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  • ddc:330  (10,791)
  • Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)  (10,791)
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  • 1
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper deals with two policy approaches to address the problem of the ?pensions time bomb? by influencing private-sector pension provision. In assessing the role of private-sector pensions, it is common to concentrate exclusively on the issue of whether early retirement penalties or late retirement benefits are actuarially fair. We argue that this focus is unbalanced since private-sector pension arrangements have significant implications for governments' finances. When private pensions encourage early retirement, they reduce the number of people paying taxes and increase the number of people supplementing their private pensions through various forms of public support. To induce private-sector pension providers to internalize this externality, we examine two policy responses: taxing private pension receipts of early retirees, and issuing ?early retirement rights.? The government?s receipts from the pension taxes or the sale of early retirement rights are used, in part, to provide employment vouchers for people of pensionable age.
    Keywords: H6 ; H1 ; H2 ; ddc:330 ; employment ; taxes ; early retirement ; pensions ; Betriebliche Altersversorgung ; Private Rentenversicherung ; Flexible Altersgrenze ; Einkommensteuer ; Voucher ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Standard neo-classical trade theory predicts that trade liberalisation should cause a fall in wage inequality in developing countries through a decrease in the relative demand for skilled labour. Recent studies of a number of developing countries, however, find evidence to the contrary. Using a panel of manufacturing firms in the 1990s we investigate whether skillbiased technological change induced through imports of technology-intensive capital goods or export activity may provide an explanation for the increase in relative wages of skilled workers in Ghana. Estimates of a skilled worker relative demand equation based on a translog cost function show that changes in technology through a greater inflow of foreign machinery is found to be indeed consistent with skill-biased technological change in Ghana.
    Keywords: F14 ; O33 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; trade liberalisation ; skill-biased technological change ; wage inequality ; Lohnstruktur ; Qualifikation ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Technologietransfer ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Schätzung ; Ghana
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: In this paper we analyse the impact of governmental grant provision on plant performance. To this end we utilise rich information derived from three data sources for the manufacturing sector in Ireland, where grant provision has been an important part of the industrial policy. We use a matching technique combined with a difference-in-differences estimator in the empirical analysis. Our results indicate that particularly capital related, but also other types of grants can provide an important impetus to plant survival and employment growth. We also discover some differences in terms of the effectiveness of grants between foreign multinationals and domestic plants. Specifically, while grants have helped to stimulate employment creation in multinationals, they may not always be an effective way of ensuring that these remain in the host country. In contrast, grants have in general been successful in not only helping domestic plants to survive longer, but also to create more jobs.
    Keywords: L2 ; H2 ; J2 ; ddc:330 ; government assistance ; grants ; employment ; survival ; matching ; difference-indifferences ; Industriepolitik ; Strukturpolitik ; Subvention ; Wirtschaftspolitische Wirkungsanalyse ; Unternehmensentwicklung ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Schätzung ; Irland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper shows that the interaction between money growth and staggered nominal contracts gives rise to a long-run inflation-unemployment tradeoff.
    Keywords: E5 ; E4 ; E3 ; E2 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; Phillips curve ; nominal inertia ; monetary policy ; forward-looking expectations ; inflation ; Phillips-Kurve ; Mikroökonomische Fundierung ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper investigates the effects of domestic privatisation or foreign acquisition of Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) on employment growth, using firm level data for China and a combination of propensity score matching and difference-in-differences in order to identify the causal effect. Our results suggest that, controlling for output growth there is some evidence that domestic privatisation leads to contemporaneous reductions in employment growth compared to firms that did not undergo an ownership change. By contrast, there is some evidence that foreign acquisitions show higher employment growth in the post acquisition period than non-acquired SOEs.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Privatisierung ; Sozialistisches Unternehmen ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Direktinvestition ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The East German labor market has hardly made any progress since German reunification, despite massive migration flows and support from the West. We argue that East Germany is in trouble precisely because of the support it has received. This paper explores the phenomenon of "the caring hand that cripples," arising from bargaining by proxy, the adoption of the West German welfare system and the associated employment persistence. Even the steady decrease of labor cost(normalized by productivity) since the beginning of the nineties did not help to kick start the East. We suggest that labor force participants fell into "traps," concerning low skills, ageing of the workforce, labor-saving capital and skills, capital underutilization, and unemployment arising from the decline of the tradable sector.
