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  • Cambridge University Press
  • Essen : Verl. Glückauf
  • Krefeld : Geologischer Dienst Nordhein-Westfalen
  • 2005-2009  (67)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: Calcareous tube polychaetes (family Serpulidae) are notorious biofoulers that are easily transported and introduced to allochthonous habitats. Here we report the recent introduction of Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873) to eastern Japan as its first occurrence in East Asia, probably from European or American coasts. Specimens had been found on artificial hard substrata together with congeners H. ezoensis, H. exaltatus and H. fusicolus in Tokyo Bay, Japan in 2006. The origin, vector, source of introduction and possible impact of H. dianthus on Japanese coasts is discussed from a perspective based on worldwide Hydroides transport.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-04-28
    Description: Executive Summary: Observations show that warming of the climate is unequivocal. The global warming observed over the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced emissions of heat-trapping gases. These emissions come mainly from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), with important contributions from the clearing of forests, agricultural practices, and other activities. Warming over this century is projected to be considerably greater than over the last century. The global average temperature since 1900 has risen by about 1.5ºF. By 2100, it is projected to rise another 2 to 11.5ºF. The U.S. average temperature has risen by a comparable amount and is very likely to rise more than the global average over this century, with some variation from place to place. Several factors will determine future temperature increases. Increases at the lower end of this range are more likely if global heat-trapping gas emissions are cut substantially. If emissions continue to rise at or near current rates, temperature increases are more likely to be near the upper end of the range. Volcanic eruptions or other natural variations could temporarily counteract some of the human-induced warming, slowing the rise in global temperature, but these effects would only last a few years. Reducing emissions of carbon dioxide would lessen warming over this century and beyond. Sizable early cuts in emissions would significantly reduce the pace and the overall amount of climate change. Earlier cuts in emissions would have a greater effect in reducing climate change than comparable reductions made later. In addition, reducing emissions of some shorter-lived heat-trapping gases, such as methane, and some types of particles, such as soot, would begin to reduce warming within weeks to decades. Climate-related changes have already been observed globally and in the United States. These include increases in air and water temperatures, reduced frost days, increased frequency and intensity of heavy downpours, a rise in sea level, and reduced snow cover, glaciers, permafrost, and sea ice. A longer ice-free period on lakes and rivers, lengthening of the growing season, and increased water vapor in the atmosphere have also been observed. Over the past 30 years, temperatures have risen faster in winter than in any other season, with average winter temperatures in the Midwest and northern Great Plains increasing more than 7ºF. Some of the changes have been faster than previous assessments had suggested. These climate-related changes are expected to continue while new ones develop. Likely future changes for the United States and surrounding coastal waters include more intense hurricanes with related increases in wind, rain, and storm surges (but not necessarily an increase in the number of these storms that make landfall), as well as drier conditions in the Southwest and Caribbean. These changes will affect human health, water supply, agriculture, coastal areas, and many other aspects of society and the natural environment. This report synthesizes information from a wide variety of scientific assessments (see page 7) and recently published research to summarize what is known about the observed and projected consequences of climate change on the United States. It combines analysis of impacts on various sectors such as energy, water, and transportation at the national level with an assessment of key impacts on specific regions of the United States. For example, sea-level rise will increase risks of erosion, storm surge damage, and flooding for coastal communities, especially in the Southeast and parts of Alaska. Reduced snowpack and earlier snow melt will alter the timing and amount of water supplies, posing significant challenges for water resource management in the West. (PDF contains 196 pages)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Management ; Pollution ; Earth Sciences ; Environment ; Policies
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 540 (2005): 49-73, doi:10.1017/S002211200500577X.
    Description: Circulation driven by horizontal differential heating is studied, using a double-walled Plexiglas tank (20×15×2.5 cm3) filled with salt water. For instances of heating/cooling from above and below, results indicate that there is always quasi-equilibrium circulation. In contrast to most previous results from experimental/ numerical studies, circulation in our experiments appears in the form of a shallow cell adjacent to the boundary of thermal forcing. The non-dimensional stream-function maximum confirms the 1/5-power law of Rossby, Ψ ∼Ra1/5 L . Dissipation rate measured in the experiments appears to be consistent with theory. For cases of heating/cooling from a sloping bottom, circulation is similar to cases with a flat bottom; circulation is strong if heating is below cooling, but it is rather weak if heating is above cooling. Nevertheless, circulation in all cases is visible to the naked eye.
    Description: W. W. was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China through grant 40476010 and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education through grant 20030423011. R. X. H. was supported by the National Science Foundation through grant OCE-0094807 and the National Aero- Space Administration through Contract 1229833 (NRA-00-OES-05) to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 616 (2008): 327-356, doi:10.1017/S0022112008003984.
    Description: A steady theory is presented for gravity currents propagating with constant speed into a stratified fluid with a general density profile. Solution curves for front speed versus height have an energy-conserving upper bound (the conjugate state) and a lower bound marked by the onset of upstream influence. The conjugate state is the largest-amplitude nonlinear internal wave supported by the ambient stratification, and in the limit of weak stratification approaches Benjamin's energy-conserving gravity current solution. When the front speed becomes critical with respect to linear long waves generated above the current, steady solutions cannot be calculated, implying upstream influence. For non-uniform stratification, the critical long-wave speed exceeds the ambient long-wave speed, and the critical-Froude-number condition appropriate for uniform stratification must be generalized. The theoretical results demonstrate a clear connection between internal waves and gravity currents. The steady theory is also compared with non-hydrostatic numerical solutions of the full lock release initial-value problem. Some solutions resemble classic gravity currents with no upstream disturbance, but others show long internal waves propagating ahead of the gravity current. Wave generation generally occurs when the stratification and current speed are such that the steady gravity current theory fails. Thus the steady theory is consistent with the occurrence of either wave-generating or steady gravity solutions to the dam-break problem. When the available potential energy of the dam is large enough, the numerical simulations approach the energy-conserving conjugate state. Existing laboratory experiments for intrusions and gravity currents produced by full-depth lock exchange flows over a range of stratification profiles show excellent agreement with the conjugate state solutions.
    Description: K. R. H. was supported by ONR grant N000140610798
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 602 (2008): 241-266, doi:10.1017/S0022112008000827.
