ISSN: 2193-3081
    Electronic ISSN: 1399-1183
    Topics: Biology
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  • 71
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2015-04-30
    Description: Precipitation climate maps of Belgium Advances in Science and Research, 12, 73-78, 2015 Author(s): M. Journée, C. Delvaux, and C. Bertrand Investigations are conducted to best estimate precipitation climate maps over Belgium from daily observations available for the period 1981–2010. Several mapping approaches are compared in a cross-validation exercise. These approaches differ by several aspects and in particular by the order in which the temporal aggregation (i.e. computation of climate mean values from daily data) and spatial interpolation steps are performed, and by the integration of ancillary information in the spatial interpolation method. The selected approach is used to derive a large panel of climate maps. In particular, the main spatio-temporal features of the annual cycle of rainfall in Belgium are extracted by principal component analysis (PCA).
    Print ISSN: 1992-0628
    Electronic ISSN: 1992-0636
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2015-04-30
    Description: A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 3, 2847-2882, 2015 Author(s): D. B. Kirschbaum, T. Stanley, and J. Simmons Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real-time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007–2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola, due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the indiviual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free, satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2015-04-30
    Description: Search for the 531 day-period wobble signal in the polar motion based on EEMD Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions, 2, 647-673, 2015 Author(s): H. Ding and W. B. Shen In this study, we use a nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis method, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), to analyze the polar motion (PM) time series (EOP C04 series from 1962 to 2013) to find a 531 day-period wobble (531 dW) signal. The 531 dW signal has been found in the early PM seires (1962–1977) while cannot be found in the recent PM seires (1978–2013) using conventional analysis approaches. By the virtue of the demodulation feature of EEMD, the 531 dW can be confirmed to be present in PM based on the differences of the amplitudes and phases between different intrinsic mode functions. Results from three sub-series divided from the EOP C04 series show that the period of the 531 dW is subject to variations, in the range of 530.9–524 d, and its amplitude is also time-dependent (about 2–11 mas). Synthetic tests are carried out to explain why the 531 dW can only be observed in recent 30-years PM time series after using EEMD. The 531 dW is also detected in two longest available superconducting gravimeter (SG) records, which further confirms the presence of the 531 dW. The confirmation of 531 dW existence could be significant in establishing a more reasonable Earth rotation model and may effectively contribute to the prediction of the PM and its mechanism interpretation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2198-5634
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2015-04-30
    Description: Data assimilation experiments using diffusive back-and-forth nudging for the NEMO ocean model Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 22, 233-248, 2015 Author(s): G. A. Ruggiero, Y. Ourmières, E. Cosme, J. Blum, D. Auroux, and J. Verron The diffusive back-and-forth nudging (DBFN) is an easy-to-implement iterative data assimilation method based on the well-known nudging method. It consists of a sequence of forward and backward model integrations, within a given time window, both of them using a feedback term to the observations. Therefore, in the DBFN, the nudging asymptotic behaviour is translated into an infinite number of iterations within a bounded time domain. In this method, the backward integration is carried out thanks to what is called backward model, which is basically the forward model with reversed time step sign. To maintain numeral stability, the diffusion terms also have their sign reversed, giving a diffusive character to the algorithm. In this article the DBFN performance to control a primitive equation ocean model is investigated. In this kind of model non-resolved scales are modelled by diffusion operators which dissipate energy that cascade from large to small scales. Thus, in this article, the DBFN approximations and their consequences for the data assimilation system set-up are analysed. Our main result is that the DBFN may provide results which are comparable to those produced by a 4Dvar implementation with a much simpler implementation and a shorter CPU time for convergence. The conducted sensitivity tests show that the 4Dvar profits of long assimilation windows to propagate surface information downwards, and that for the DBFN, it is worth using short assimilation windows to reduce the impact of diffusion-induced errors. Moreover, the DBFN is less sensitive to the first guess than the 4Dvar.
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm Biogeosciences Discussions, 12, 6489-6523, 2015 Author(s): A. T. Nottingham, B. L. Turner, J. Whitaker, N. Ostle, N. P. McNamara, R. D. Bardgett, N. Salinas, and P. Meir Aboveground primary productivity is widely considered to be limited by phosphorus (P) availability in lowland tropical forests and by nitrogen (N) availability in montane tropical forests. However, the extent to which this paradigm applies to belowground processes remains unresolved. We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. With increasing elevation there were marked increases in soil concentrations of total N, total P, and readily-extractable P, but a decrease in N mineralization determined by in situ resin bags. Microbial carbon (C) and N increased with increasing elevation, but microbial C:N:P ratios were relatively constant, suggesting homeostasis. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes, which are rich in N, decreased with increasing elevation, while the ratios of enzymes involved in the acquisition of N and P increased with increasing elevation, further indicating a shift in the relative demand for N and P by microbial biomass. We conclude that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: Effects of fluctuating hypoxia on benthic oxygen consumption in the Black Sea (Crimean Shelf) Biogeosciences Discussions, 12, 6445-6488, 2015 Author(s): A. Lichtschlag, D. Donis, F. Janssen, G. L. Jessen, M. Holtappels, F. Wenzhöfer, S. Mazulmyan, N. Sergeeva, C. Waldmann, and A. Boetius The outer Western Crimean Shelf of the Black Sea is a natural laboratory to investigate effects of stable oxic vs. varying hypoxic conditions on seafloor biogeochemical processes and benthic community structure. Bottom water oxygen concentrations varied between normoxic (175 μmol O 2 L −1 ) and hypoxic ( 〈 63 μmol O 2 L −1 ) or even anoxic/sulfidic conditions within a few kilometres distance. Variations in oxygen concentrations between 160 and 10 μmol L −1 even occurred within hours close to the chemocline at 134 m water depth. Total oxygen uptake, including diffusive as well as fauna-mediated oxygen consumption, decreased from 〉 15 mmol m −2 d −1 in the oxic zone to 〈 9 mmol m −2 d −1 in the hypoxic zone, correlating with changes in macrobenthos composition. Benthic diffusive oxygen uptake rates, comprising microbial respiration plus reoxidation of inorganic products, were around 4.5 mmol m −2 d −1 , but declined to 1.3 mmol m −2 d −1 at oxygen concentrations below 20 μmol L −1 . Measurements and modelling of pore water profiles indicated that reoxidation of reduced compounds played only a minor role in the diffusive oxygen uptake, leaving the major fraction to aerobic degradation of organic carbon. Remineralization efficiency decreased from 100% in the oxic zone, to 50% in the oxic-hypoxic, to 10% in the hypoxic-anoxic zone. Overall the faunal remineralization rate was more important, but also more influenced by fluctuating oxygen concentrations than microbial and geochemical oxidation processes.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: Coupling the chemical dynamics of carbonate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen systems in the eutrophic and turbid inner Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary Biogeosciences Discussions, 12, 6405-6443, 2015 Author(s): W.-D. Zhai and X.-L. Yan To better understand biogeochemical processes controlling CO 2 dynamics in those eutrophic large-river estuaries and coastal lagoons, we investigated surface water carbonate system, nutrients, and relevant hydrochemical parameters in the inner Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary, covering its channel-like South Branch and the lagoon-like North Branch, shortly after a spring-tide period in April 2010. In the North Branch, with a water residence time of more than 2 months, biogeochemical additions of ammonium (7.4 to 65.7 μmol kg −1 ) and alkalinity (196 to 695 μmol kg −1 ) were detected along with high salinity of 4.5 to 17.4. In the South Branch upper-reach, unusual salinity values of 0.20 to 0.67 were detected, indicating spillover waters from the North Branch. The spillover waters enhanced the springtime Changjiang export fluxes of nutrients, dissolved inorganic carbon, and alkalinity. And they affected the biogeochemistry in the South Branch, by lowering water-to-air CO 2 flux and continuing the nitrification reaction. In the North Branch, p CO 2 was measured from 930 to 1518 μatm at the salinity range between 8 and 16, which was substantially higher than the South Branch p CO 2 of 700 to 1100 μatm. Based on field data analyses and simplified stoichiometric equations, we suggest that the North Branch CO 2 productions were quantified by biogeochemical processes combining organic matter decomposition, nitrification, CaCO 3 dissolution, and acid-base reactions in the estuarine mixing zone. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, we have demonstrated a procedure to quantificationally constrain net CO 2 productions in eutrophic estuaries and/or coastal lagoons, by coupling the chemical dynamics of carbonate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen systems.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 15, 931-945, 2015 Author(s): M. T. Cogurcu Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam–column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak-column–stronger-beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft-story or weak-story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, and so to prepare for future earthquakes they must be rehabilitated.
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 79
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: Point release wet snow avalanches Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 3, 2883-2912, 2015 Author(s): C. Vera Valero, Y. Bühler, and P. Bartelt Wet snow avalanches can initiate from large fracture slabs or small point releases. Point release wet snow avalanches can reach dangerous proportions when they (1) initiate on steep and long avalanche paths and (2) entrain warm moist snow. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of point release wet snow avalanches by applying a numerical model to simulate documented case studies on high altitude slopes in the Chilean Andes (33° S). The model predicts avalanche flow temperature as well as meltwater production, given the thermal initial conditions of the release mass and snowcover entrainment. As the release mass is small, avalanche velocity and runout are primarily controlled by snowcover temperature and moisture content. We demonstrate how the interaction between terrain and entrainment processes influence the production of meltwater and therefore lubrication processes leading to longer runout. This information is useful to avalanche forecasters. An understanding of wet snow avalanche dynamics is important to study how climate change scenarios will influence land usage in mountain regions in the near future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: Appraising the Early-est earthquake monitoring system for tsunami alerting at the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 3, 2913-2952, 2015 Author(s): F. Bernardi, A. Lomax, A. Michelini, V. Lauciani, A. Piatanesi, and S. Lorito In this paper we present the procedure for earthquake location and characterization implemented in the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider at INGV in Roma. Following the ICG/NEAMTWS guidelines, the first tsunami warning messages are based only on seismic information, i.e. epicenter location, hypocenter depth and magnitude, which are automatically computed by the software Early-est. Early-est is a package for rapid location and seismic/tsunamigenic characterization of earthquakes. The Early-est software package operates on offline-event or continuous-realtime seismic waveform data to perform trace processing and picking, and, at a regular report interval , phase association, event detection, hypocenter location, and event characterization. In this paper we present the earthquake parameters computed by Early-est from the beginning of 2012 till the end of December 2014 at global scale for events with magnitude M ≥ 5.5, and the detection timeline. The earthquake parameters computed automatically by Early-est are compared with reference manually revised/verified catalogs. From our analysis the epicenter location and hypoce