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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cell 7 (2014): 1601–1613, doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.04.047.
    Description: We used high-speed optogenetic mapping technology to examine the spatial organization of local inhibitory circuits formed by cerebellar interneurons. Transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 exclusively in molecular layer interneurons allowed us to focally photostimulate these neurons, while measuring resulting responses in postsynaptic Purkinje cells. This approach revealed that interneurons converge upon Purkinje cells over a broad area and that at least seven interneurons form functional synapses with a single Purkinje cell. The number of converging interneurons was reduced by treatment with gap junction blockers, revealing that electrical synapses between interneurons contribute substantially to the spatial convergence. Remarkably, gap junction blockers affected convergence in sagittal slices, but not in coronal slices, indicating a sagittal bias in electrical coupling between interneurons. We conclude that electrical synapse networks spatially coordinate interneurons in the cerebellum and may also serve this function in other brain regions.
    Description: This work was supported by a CRP grant from the National Research Foundation of Singapore and by the World Class Institute (WCI) Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Korea (NRF grant number WCI 2009-003).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2012. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cell Reports 2 (2012): 242–248, doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2012.06.016.
    Description: Ion selectivity of metazoan voltage-gated Na+ channels is critical for neuronal signaling and has long been attributed to a ring of four conserved amino acids that constitute the ion selectivity filter (SF) at the channel pore. Yet, in addition to channels with a preference for Ca2+ ions, the expression and characterization of Na+ channel homologs from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a member of the early-branching metazoan phylum Cnidaria, revealed a sodium-selective channel bearing a noncanonical SF. Mutagenesis and physiological assays suggest that pore elements additional to the SF determine the preference for Na+ in this channel. Phylogenetic analysis assigns the Nematostella Na+-selective channel to a channel group unique to Cnidaria, which diverged 〉540 million years ago from Ca2+-conducting Na+ channel homologs. The identification of Cnidarian Na+-selective ion channels distinct from the channels of bilaterian animals indicates that selectivity for Na+ in neuronal signaling emerged independently in these two animal lineages.
    Description: This study was supported by a research grant from the Austrian National Science Foundation (FWF P 21108-B17) to U.T., and by a United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Grant (IS-4313-10) and an Israeli Science Foundation grant (107/08) to M.G.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cell Reports 11 (2015): 1-12, doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.049.
    Description: Although recent research revealed an impact of westernization on diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota, the exact consequences on metacommunity characteristics are insufficiently understood, and the underlying ecological mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity, lower inter-individual variation, vastly different abundance profiles, and bacterial lineages undetectable in US residents. A quantification of the ecological processes that govern community assembly identified bacterial dispersal as the dominant process that shapes the microbiome in PNG but not in the US. These findings suggest that the microbiome alterations detected in industrialized societies might arise from modern lifestyle factors limiting bacterial dispersal, which has implications for human health and the development of strategies aimed to redress the impact of westernization.
    Description: This study was partly funded by BioGaia AB. BioGaia had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. A portion of this research is part of the Microbiomes in Transition Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This research was conducted under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at PNNL, a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-03-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Current Biology 27 (2017): 854–859, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.050.
    Description: Our visual system allows us to rapidly identify and intercept a moving object. When this object is far away, we base the trajectory on the target’s location relative to an external frame of reference [1]. This process forms the basis for the constant bearing angle (CBA) model, a reactive strategy that ensures interception since the bearing angle, formed between the line joining pursuer and target (called the range vector) and an external reference line, is held constant [2; 3 ; 4]. The CBA model may be a fundamental and widespread strategy, as it is also known to explain the interception trajectories of bats and fish [5 ; 6]. Here, we show that the aerial attack of the tiny robber fly Holcocephala fusca is consistent with the CBA model. In addition, Holcocephala fusca displays a novel proactive strategy, termed “lock-on” phase, embedded with the later part of the flight. We found the object detection threshold for this species to be 0.13°, enabled by an extremely specialized, forward pointing fovea (∼5 ommatidia wide, interommatidial angle Δφ = 0.28°, photoreceptor acceptance angle Δρ = 0.27°). This study furthers our understanding of the accurate performance that a miniature brain can achieve in highly demanding sensorimotor tasks and suggests the presence of equivalent mechanisms for target interception across a wide range of taxa.