    Description: The stability of a hydraulically driven sill flow in a rotating channel with smoothly varying cross-section is considered. The smooth topography forces the thickness of the moving layer to vanish at its two edges. The basic flow is assumed to have zero potential vorticity, as is the case in elementary models of the hydraulic behaviour of deep ocean straits. Such flows are found to always satisfy Ripa's necessary condition for instability. Direct calculation of the linear growth rates and numerical simulation of finite-amplitude behaviour suggests that the flows are, in fact, always unstable. The growth rates and nonlinear evolution depend largely on the dimensionless channel curvature κ=2αg′/f2, where 2α is the dimensional curvature, g′ is the reduced gravity, and f is the Coriolis parameter. Very small positive (or negative) values of κ correspond to dynamically wide channels and are associated with strong instability and the breakup of the basic flow into a train of eddies. For moderate or large values of κ, the instability widens the flow and increases its potential vorticity but does not destroy its character as a coherent stream. Ripa's condition for stability suggests a theory for the final width and potential vorticity that works moderately well. The observed and predicted growth in these quantities are minimal for κ≥1, suggesting that the zero-potential-vorticity approximation holds when the channel is narrower than a Rossby radius based on the initial maximum depth. The instability results from a resonant interaction between two waves trapped on opposite edges of the stream. Interactions can occur between two Kelvin-like frontal waves, between two inertia–gravity waves, or between one wave of each type. The growing disturbance has zero energy and extracts zero energy from the mean. At the same time, there is an overall conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy for κ〉0, with the reverse occurring for κ〈0. When it acts on a hydraulically controlled basic state, the instability tends to eliminate the band of counterflow that is predicted by hydraulic theory and that confounds hydraulic-based estimates of volume fluxes in the field. Eddy generation downstream of the controlling sill occurs if the downstream value of κ is sufficiently small.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant OCE- 0525729).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 605 (2008): 281-291, doi:10.1017/S002211200800150X.
    Description: A condition is derived for the hydraulic criticality of a 2-layer flow with transverse variations in both layer velocities and thicknesses. The condition can be expressed in terms of a generalized composite Froude number. The derivation can be extended in order to obtain a critical condition for an N-layer system. The results apply to inviscid flows subject to the usual hydraulic approximation of gradual variations along the channel and is restricted to flows in which the velocity remains single-signed within any given layer. For an intermediate layer with a partial segment of sluggish flow, the long-wave dynamics of the overlying and underlying layers become decoupled.
    Description: The work described herein was supported by the Office of Naval Research (N00014- 07-1-0590) and the National Science Foundation (OCE-0525729).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 604 (2008): 369-388, doi:10.1017/S0022112008001237.
    Description: We discuss laboratory experiments investigating mixing in a density-driven current flowing down a sloping bottom, in a rotating homogenous fluid. A systematic study spanning a wide range of Froude, 0.8 〈 Fr 〈 10, and Reynolds, 10 〈 Re 〈 1400, numbers was conducted by varying three parameters: the bottom slope; the flow rate; and the density of the dense fluid. Different flow regimes were observed, i.e. waves (non-breaking and breaking) and turbulent regimes, while changing the above parameters. Mixing in the density-driven current has been quantified within the observed regimes, and at different locations on the slope. The dependence of mixing on the relevant non-dimensional numbers, i.e. slope, Fr and Re, is discussed. The entrainment parameter, E, was found to be dependent not only on Fr, as assumed in previous studies, but also on Re. In particular, mixing increased with increasing Fr and Re. For low Fr and Re, the magnitude of the mixing was comparable to mixing in the ocean. For large Fr and Re, mixing was comparable to that observed in previous laboratory experiments that exhibited the classic turbulent entrainment behaviour.
    Description: Support was given by the National Science Foundation project number OCE-0350891.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-11-14
    Description: This paper documents the arrival of Diplosoma listerianum into a habitat with no previously known history of the species. Once established, D. listerianum exploited rapid growth rates relative to the other fouling species present, to quickly become the dominant species in a local fouling assemblage. Most resident macrofoulers were out-competed for space and overgrown, although some resistance to overgrowth was demonstrated by the bryozoan Umbonula littoralis and the tunicate Ascidiella aspersa. In this instance, traits traditionally considered to be relevant for community resistance towards invasion, such as diversity, richness, dominant species identity and open space were not important in controlling the spread of D. listerianum
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  • 10
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics, IAU Symposium No. 249, Oct. 22-26, 2007, Suzhou, China
    Publication Date: 2008-08-26
    Type: confpaper
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 574 (2007): 465-493, doi:10.1017/S0022112006004216.
    Description: Acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (ADVP) measurements of instantaneous three-dimensional velocity profiles over the entire turbulent boundary layer height, δ, of rough-bed open-channel flows at moderate Reynolds numbers show the presence of large scale coherent shear stress structures (called LC3S herein) in the zones of uniformly retarded streamwise momentum. LC3S events over streamwise distances of several boundary layer thicknesses dominate the mean shear dynamics. Polymodal histograms of short streamwise velocity samples confirm the subdivision of uniform streamwise momentum into three zones also observed by Adrian et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 422, 2000, p. 1). The mean streamwise dimension of the zones varies between 1δ and 2.5δ. In the intermediate region (0.2〈z/δ〈0.75), the contribution of conditionally sampled u'w' events to the mean vertical turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) flux as a function of threshold level H is found to be generated by LC3S events above a critical threshold level Hmax for which the ascendant net momentum flux between LC3S of ejection and sweep types is maximal. The vertical profile of Hmax is nearly constant over the intermediate region, with a value of 5 independent of the flow conditions. Very good agreement is found for all flow conditions including the free-stream shear flows studied in Adrian et al. (2000). If normalized by the squared bed friction velocity, the ascendant net momentum flux containing 90% of the mean TKE flux is equal to 20% of the shear stress due to bed friction. In the intermediate region this value is nearly constant for all flow conditions investigated herein. It can be deduced that free-surface turbulence in open-channel flows originates from processes driven by LC3S, associated with the zonal organization of streamwise momentum. The good agreement with mean quadrant distribution results in the literature implies that LC3S identified in this study are common features in the outer region of shear flows.
    Description: The study was supported by the Swiss National Foundation for Scientific Research for the experimental part (grant 2100 050739) and the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) for the data analysis and interpretation.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 593 (2007): 1-32, doi:10.1017/S0022112007008415.
    Description: Results are presented from an experimental study of shallow flow in a channel partially obstructed by an array of circular cylinders. The cylinder array is a model for emergent vegetation in an open channel, but also represents a simple sparse porous medium. A shear layer with regular vortex structures forms at the edge of the array, evolving downstream to an equilibrium width and vortex size. The vortices induce nearly periodic oscillations with a frequency that matches the most unstable linear mode for a parallel shear flow. The shear layer is asymmetric about the array interface and has a two-layer structure. An inner region of maximum shear near the interface contains a velocity inflection point and establishes the penetration of momentum into the array. An outer region, resembling a boundary layer, forms in the main channel, and establishes the scale of the vortices. The vortex structure, educed by conditional sampling, shows strong crossflows with sweeps from the main channel and ejections from the array, which create significant momentum and mass fluxes across the interface. The sweeps maintain the coherent structures by enhancing shear and energy production at the interface. A linear stability analysis is consistent with the experimental results and demonstrates that the instability is excited by the differential drag between the channel and the array.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 0125056.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Microscopy Society of America, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Microscopy and Microanalysis 13 Suppl. 2 (2007): 10-11, doi:10.1017/S1431927607075186.