    Keywords: P2 ; E24 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; Labor markets ; German unification ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilisierung ; Sozialstaat ; Wirtschaftliche Anpassung ; Subvention ; Neue Bundesländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The paper examines the following pension reform strategy that aims to defuse the pension time-bomb without giving rise to intergenerational conflict. Let people with rights to public pensions have the option of using a portion of their potential pensions to provide employment vouchers for employers that hire them. The policy is entirely voluntary; only those older workers and those employers who wish to avail themselves of this option will do so. The older workers retain the right to draw their public pensions and the employers have the right not to employ them. In effect, the policy involves taking some of the funds that would have financed public pensions and using them to provide employment subsidies. When a person takes advantage of the PTP over a given period of time, he loses his pension rights over that span and gains improved employment opportunities instead.
    Keywords: H1 ; H2 ; H6 ; ddc:330 ; employment subsidies ; early retirement ; inter-generational redistribution ; pensions ; Rentenreform ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Voucher ; Lohnsubvention ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Flexible Altersgrenze ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We investigate whether inward FDI, either at the firm or industry level, has any impact on product innovation by Chinese State owned enterprises (SOEs). We use a comprehensive firm level panel data set of Chinese SOEs covering the period 1999 to 2003. Our results show that foreign capital participation is associated with higher innovative activity. Inward FDI in the sector has a negative effect on innovative activity in SOEs. However, there is a positive effect of FDI on SOEs that export, invest in human capital or R&D, or have prior innovation experience. We also find that SOEs with internal R&D activity and human capital development are successful innovators. Hence, our results suggest that rather than relying on sector level inward FDI to improve domestic innovative activity, it is important to get the firm-level fundamentals right.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We investigate the relationship between outsourcing and profitability paying particular attention to the endogeneity of outsourcing. The empirical analysis uses unique plant level data for the electronics sector in Ireland. A particular feature of the data is that it records detailed information for 12 electronics sub-sectors covering both manufacturing and services activities. We distinguish outsourcing of materials from outsourcing of services inputs. We find that plants that are substantially larger than the mean employment size benefit from outsourcing materials and services inputs, while this does not appear to be the case for small plants. Results for outsourcing of services are not as clear-cut, however.
    Keywords: L23 ; L63 ; ddc:330 ; Subcontracting ; Profitability ; Electronics ; Outsourcing ; Elektronikindustrie ; Outsourcing ; Lieferant ; Rentabilität ; Betriebsgröße ; Schätzung ; Irland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper looks at the trade off between investment incentives and exit costs for the location of foreign direct investment (FDI). This issue does not appear to have been tackled in much detail in the literature. The analysis considers the effect of profit taxation (as a measure of investment incentives) and an index of hiring and firing costs (proxying exit costs) on the location of US outward FDI in 33 host countries. The results suggest that US FDI, in particular in manufacturing is negatively affected by the level of profit taxation and exit costs. Hence, if countries want to attract FDI it may not suffice that incentives are provided in order to ease the entry of multinationals. Instead, it also appears to be important that exit costs are at a level attractive to multinationals. In other words, multinationals may not check into an attractive looking Hotel California type host country if it is difficult to leave.
    Keywords: J65 ; H25 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; exit costs ; firing costs ; investment incentives ; taxation ; foreign direct investment, taxation ; Direktinvestition ; Amerikanisch ; Standortfaktor ; Ertragsteuer ; Kündigungsschutz ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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