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  • Fisheries  (107)
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • California Department of Fish and Game  (107)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The Channel Islands—sometimes called the Galapagos of North America—are known for their great beauty, rich biodiversity, cultural heritage, and recreational opportunities. In 1980, in recognition of the islands’ importance, the United States Congress established a national park encompassing 5 of California’s Channel Islands (Santa Barbara, Anacapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel Islands) and waters within 1 nautical mile of the islands. In the same year, Congress declared a national marine sanctuary around each of these islands, including waters up to 6 nautical miles offshore. Approximately 60,000 people visit the Channel Islands each year for aquatic recreation such as fishing, sailing, kayaking, wildlife watching, surfing, and diving. Another 30,000 people visit the islands for hiking, camping, and sightseeing. Dozens of commercial fishing boats based in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Oxnard, and other ports go to the Channel Islands to catch squid, spiny lobster, sea urchin, rockfish, crab, sheephead, flatfish, and sea cucumber, among other species. In the past few decades, advances in fishing technology and the rising number of fishermen, in conjunction with changing ocean conditions and diseases, have contributed to declines in some marine fishes and invertebrates at the Channel Islands. In 1998, citizens from Santa Barbara and Ventura proposed establishment of no-take marine reserves at the Channel Islands, beginning a 4-year process of public meetings, discussions, and scientific analyses. In 2003, the California Fish and Game Commission designated a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in state waters around the northern Channel Islands. In 2006 and 2007, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) extended the MPAs into the national marine sanctuary’s deeper, federal waters. To determine if the MPAs are protecting marine species and habitats, scientists are monitoring ecological changes. They are studying changes in habitats; abundance and size of species of interest; the ocean food web and ecosystem; and movement of fish and invertebrates from MPAs to surrounding waters. Additionally, scientists are monitoring human activities such as commercial and recreational fisheries, and compliance with MPA regulations. This booklet describes some results from the first 5 years of monitoring the Channel Islands MPAs. Although 5 years is not long enough to determine if the MPAs will accomplish all of their goals, this booklet offers a glimpse of the changes that are beginning to take place and illustrates the types of information that will eventually be used to assess the MPAs’ effectiveness. (PDF contains 24 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Ecology ; Conservation ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 14 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 153 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Biology ; Chemistry
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: In 1999 trap fishermen and environmental groups testified at a Fish and Game Commission (Commission) meeting that they were concerned about high levels of bycatch in the spot prawn trawl fishery. Environmental representatives requested that the Commission consider adopting regulations that would phase out the spot prawn trawl fishery by 2004 and convert spot prawn trawl permits to spot prawn trap permits. Also in 1999 the Department reported to the Commission the results of six observed spot prawn trawl tows in March 1999, including the ratio of weight of finfish bycatch to weight of spot prawns (7.4 to 1). Based primarily on the above factors, the Commission initially directed the Department to develop, as part of a package of regulatory proposals for the spot prawn trap and trawl fisheries, a proposal to phase out the spot prawn trawl fishery and convert trawl permits to trap permits. Subsequently the Department recommended that, instead of phasing out the spot prawn trawl fishery, information on the relative amount and type of bycatch in the trawl and trap fisheries be determined through an on-board observer program. An observer fee structure was proposed and adopted, and an observer program was in effect for all vessels landing spot prawns from July 14, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Vessels were required to purchase and possess a spot prawn observer fee permit in order to take and land spot prawns. Funds from the program were used to support on board observers and to digitize and analyze the data. Some fishing trips were observed after the requirement for the observer fee had expired. A total of 86 spot prawn trawl tows (71 from northern California-based vessels and 15 from southern California- based vessels) was observed on nine vessels during the period September 26, 2000 to September 19, 2001. Observed vessels fished from the ports of Fort Bragg, San Francisco, Monterey, Morro Bay, and Ventura. For northern California trawl vessels, the top five finfish species observed in the bycatch, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, were Pacific hake (whiting), Dover sole, sablefish, English sole, and splitnose rockfish, comprising 53.9% of all fishes by weight. Twenty-eight species of rockfishes were observed, comprising 28.1% by weight of all fishes. The weight ratio of total finfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch from all tows combined was 7.5 to 1. The ratio of total rockfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch was 2.1 to 1. For southern California trawl vessels, the top five finfish species observed in the bycatch, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, were Pacific sanddab, Pacific hake, slender sole, shortbelly rockfish, and Dover sole, comprising 83.1% of all fishes by weight. Fifteen species of rockfishes were observed, comprising 8.8% by weight of all fishes. The ratio of total finfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch from all tows combined was 17.7 to 1. The ratio of total rockfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch was 1.5 to 1. The ratio of total trawl bycatch, including invertebrates, to spot prawn catch was 8.8 to 1 in northern California and 20.6 to 1 in southern California. The National Marine Fisheries Service has determined the following rockfish species to be overfished and require rebuilding: bocaccio, canary, cowcod, darkblotched, widow, and yelloweye. Bocaccio, cowcod, darkblotched, and widow rockfishes were observed in multiple tows, and yelloweye and canary each were observed in a single tow. In general, the relative abundance of overfished rockfish species was low compared with other finfishes. However, expansions by weight of finfishes from observed tows to all spot prawn tows, based on the ratio of total to observed spot prawn landings, indicated that the estimated total bycatch of overfished rockfishes was significant in terms of allowable catch levels (optimum yields) established by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council). Other overfished species observed in the sampled catch including