    Description: Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is widely used to observe structure and motion in unstained, transparent living cells and isolated organelles, producing a monochromatic shadowcast image of optical phase gradient. Polarized light microscopy (Pol) reveals structural anisotropy due to form birefringence, intrinsic birefringence, stress birefringence, etc. DIC and Pol complement each other as, for example, in a live dividing cell, the DIC image will clearly show the chromosomes while the Pol image will depict the distribution of the birefringent microtubules in the spindle. Both methods, however, have the same shortcomings: they require the proper orientation of a specimen in relation to the optical system in order to achieve best results.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 14
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Publication Date: 2009-09-16
    Type: inbook
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  • 15
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    In:  In: Lagrangian analysis and prediction of coastal and ocean dynamics. , ed. by Griffa, A., Kirwan, A. D., Mariano, A. J., Özgökmen, T. and Rossby, T. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 81-83.
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 561 (2006):103–112, doi:10.1017/S0022112006000991
    Description: A self-consistent formalism to estimate baroclinic energy densities and fluxes resulting from the propagation of internal waves of arbitrary amplitude is derived using the concept of available potential energy. The method can be applied to numerical, laboratory or field data.
    Description: MBIWE98 was supported by the US Geological Survey and the Office of Naval Research. A.S. received support from the Office of Naval Research (N00014-05-1-0361), R.B. from the Walter A. and Hope Noyes Smith Chair on Coastal Oceanography and B.B. from the US Geological Survey.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 17
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    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2000. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 80 (2000): 827-834, doi:10.1017/S0025315400002800.
    Description: The shell and internal anatomy of the montacutid bivalve Mysella verrilli is described for the first time. The species is remarkable in that the oesophagus has developed into a suctorial proboscis. This has been accompanied by the loss of the palps. In addition the gonads have been extended from the dorsal part of the body to form two gill-like extensions to which the reduced inner demibranchs attach along the postero–ventral margin. Mysella verrilli broods its young in the mantle cavity to the late veliger stage before releasing them. It is believed that the species is probably a suctorial ectoparasite on a soft-bodied benthic invertebrate.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 564 (2006): 435-454, doi:10.1017/S0022112006001522.
    Description: Motivated by work on tilted convection (Sheremet, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 506, 2004, p. 217), a set of experiments is presented here using the same set-up of a tilted tank attached to a rotating centrifuge with a 2.5 m arm. Within the tank small, almost neutrally buoyant, spheres are released, and their trajectories are recorded. Thus the forces acting on a sphere can be analysed in the case of misalignment between the buoyancy force and the axis of rotation. The angles of descent characterizing the trajectory are compared with inviscid linear theory developed by Stewartson (Q. J. Math. Appl. Mech., vol. 6, 1953, p. 141), and the agreement is found to be good. The angles should be independent of the density anomaly of the spheres compared to their environment. Using the descent velocity from non-rotating experiments, the density of the spheres is estimated and used to determine the drag acting on them in the rotating experiments. It is found that the drag is up to 50% larger than expected from Stewartson's theory. The agreement is best, not for infinitesimal, but for small Rossby numbers. The results are consistent with observations recorded by Maxworthy (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 40, 1970, p. 453).
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  • 19
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    In:  In: Predictability of Weather and Climate. , ed. by Palmer, T. N. and Hagedorn, R. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 342-364. ISBN 0-521-84882-2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-29
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  • 20
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    Publication Date: 2006-04-25
    Type: edbook
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  • 21
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    In:  Multilevel governance of global environmental change. Perspectives from science, sociology and the law
    Publication Date: 2006-03-24
    Type: inbook
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  • 22
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    In:  Multilevel governance of global environmental change. Perspectives from science, sociology and the law
    Publication Date: 2006-03-24
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2006-12-08
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  • 24
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    In:  Avoiding dangerous climate change
    Publication Date: 2006-12-08
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  • 25
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    In:  Avoiding dangerous climate change
    Publication Date: 2006-12-18
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  • 26
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    In:  In: Soils: Baic Concepts and Future Challenges. , ed. by Certini, G. and Scalenghe, R. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 91-102. ISBN 13 978-0-521-85173-2
    Publication Date: 2015-01-28
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  • 27
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  Geological Magazine, 143 (3). pp. 257-268.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ocean island volcanoes frequently develop local rift zones associated with flank movement and flank collapses. The ocean island El Hierro grew by coalescence and collapse of three volcanic edifices, which are an elongated topographic ridge (the Southern Ridge) and two semi-circular volcanic cones (Ti˜nor volcano, El Golfo volcano). During edifice growth and volcano coalescence, eruption fissures nucleated into rift zones that developed a complex triangle pattern. In scaled analogue experimentswe could successfully reproduce the geometry of rift zones and unstable flanks as observed on El Hierro. The experimental results suggest that the rift configuration on El Hierro is the result of gravitational volcano spreading over deformable basal substrata, rather than of deep-seated magma updoming as thought previously. This paper elucidates the importance of the basal substratum and gravitational spreading, and the relationship to rifting and flank instability on El Hierro Island, and may help in understanding similar volcano architectures elsewhere.
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  • 28
    Call number: K 06.0479 / Fach 26
    Type of Medium: Map available for loan
    Pages: 1 Kt. , mehrfarb. ; 54 x 54 cm, gefaltet
    Edition: Bearbeitungstand: Juni 2006
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  • 29
    Call number: K 06.0161 / Fach 112
    Type of Medium: Map available for loan
    Pages: 1 Kt. : mehrfarb. : 53 x 75 cm
    ISBN: 3773912706
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  • 30
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    In:  Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics
    Publication Date: 2005-09-21
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  • 31
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7, no. Publ. No. 12, pp. 127, (ISBN: 0521839270, 520 p.)
    Publication Date: 2005
    Description: Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors
    Keywords: Structural geology ; Textbook of geology ; MATLAB ; scripts ; Tectonics ; Lithosphere
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  • 32
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-40, (ISBN 0-521-84678-1 (550 pp.))