    Description: This work was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-15-1-0188 to P.T.G.-B. and K.N. and FA9550-15-1-0068 to D.G.S.), an Isaac Newton Trust/Wellcome Trust ISSF/University of Cambridge Joint Research Grant (097814/Z/11/Z) to P.T.G.-B., a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council David Phillips Fellowship (BBSRC, BB/L024667/1) to T.J.W., a Royal Society International Exchange Scheme grant to P.T.G.-B. (75166), a Swedish Research Council grant (2012-4740) to K.N., and a Shared Equipment Grant from the School of Biological Sciences (University of Cambridge, RG70368).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in iScience 1 (2018): 24-34, doi:10.1016/j.isci.2018.01.001.
    Description: The color and pattern changing abilities of octopus, squid, and cuttlefish via chromatophore neuro-muscular organs are unparalleled. Cuttlefish and octopuses also have a unique muscular hydrostat system in their skin. When this system is expressed, dermal bumps called papillae disrupt body shape and imitate the fine texture of surrounding objects, yet the control system is unknown. Here we report for papillae: (1) the motoneurons and the neurotransmitters that control activation and relaxation, (2) a physiologically fast expression and retraction system, and (3) a complex of smooth and striated muscles that enables long-term expression of papillae through sustained tension in the absence of neural input. The neural circuits controlling acute shape-shifting skin papillae in cuttlefish show homology to the iridescence circuits in squids. The sustained tension in papillary muscles for long-term camouflage utilizes muscle heterogeneity and points toward the existence of a “catch-like” mechanism that would reduce the necessary energy expenditure.
    Description: This work was funded by an AFOSR grant no. FA9550-14-1-0134, Isaac Newton Trust/Wellcome Trust ISSF/University of Cambridge Joint Research Grant (097814/Z/11/Z) to P.T.G-B., and a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council David Phillips Fellowship (BBSRC, BB/L024667/1) to T.J.W.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-05
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cell Reports 25 (2018): 1281–1291, doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.10.005.
    Description: Morphogenesis and mechanoelectrical transduction of the hair cell mechanoreceptor depend on the correct assembly of Usher syndrome (USH) proteins into highly organized macromolecular complexes. Defects in these proteins lead to deafness and vestibular areflexia in USH patients. Mutations in a non-USH protein, glutaredoxin domain-containing cysteine-rich 1 (GRXCR1), cause non-syndromic sensorineural deafness. To understand the deglutathionylating enzyme function of GRXCR1 in deafness, we generated two grxcr1 zebrafish mutant alleles. We found that hair bundles are thinner in homozygous grxcr1 mutants, similar to the USH1 mutants ush1c (Harmonin) and ush1ga (Sans). In vitro assays showed that glutathionylation promotes the interaction between Ush1c and Ush1ga and that Grxcr1 regulates mechanoreceptor development by preventing physical interaction between these proteins without affecting the assembly of another USH1 protein complex, the Ush1c- Cadherin23-Myosin7aa tripartite complex. By elucidating the molecular mechanism through which Grxcr1 functions, we also identify a mechanism that dynamically regulates the formation of Usher protein complexes.
    Description: This work was supported by grants from the NIH (DC004186, OD011195, and HD22486).
    Keywords: Grxcr1 ; Usher syndrome ; Hair cell ; Stereocilia ; Glutathionylation ; Harmonin ; Sans
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    Cell Press
    In:  Trends in Microbiology, 14 (8). pp. 331-336.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Marine microbes have evolved to live along extreme environmental gradients, whether at the microscale, in proximity to particles or over the entire water column. Using community genomics, DeLong et al. highlight deduced biological differences that result from open-ocean depth gradients. The power of the large-insert libraries used is that both phylogeny and function can be inferred from the genetic material obtained - even for uncultured microbes. Together with complete genomes of marine isolates and advances in physiology and ecology, this study paves the way for ecosystems biology approaches to dynamics and controls of marine microbial populations. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: The health of the ocean, central to human well-being, has now reached a critical point. Most fish stocks are overexploited, climate change and increased dissolved carbon dioxide are changing ocean chemistry and disrupting species throughout food webs, and the fundamental capacity of the ocean to regulate the climate has been altered. However, key technical, organizational, and conceptual scientific barriers have prevented the identification of policy levers for sustainability and transformative action. Here, we recommend key strategies to address these challenges, including (1) stronger integration of sciences and (2) ocean-observing systems, (3) improved science-policy interfaces, (4) new partnerships supported by (5) a new ocean-climate finance system, and (6) improved ocean literacy and education to modify social norms and behaviors. Adopting these strategies could help establish ocean science as a key foundation of broader sustainability transformations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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