Pacific hake (whiting) and lingcod. Results from these trawl observations relative to bycatch levels were consistent with the few previous studies conducted. That is, the total observed bycatch in the trawl fishery was more than four times that of spot prawns by weight. A total of 27 trap vessels paid the required observer fee, and 23 of these landed spot prawns during the period in which the observer fee was required. Passage was secured on 16 of these 23 vessels for observations of bycatch. An additional vessel that had not paid the fee was sampled after the fee requirement period had expired. A total of 262 spot prawn trap strings (88 from northern California vessels and 174 from southern California vessels) was observed from 16 vessels during the study. Observed vessels fished out of the ports of Monterey, Morro Bay, Channel Islands Harbor, Ventura, Terminal Island, Newport Beach, Dana Point, Oceanside, and San Diego. For northern California trap vessels, the top five finfish species observed in the bycatch, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, were sablefish, rosethorn rockfish, greenblotched rockfish group, spotted cusk eel, and filetail catshark, comprising 77.7% of all fishes by weight. Seventeen species of rockfishes were observed, comprising 25.5% by weight of all fishes. The ratio of total finfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch from all strings combined was 0.15 to 1. The ratio of total rockfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch was 0.04 to 1. For southern California trap vessels, the top five finfish species observed in the bycatch, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, were lingcod, greenblotched rockfish group, threadfin sculpin, sablefish, and swell shark, comprising 66.4% of all fishes by weight. Twenty-two species of rockfishes were observed, comprising 32.5% by weight of all fishes. The ratio of total finfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch from all strings combined was 0.22 to 1. The ratio of total rockfish bycatch to total spot prawn catch was 0.07 to 1. The ratio of total trap bycatch, including invertebrates, to spot prawn catch was 1.0 to 1 in northern California and 2.0 to 1 in southern California. Most invertebrates and many fish species other than rockfishes could be returned to the water alive. Overfished rockfish species were observed infrequently, and expansions of observed bycatch data to all trap strings yielded relatively low total estimated bycatch weights for these species. In northern California, the relative amount of bycatch for all finfishes and rockfishes was 50 and 52 times greater, respectively, in the trawl fishery compared with the trap fishery. In southern California, the relative amount of bycatch for all fishes and rockfishes was 80 and 21 times greater, respectively, in the trawl fishery compared with the trap fishery. (Document has 88 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Two sources of historical landing data from California's commercial passenger fishing vessel (CPFV) fleet were examined to: 1) assess status and content of each archival data source, 2) identify reporting differences, and 3) evaluate potential usefulness of the data for enhancing resource assessment. Current and historical CPFV logbook data collected by California Department of Fish and Game are described with respect to status, content, and approximate cost of recovering historical data (1936-78) to electronic format. CPFV landing data available from Los Angeles Times, archived in libraries since 1959, are similarly described. CPFV logbook data were compared with observer data from 1985-89 to evaluate accuracy of logbook records. Comparison of catch and effort for major species targeted by southern California CPFV anglers revealed significant relationships between reported and observed catch rates for six of ten species examined. Agreement of catch rate trends validates use of logbook data for measuring relative changes in catch and effort for these sport fish species. Direct comparisons of landings data from CPFV logs and Los Angeles Times fish reports were made for years in which Times data are already available in electronic database format, including 1959, 1967, 1975, 1983, 1991, and 1992. Comparisons of total landings by species among years revealed strong correlations between the two sources for those species (e.g., California barracuda, yellowtail, bonito) most heavily targeted over the entire period. Other species, such as California sheephead, spotted scorpionfish, and ocean whitefish, were underreported or not reported by the Times until recently. Comparison of port-wide total landings of all species (1983, 1991, 1992) revealed varied reports of total catch (all species) between sources among ports and years. Times-logbook landing report comparisons were highly correlated for Los Angeles area ports (r2=0.956), but were also most different in absolute number, with Times reports being an average of 48% higher than logbook totals. Comparison of species landings by port in 1992 revealed additional port-wide differences in reporting between both sources. Historical CPFV logbook records have higher spatial resolution (catch location as opposed to port of landing), span a greater period, and will be cheaper to recover into electronic database format than Times fish reports. Historical Times data have higher temporal resolution (daily v. monthly), but II cost approximately $165,000 to recover as opposed to $11 ,000 for logbook data summaries covering a longer period. Strong correlation between the two sources shows usefulness of Times data for tracking real-time changes in sport catch in southern California. (53pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) scales were analyzed from eight fall-run, two spring-run, and one winter-run stocks within the Klamath-Trinity River system, from 1981 through 1983, to provide basic information on age, growth, and life history. The higher degree of half-pounder occurrence of upper Klamath River steelhead stocks (86.7 to 100%) compared to Trinity River steelhead stocks (32.0 to 80.0%) was the major life history difference noted in scale analysis. Early life history was similar for all areas sampled with most juveniles (86.4%) remaining in freshwater during the first two years of life before migrating to sea. Repeat spawning ranged from 17.6 to 47.9% for fall-run, 40.0 to 63.6% for spring-run, and 31.1% for winter-run steelhead. Mean length of adults at first spawning was inversely related to percent half-pounder occurrence in each stock. Ages of returning spawners, back calculated lengths at various life stages, and growth information are presented. (PDF contains 22 pages)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 7
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Fourteen cooperative fish rearing and planting programs for salmon and steelhead were active from July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997. For all programs, 208,922 steelhead trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 10,334,457 chinook salmon,(O. tshawytscha),and 60,681 coho salmon(O. kisutch) were planted. (PDF contains 24 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 8