    Publication Date: 2005
    Description: ... Overall, An Introduction to Programming with Mathematica is a useful and readable book that could serve as the text for a generic programming class, a supporting text for a class on programming for geoscientists, or an introduction for experienced geoscience programmers looking for an easily readable summary of Mathematica's programming language. Experienced Mathematica programmers may find it useful as a refresher. The book's principal drawbacks are the high price of Mathematica for those who do not already have the software (although a modestly priced student version is available) and, for geoscientists in particular, a lack of relevant example problems
    Keywords: Handbook of mathematics ; computer ; algebra ; software
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  • 33
    Unknown
    Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Shakespeare, William, Language ; Shakespeare, William, Romeo and Juliet ; Shakespeare, William, Stage history, 1950- ; Shakespeare, William, Stage history, England, London ; Electronic books ; English language, Pronunciation, Early modern, 1500-1700 ; Globe Theatre (London, England : 1996- )
    Pages: xviii, 188 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-11364-1
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  • 34
    Unknown
    Cambridge, U.K ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Electronic books ; Religion, Study and teaching (Higher) ; Theology, Study and teaching (Higher)
    Pages: xvii, 230 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-11355-2
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  • 35
    Unknown
    Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Engineering mathematics, Data processing. ; Numerical analysis, Data processing. ; MATLAB.
    Pages: viii, 426 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-12811-8
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  • 36
    Unknown
    Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Monte Carlo method. ; Statistical physics.
    Pages: xv, 432 p.
    Edition: 2nd ed
    ISBN: 0-511-13098-8
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  • 37
    Unknown
    New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Materials, Mechanical properties.
    Pages: xx, 425 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-11575-X
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  • 38
    Unknown
    Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Dynamics. ; Kinematics.
    Pages: x, 374 p.
    Edition: 3rd ed
    ISBN: 0-511-11583-0
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  • 39
    Unknown
    Cambridge, U.K ; New York, N.Y : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Cellular telephone services industry ; Electronic books ; Mobile communication systems, Economic aspects ; Wireless communication systems, Economic aspects
    Pages: 1 v. (various pagings)
    ISBN: 0-511-11564-4
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  • 40
    Unknown
    Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Equality. ; Minorities. ; Minorities, Civil rights. ; Multiculturalism. ; Social conflict. ; Social groups.
    Pages: xii, 390 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-08065-4
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  • 41
    Unknown
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Space time codes.
    Pages: 1 v. (various pagings)
    ISBN: 0-511-11562-8
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  • 42
    Unknown
    Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Shakespeare, William, Tragedies ; Electronic books ; Identity (Psychology) in literature ; Tragedy ; Violence in literature
    Pages: ix, 228 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-11352-8
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  • 43
    Unknown
    Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Kant, Immanuel,, 1724-1804. ; Causation.
    Pages: xi, 451 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-08217-7
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  • 44
    Unknown
    Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Frege, Gottlob,, 1848-1925.
    Notes: Biography -- Function and argument -- Sense and reference -- Frege's Begriffsschrift theory of identity -- Concept and object -- Names and descriptions -- Existence -- Thought, truth value and assertion -- Indirect reference -- Through the quotation marks
    Pages: xix, 226 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-10977-6
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  • 45
    Unknown
    New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Capital market ; Electronic books ; Futures market ; Stock exchanges
    Pages: 1 v. (various pagings)
    ISBN: 0-511-11580-6
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  • 46
    Unknown
    Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Autonomy (Psychology) ; Electronic books ; Ethics, Modern
    Notes: Planning agency, autonomous agency / Michael E. Bratman -- Autonomy without free will / Bernard Berofsky -- Autonomy and the paradox of self-creation : infinite regresses, finite selves, and the limits of authenticity / Robert Noggle -- Agnostic autonomism revisited / Alfred R. Mele -- Feminist intuitions and the normative substance of autonomy / Paul Benson -- Autonomy and personal integration / Laura Waddell Ekstrom -- Responsibility, applied ethics, and complex autonomy theories / Nomy Arpaly -- Autonomy and free agency / Marina A.L. Oshana -- The relationship between autonomous and morally responsible agency / Michael McKenna -- Alternative possibilities, personal autonomy, and moral responsibility / Ishtiyaque Haji -- Freedom within reason / Susan Wolf -- Procedural autonomy and liberal legitimacy / John Christman -- The concept of autonomy in bioethics : an unwarranted fall from grace / Thomas May -- Who deserves autonomy, and whose autonomy deserves respect? / Tom L. Beauchamp -- Autonomy, diminished life, and the threshold for use / R.G. Frey
    Pages: ix, 350 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-08224-X
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  • 47
    Keywords: Developing countries, Economic policy. ; Federal government, Developing countries.
    Pages: xi, 276 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-11566-0
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  • 48
    facet.materialart.
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    Cambridge University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 490 (2003): 189-215, doi:10.1017/S0022112003005007.
    Description: The baroclinic instability of a zonal current on the beta-plane is studied in the context of the two-layer model when the shear of the basic current is a periodic function of time. The basic shear is contained in a zonal channel and is independent of the meridional direction. The instability properties are studied in the neighbourhood of the classical steady-shear threshold for marginal stability. It is shown that the linear problem shares common features with the behaviour of the well-known Mathieu equation. That is, the oscillatory nature of the shear tends to stabilize an otherwise unstable current while, on the contrary, the oscillation is able to destabilize a current whose time-averaged shear is stable. Indeed, this parametric instability can destabilize a flow that at every instant possesses a shear that is subcritical with respect to the standard stability threshold. This is a new source of growing disturbances. The nonlinear problem is studied in the same near neighbourhood of the marginal curve. When the time-averaged flow is unstable, the presence of the oscillation in the shear produces both periodic finite-amplitude motions and aperiodic behaviour. Generally speaking, the aperiodic behaviour appears when the amplitude of the oscillating shear exceeds a critical value depending on frequency and dissipation. When the time-averaged flow is stable, i.e. subcritical, finite-amplitude aperiodic motion occurs when the amplitude of the oscillating part of the shear is large enough to lift the flow into the unstable domain for at least part of the cycle of oscillation. A particularly interesting phenomenon occurs when the time-averaged flow is stable and the oscillating part is too small to ever render the flow unstable according to the standard criteria. Nevertheless, in this regime parametric instability occurs for ranges of frequency that expand as the amplitude of the oscillating shear increases. The amplitude of the resulting unstable wave is a function of frequency and the magnitude of the oscillating shear. For some ranges of shear amplitude and oscillation frequency there exist multiple solutions. It is suggested that the nature of the response of the finite-amplitude behaviour of the baroclinic waves in the presence of the oscillating mean flow may be indicative of the role of seasonal variability in shaping eddy activity in both the atmosphere and the ocean.
    Description: J.P.’s research is supported in part by a grant from NSF, OCE 9901654.
    Keywords: Baroclinic instability ; Baroclinic waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 481 (2003): 329-353, doi:10.1017/S0022112003004051.
    Description: In this article we investigate time-periodic shear flows in the context of the two-dimensional vorticity equation, which may be applied to describe certain large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. The linear stability analyses of both discrete and continuous profiles demonstrate that parametric instability can arise even in this simple model: the oscillations can stabilize (destabilize) an otherwise unstable (stable) shear flow, as in Mathieu's equation (Stoker 1950). Nonlinear simulations of the continuous oscillatory basic state support the predictions from linear theory and, in addition, illustrate the evolution of the instability process and thereby show the structure of the vortices that emerge. The discovery of parametric instability in this model suggests that this mechanism can occur in geophysical shear flows and provides an additional means through which turbulent mixing can be generated in large-scale flows.
    Description: F.P.’s and G.F.’s research was supported by grants from NSF, OPP- 9910052 and OCE-0137023. J.P.’s research is supported in part by a grant from NSF, OCE-9901654.
    Keywords: Time-periodic shear flows ; Parametric instability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 516 (2004): 83-113, doi:10.1017/S0022112004000473.
    Description: Oceanic observations indicate that abyssal mixing tends to be localized to regions of rough topography. How localized mixing interacts with the ambient fluid in a stratified, rotating system is an open question. To gain insight into this complicated process laboratory experiments are used to explore the interaction of mechanically induced boundary mixing and an interior body of linearly stratified rotating fluid. Turbulence is generated by a single vertically oscillating horizontal bar of finite horizontal extent, located at mid-depth along the tank wall. The turbulence forms a region of mixed fluid which quickly reaches a steady-state height and collapses into the interior. The mixed-layer thickness, $h_m\,{\sim}\,\gamma ({\omega}/{N})^{1/2}$, is spatially uniform and independent of the Coriolis frequency $f$. $N$ is the initial buoyancy frequency, $\omega$ is the bar oscillation frequency, and $\gamma\,{\approx}\,1$ cm is an empirical constant determined by the bar geometry. Surprisingly, the export of mixed fluid does not occur as a boundary current along the tank perimeter. Rather, mixed fluid intrudes directly into the interior as a radial front of uniform height, advancing with a speed comparable to a gravity current. The volume of mixed fluid grows linearly with time, $V\,{\propto}\,({N}/{f})^{3/2}h_m^3 \textit{ft}$, and is independent of the lateral extent of the mixing bar. Entrainment into the turbulent zone occurs principally through horizontal flows at the level of the mixing that appear to eliminate export by a geostrophic boundary flow. The circulation patterns suggest a model of unmixed fluid laterally entrained at velocity $u_e \,{\sim}\,Nh_m $ into the open sides of a turbulent zone with height $h_{m}$ and a length, perpendicular to the boundary, proportional to $L_f \,{\equiv}\,\gamma ({\omega}/{f})^{1/2}$. Here $L_{f}$ is an equilibrium length scale associated with rotational control of bar-generated turbulence. The model flux of exported mixed fluid $Q\,{\sim}\,h_m L_f u_e$ is constant and in agreement with the experiments.
    Description: This work was supported by the Ocean Ventures Fund, the Westcott Fund and the WHOI Academic Programs Office. Financial support was also provided by the National Science Foundation through grant OCE-9616949.
    Keywords: Abyssal mixing ; Stratified rotating system
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83 (2003): 1347-1350, doi:10.1017/S0025315403008798.
    Description: Trophic positions (TP) were estimated for the blue shark (Prionace glauca), shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) using stable isotope ratios of carbon ([delta]13C) and nitrogen ([delta]15N). The basking shark had the lowest TP (3·1) and [delta]15N value (10·4‰), whereas the thresher shark had the highest values (4·5, 15·2‰). Mako sharks showed considerable variation in TP and isotopic values, possibly due to foraging from both inshore and offshore waters. Thresher sharks were significantly more enriched in [delta]15N than blue sharks and mako sharks, suggesting a different prey base. The [delta]13C values of thresher sharks and mako sharks varied significantly, but neither was significantly different from that of blue sharks. No statistical differences were found between our TP estimations and those derived from published stomach contents analyses, indicating that stable isotope data may be used to estimate the trophic status of sharks.
    Description: This work was supported by National Marine Fisheries Service Grant NA16MF1323 to M.E.L.
    Keywords: Prionace glauca ; Isurus oxyrinchus ; Alopias vulpinus ; Cetorhinus maximus ; Trophic positions
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Parasitology 128 (2004): 577-584, doi:10.1017/S0031182004005025.
    Description: Human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is necessary and sufficient for the short-term maintenance of Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro culture. However, at high concentrations it is toxic to the parasite. A heat-labile component is apparently responsible for the stage-specific toxicity to parasites within infected erythrocytes 12–42 h after invasion, i.e. during trophozoite maturation. The effects of HDL on parasite metabolism (as determined by nucleic acid synthesis) are evident at about 30 h after invasion. Parasites treated with HDL show gross abnormalities by light and electron microscopy.
    Description: Professor Hajduk was supported by NIH. Professor Day was supported by a Research Leave Fellowship from The Wellcome Trust. Dr Imrie and Ms Carter were supported by Programme Grant funding awarded to Professor Day from The Wellcome Trust. Dr Ferguson was supported by an equipment grant from The Wellcome Trust.
    Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum ; High density lipoprotein
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2000. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Zygote 8 (2000): 15-24, doi:10.1017/S0967199400000782.
    Description: The physiology of the early embryo may be indicative of embryo vitality and therefore methods for non-invasively monitoring physiological parameters from embryos could improve preimplantation diagnoses. The self-referencing electrophysiological technique is capable of non-invasive measurement of the physiology of individual cells by monitoring the movement of ions and molecules between the cell and the surrounding media. Here we use this technique to monitor gradients of calcium, potassium, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide around individual mouse preimplantation embryos. The calcium-sensitive electrode in self-referencing mode identified a region of elevated calcium concentration ([similar]0.25 pmol) surrounding each embryo. The calcium gradient surrounding embryos was relatively steep, such that the region of elevated calcium extended into the medium only 4 [mu]m from the embryo. By contrast, using an oxygen-sensitive electrode an extensive gradient of reduced dissolved oxygen concentration was measured surrounding the embryo and extended tens of micrometres into the medium. A gradient of neither potassium nor hydrogen peroxide was observed around unperturbed embryos. We also demonstrate that monitoring the physiology of embryos using the self-referencing technique does not compromise their subsequent development. Blastocysts studied with the self-referencing technique implanted and developed to term at the same frequency as did unexamined, control embryos. Therefore, the self-referencing electrode provides a valuable non-invasive technique for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of individual embryos without hindering their subsequent development.