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Fifteen cooperative fish rearing and planting programs for salmon and steelhead were active from July 1, 1995 through June 30, 1996. For all programs, 134,213 steelhead trout,(Oncorhynchus mykiss), 7,742,577 chinook salmon,(~ tshawytscha),and 25,075 coho salmon(~ kisutch) were planted. (PDF contains 26 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 9
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2014-10-30
    Description: The California Department of Fish and Game's Natural Stocks Assessment Project (NSAP) collected water quality data at high tides on a monthly basis from February 1991 to October 1994, and during low tides from March 1992 to June 1994 in the Klamath River estuary to describe water quality conditions. NSAP collected data on water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, depth of saltwedge, and Klamath River flow. Klamath River flows ranged from 44.5 cubic meters per second (1570 cfs) in August 1994 to 3832.2 cubic meters per second (135,315 cfs) in March 1993. Saltwater was present in the estuary primarily in the summer and early fall and generally extended 2 to 3 miles upstream. Surface water temperatures ranged from 6-8° C in the winter to 20-24° C in the summer. Summer water temperatures within the saltwedge were generally 5 to 8° C cooler than the surface water temperature. Dissolved oxygen in the estuary was generally greater than 6 to 7 ppm year-round. A sand berm formed at the mouth of the river each year in the late summer or early fall which raised the water level in the estuary and reduced tidal fluctuation so that the Klamath estuary became essentially a lagoon. I hypothesize the formation of the sand berm may increase the production of the estuary and help provide favorable conditions for rearing juvenile chinook salmon.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 10
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This report covers the 37th annual inventory of chinook salman, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, spawner populations in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system.-It is a compilation of reports estimating the fall-, winter-, late-fall-, and spring-run salmon spawner populations for streams which were surveyed. Estimates were made from counts of fish entering hatcheries and migrating past dams, froro surveys of dead and live fish and redds on spawning areas, and from aerial counts. The estimated 1989 total escapement of chinook salmon in the Central Valley was 205,990 fish. This total consisted of 181,864 fall-, 12,171 spring-, 539 winter-, and 11,416 late-fall-run spawners. All of the spring-, late-fall-, and winter-run salmon were estimated to be in the Sacramento River system, while 3,493 fish of the fall run were in the San Joaquin River system. Due to decreases of spawner populations in most Central Valley tributaries, the total 1989 salmon stock was 32% lower than in 1988; however, late-fall salmon in the upper Sacramento River had a run size similar to that of 1988. The winter run in the mainstem Sacramento River was at a record low level. (PDF contains 44 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Four groups of fin clipped brown trout (Salmo trutta) fingerlings were planted in Hot Creek over a six year period. Survival and growth were estimated by fall and/or spring mark-and-recapture surveys. Yield to the angler for two of the tour groups stocked was estimated by stratified random creel surveys. Fingerling survival from the midsummer stocking period to fall averaged 51 %. Overwinter survival from young-of-the-year to yearling fish averaged 49%. Angler harvest of two groups of fingerlings stocked at densities of 16,082 fish/mile averaged 1,704 trout/mile (10.6%) and 194 lbs/acre. Abundant cover and microhabitat suitable tor young trout, ice-free winters, and rapid growth were factors viewed as contributing to high yields. Results do not suggest a change is needed in the general policy of not stocking brown trout fingerlings in California streams. Results do show that fingerlings stocked in Hot Creek, and presumably other productive streams with abundant cover, can effectively fill a void created by limited recruitment. (PDF contains 24 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 12
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This report covers the 39th annual inventory of chinook salman, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, spawner populations in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system." It is a compilation of reports estimating the fall-, winter-, late-fall-, and spring-run salman spawner populatiens fer streams which were surveyed. Estimates were made from counts of fish entering hatcheries and migrating past dams, from surveys of dead and live fish and redds on spawning areas, and from aerial counts. The estimated 1991 total escapement of chinook salmon in the Central Valley was 147,080 fish. This total consisted of 132,571 fall-, 5,921 spring-, 190 winter-, and 8,398 late-fall-run spawners. All of the spring-, late-fall-, and winter-run salmon were estimated to be in the Sacramento River system, while 1,176 fish of the fall run were in the San Joaquin River system. Spawner populations in all individual tributaries (except the American River) and the Sacramento River mainstem were lower than in 1990; but it should be noted that fall run populations in the Feather and Yuba rivers, two of the larger tributaries, were not surveyed that year. The winter run in the mainstem Sacramento River was at a record low level. (PDF contains 42 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Silver King Creek, Alpine County, is the native range of the Federally-threatened Paiute cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki seleniris. Paiute cutthroat currently inhabit Coyote Valley and Corral Valley creeks, which are tributaries to Silver King Creek below Llewellyn Falls, and also Silver King Creek and tributaries aboye Llewellyn Falls. Rainbow trout, O. mykiss, were introduced into the basin during 1949 and became hybridized with Paiute cutthroat. Chemical treatments attempted by the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) in 1964 and 1976 failed to eliminate hybrid trout. A chemical treatment project was again conducted by the CDFG from 1991 through 1993 to eliminate hybrid trout from within the range of Paiute cutthroat. This report presents a summary of events for the first two years of the Silver King Paiute Cutthroat Trout Restoration Project; a more thorough analysis is made of the third and final year of the project. (PDF contains 39 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Conservation ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Sediment sampling was used to evaluate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) spawning habitat quality in the South Fork Trinity River (SFTR) basin. Sediment samples were collected using a McNeil-type sampler and wet sieved through a series of Tyler screens (25.00 mm, 12.50 mm, 6.30 mm, 3.35 mm, 1.00 mm, and 0.85 mm). Fines (particles 〈 0.85 mm) were determined after a l0-minute settling period in Imhoff cones. Thirteen stations were sampled in the SFTR basin: five stations were located in mainstem SFTR between rk 2.1 and 118.5, 2 stations each were located in EF of the SFTR, Grouse Creek, and Madden Creek, and one station each was located in Eltapom and Hayfork Creeks. Sample means for fines(particles 〈 0.85 mm) fer SFTR stations ranged between 14.4 and 19.4%; tributary station sample mean fines ranged between 3.4 and 19.4%. Decreased egg survival would be expected at 4 of 5 mainstem SFTR stations and at one station in EF of SFTR and Grouse Creek where fines content exceed 15%. Small gravel/sand content measured at all stations were high, and exceed levels associated with reduced sac fry emergence rates. Reduction of egg survival or sac fry emergence due to sedimentation in spawning gravels could lead to reduced juvenile production from the South Fork Trinity River. (PDF contains 18 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Earth Sciences
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2010-12-14
    Description: (PDF has 47 pages.)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2010-12-14
    Description: (Document pdf contains 19 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology ; Planning
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 19 pages)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Cluster analysis was evaluated as a classification technique to group fishing locations based on similarities in species catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data obtained through on board sampling. Catch data from the Monterey Bay area Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel (CPFV) hook-and-line fishery were used. The analysis was designed to define potential fishery management units, refine estimation of species CPUE, and evaluate fish length data for the most commonly caught species in the CPFV fishery. Results produced similar location groups for two separate classifications of the more abundant species caught in the fishery, one based on midwater schooling species and a second based on benthic species. Location groups represented distinct contiguous geographic areas that appear to be strongly related to specific depth ranges and possibly other environmental variables. The differences in species composition among location groupings were distinct but apparently gradual, with no sharp species assemblage boundaries that represented clear divisions between specific ecological communities. Many species appeared to be distributed independently along depth gradients. Suggestions are given to improve the techniques used in future grouping of fishing locations. (46pp.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 22 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 42 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Bolsa Chica Artificial Reef (BCAR) was constructed in November 1986 with 10,400 tons of concrete rubble and eight concrete and steel barges. Prior to any additional augmentation of BCAR, the u.s. Army Corps of Engineers and the California Coastal Commission required the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) to survey the bioloqical communities on and around BCAR. In April 1992, qualitative surveys of the biological communities were conducted on one of the eight modules at BCAR and at a nearby sand-only site. One of the modules, Module D, located in 90 feet of water (MLLW), was surveyed for fish, macroinvertebrates, and turf community organisms (small plants and sessile animals). Twelve species of fish were observed, including kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus) and barred sand bass (P. nebulifer). Eight macroinvertebrate species were observed, rock scallops (Crassedoma giganteum) being the most abundant. The turf community was comprised of thirteen invertebrate taxa, among which erect ectoprocts (Bugula spp.) were the most numerous. Two species of foliose red algae (Rhodymenia pacifica and Anisocladella pacifica) were also observed. The reef has reached an advanced stage of successional development with fish and invertebrate communities diverse and well established. However, due,.to its depth and the turbidity of surrounding waters, this reef is not likely to ever support a diverse algal community. The diversity and abundance of fish and macroinvertebrates were, as to be expected, much lower in the nearby sand-only site. Only two species of fish and seven macroinvertebrate species were observed. Of these, only the sea pen, Stylatula elongata, was common. Overall, when compared to nearby sand-only habitats, Bolsa Chica Artificial Reef appears to contribute substantially to the local biological productivity. In addition, the concrete rubble used in BCAR' s construction appears to be performing as well as the quarry rock used in all of CDFG's experimental reefs. (Document pdf contains 22 pages)
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 16 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 23
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 9 pages)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (Document pdf contains 64 pages)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 25
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: Runs have dwindled in many parts of California and additional protection or management actions are needed to protect the fish from further declines. The following is a report requested by the Fish and Game Commission on the status and current management of spring-run chinook salmon stocks. Fish counts presented in this report were developed by a variety of methods. Some of them are estimates of total run-size or spawning escapement, while others are indices of abundance derived from counts of maturing fish in their holding areas. It is important to note the stock assessment method used. Index area counts will always underestimate the true run size, often by a very large margin.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Jack mackerel landings in southern California during the 1972-73 to 1983-84 seasons indicate successful year classes in 1974, 1976, 1978, and 1980, each contributing over 150 million fish to the fishery. These alternated with weak year classes in 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, and 1981, each contributing less than 60 million fish. A majority of the fish were caught as one- and two-year-olds and were less than 300 mm in length. (45pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Speckled scallops, Argopecten circularis (Sowerby, 1835), were sampled at Agua Hedionda Lagoon, Carlsbad, San Diego County from March 1984 to October 1986, to obtain basic life history data. Monthly samples of scallops were collected, measured, and released to obtain length frequency data for estimates of growth, life span, and spawning period. Subsamples of scallops were collected for determination of gonadal-somatic and adductor muscle-somatic indices. In 1984 large concentrations of speckled scallops were found on the sand-silt bottom of the lagoon, closely associated with eelgrass, Zostra marina. During the course of the study the numbers of scallops declined, until their virtual disappearance at the end of 1986. Monthly length frequency plots from 24,375 scallop measurements indicate that this is a rapidly growing species with a short life span. Gonadal- and adductor muscle-somatic indices from subsamples of 1,714 scallops indicate first spawning at age one and a relationship between temperature and spawning. Based on this study management recommendations are made for the speckled scallop. (39pp.)