    Description: A portion of this work was funded by an NIH R21 #RR 12718–02 to D.L.K. and P.J.S.S., KO81099 to D.L.K. and NIH P41 RR01395 to P.J.S.S.
    Keywords: Calcium ; Embryo physiology ; Embryo transfer ; Oxygen ; Preimplantation diagnosis
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2002. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 468 (2002): 179-204, doi:10.1017/S0022112002001520.
    Description: A similarity solution to the long-wave shallow-water equations is obtained for a density current (reduced gravity = g[prime prime or minute], Coriolis parameter = f) propagating alongshore (y = 0). The potential vorticity q = f/H1 is uniform in [minus sign][infty infinity] 〈 x [less-than-or-eq, slant] xnose(t), 0 〈 y [less-than-or-eq, slant] L(x, t), and the nose of this advancing potential vorticity front displaces fluid of greater q = f/H0, which is located at L 〈 y 〈 [infty infinity]. If L0 = L([minus sign][infty infinity], t), the nose point with L(xnose(t), t) = 0 moves with velocity Unose = [surd radical]g[prime prime or minute]H0 [phi], where [phi] is a function of H1/H0, f2L20/g[prime prime or minute]H0. The assumptions made in the similarity theory are verified by an initial value solution of the complete reduced-gravity shallow-water equations. The latter also reveal the new effect of a Kelvin shock wave colliding with a potential vorticity front, as is confirmed by a laboratory experiment. Also confirmed is the expansion wave structure of the intrusion, but the observed values of Unose are only in qualitative agreement; the difference is attributed to the presence of small-scale (non-hydrostatic) turbulence in the laboratory experiment but not in the numerical solutions.
    Description: This work is funded by National Science Foundation grants OCE-9726584 & OCE-0092504 (M. E. S.) and OCE-9810599 (K. R. H.).
    Keywords: Potential vorticity front ; Frontal intrusion ; Kelvin wave
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 536 (2005): 253-283, doi:10.1017/S0022112005004544.
    Description: The generation of a gravity current by the release of a semi-infinite region of buoyant fluid of depth $H$ overlying a deeper, denser and quiescent lower layer in a rotating channel of width $w$ is considered. Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of the gravity current head region and produced relations for the gravity current speed $c_{b}$ and width $w_b$ as a functions of the local current depth along the wall $h_b$, reduced gravity $g^\prime$, and Coriolis frequency $f$. Here, the dam-break problem is solved analytically by the method of characteristics assuming reduced-gravity flow, uniform potential vorticity and a semigeostrophic balance. The solution makes use of a local gravity current speed relation $c_{b} \,{=}\, c_b(h_b,\ldots)$ and a continuity constraint at the head to close the problem. The initial value solution links the local gravity current properties to the initiating dam-break conditions. The flow downstream of the dam consists of a rarefaction joined to a uniform gravity current with width $w_b$ (${\le}\, w$) and depth on the right-hand wall of $h_b$, terminated at the head moving at speed $c_b$. The solution gives $h_b$, $c_b$, $w_b$ and the transport of the boundary current as functions of $w/L_R$, where $L_R \,{=}\, \sqrt{g^\prime H}/f$ is the deformation radius. The semigeostrophic solution compares favourably with numerical solutions of a single-layer shallow-water model that internally develops a leading bore. Existing laboratory experiments are re-analysed and some new experiments are undertaken. Comparisons are also made with a three-dimensional shallow-water model. These show that lateral boundary friction is the primary reason for differences between the experiments and the semigeostrophic theory. The wall no-slip condition is identified as the primary cause of the experimentally observed decrease in gravity current speed with time. A model for the viscous decay is developed and shown to agree with both experimental and numerical model data.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF Grants OCE-0095059 and OCE-0132903.
    Keywords: Gravity current ; Dam-break problem
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2002. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 464 (2002): 251-278, doi:10.1017/S0022112002008868.
    Description: The dynamics of buoyant gravity currents in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem relevant to geophysical applications such as river water entering the ocean. However, existing scaling theories are limited to currents propagating along a vertical wall, a situation almost never realized in the ocean. A scaling theory is proposed for the structure (width and depth), nose speed and flow field characteristics of buoyant gravity currents over a sloping bottom as functions of the gravity current transport Q, density anomaly g[prime prime or minute], Coriolis frequency f, and bottom slope [alpha]. The nose propagation speed is cp [similar] cw/ (1 + cw/c[alpha]) and the width of the buoyant gravity current is Wp [similar] cw/ f(1 + cw/c[alpha]), where cw = (2Qg[prime prime or minute] f)1/4 is the nose propagation speed in the vertical wall limit (steep bottom slope) and c[alpha] = [alpha]g/f is the nose propagation speed in the slope-controlled limit (small bottom slope). The key non-dimensional parameter is cw/c[alpha], which indicates whether the bottom slope is steep enough to be considered a vertical wall (cw/c[alpha] [rightward arrow] 0) or approaches the slope-controlled limit (cw/c[alpha] [rightward arrow] [infty infinity]). The scaling theory compares well against a new set of laboratory experiments which span steep to gentle bottom slopes (cw/c[alpha] = 0.11–13.1). Additionally, previous laboratory and numerical model results are reanalysed and shown to support the proposed scaling theory.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF grant OCE-0095059.
    Keywords: Buoyant gravity currents ; Scaling theory ; Sloping bottom
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  • 57
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    Cambridge University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 529 (2005): 71-95, doi:10.1017/S0022112005003393.
    Description: The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies in driving large-scale currents is studied in an eddy-resolving midlatitude double-gyre ocean model. The reference solution is decomposed into large-scale and eddy components in a way which is dynamically consistent with a non-eddy-resolving ocean model. That is, the non-eddy-resolving solution driven by this eddy-forcing history, calculated on the basis of this decomposition, correctly approximates the original flow. The main effect of the eddy forcing on the large-scale flow is to enhance the eastward-jet extension of the subtropical western boundary current. This is an anti-diffusive process, which cannot be represented in terms of turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the eddy-forcing history can be approximated as a space–time correlated, random-forcing process in such a way that the non-eddy-resolving solution correctly approximates the reference solution. Thus, the random-forcing model can potentially replace the diffusion model, which is commonly used to parameterize eddy effects on the large-scale currents. The eddy-forcing statistics are treated as spatially inhomogeneous but stationary, and the dynamical roles of space–time correlations and spatial inhomogeneities are systematically explored. The integral correlation time, oscillations of the space correlations, and inhomogeneity of the variance are found to be particularly important for the flow response.