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: On 24 June 1985 the U.S. Navy's Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle AVALON [DSRV-2] was used to locate low-level radioactive waste containers and make observations of deepwater benthic fishes and invertebrates at the 900 m (2952 ft) radioactive waste disposal site approximat1y 4.4 km SW of the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California. During the three hours on the bottom in depths of 975 to 1039 m (3198 to 3408 ft) five identifiable species of demersal fishes were observed: Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus; thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp.; deepsea sole, Embassichthys bathybius; sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria; and Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. Unidentifiable demersal fishes from the families Macrouridae and Zoarcidae were also observed. Several species of macroinvertebrates were also identified, including the tanner crab, Chionoecetes tanneri, and a large sea pen, Stylatula elongata. One low-level waste container was located. The biology of the observed fishes and their commercial importance is discussed. (22pp.)
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  • 29
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: San Diego Bay was reopened to commercial gill net fishing for striped mullet, Mugil cephalus, in that portion of the bay south of the San Diego - Coronado bridge in 1977 via an experimental gear permit issued by the Fish and Game Commission. In 1985, legislation was passed allowing up to five permits each annual season to fish for striped mullet in south San Diego Bay. Annual landings ranged from 18,700 to 46,800 pounds from 1980 through 1986. (17pp.)
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, were collected at Johnsons Lee, Santa Rosa Island, in the summers of 1978 through 1982, and in 1984, to obtain data for determining various fishery population parameters. Annual visits to the study site were made at yearly intervals to simplify growth calculations. During the first four visits, 2145 red abalones were tagged, measured, and replaced. Shell damage, soft tissue injuries, and causes of mortality were noted. The method of tagging is described. Recovery of first tagged abalone after one year was approximately 30%. Analysis of variance of the annual samples indicated that the samples were, with one exception, not different. Summaries are presented of the number of abalone collected and tagged by year, frequencies of shell damage, soft tissue injury, predatory sponge infestation, and total mortality. Appendices include a listing of the raw size data and various codes for each tagged abalone. (56pp.)
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The sea otter, Enhydra 1utris, is fully protected in California by both state and federal law. Despite this protection the population has not grown appreciably since at least 1976. Research efforts directed at identifying the reasons for the lack of population growth have concentrated on sources of mortality and their contribution to total mortality. The accidental drowning of sea otters in gill and trammel nets used to take California halibut, Para1ichthys ca1ifornicus, was identified as a source of mortality which has probably increased as the sea otter population expanded into areas of intense fishing. As a result, an existing gill and trammel net fishery observation program in Monterey Bay was expanded to assess the extent and significance of the accidental drownings of sea otters in the areas near Morro Bay and Port San Luis. Three different estimates of the number of sea otters drowned annually in gill and trammel nets were generated using comparable data bases. The average of these estimates was approximately 80 sea otters per year for the level of fishing effort expended during the June 1982 through June 1984 study period. Back calculations of the annual take of sea otters by the gill and trammel net fishery for California halibut were made for each year from 1973 through 1983. These calculations suggest that the level of accidental take of sea otters during the last decade may have been high enough to be a significant factor in the lack of sea otter population growth. (31pp.)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Nearly 49,000 metric tons (MT) of anchovies were taken during the 1978-79 season, followed by 32,390 MT in 1979-80, 60,678 MT in 1980-81 and 45,150 MT in 1981-82. A total of 14,076 fish was sampled during the four seasons for age, length and sex. The fishery during the four seasons consisted mainly of young-of-the-year and age groups I and II fish. The 1978 and 1979 yr classes comprised the major share of the catch. Seasonal mean lengths varied from 112 mm standard length (SL) in the 1979-80 season to 122 mm SL for the 1981-82 season. Female to male sex ratios ranged from 1.17:l (1978-79 season) to 1.59:l (1979-80 season). (28pp.)
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Management of Pacific bonito in California is examined in this Management Information Document by a State-Federal team of scientists. Abundance of Pacific bonito in southern California has fallen dramatically between the 1963-1969 period and the 1974-1977 period. Since 1976 the commercia1 fleet has found few large fish in southern California, and has caught fish in the size range of 15 to 57 cm (1.2 to 4.7 pounds). This fact, coupled with the low abundance indices, point out the need for a more active management regime. To develop management measures for the California bonito fishery both a surplus yield analysis and a yield-per-recruit analysis were performed. A maximum sustained yield of 10,000 short tons was estimated for the fishery in southern California, while the whole fishery, including Baja California, has an estimated MSY of 13,000 tons. In order to achieve this level of catch, however, the stock abundance must be increased by a factor of five. Yield-per-recruit considerations suggest that a minimum size limit in the commercial fishery has two important effects. A three-pound size limit could result in a slight increase in yield-per-recruit. If the size limit is increased to 5 or 7.5 lbs, the yield-per-recruit would fall significantly. Offsetting the effect on yield-per-recruit, however, would be a substantial increase in average amount of spawning per recruit which should result in a proportional increase in recruitment. With the current depressed stock abundance both a reduced annual take and a minimum size limit on commercial catch would confer substantial benefits in the form of an increase in the future stock size. After considering seven different types of management measures, the team finds that three types -- an annual commercial catch quota, a commercial size limit, and a recreational bag limit -- appear desirable. Re-establishment of the stock in southern California was the major consideration in this evaluation because the stock is currently depressed. All segments of the fishery will benefit from a more abundant resource. The difficult issues for policy, however, concern the rate of rebuilding, the degree of risk that is acceptable, and the distribution of benefits among user groups. By judicious choice among the options discussed here, a variety of positions can be established with respect to these issues. The greater the size limit, for instance, the more benefit is provided the recreational sector while difficulties are imposed upon commercial fishermen. The higher the quotas adopted, the slower the stock rebuilding and the greater the risk of continued stock depletion. A final reconciliation of the management options involves social, political and legal considerations which must be thoroughly incorporated by decision-makers before adoption of a management plan. (93pp.)
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  • 34
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The 1976-77 anchovy season ended with landings of 92,515 mt (101,433 tons) in southern California and 4,571 mt (5,041 tons) in central California. Southern California catches were dominated by age groups III (27%) and 0 (28%) while 77% of central California's landings were age groups III through VI. Numerical sex ratios were calculated to be 1.1:l and 2:l female to male for southern and central California respectively. (23pp.)
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  • 35
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Landings for the 1977-78 season were 62,118 metric tons (68,476 tons) in southern California and 6,541 metric tons (7,212 tons) in central California. The southern area's samples were characterized by the dominance of the 1976 year class (38%) while central California data indicated the 1977 year class (38%) as the most abundant year class. Sex ratios indicated a near 1:1 ratio for both southern and central California. (24pp.)
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: A study of maturity and spawning of Pacific bonito, Sarda chiliensis lineolata, was conducted from September 1974 to August 1976. Macroscopic examination of the testes and microscopic observation of the ovaries were found to be reliable in determining the extent of sexual development of individual bonito. Spawning occurred primarily in Baja California waters, between Thetis Bank and Hutchin's Bank during the spring and summer. The study found that 100% of the males larger than 50 cm (19.7 inches) and at least 2 years old and 97.5% of the females larger than 55 cm (21.6 inches) and older than age 2 were mature. An analysis of the ova diameters in spawning fish indicates that bonito spawned more than once each season; the exact frequency could not be determined. Estimates of fecundity were unsatisfactory. (60pp.)
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  • 37
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Anchovy landings for the 1975-76 season totaled 127,829 mg (140,906 short tons). Southern California samples exhibited the preponderance of age group II (1973 year class) followed by age group III (1972 year class). Younger age groups were present in below average numbers. Numerical sex ratios were calculated to be 1.5:l and 1.9:l female to male for southern and central California respectively. (27pp.)
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  • 38
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Pacific bonito, Sarda chiliensis, have become increasingly important to California's sport and commercial fishermen since the early 1960's, but are now showing signs of decline. Recent investigations have revealed much about the bonito's life history and population dynamics. These recent discoveries have been brought together into a document which will serve as a guide to future management actions. Document has 44 pages.
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  • 39
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The California anchovy reduction fishery amounted to 105,767 megagrams (116,588 short tons) for the 1974-75 season. Southern California catch was dominated by age-group II (1972 year class) with substantial numbers of age groups III (1971 year class) and IV (1970 year class). Central California's anchovy catch consisted of similar age groups II, III and IV (1972, 1971 and 1970 year classes). Document has 23 pages.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: California landings of bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, were sampled for age and size composition from 1963 through 1969. Scales were used to determine the age. Landings primarily consisted of 1- and 2-year old fish. The maximum age found was 6 years old. Strong year-classes of 1960 and 1961 combined to produce high catches in 1962 and 1963. Two year old fish appear to arrive in our fishery earlier than 1-year olds. (44pp.)
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  • 41
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Two experiments were conducted to compare tagging mortality rates when Pacific mackerel are tagged using a traditional method and a modified method. Tagged and control fish in equal numbers were held in tanks on board the R/V ALASKA and observed for mortality. The experiments revealed mortality rates of 24% when the tag passes between the pterygiophores or neural spines and 1.5% when the tag is placed in the lateral musculature. Mortality from handling the fish for tagging was 4%, tank trauma was 2%, and the initial tag loss was 2.5%. (20pp.)
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Commercial landings for 5 seasons, 1967-68 through 1971-72, approximated 36.5, 58.7, 36.8, 57.0 and 56.2 million pounds respectively (16,600; 26,600; 16,700; 25,900 and 25,500 Mg). The 1967 year class dominated the fishery during the 1967-68 and 1968-69 seasons. The 1970 year class, in the fishery only 2 years, contributed an estimated 250 million fish and 45 million pounds (20,400 Mg). (46pp.)