    Description: Funding for this research was provided by NSF grants OCE 0091836 and OCE 03-44094, by the Royal Society Fellowship, and by WHOI grants 27100056 and 52990035.
    Keywords: Mesoscale oceanic eddies ; Large-scale currents ; Random-forcing model
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  • 58
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    Cambridge University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2001. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 437 (2001): 301-323, doi:10.1017/S0022112001004402.
    Description: Laboratory and numerical experiments are used to study flow of a uniform-density fluid on the [beta]-plane around a thin zonally elongated island (or ridge segment in the abyss). This orientation is chosen specifically to highlight the roles of the zonal boundary layer dynamics in controlling the circulation around the island. There are examples of deep ocean topography that fall into this category which make the work directly applicable to oceanic flows. Linear theory for the transport around the island and the flow structure is based on a modification of the Island Rule (Pedlosky et al. 1997; Pratt & Pedlosky 1999). The linear solution gives a north–south symmetric flow around the island with novel features, including stagnation points which divide the zonal boundary layers into eastward and westward flowing zones, and a western boundary layer of vanishing length, and zonal jets. Laboratory experiments agree with the linear theory for small degrees of nonlinearity, as measured by the ratio of the inertial to Munk boundary layer scales. With increasing nonlinearity the north–south symmetry is broken. The southern stagnation point (for anticyclonic forcing) moves to the eastern tip of the island. The flow rounding the eastern tip from the northern side of the island now separates from the island. Time-dependence emerges and recirculation cells develop on the northern side of the island. Mean transport around the island is relatively unaffected by nonlinearity and given to within 20% by the modified Island Rule. Numerical solutions of the shallow water equations are in close agreement with the laboratory results. The transition from zonal to meridional island orientation occurs for island inclinations from zonal greater than about 20°.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant Number OCE96-16949).
    Keywords: Zonal boundary layer dynamics ; Island Rule
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2000. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 403 (2000): 37-65, doi:10.1017/S0022112099006916.
    Description: The dynamics of expanding domes of isothermal lava are studied by treating the lava as a viscoplastic material with the Herschel–Bulkley constitutive law. Thin-layer theory is developed for radially symmetric extrusions onto horizontal plates. This provides an evolution equation for the thickness of the fluid that can be used to model expanding isothermal lava domes. Numerical and analytical solutions are derived that explore the effects of yield stress, shear thinning and basal sliding on the dome evolution. The results are briefly compared with an experimental study. It is found that it is difficult to unravel the combined effects of shear thinning and yield stress; this may prove important to studies that attempt to infer yield stress from morphology of flowing lava.
    Description: The financial support of an EPSRC Advanced Fellowship is gratefully acknowledged by R.V. C. N. J. B. was partially supported by the NSF Grant OCE-9616017 and an EPSRC Visiting Fellowship Grant GR/M50409.
    Keywords: Isothermal lava domes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 515 (2004): 415-443, doi:10.1017/S0022112004000576.
    Description: The investigation involves the hydraulic behaviour of a dense layer of fluid flowing over an obstacle and subject to entrainment of mass and momentum from a dynamically inactive (but possibly moving) overlying fluid. An approach based on the use of reduced gravity, shallow-water theory with a cross-interface entrainment velocity is compared with numerical simulations based on a model with continuously varying stratification and velocity. The locations of critical flow (hydraulic control) in the continuous model are estimated by observing the direction of propagation of small-amplitude long-wave disturbances introduced into the flow field. Although some of the trends predicted by the shallow-water model are observed in the continuous model, the agreement between the interface profiles and the position of critical flow is quantitatively poor. A reformulation of the equations governing the continuous flow suggests that the reduced gravity model systematically underestimates inertia and overestimates buoyancy. These differences are quantified by shape coefficients that measure the vertical non-uniformities of the density and horizontal velocity that arise, in part, by incomplete mixing of entrained mass and momentum over the lower-layer depth. Under conditions of self-similarity (as in Wood's similarity solution) the shape coefficients are constant and the formulation determines a new criterion for and location of critical flow. This location generally lies upstream of the critical section predicted by the reduced-gravity model. Self-similarity is not observed in the numerically generated flow, but the observed critical section continues to lie upstream of the location predicted by the reduced gravity model. The factors influencing this result are explored.
    Description: M. H. N. would like to thank the Danish Natural Science Research Council for financial support. L. P. and K. H. were supported by the Office of Naval Research under grant N00014-1-01-0167 and by the National Science Foundation under grant OCE-0132903.
    Keywords: Hydraulic behaviour ; Reduced gravity model
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 506 (2004): 217-244, doi:10.1017/S0022112004008572.
    Description: The effect of both vertical and horizontal components of the Earth's rotation on plumes during deep convection in the ocean is studied. In the laboratory, the misalignment, characterized by the angle $\alpha$, between the buoyancy force (‘effective’ free-fall acceleration ${\bm g}_e$) and the rotation axis ${\bm \Omega}$ is produced by using the centrifugal force: an experimental tank was placed at a large distance from the centre of the turntable. The mathematical analogy between the laboratory model and the oceanic environment is presented. For $\alpha\,{=}\,30^\circ$, a number of laboratory experiments spanning a wide range of the buoyancy flux parameter, and correspondingly Reynolds number, is used to illustrate the development of the convective plume from a point source in regimes ranging from weakly to highly turbulent. New features of the flow, as compared to $\alpha\,{=}\,0$, are documented and explained. The incoming heavier dyed fluid jet disintegrates into fast-sinking coherent blobs (in a low-Reynolds-number regime) or turbulent billows (in a high-Reynolds-number regime) and a more diffuse cloud of highly diluted dyed water. An analysis of the forces acting on an ellipsoid moving in a rotating fluid with the main balance including the buoyancy, Coriolis forces, and the hydrodynamic reaction due to generation of inertial waves correctly predicts the trajectory of a descending blob. It also explains the tendency of the plume to develop in the direction intermediate between ${\bm g}_e$ and ${\bm \Omega}$ and to shift ‘eastward’ (lagging the rotation of the centrifuge) if the plume is envisaged as an ensemble of blobs. The stretching of the highly diluted dyed water along the absolute vorticity tubes with simultaneous shearing by horizontal quasi-two-dimensional flow produces conspicuous tilted structures or tilted Taylor ‘ink walls’. The misalignment between ${\bm g}_e$ and ${\bm \Omega}$ enhances the turbulent mixing and development of tilted structures by breaking the symmetry and producing motions directed away from the rotation axis. We argue that the conditions at the sites of ocean deep convection are favourable for the development of tilted structures because of the smallness of the Rossby number and an extreme homogenization of the mixed layer. We hypothesize that the homogenized sublayers observed within actively convecting regions in the ocean may not be horizontal, but in fact analogous to the tilted ‘ink walls’ observed in the laboratory experiments and that they represent the internal structure of a plume on horizontal scales smaller than its depth.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Endowed Fund for Innovative Research and by the National Science Foundation grant OCE-0116910.
    Keywords: Convective plumes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 514 (2004): 107-119, doi:10.1017/S0022112004000126.
    Description: While acoustic scatter from oceanic turbulence is sensitive to temperature–salinity covariations, there are unfortunately no published measurements of the turbulent temperature–salinity co-spectrum. Several models have been proposed for the form of the co-spectrum of two scalars in turbulence, but they all produce unsatisfactory results when applied to the turbulent scattering equations (either predicting negative scattering cross-sections in some regimes or predicting implausible levels of correlation between temperature and salinity at some scales). A new model is proposed and shown to give physically plausible scattering predictions in all density regimes. High-frequency acoustic data illustrate the importance of the co-spectrum for acoustic scattering, but were collected in a density regime where there is little difference between the co-spectrum models.
    Description: This work was supported by NSERC and by ONR under grant #N00014-93-1-0362.
    Keywords: Oceanic turbulence ; Co-spectrum ; Temperature–salinity covariations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2000. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 404 (2000):117-149, doi:10.1017/S0022112099007065.
    Description: In order to gain insight into the hydraulics of rotating-channel flow, a set of initial-value problems analogous to Long's towing experiments is considered. Specifically, we calculate the adjustment caused by the introduction of a stationary obstacle into a steady, single-layer flow in a rotating channel of infinite length. Using the semigeostrophic approximation and the assumption of uniform potential vorticity, we predict the critical obstacle height above which upstream influence occurs. This height is a function of the initial Froude number, the ratio of the channel width to an appropriately defined Rossby radius of deformation, and a third parameter governing how the initial volume flux in sidewall boundary layers is partitioned. (In all cases, the latter is held to a fixed value specifying zero flow in the right-hand (facing downstream) boundary layer.) The temporal development of the flow according to the full, two-dimensional shallow water equations is calculated numerically, revealing numerous interesting features such as upstream-propagating shocks and separated rarefying intrusions, downstream hydraulic jumps in both depth and stream width, flow separation, and two types of recirculations. The semigeostrophic prediction of the critical obstacle height proves accurate for relatively narrow channels and moderately accurate for wide channels. Significantly, we find that contact with the left-hand wall (facing downstream) is crucial to most of the interesting and important features. For example, no instances are found of hydraulic control of flow that is separated from the left-hand wall at the sill, despite the fact that such states have been predicted by previous semigeostrophic theories. The calculations result in a series of regime diagrams that should be very helpful for investigators who wish to gain insight into rotating, hydraulically driven flow.
    Description: The authors have been supported by the National Science Foundation through Grants (OCE-9810599 for L.J.P. and K.R.H. and OCE-9711186 for EPC). L.J.P. also received support from the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-95-1-0456 and K.R.H. under grant N00014-93-1-0263.
    Keywords: Rotating-channel flow ; Hydraulically driven flow
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2002. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 452 (2002): 97-121, doi:10.1017/S0022112001006668.
    Description: Buoyancy-driven surface currents were generated in the laboratory by releasing buoyant fluid from a source adjacent to a vertical boundary in a rotating container. Different bottom topographies that simulate both a continental slope and a continental ridge were introduced in the container. The topography modified the flow in comparison with the at bottom case where the current grew in width and depth until it became unstable once to non-axisymmetric disturbances. However, when topography was introduced a second instability of the buoyancy-driven current was observed. The most important parameter describing the flow is the ratio of continental shelf width W to the width L* of the current at the onset of the instability. The values of L* for the first instability, and L*[minus sign]W for the second instability were not influenced by the topography and were 2–6 times the Rossby radius. Thus, the parameter describing the flow can be expressed as the ratio of the width of the continental shelf to the Rossby radius. When this ratio is larger than 2–6 the second instability was observed on the current front. A continental ridge allowed the disturbance to grow to larger amplitude with formation of eddies and fronts, while a gentle continental slope reduced the growth rate and amplitude of the most unstable mode, when compared to the continental ridge topography. When present, eddies did not separate from the main current, and remained near the shelf break. On the other hand, for the largest values of the Rossby radius the first instability was suppressed and the flow was observed to remain stable. A small but significant variation was found in the wavelength of the first instability, which was smaller for a current over topography than over a flat bottom.
    Description: Partial support for C.C. was provided by a TMR fellowship, MAS3-CT96-5017.
    Keywords: Buoyancy-driven currents ; Bottom topography
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geological Magazine 141 (2004): 195-207, doi:10.1017/S001675680400891X.
    Description: Because magmatism associated with subduction is thought to be the principal source for continental crust generation, assessing the relative contribution of pre-existing (subducted and assimilated) continental material to arc magmatism in accreted arcs is important to understanding the origin of continental crust. We present a detailed Nd isotopic stratigraphy for volcanic and volcaniclastic formations from the South Mayo Trough, an accreted oceanic arc exposed in the western Irish Caledonides. These units span an arc–continent collision event, the Grampian (Taconic) Orogeny, in which an intra-oceanic island arc was accreted onto the passive continental margin of Laurentia starting at [similar] 475 Ma (Arenig). The stratigraphy corresponding to pre-, syn- and post-collisional volcanism reveals a progression of [varepsilon]Nd(t) from strongly positive values, consistent with melt derivation almost exclusively from oceanic mantle beneath the arc, to strongly negative values, indicating incorporation of continental material into the melt. Using [varepsilon]Nd(t) values of meta-sediments that represent the Laurentian passive margin and accretionary prism, we are able to quantify the relative proportions of continent-derived melt at various stages of arc formation and accretion. Mass balance calculations show that mantle-derived magmatism contributes substantially to melt production during all stages of arc–continent collision, never accounting for less than 21% of the total. This implies that a significant addition of new, rather than recycled, continental crust can accompany arc–continent collision and continental arc magmatism.
    Keywords: Grampian Orogeny ; Western Ireland ; Continental crust ; Nd isotopes ; Laurentia ; Iapetus Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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    Essen : Verl. Glückauf | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2016-08-23
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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    Publication Date: 2005-07-18
    Print ISSN: 0033-5894
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0287
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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