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  • 43
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The spawning biomass of Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasii was estimated for Tomales Bay and San Francisco Bay during the 1973-74 and 1974-75 spawning seasons. Estimates involve determining numbers of eggs spawned and converting this figure to tons of herring. Age composition of the catch indicates the populations of both bays are stable. The spawning biomass was estimated at 6,559 tons and 4,734 tons in Tomales Bay for the 1973-74 and 1974-75 seasons, respectively. Spawning biomass estimates for San Francisco Bay were 6,127 tons and 19,465 tons for the 1973-74 and 1974-75 seasons, respectively. (46pp.)
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Commercial landings for the 1962-63 through 1966-67 seasons ranged from a high of 92.9 million pounds landed in 1962-63 to a low of 41.2 million pounds landed during 1966-67. The 1958 year class contributed 401,054,000 fish and 127,207,000 pounds through the 9 seasons it was present in the fishery. This was the largest number of fish contributed to the fishery by any year class since jack mackerel canning started in 1947. (30pp.)
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  • 45
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Biological knowledge of jack mackerel is not extensive, and as yet no information on maturity or growth rate has been documented. Analysis of fish caught in the Southern California Bight indicates a spawning season from March through October. By the end of their first year, most females (70%) are capable of spawning, and the percentage increases with age. Weight-length curves were calculated for a 2 month period (July and August), and for the entire year. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was determined from July-August data to represent size of each age group near the designated August 1 birthdate. (328pp.)
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The southern California commercial catch of jack mackerel experienced a tremendous expansion during the 1947-48 season. Landings ranged from a high of 158.7 million pounds landed during 1952-53 t o a low of 14.0 million pounds landed during 1954-55. The 1947 year class contributed 296,718 thousand fish and 167,997 thousand pounds. (49pp.)
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Approximately 29.7,25.9, 50.9, 64.6, and 102.9 million pounds were landed for the 1957-58 through 1961-62 seasons. The 1957, 1958, 1959, and 1960 year classes each contributed over 100 million fish to the fishery over the five seasons. The 1958 year class also contributed 112 million pounds landed. (27pp.)
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: A skindiving survey was conducted from January through December 1972 to estimate number of divers, diving days, hourly effort and animals taken from Pismo Beach to Oregon. Comparisons were made with estimates of the 1960 skindiving survey. A total of 15,030 divers were interviewed at 33 locations from Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, to the Oregon border. The number of indiv1dual divers increased from 2,200 in 1960 to 11,800 in 1972. Diving days increased from 37,782 to 95,194. Over 50% of all diving was in the Monterey - Carmel area. Most diving hours were spent in training, followed by abalone diving, observing, spearfishing, and photography. Totals of 82,174 abalones and 24,089 fishes were taken. Lingcod were the most abundant fish speared followed by blue rockfish and cabezon. Spearfishing dropped significantly in effort since 1960 and training and observing greatly increased. The take of abalones, urchins, crabs, and clams virtually disappeared from Point Estero to Seaside, the foraging range of the sea otter. The number of abalones taken increased outside the sea otter's range. (Document has 63 pages)
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  • 49
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Fishing for live bait was originally introduced in 1910 by Japanese albacore fishermen employing "blanket" nets. The northern anchovy has always been the mainstay of the fishery providing 98 to 99% of the catch since 1957. Prior to that the Pacific sardine contributed 15 to 20% of the catch. In past years, when fishermen had difficulty locating fish, Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbor provided as much as 80% of the entire live-bait catch. A live-bait sampling program was initiated in 1955 by the Department of Fish and Game to maintain a closer check on the relative health of the anchovy resource. This sampling program provides the first visible indication of the yearly spawning success of northern anchovies and Pacific sardines. A brief summary of the fishing conditions from 1957 - 1973 are presented. (26pp.)
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The catch per unit of effort of the sardine along the coast of California has been published for the period 1932 to 1953. This paper continues the catch per unit of effort study through the 1961-62 season. Although the catch per unit of effort varied greatly during this later period, it never reached the high levels reported during the 1940's or decreased below the values reported for the disastrous seasons of 1952-53 and 1953-54. Mortalities and year class strengths are briefly discussed. (45pp.)
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the validity of age determinations using otoliths of jack mackerel. The study consisted of two parts: (1)otoliths were examined for seasonal changes in the hyaline and opaque zones at the edges of otoliths and (2)a dominant year class was followed through consecutive years noting marginal zone changes. (13pp.)
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  • 52
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The maturation of Pacific mackerel has never been documented clearly. Analysis of data reveals spawning can occur from March through October, but the majority takes place from April through August. During this April through August period, 22.5%, 65.7%, 75.1%, 84.7%, 84.2%, and 87.5% of the female fish were mature or maturing for Age Groups I, II, III, IV, V, and VI+ respectively. A von Berta1anffy growth curve and a weight-length curve were calculated. The weight-length curve was found to differ significantly from a curve previously published. (21pp.)
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  • 53
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, has been the subject of increasing exploitation during the last 60 years. Concentrated studies of its biology and population dynamics has yielded population estimates of 5 to 8 million metric tons or about 5 to 10 times that existing during 1950-51. Continuing cooperative study programs between the State of California, the Federal Government and the government of Mexico are recommended. (15pp.)
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  • 54
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: California spiny lobsters, Panulirus interruptus, are the object of intense fisheries prosecuted by both commercial and sport fishermen in California. Recent evidence indicates that the resource may be declining, and an investigation of the population dynamics is needed. It is recommended that the investigation assess the magnitude of the fishery, identify population units and investigate the adequacy of existing gear regulations. (14pp.)
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  • 55
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The market crab (Canaer magister) resource off California is undergoing heavy pressure and appears to be near full exportation. The fisheries in the San Francisco and Central California areas are at low levels of abundance but the population off Eureka and Crescent City appears relatively healthy. (18pp.)
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  • 56
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The fishery for ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) was began in the early 1950's after exploratory fishing by the Department of Fish and Game discovered five dense concentrations. The fishery has been fully regulated since its beginning and is currently being managed for maximum sustained yield by a quota system. (19pp.)
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  • 57
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Recent developments in management, biological knowledge, and history of the Pacific mackerel, Scomber japonicus, resource and its fishery in California and Mexico are reviewed. Currently the resource is extremely depleted, and commercial fishing has been curtailed. The 1970 year class was successful, and eventual rehabilitation of the fishery is anticipated. (15pp.)
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  • 58
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The Pacific sardine fishery has declined from a catch of almost 8 hundred-thousand tons in the nineteen thirties to relative insignificance at present. This decline was primarily due to the decline of the northern subpopulation. Scientists feel that the only remedial measure which would be effective is a complete ban on sardine fishing in California and northern Baja California. (17pp.)
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  • 59
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: White seabass, Cynoscion nobilis, have been fished in California since late in the ninteenth century. At present the commercial fishery is stable, landing about 8 hundred thousand pounds per year, but the sport fishing has declined to the poorest catch on record. (Document has 11 pages.)
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  • 60
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Since 1966, enlargement of specialized United States and Soviet hake fisheries led to scientific meetings and fishing agreements with provisions for exchanges of biological data by statistical areas where the catch exceeds 100 metric tons. While California area landings have not approached the qualifying level for data exchange, measurement data are presented in this report to complement other data for the hake resource. Hake in animal food samples were measured at Santa Barbara, Morro Bay, Fort Bragg, and Eureka. The majority of measurements were obtained at Santa Barbara where a declining trend in average sizes was noted for quarterly periods and for annual periods from 1966 to 1970. (23pp.)
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  • 61
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, have not been utilized to a large extent in California but they are considered to be a latent resource of considerable magnitude. The take is small at present with most landings made for animal food. A combination of economic and handling problems has prevented the expansion of the fishery. (33pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Pacific bonito, Sarda chiliensis, have been fished in California waters since at least the beginning of this century. Commercial landings between 1916 and 1971 varied widely, with a low of 128,000 lbs in 1956 and a high of 21.2 million lbs in 1967 (Table 1). The catch is partly dependent upon availability, but it is strongly influenced by economic factors. The size and condition of the resource is unknown at present although it appears that the catch could be substantially increased without damage to the resource. (17pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The California barracuda, Sphyraena argentea, has been fished commercially for over 70 years. Peak landings were made during the early 1920's and have since declined to an incidental level. The present interest in barracuda centers around its desirability as a game species. Recent estimates of barracuda abundance indicate the population is at a low level and in need of increased management efforts. (21pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The California yellowtail, Seriola dorsalis, is a highly favored sport fish and a minor commercial species. Since 1954 commercial landings have been limited by demand, and the sport catch has been about three times the number of fish caught by commercial fishermen. Recreational fishing for yellowtail in southern California waters is almost entirely dependent on annual migrants from central and northern Baja California. The resource is presently healthy but reduced catches off California could be the result of an expanded catch off Mexico. (19pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, resource off the west coast of North America is known to be large and widely distributed. The spawning biomass is estimated to be 2.1 to 4.8 million tons based upon abundance of jack mackerel eggs collected at sea. The distribution extends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, off the coast of southern Mexico, and as far as 1,500 miles seaward. Within this range lies an area of maximum density which extends from Point Conception to central Baja California. Jack mackerel biological data has not been processed very rapidly due to higher priorities for analysis of sardine and Pacific mackerel data, and the apparent healthy condition of this resource. The California Department of Fish and Game initiated several projects in 1972 to resolve unanswered biological questions. (14pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: There are 63 species of the Family Scorpaenidae found in the marine waters of California. Rockfish, genus Sebastes account for 58 of these species. Except for a few stocks in inshore waters and adjacent to ports, these species are not presently fully exploited. (34pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Mariculture in California is currently under development by several private concerns, universities, and by the California Department of Fish and Game. At present, most of these efforts classify as research and development with a few in the pilot production phase. The Department of Fish and Game is presently conducting research in the culture of mortality resistant strains of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea virginica, the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, and the spot prawn, Pandalus platyceros. (18pp.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The annual mortality rate for the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, is estimated to be 66.5% in southern California waters, although the mortality rate increases sharply for older fish. A method for evaluating recruitment regularity and age constancy of mortality is presented. (Document has 25 pages)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Variation in the otolith weight to standard length relationship of anchovies reveal that southern and central Baja California, northern Baja California (Mexico) to central California (U.S.A.), and northern California contain distinct groups of anchovies. A quantitative measurement of these differences was determined between fishes from these three areas. The degree of overlap (probability of correctly classifying a sample of fish from the otolith-standard length relationship) was highest (.82) between northern California and southern and central Baja California. (27pp.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 3 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 3 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 7 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 1 page.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 6 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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    California Department of Fish and Game
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF contains 3 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf