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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (1,395)
  • 1995-1999  (1,395)
  • 1999  (1,395)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 47 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: We analyse the geophone orientation and coupling in a data set from the North Sea. Based on the polarization of the water-break on the sea-floor, we have derived processing algorithms for determining the receiver orientation for gimballed and non-gimballed geophone systems. For a gimballed system, the problem reduces to a simple horizontal rotation. However, for a non-gimballed system, where all three geophone axes may vary due to varying acquisition conditions such as dipping sea-floor, twisting of recording cable, etc., the three orientation angles cannot be found directly from the recorded displacement vectors. Using the data redundancy within a common-receiver gather, a robust two-stage method is derived for the non-gimballed system in which all three orientations can initially be unknown. Testing on the North Sea data set acquired with a gimballed system shows that the three-component geophones in the data set are orientated satisfactorily within an error of 5°. However, there are some undesirable cross-couplings between the vertical and horizontal geophones, which results in leakage of shear-wave energy from the horizontal components to the vertical components.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A detailed histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural description of two cases of hepatoblastoma, a primitive liver cell neoplasm, is provided from mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus (L.), inhabiting a creosote-contaminated environment in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, USA. Both neoplasms were multifocal and comprised of undifferentiated embryonal cells with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. One case was characterized by a prominent macrotrabecular arrangement of tumour cells, whereas the other was solid in organization and undifferentiated. Tumour cells in some areas formed rosettes or pseudorosettes characteristic for hepatoblastoma. Focal areas within the macrotrabecular tumour were poorly differentiated, exhibiting a solid cellular arrangement. Strong immunolabelling with antibody C-219 indicated elevation and altered patterns of P-glycoprotein expression in both cases. In case 1, plasma membranes and tumour cell cytoplasm, but not bile canaliculi, were strongly labelled. However, in case 2, the macrotrabecular lesion, bile canaliculi were prominently labelled by the C-219 antibody with only patchy immunolabelling of tumour cell cytoplasm. Ultrastructurally, neoplasms from both specimens were composed of small, closely apposed, undifferentiated embryonal cells with scant cytoplasm resembling developing hepatocytes. The macrotrabecular lesion (case 2) exhibited a prominent tubular organization with well-developed bile canaliculi and constituent cells with abundant organelles. Based on histologic pattern, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural features, these undifferentiated liver lesions are distinct from hepatocellular carcinoma reported in this species and warrant a diagnosis of hepatoblastoma.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A series of challenge and re-challenge studies was conducted in which juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to the pathogen Loma salmonae, a microsporidian which typically causes xenoma formation during sporogony and inflammation in the gills as the xenomas undergo dissolution. The specific goal was to determine if a primary exposure, conducted at a water temperature outside of the range which permits the parasite to undergo sporogony and form branchial xenomas, would stimulate a protective response in the fish to a later challenge conducted under temperature conditions optimal for the parasite. Primary challenge of fish to L. salmonae at 7 °C or 21 °C blocked or limited xenoma formation, as discussed in a previous study. However, these fish had a relative percentage protection (RPP) against a second optimized exposure which matched, or was not significantly less than, the degree of protection (100%) that developed in other groups of fish that received a primary exposure throughout the range of water temperatures which permits xenoma formation. When the primary exposure was conducted at 5 °C, the RPP against the second exposure was adversely affected and declined to 61%. These findings have application to the control of L. salmonae within aquaculture, in that it may be possible to expose hatchery stocks of susceptible salmonid species to spores of L. salmonae when hatchery water temperature is at 7 °C. At this temperature, the risks of disease stemming from this primary exposure appear minimal, since xenomas fail to form. However, the degree of protection appears promising, and may be sufficient to protect fish from spore exposure occurring at netpen marine sites where the parasite may be endemic.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Flavobacterium columnare (Flexibacter columnaris) is an important cause of gill and skin disease in freshwater fish species, often causing high mortality. In previous studies, virulence of F. columnare was correlated with the ability to adhere to the gill tissue. To gain insight into the factors responsible for adherence, a gill perfusion model was used. The bacterial cells of the high virulence strain AJS 1 were exposed to various treatments, after which they were added to the organ bath of an isolated gill arch and adherence to the gill tissue assessed. Adherence capabilities were significantly reduced following treatment of the bacteria with sodium metaperiodate or incubating them with d-glucose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, d-galactose and d-sucrose. Incubation of the bacteria with trypsin and pronase did not significantly inhibit adherence. The binding sites for F. columnare on the gill tissue were also partially characterised. Treatment of the gill with sodium metaperiodate reduced adhesion, but treatment with pronase or trypsin did not cause any significant reduction, indicating that the major component of the receptor is of carbohydrate nature. Adherence ability of the bacteria correlated well with their haemagglutination capacity using chicken and guinea pig erythrocytes. Higher haemagglutination titres were obtained with the highly virulent strain AJS 1 than with strain AJS 4, a strain with low virulence and adherence capacity. Haemagglutination was partially inhibited after incubation of the bacteria with d-glucose and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and after treatment of the bacteria at 41_°C for 10_min (minor heat treatment). It was completely abolished following incubation of the bacterial cells with sodium metaperiodate and intensive heat treatment (65_°C, 25_min). Haemagglutination was also in-sensitive to pronase and trypsin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the high virulence strain had a thick capsule (120–130_nm) with a regular, dense appearance, whereas the capsule of the low virulence strain was much thinner (80–90_nm) and less dense. TEM also demonstrated the loss of the capsule of the high virulence strain after treatment of the bacterial cells with minor heat and sodium metaperiodate. These results indicate that a lectin-like carbohydrate-binding substance incorporated in the capsule is responsible for the attachment of F. columnare to the gill tissue.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and A-layer protein purified from Aeromonas salmonicida were administered intravenously in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., either alone or in combination. Tissues from each organ were examined by immunohistochemical techniques, using a polyclonal antiserum against A-protein and a monoclonal antibody against LPS. When given simultaneously, the antigens seemed to be taken up by different cells in both the head and trunk kidney. The most striking finding was that A-protein was located in epithelial cells in renal proximal tubules, in contrast to LPS, which was not detected in this location. The amount of A-protein in the tissue increased with time until 2 h after injection. Autoradiography of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of head kidney homogenates showed that in vivo processing of A-protein coupled to iodinated tyramine cellobiose (125I-TC-A-protein) was completed within 24 h, in contrast to LPS, which was maintained in tissues. The findings of the present study suggest that cells of the head kidney of Atlantic salmon are capable of taking up and processing the A-protein.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Little is known about the role of macrophage products in blood-borne parasitic infections of fish. This study determined the effects of soluble products of goldfish macrophages on the growth of the haemoflagellate, Trypanosoma danilewskyi Laveran & Mesnil. Cell-free supernatants were collected from macrophage cultures that were derived from infected or uninfected goldfish. Trypanosomes were seeded into wells containing conditioned or control medium, incubated for seven days, and enumerated using flow cytometry. Supernatants collected from macrophages isolated from infected or uninfected fish, supported parasite growth significantly better (P 〈 0.05) compared to control medium. Supernatants, collected on day 12, 15, and 18 from macrophage cultures, induced a greater than 25% increase in the number of parasites. Moreover, the growth of T. danilewskyi was related to the number of macrophages seeded into cultures. This growth-enhancing activity was not specific to species or cell-type, as medium conditioned by mammalian macrophages or fibroblasts (fish or mammalian) significantly enhanced (P 〈 0.05) parasite growth. While compound(s) that are necessary for proliferation remain unidentified, our results suggest that over the prolonged evolutionary relationship with teleosts, T. danilewskyi has evolved to utilize soluble products of macrophages and fibroblasts as growth-enhancing factors.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish diseases 22 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An unusual form of bacterial gill disease (BGD) was identified which affected five species of cultured salmonids from Canada (i.e. rainbow trout, chinook salmon and Atlantic salmon), Norway (i.e. brown trout) and Chile (i.e. coho salmon). All outbreaks occurred at low water temperatures (〈 10 °C) and with clinical presentations distinct from classical BGD, which is caused by Flavobacterium branchiophilum. In contrast to classical BGD, fish did not show marked respiratory distress with flaring of the opercula, the animals did not orientate at the surface of the water column near inflow water or at the margins of the tanks, and the feed response of the fish was varied. While mortality was increased, it was not precipitous as in classical BGD. Eight outbreaks were examined in greater detail using histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, bacteriology and immunohistochemistry. Large numbers of small bacterial rods were seen adhering to the lamellar epithelium of affected gills from all outbreaks. Histologically, the lamellar epithelium appeared swollen, often with evidence of single cell degeneration and exfoliation. In more severe instances, the formation of lamellar synechiae was seen, usually associated with sequestration of bacteria between fused lamellae. By contrast with typical BGD, overt epithelial hyperplasia, lamellar fusion and filamental clubbing were not common sequelae to infection; instead, the end result was shortened and somewhat stubby lamellae covered with swollen epithelial cells. The predominant bacterium recovered from affected gills was a small, Gram-negative, motile, fluorescent pigment-producing rod that shared phenotypic characteristics with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Polyclonal antisera prepared against three representative isolates indicated a weak antigenic similarity among them. Immunohistochemistry corroborated this finding, in that the antisera reacted strongly with gill sections containing the homologous bacteria, but not against morphologically similar bacteria in heterologous sections. A Gram-negative, yellow pigmented bacterium (YPB), identified as Flavobacterium psychrophilum, was also recovered, but only from the gills in the Ontario outbreaks. Antiserum prepared against this YPB indicated an antigenic similarity among isolates recovered from the Ontario outbreaks, but immunohistochemistry failed to recognize antigenically related bacteria on the gills of fish from the other outbreaks. Based on the unusual clinical presentation and the histopathological appearance of the gills, in conjunction with the absence of filamentous bacteria associated with and recovered from affected gills, the present authors have called this condition ‘atypical bacterial gill disease’ or ABGD.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Aeromonas genomes were investigated by restriction digesting chromosomal DNA with the endonuclease XbaI, separation of restriction fragments by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and principal components analysis (PCA) of resulting separation patterns. A. salmonicida salmonicida were unique amongst the isolates investigated. Separation profiles of these isolates were similar and all characterised by a distinct absence of bands in the 250kb region. Principal components analysis represented these strains as a clearly defined homogeneous group separated by insignificant Euclidian distances. However, A. salmonicida achromogenes isolates in common with those of A. hydrophila and A. sobria were shown by principal components analysis to be more heterogeneous in nature. Fragments from these isolates were more uniform in size distribution but as demonstrated by the Euclidian distances attained through PCA potentially characteristic of each strain. Furthermore passaging of Aeromonas isolates through an appropriate host did not greatly modify fragment separation profiles, indicative of the genomic stability of test aeromonads and the potential of restriction digesting/PFGE/PCA in Aeromonas typing.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Vibrio harveyi recovered from diseased post-larval Penaeus vannamei produced a thermostable exotoxin, which was lethal to Dublin Bay prawns, Nephrops norvegicus L., when injected intramuscularly. The extracellular products (ECPs) concentrated from tryptone soya broth supplemented with 1% (w/v) sodium chloride or from cellophane overlays on marine 2216E agar with incubation at 15, 22 and 27 °C were toxic, with the lethal dose 50% of the crude ECPs estimated to be 4.4 μgprotein prawn−1. Proteolytic, haemolytic and cytotoxic activities were detected, although the occurrence and quantity of these activities were influenced by cultural conditions. The ECPs which had been heated (100 °C for 10 min) or digested with protease K produced the same pathology as crude, untreated ECPs. Western blotting demonstrated that all the ECP preparations contained low molecular weight lipopolysaccharides, which may constitute the lethal toxin of V. harveyi.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The present report describes an intestinal disease which causes important losses in farmed turbot. Mortality rates were higher in summer and reached 100% in all tanks where the disease was confirmed. Affected fish showed external signs consisting of anorexia, sunken eyes and a typical prominent bony ridge on the skull. These signs can be considered the pathognomonic signs of the disease, together with the gut lesions seen in the histological study. Pallor of the internal organs, intestinal haemorrhages and the presence of liquid in the intestine were also observed, with ascites in heavily infected fish. Histopathological damage was evident in the gut, with severe enteritis, detachment of epithelium, haemorrhages and inflammation of the subepithelial connective tissue. The myxosporean aetiology was demonstrated in all the fish showing the characteristic signs of disease. Myxosporean stages, including scarce spores, were found in the affected epithelium or free in the intestinal lumen together with epithelial debris. The present study demonstrates the importance of this myxosporean disease which represents a serious threat for turbot culture. This is also the first record of a member of the Myxosporea in turbot.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The antibacterial effects of synthetic cecropin B and cecropin P1 were tested against the fish-pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio salmonicida, Aeromonas salmonicida, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Yersinia ruckeri. Both cecropins were active against all bacteria tested, but the effect was strongly influenced by the growth media used. In brain heart infusion medium, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cecropin B ranged from 0.3 to 1.3 μm and from 0.3 to 1.0 μm for cecropin P1, except for E. ictaluri, which was noticeably less sensitive to cecropin P1 (61 μm). The present authors have compared the bactericidal activity of these two peptides, showing that the killing rate for the selected bacteria was higher for cecropin B than for cecropin P1. V. anguillarum was the most sensitive to the cecropins, and in the present study, no colony forming units were detected after 4 and 8 min of treatment with cecropin B and P1, respectively. Electron microscopy was performed to document the effect of cecropin on the bacterial surface.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish diseases 22 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The first description of pasteurellosis affecting sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), cultured in the South-west of Spain is reported. Diseased fish showed no apparent lesions except for a dark skin pigmentation and swelling in the abdominal cavity. Internally, affected specimens showed paleness of liver and kidney and typical white tubercles of 1–2 mm in diameter in the spleen. Microbiological analysis of these fish revealed the presence, in pure culture from all the organs examined, of one type of bacterial colony which was biochemically and serologically characterized as Photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida. The sensitivity pattern to antimicrobials and the enzymatic activities of the bacterial extracellular products are described.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A new continuous cell line (GF-1) was established and characterized. The GF-1 cell line, derived from the fin tissue of a grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), was maintained in L15 medium containing 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) at 28 °C, and has been subcultured more than 160 times since 1995. The majority of GF-1 cells are fibroblast-like, together with some epithelioid cells. Spontaneous transformation of GF-1 cells occurred during subculture 50 to subculture 80, and led to an increase of plating efficiency, less requirement of FBS and de novo susceptibility to grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV). Cytopathic effects (CPEs) could be observed in GF-1 cells 3–5 days post-infection with pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), hard clam reovirus (HCRV), eel herpes virus Formosa (EHVF) and GNNV. In addition, abundant GNNV particles were found in the cytoplasm of GNNV-infected GF-1 cells using electron microscopy and nucleic acids of GNNV virus were detected by polymerase chain reaction in the culture medium of GNNV-infected cells after CPE appeared. The experimental results indicated that GF-1 can effectively proliferate fish nodavirus and is a promising tool for studying fish nodavirus.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fish skin contains a variety of humoral defence lysins which have an integral role in fish immunity because of the ability of these proteins to destroy invading substances ( Alexander & Ingram 1992). These lysins generally comprise bacteriolysins, proteolysins and haemolysins. The lysins seem to be either individually or cooperatively stimulated to respond to pathogenic infection and environmental stress, such as ionic, osmotic, thermal and pollution stress ( Shephard 1994; Rice, Kergosien & Adams 1996; Bly, Quiniou & Clem 1997). There have only been a few reports on these lysins ( Al-Hassan, Thomson, Ali & Criddle 1987; Aranishi, Mano, Nakane & Hirose 1998). The present paper describes thermal effects on defence lysis, such as proteolysis, bacteriolysis and haemolysis, in the skin of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla L.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Increases in resistance of aerial tubers (cultivars Désirée, Epicure and King Edward) against nine pathogenic potato fungi were determined in vitro using freeze-dried powder derived from subterranean and aerial tubers as a culture medium, and in vivo by inoculating both tuber types with the storage pathogens Fusarium sulphureum,F. solani var. coeruleum,Phoma exigua var. foveata and Polyscytalum pustulans. Significantly reduced growth rates and spore and conidiophore numbers were recorded when pathogens were cultured on freeze-dried powder derived from aerial tubers. No effects on spore size of F. solani var. coeruleum were recorded but spore and conidiophore lengths of remaining pathogens were reduced and width increased, except for Colletotrichum coccodes, where the diameter of acervuli increased, and P. exigua var. foveata, where spore length and width were reduced. Reduced disease incidence, severity and spore numbers were recorded on aerial compared with subterranean tubers inoculated in vivo with the four storage pathogens. Spore length of P. pustulans was reduced and spore width increased, while spore length and width of P. exigua var. foveata were reduced on aerial compared with subterranean tubers inoculated with these pathogens. No effects on spore size of Fusarium spp. were recorded. Concentrations of glycoalkaloids, chlorogenic acid, calcium and magnesium were higher in aerial than in subterranean tuber tissue, which may have contributed to increased resistance and effects on size and morphology of fungal spores. The implications of using aerial tubers as an alternative technique for the production of seed potatoes and their importance to the potato industry are discussed.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effects of 21 weeds acting as hosts of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), temperature, thrips population and diversity on disease progress in chrysanthemum cv. Polaris were studied. Under greenhouse conditions, only Taraxacum officinale, Bidens sp., Resedaluteola and Mirabilis jalapa were hosts for TSWV. Of 38 weeds species in the area surrounding a chrysanthemum field, Tithonia tubaeformis and R. luteola had the highest populations of adult and immature thrips. These weeds, as well as M. jalapa, had an extensive seasonal distribution and may play a key role in the disease progress. Seventeen thrips species belonging to the genera Bravothrips, Thrips and Frankliniella were identified on weed flowers, with Frankliniella occidentalis (FOC) representing 9.5% of all thrips identified. Of 123 thrips collected from chrysanthemum inflorescences, 9.75% were FOC, and only 2.5% of them transmitted TSWV. Of all the thrips species collected from chrysanthemum flowers in the field, only FOC was capable of transmitting TSWV. On 120 experimental plots established at two sites, with three transplanting dates (June, July and August), it was estimated that 1.25% of the chrysanthemum cuttings were already infected with TSWV when transplanted. Secondary spread, vectored by FOC, occurred only for the earliest transplanting date and resulted in a further 2.36% disease incidence.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Eucalyptus marginata growing on rehabilitated bauxite mines may be exposed to waterlogging (hypoxia) at the roots, as well as ponding around the stems at the soil surface. This paper examines whether these conditions may predispose stems of E. marginata to infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plants of E. marginata clones resistant and susceptible to P. cinnamomi were grown in an aeroponics system that could be sealed to allow the manipulation of oxygen levels in the root zone to simulate waterlogging. Plants grown under normal oxygen conditions were compared with those whose root zone was exposed to hypoxia (2 mg O2 L−1) before, during or after the stems were inoculated with zoospores of P. cinnamomi. Inoculation was achieved by constructing receptacles around the stems that could hold water and zoospores.Stomatal conductance increased in plants whose roots had been exposed to hypoxia. This effect lasted for at least 2 weeks after the resumption of normal oxygen conditions. P. cinnamomi entered and colonized ponded stems; however, there were no visible lesions on stems 14 days after inoculation. For any given clone of E. marginata, the extent of colonization was significantly greater in stems whose root zone had been exposed to hypoxia than in control stems. The activity of the plant defence-associated enzymes PAL, 4-CL and CAD and the concentrations of soluble phenolics were higher in the stems of plants whose roots were exposed to hypoxia, but the increase in activity in response to colonization was much greater for plants whose roots were under normal aerobic conditions. The greatest difference between colonized and noninoculated plants was observed at the colonization front. Peroxidase activity increased after tissues were colonized, rather than preceding the colonization as seen with the other enzymes.The stress induced by root hypoxia remained after roots were returned to normal oxygen conditions. Plants with root hypoxia showed greater stem colonization by P. cinnamomi and seemed less able to recognize the pathogen and switch on rapid defence responses.
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  • 22
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 23
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The aetiology of blight of chickpea in South Australia was studied following sporadic disease outbreaks over several years that had been tentatively identified as Phoma blight. Nine fungal isolates from diseased chickpeas were tested for pathogenicity in the glasshouse, of which two caused symptoms resembling those of Ascochyta blight. The two aggressive isolates were identified as Ascochyta rabiei based on morphological characteristics of cultures and RAPD analysis. This was further confirmed by successful mating to international standard isolates, which showed that the two Australian isolates were MAT1-1. These isolates are accessioned as DAR 71767 and DAR 71768, New South Wales Agriculture, Australia. This is the first time that A. rabiei has been positively identified in commercial chickpeas in the southern hemisphere. The pathogen was found (in 1992) in only one of 59 seed samples harvested throughout Australia between 1992 and 1996 and tested using International Seed Testing Association methods. The teleomorph has not been found in Australia and results to date suggest that only one mating type is present. This suggests that quarantine restrictions on imported chickpea seed should be retained to prevent the introduction of the opposite mating type.
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  • 24
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A significant negative relationship between tiller height and resistance to Fusarium ear blight (FEB), following inoculation, was observed in 17 cultivars of winter wheat in the 1995/96 growing season. Tall cultivars such as Kraka and Spark showed fewer symptoms of FEB (6 and 4%) than the shorter cultivars Brigadier and Virtue (35 and 51%). To determine if this relationship was caused by a genetic association or an effect of the microclimate, height and disease were measured in segregating populations derived from tall × short cultivars and humidity was measured in near-isogenic lines with and without the Rht1 and Rht2 dwarfing genes. Among random F3 populations there was a clear tendency for tall strawed lines to show less severe disease symptoms than shorter strawed lines following inoculation. The effect of the individual dwarfing genes Rht1 and Rht2 on the severity of FEB was also studied in an inoculation trial using a number of near-isogenic lines of Maris Huntsman and Maris Widgeon. Within isogenic lines of Maris Huntsman, there was a clear tendency for tall straw to be associated with fewer symptoms, but this was not apparent within lines of Maris Widgeon. Monitoring relative humidity at ear height in a short and tall isogenic line of Maris Huntsman revealed no significant differences between these genotypes from GS 65 to GS 85, suggesting that microclimate cannot explain differences in severity of FEB between these lines. It is suggested that there are independent genes affecting the severity of FEB that may allow plant breeders to select resistant cultivars of any height.
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  • 25
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Quantitative PCR analysis and visual disease assessment (VDA) were used to study Fusarium culmorum and F. poae ear blight of wheat and its fungicidal control in three glasshouse trials (1994–5 and 1996–7). VDA indicated high levels of both diseases in the trials, while PCR analysis showed that the amounts of F. poae detected in infected plants were low relative to the amounts detected for F. culmorum. PCR and VDA analysis both indicated that the demethylase-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides prochloraz and tebuconazole significantly decreased F. culmorum and F. poae ear blight. The PCR results, however, revealed levels of disease control by fungicide treatments that were consistently higher than those suggested by VDA. Overall, both fungicides appeared equally effective in controlling the two pathogens. PCR and VDA analysis indicated that the anilino-pyrimidine fungicide pyrimethanil had no significant effect on F. culmorum ear blight. Correlations between VDA at cereal growth stage 80 and PCR analysis were similar for F. culmorum and F. poae. Yield analysis, as measured by 1000 grain weight, indicated that DNA content more accurately predicted yield loss than did VDA scores. Inoculation with F. culmorum significantly reduced yield and significant relationships were observed between F. culmorum disease (as assessed visually or by PCR) and yield, with yield decreasing as disease increased. In contrast, inoculation with F. poae had no significant effect on yield and no significant relationships were observed between F. poae disease and yield. These results have important implications for field studies of Fusarium ear blight of wheat because they highlight the importance of identification of the causal organisms to the species level.
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  • 26
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Holocene hot water travertine continues to form at Terme San Giovanni, near Rapolano Terme, central Italy, although artificial diversion of the water has reduced deposition. Mesothermal water (≈38–39 °C) emerging from fault-controlled vents located on a hilltop has created a linear fissure ridge 240 m long and up to 10 m high. Active parts of the ridge crest are covered by small cones; inactive parts are locally neotectonically fissured and have small pools. Ridge deposits include crystalline crust, paper-thin raft and shrub lithotypes. The ridge has both smooth and terraced marginal slopes, dominated by crystalline crusts with small shrubs in terrace pools. At the base of the ridge, there is a rapid transition to lateral flats and depressions, where water from the ridge collects and deposits shrub, irregular pisoid, reed, paper-thin raft and fine-grained and organic-rich travertines. Water channelled to nearby valley sides deposits thick crystalline crusts on valley slopes and waterfall overhangs, locally with small pools filled by smooth spherical pisoids. On the valley floor, mixing of waters forms varied stream-fill deposits that include micritic reed, paper-thin raft and coated bubble travertines. The diversity of travertine facies observed results from the location of the Terme San Giovanni hot springs on a hill crest, thus providing a wide array of downslope locations for further deposition. The abrupt facies transitions observed are characteristic of hot spring carbonates and result from a combination of rapid decrease in precipitation away from vents, variations in local surface topography and the feedback effect of travertine deposition itself, which dams and diverts water flow.
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    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: There are few descriptions of pre-Quaternary tufa or travertine, yet these deposits have important climatic, hydrological and tectonic implications. In the Badlands of South Dakota, the Late Eocene Chadron Formation contains a variety of tufa (fluvial, lacustrine, paludal and perched springline types), travertine and calcrete (pedogenic and non-pedogenic types). In fluvial channels, tufas and tufa barrages (oncolites, tufa lithoclast conglomerates and phytoherms) are transitional to travertines (pseudostromatolitic boundstone gravels and small pinnacle resurgences with rimstone edges and pools). Lacustrine tufas formed in small ponds adjacent to other types of tufas and are similar to the ‘low-energy, bench-margin facies’ types observed in modern, groundwater-fed, temperate-zone hardwater lakes. Paludal tufas are laterally discontinuous sheets of pisoid-intraclast wackestone that fill palaeotopography. Distal perched springline tufas are mounds of numerous sloping tufa sheets. Concretions and rhizoliths associated with palaeosols are recognized as pedogenic calcretes, whereas non-pedogenic calcretes are variably cemented, vertically oriented conduits for palaeogroundwater discharge that are located in fault zones. These deposits resulted from palaeogroundwater discharge along faults during the Late Eocene. Coeval unroofing of the Black Hills uplift created a regional groundwater flow system through karsted Palaeozoic limestones exposed in the Black Hills. The Chadron Formation is an avulsion-dominated, siliciclastic unit, yet important bodies of carbonate accumulated in it as a result of groundwater processes.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures strata have been interpreted traditionally in terms of cyclothems bounded by marine flooding surfaces (marine bands) and coal seams. Correlation of such cyclothems in an extensive grid of closely spaced coal exploration boreholes provides a robust stratigraphic framework in which to study the Lower Coal Measures (Namurian C–Westphalian A) of the Ruhr district, north-west Germany. Three distinct types of cyclothem are recognized, based on their bounding surfaces and internal facies architecture. (1) Type 1 cyclothems are bounded by marine bands. Each cyclothem comprises a thick (30–80 m), regionally extensive, coarsening-upward delta front succession of interbedded shales, siltstones and sandstones, which may be deeply incised by a major fluvial sandstone complex. The delta front succession is capped by a thin (〈1 m), regionally extensive coal seam and an overlying marine band defining the top of the cyclothem. (2) Type 2 cyclothems are bounded by thick (≈1 m), regionally extensive coal seams with few splits. The basal part of a typical cyclothem comprises a thick (15–50 m), widespread, coarsening-upward delta front or lake infill succession consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones and sandstones. Networks of major (〉5 km wide, 20–40 m thick), steep-sided, multistorey fluvial sandstone complexes erode deeply into and, in some cases, through these successions and are overlain by the coal seam defining the cyclothem top. (3) Type 3 cyclothems are bounded by regionally extensive coal seam groups, characterized by numerous seam splits on a local (0·1–10 km) scale. Intervening strata vary in thickness (15–60 m) and are characterized by strong local facies variability. Root-penetrated, aggradational floodplain heteroliths pass laterally into single-storey fluvial channel-fill sandstones and coarsening-upward, shallow lake infill successions of interbedded shales, siltstones and sandstones over distances of several hundred metres to a few kilometres. Narrow (〈2 km) but thick (20–50 m) multistorey fluvial sandstone complexes are rare, but occur in a few type 3 cyclothems. Several cyclothems are observed to change character from type 1 to type 2 and from type 2 to type 3 up the regional palaeoslope. Consequently, we envisage a model in which each cyclothem type represents a different palaeogeographic belt within the same, idealized delta system, subject to the same allogenic and autogenic controls on facies architecture. Type 1 cyclothems are dominated by deltaic shorelines deposited during a falling stage and lowstand of sea level. Type 2 cyclothems represent the coeval lower delta plain, which was deeply eroded by incised valleys that fed the falling stage and lowstand deltas. Type 3 cyclothems comprise mainly upper delta plain deposits in which the allogenic sea-level control was secondary to autogenic controls on facies architecture. The marine bands, widespread coals and coal seam groups that bound these three cyclothem types record abandonment of the delta system during periods of rapid sea-level rise. The model suggests that the extant cyclothem paradigm does not adequately describe the detailed facies architecture of Lower Coal Measures strata. Instead, these architectures may be better understood within a high-resolution stratigraphic framework incorporating sequence stratigraphic key surfaces, integrated with depositional models derived from analogous Pleistocene–Holocene fluvio-deltaic strata.
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  • 29
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Instrumented moorings were deployed during the winter of 1994–95 at three depths (28, 58 and 101 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Storms during the observation period were not unusually severe, so the processes observed are typical of those that occur during an average winter. Time series observations of water temperature, beam attenuation coefficient (a measure of water transparency) and current velocity show that local resuspension of bottom sediment occurred frequently after the breakdown of the thermocline. Resuspension was most frequent close to the shore but was also observed at the 58 m station. Local resuspension did not occur at the 101 m station, but advection to the site of material resuspended at shallower sites was observed. These observations do not support the hypothesis proposed by previous investigators that local resuspension at depths of 100 m or greater occurs during the unstratified period. It is more likely that fine-grained material resuspended by storm action in intermediate water depths (≈ 30–60 m) is transported into the deeper parts of the lake by the general lake circulation.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The process of organomineralization is increasingly well understood with respect to modern carbonate sediments accumulating adjacent to tropical reef atolls and reef caves. Mineralization related to non-living organic substrates results in autochthonous micrite production (‘automicrites’). ‘Automicrites’ are the main constructive element of Lower Cretaceous (Albian) carbonate mud mounds in northern Spain. These slope mud mounds occur within transgressive and early highstand system tracts encompassing several macrobenthic ecological zones. They are clearly separated from the biocalcifying carbonate factory (Urgonian carbonate platforms), in both space and time. Within these build-ups, most ‘automicrites’ were initially indurated and accreted to form a medium-relief growth framework. ‘Automicrites’ have a uniform, presumably high-Mg-calcite precursor mineralogy. They show an inorganic stable-isotope signature (∂13C around +3·3‰) within the range of early marine cements, and skeletal compounds lacking major vital effects. Epifluorescence microscopy shows that they have facies-specific fluorescence, which is similar to skeletal compounds of Acanthochaetetes, but clearly different from allomicritic sediment and cements, which are mostly non-fluorescent. The EDTA-soluble intracrystalline organic fraction (SIOF) of Albian automicrites shows an amino acid spectrum that is similar to shallow subsurface samples from their modern counterparts. Gel electrophoresis of the SIOF demonstrates an exclusively acidic character, and a mean molecular size range between 20 and 30 kDa. Experiments in vitro (inhibition tests) indicate that the SIOF has a significant Ca2+-binding capacity. Fluorescence and chemical characteristics of SIOF point to a main substance class, such as humic and fulvic acids, compounds that form from pristine organic matter during early diagenesis. Biomarker analyses provide evidence for the crucial role of biodegradation by heterotrophic microorganisms, but no biomarker for cyanobacteria has been found. Primary sources of organic material should have been manifold, including major contributions by metazoans such as sponges. It is concluded that many carbonate mud mounds are essentially organomineralic in origin and that the resulting fabric of polygenetic muds (‘polymuds’) may represent ancestral metazoan reef ecosystems, which possibly originated during the Neoproterozoic.
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    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The 720-m-thick succession of the Middle Triassic Latemàr Massif (Dolomites, Italy) was used to reconstruct the lagoonal facies architecture of a small atoll-like carbonate platform. Facies analysis of the lagoonal sediments yields a bathymetric interpretation of the lateral facies variations, which reflect a syndepositional palaeorelief. Based on tracing of lagoonal flooding surfaces, the metre-scale shallowing-upward cycles are interpreted to be of allocyclic origin. Short-term sea-level changes led to subaerial exposure of wide parts of the marginal zone, resulting in the development of a tepee belt of varying width. Occasional emergence of the entire lagoon produced lagoon-wide decimetre-thick red exposure horizons. The supratidal tepee belt in the backreef area represented the zone of maximum elevation, which circumscribed the sub- to peritidal lagoonal interior during most of the platform’s development. This tepee rim, the subtidal reef and a sub- to peritidal transition zone in between stabilized the platform margin. The asymmetric width of facies belts within individual metre-scale cycles was caused by redistribution processes that reflect palaeowinds and storm paths from the present-day south and west. The overall succession shows stratigraphic changes on a scale of tens of metres from a basal subtidal unit, overlain by three tepee-rich intervals, separated by tepee-poor units composed of subtidal to peritidal facies. This stacking pattern reflects two third-order sequences during the late Anisian to early middle Ladinian.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Dakota Formation in southern Utah (Kaiparowits Plateau region) is a succession of fluvial through shallow-marine facies formed during the initial phase of filling of the Cretaceous foreland basin of the Sevier orogen. It records a number of relative sea-level fluctuations of different frequency and magnitude, controlled by both tectonic and eustatic processes during the Early to Late Cenomanian. The Dakota Formation is divided into eight units separated by regionally correlatable surfaces that formed in response to relative sea-level fluctuations. Units 1–6B represent, from bottom to top, valley-filling deposits of braided streams (unit 1), alluvial plain with anastomosed to meandering streams (2), tide-influenced fluvial and tide-dominated estuarine systems (3A and 3B), offshore to wave-dominated shoreface (4, 5 and 6A) and an estuarine incised valley fill (6A and 6B). The onset of flexural subsidence and deposition in the foredeep was preceded by eastward tilting of the basement strata, probably caused by forebulge migration during the Early Cretaceous, which resulted in the incision of a westward-deepening predepositional relief. The basal fluvial deposits of the Dakota Formation, filling the relief, reflect the onset of flexural subsidence and, possibly, a eustatic sea-level rise. Throughout the deposition of the Dakota Formation, flexure controlled the long-term, regional subsidence rate. Locally, reactivation of basement faults caused additional subsidence or minor uplift. Owing to a generally low subsidence rate, differential compaction locally influenced the degree of preservation of the Dakota units. Eustasy is believed to have been the main control on the high-frequency relative sea-level changes recorded in the Dakota. All surfaces that separate individual Dakota units are flooding surfaces, most of which are superimposed on sequence boundaries. Therefore, with the exception of unit 6B and, possibly, 3B, most of the Dakota units are interpreted as depositional sequences. Fluvial strata of units 1 and 2 are interpreted as low-frequency sequences; the coal zones at the base and within unit 2 may represent a response to higher frequency flooding events. Units 3A to 6B are interpreted as having formed in response to high-frequency relative sea-level fluctuations. Shallow-marine units 4, 5 and 6A, interpreted as parasequences by earlier authors, can be divided into facies-based systems tracts and show signs of subaerial exposure at their boundaries, which allows interpretation as high-frequency sequences. In general, the Dakota units are good examples of high-frequency sequences that can be misinterpreted as parasequences, especially in distal facies or in places where signs of subaerial erosion are missing or have been removed by subsequent transgressive erosion. Both low- and high-frequency sequences represented by the Dakota units are stacked in an overall retrogradational pattern, which reflects a long-term relative sea-level rise, punctuated by brief periods of relative sea-level fall. There is a relatively major fall near the end of the M. mosbyense Zone, whereas the base of the Tropic shale is characterized by a major flooding event at the base of the S. gracile Zone. A similar record of Cenomanian relative sea-level change in other regions, e.g. Europe or northern Africa, suggests that both high- and low-frequency relative sea-level changes were governed by eustasy. The high-frequency relative sea-level fluctuations of ≈100 kyr periodicity and ≈10–20 m magnitude, similar to those recorded in other Cenomanian successions in North America and Central Europe, were probably related to Milankovitch-band, climate-driven eustasy. Either minor glacioeustatic fluctuations, superimposed on the overall greenhouse climate of the mid-Cretaceous, or mechanisms, such as the fluctuations in groundwater volume on continents or thermal expansion and contraction of sea water, could have controlled the high-frequency eustatic fluctuations.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: To date, discussion of changes in alluvial style and in the character of palaeosols in relation to changes in accommodation and sediment supply on floodplains has primarily been from a conceptual standpoint: few case studies are available against which to test ideas. One hundred and thirty metres of non-marine strata of the Dunvegan Formation were examined in 14 closely spaced sections in the canyon of the Kiskatinaw River, NE British Columbia, Canada. This site was located about 120 km inland from the transgressive limit of the contemporary marine shoreline and represents almost exclusively freshwater environments. Fluvial channels in the Kiskatinaw River section are of two types. Small, single-storey, very fine- to fine-grained sandstone ribbons with W/T ratios 〈30, encased in fine-grained floodplain sediments are interpreted as anastomosed channels. Fine- to medium-grained, laterally accreted point-bar deposits forming multistorey sand bodies with individual W/T ratios 〉30 are interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers filling incised valleys. Interchannel facies include the deposits of crevasse channels and splays, lakes, floodplains and palaeosols. Floodplain palaeosols consist of laterally heterogeneous, simple palaeosol profiles and pedocomplexes similar to modern Entisols, Inceptisols and hydromorphic soils. Interfluve, sequence-bounding palaeosols adjacent to incised valleys are laterally continuous, up to 3 m thick and can be reliably identified using a combination of (1) stratigraphic position; (2) field observations, such as thickness, structure, colour, degree of rooting; and (3) micromorphological features, such as evidence of bioturbation, clay coatings, ferruginous features and sphaerosiderite. Interfluve palaeosols are similar to modern Alfisols and Ultisols. Correlation of the local stratigraphic succession with the regional sequence stratigraphic framework, based on 2340 well logs and 60 outcrop sections, shows that the vertical changes in coastal plain character (more coals and lakes vs. more pedogenesis) can be related to relatively high-frequency base level cycles (eustatic?) that are expressed as transgressive–regressive marine cycles in downdip areas. Regional isopach maps show that these cycles were progressively overprinted and modified by an increasing rate of tectonic subsidence in the north and west. The character of palaeosols developed on aggrading floodplains primarily reflects local sediment supply and drainage. In contrast, well-developed interfluve palaeosols record pedogenesis during periods of reduced or negative accommodation (base level fall). Vertical changes in floodplain palaeoenvironments and palaeosol types reflect changes in accommodation rate. The detailed micromorphological analysis of interfluve palaeosols represents a powerful application of an under-used technique for the recognition of key surfaces in the geological record. This has broad implications for non-marine sequence stratigraphy.
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Anvil Spring Canyon fan of the Panamint Range piedmont in central Death Valley was built entirely by water-flow processes, as revealed by an analysis of widespread 2- to 12-m-high stratigraphic cuts spanning the 9·7 km radial length of this 2·5–5·0° sloping fan. Two facies deposited from fan sheetfloods dominate the fan from apex to toe. The main one (60–95% of cuts) consists of sandy, granular, fine to medium pebble gravel that regularly and sharply alternates with cobbly coarse to very coarse pebble gravel in planar couplets 5–25 cm thick oriented parallel to the fan surface. The other facies (0–25% of cuts) comprises 10- to 60-cm-thick, wedge-planar and wedge-trough beds of pebbly sand and sandy pebble gravel in backsets sloping 3–28°. Both facies are interpreted as resulting from rare, sediment-charged flash floods from the catchment, and were deposited by supercritical standing waves of expanding sheetfloods on the fan. Standing waves were repeatedly initiated, enlarged, migrated, and then terminated either by gradually rejoining the flood or by more violent breakage and washout. The frequent autocyclic growth and destruction of standing waves during an individual sheetflood resulted in the deposition of multiple coarse and fine couplet and backset sequences 50–250 cm thick across the active depositional lobe of the fan. Erosional intensity during washout of the standing wave determined whether early-phase backset-bed deposits or washout-phase sheetflood couplet deposits were selectively preserved in a given cycle. Two minor facies are also found in the Anvil fan. Pebble–cobble gravel lags (0–20% of cuts) are present above erosional scours into the sheetflood couplet and backset deposits. They consist of coarse gravel concentrated through fine-fraction winnowing of the host sheetflood facies by sediment-deficient water flows. This reworking occurred during recessional flood stage or from non-catastrophic discharge during the long intervals between major flash floods. This facies is common at the surface, giving rise to a ‘braided-stream’ appearance. However, it is stratigraphically limited, present as thin, continuous to discontinuous beds or lenses that bound 50- to 250-cm-thick sheetflood sequences. The other minor facies of the Anvil fan consists of clast-supported and imbricated, thickly stratified, pebbly, cobbly, boulder gravel present in narrow, radially aligned ribbons nested within sheetflood deposits. This facies is interpreted as representing deposition in the incised channel of the fan, a subenvironment characterized by greater flow competence resulting from maintained depth from channel-wall confinement, and by more frequent water flows and winnowing events caused by its direct connection with the catchment feeder channel.
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  • 36
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    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Facies analysis of widely distributed exposures of the 32·6 km2 and 8·1-km-long Warm Spring Canyon fan, central Death Valley, shows that it has been built principally by debris-flow deposits. These deposits were derived from a mature Panamint Range catchment mostly underlain by Precambrian mudrock, quartzite and dolomite. Stacked, clast-rich and matrix-supported debris-flow lobes of slightly bouldery, muddy, pebble–cobble gravel in beds 20–150 cm thick dominate the fan from apex to toe, accounting for 75–98% of most exposures. Interstratified with the debris flows are less abundant (2–25% of cuts), thinner (5–30 cm) and more discontinuous beds of clast-supported and imbricated, pebble–cobble gravel deposited by overland flows and gully flows. This facies formed by the surficial fine-fraction water winnowing of the debris flows primarily during recessional flood stage of the debris-flow events. Two other facies associations make up a small part of the fan. The incised-channel tract consists of a 250-m-wide clast-supported ribbon of irregularly to thickly bedded, boulder, pebble, cobble gravel nested within debris-flow deposits. This channel fill is oriented generally perpendicular to the Panamint range front. It formed by extensive erosion and winnowing of debris flows deposited within the incised channel, into which all water discharge from the catchment is funnelled. The limited presence of this facies only straddling the present incised channel indicates that this channel overall has maintained a consistent position on the fan except for slight lateral shifts, some caused by strike-slip offset. Fault offset temporarily closed the upper incised channel, causing recessional debris-flow mud to be ponded behind the dam. The other local facies assemblage consists of subrounded to rounded, moderately sorted pebble gravel in low-angle cross-beds that slope both basinwards and fanwards. This gravel was deposited in beachface, backshore and shoreface barrier-spit environments that developed where Lake Manly impinged on the Warm Spring fan during late Pleistocene time. These deposits straddle headcuts into, and were derived from, erosion of the debris-flow deposits. Wave energy sorted finer sediment from the shore zone, concentrated coarser sediment and rounded the coarse to very coarse pebble fraction by selective reworking.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Upper Jurassic Akkuyu Formation of south-western Turkey consists of pale-coloured carbonate facies, but includes a peculiar ‘black band’ at its base. In order to characterize the depositional environment of this level, a sedimentological, organic and inorganic geochemical study was performed on 30 samples. Three units are distinguished. Unit 1 consists of black marlstones, very rich in organic carbon (22–30%) with HI (hydrogen index) values around 600. The organic matter is an amorphous homogeneous material even at nanoscopic scale. This unit is also characterized by a very high concentration of V ( 〉1000 p.p.m.) and a δ13Corg value around −26·5‰. Unit 2 shows thin-bedded black limestones with chert layers. Its organic content varies from 2% to 6%. As in unit 1, the HI values are uniformly high (600), and gas chromatography shows a high quantity of hopanes. The V concentration is also high (≈400 p.p.m.). The unit has a high Sr/Ca ratio, an organic carbon isotopic ratio close to −28·7‰ and diffuse, nanoscopically amorphous organic material that is closely associated with pyrite. Unit 3 corresponds to the white limestones overlying the ‘black band’. This calcitic facies is almost devoid of organic carbon (〈0·1%). The δ13Corg values are similar to those of unit 1 (−25·5‰ to −26‰). Deposition occurred in a basinal environment surrounded by a carbonate platform. Primary productivity was high but not exceptional; terrestrial organic inputs were scarce. Bottom waters were probably euxinic during the deposition of unit 1. The presence of both hopane-rich and sulphur-rich nanoscopically amorphous organic matter may be the result of strong sulphate-reducing bacterial activity. Coupled with low amounts of iron, this led to intense vulcanization of the organic matter and thus good preservation. With the onset of unit 2 deposition, environmental conditions became less extreme, perhaps because of cooler water temperatures. Finally, the depositional conditions became oxic, leading to the accumulation of pale-coloured organic-poor limestones of unit 3.
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The sediment state of aeolian dune fields and sand seas at a basinal scale is defined by the separate components of sediment supply, sediment availability and the transport capacity of the wind. The sediment supply for aeolian systems is the sediment that contemporaneously or at some later point serves as the source material for the aeolian system. Numerous factors impact the susceptibility of grains on a surface to transport, but these are cumulatively manifested by the actual transport rate, which serves as a proxy for sediment availability. Transport capacity is the potential sediment transport rate of the wind. Because the three aspects of sediment state can be given as a volumetric rate, they are directly comparable. Plotted simultaneously against time, the generated curves define nine possible classes of sediment state. Sediment supply that is stored occurs because it is transport or availability limited, or generated at a rate greater than the potential or actual transport rates respectively. Contemporaneous or lagged influx to an aeolian system may be limited by sediment availability, but cannot exceed the transport capacity of the wind. For the Kelso dune field in the Mojave Desert of California, a variety of stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence is used to approximate the sediment state of the system. The sediment supply was generated during the latest Pleistocene and earliest Holocene during humid periods of enhanced discharge by the Mojave River to form the Lake Mojave fan delta or terminal fan, and has been calculated over time from the sedimentation rate and the frequency of floods. Estimation of transport capacity over time was based upon modern wind data, with an allowance for greater winds during the Pleistocene based upon climatic models. Sediment availability was approximated by calculation of a modern dune mobility index, with variation over time based upon climatic inferences. While quantifying the Kelso or any natural system is subject to numerous uncertainties, the sediment state approach reflects the temporal and spatial disjointed nature of accumulations at Kelso, as well as illuminating questions for future research.
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  • 39
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    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of fetch distance on aeolian sediment transport on a natural sand beach at Benone Strand, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. The site consisted of a wide dissipative beach, approximately 150 m wide at low tide and 80 m wide during high tide. Surface moisture levels (and hence dry fetch distance) were dictated by both local groundwater, from a stream outlet across the beach, as well as local tidal levels. An abundant dry sediment supply was available during the experiment. High-resolution (1 Hz) measurements were made of wind speed and direction along with sediment flux. Wind velocity ranged from 2·1 to 8·1 m s–1 during the study. Second-order polynomial sand transport equations were derived from the wind speed and trap results with r2 values of better than 0·93 for all data. When the data were sorted into velocity bins of 1 m s–1, there was no discernible relationship between fetch distance and sand transport, with a measured fetch distance range of 10–58 m available during the experiment. Results show that fetch distance is unimportant when an adequate sand supply is available. However, it is suggested that fetch may restrict the development of steady-state transport under sediment-limited conditions. Sediment availability is thus identified as a key variable in aeolian transport studies on natural beaches.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The behaviour of subaerial particle-laden gravity currents (e.g. pyroclastic flows, lahars, debris flows, sediment-bearing floods and jökulhlaups) flowing into the sea has been simulated with analogue experiments. Flows of either saline solution, simple suspensions of silicon carbide (SiC) in water or complex suspensions of SiC and plastic particles in methanol were released down a slope into a tank of water. The excess momentum between subaerial and subaqueous flow is dissipated by a surface wave. At relatively low density contrasts between the tank water and the saline or simple suspensions, the flow mixture enters the water and forms a turbulent cloud involving extensive entrainment of water. The cloud then collapses gravitationally to form an underwater gravity current, which progresses along the tank floor. At higher density contrasts, the subaerial flow develops directly into a subaqueous flow. The flow slows and thickens in response to the reduced density contrast, which is driving motion, and then continues in the typical gravity current manner. Complex suspensions become dense flows along the tank floor or buoyant flows along the water surface, if the mixtures are sufficiently denser or lighter than water respectively. Flows of initially intermediate density are strongly influenced by the internal stratification of the subaerial flow. Material from the particulate-depleted upper sections of the subaerial flow becomes a buoyant gravity current along the water surface, whereas material from the particulate-enriched lower sections forms a dense flow along the tank floor. Sedimentation from the dense flow results in a reduction in bulk density until the mixture attains buoyancy, lifts off and becomes a secondary buoyant flow along the water surface. Jökulhlaups, lahars and debris flows are typically much denser than seawater and, thus, will usually form dense flows along the seabed. After sufficient sedimentation, the freshwater particulate mixture can lift off to form a buoyant flow at the sea surface, leading to a decoupling of the fine and coarse particles. Flood waters with low particulate concentrations (〈2%) may form buoyant flows immediately upon entering the ocean. Subaerial pyroclastic flows develop a pronounced internal stratification during subaerial run-out and, thus, a flow-splitting behaviour is probable, which agrees with evidence for sea surface and underwater flows from historic eruptions of Krakatau and Mont Pelée. A pyroclastic flow with a bulk density closer to that of sea water may form a turbulent cloud, resulting in the deposition of much of the pyroclasts close to the shore. Dense subaqueous pyroclastic flows will eventually lift off and form secondary buoyant flows, either before or after the transformation to a water-supported nature.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The high-resolution mapping of dissolved sulphide in modern sediment of a permanently stratified (meromictic) lake is possible using a novel sulphide imaging technique (called a ‘sulphur print’). The technique is simple, easy to use and can map a relatively large area (up to several dm2). In situ sulphur prints from anoxic fine-grained sediments are able to reveal internal structures in apparently homogeneous materials. Sulphur prints have been used to examine the formation and distribution of dissolved sulphide in the sediment and water column of the meromictic Lake Cadagno (southern Switzerland). The prints show clearly that a previously unknown laminar convective flow of sulphide-free porewater occurs across the sediment–water interface. Such convective flow out of the sediment must be accompanied by convective flow of sulphide- and sulphate-rich lake water into the sediment, and may be an important mechanism for the accumulation of sulphur in the sediment.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Magnetic measurements were carried out on samples from two saltmarshes deposited during the last century on the north-west coast of Ireland. Based on profiles from cliffed saltmarsh edge, mid-marsh and supratidal locations, the processes that affect the generation and persistence of magnetic properties in environments were investigated. This was done to help in understanding the geochemical processes affecting north-west Irish coast saltmarshes and to determine the frequency and provenance of sediment-laden flooding events; hence, disentangling the importance of clastic and organic contributions to saltmarsh growth. Magnetic properties indicate depositional and post-depositional effects varying on both temporal and spatial scales. The interpretations presented here suggest that both biogenic and diagenetic processes have a strong effect on the magnetic properties recorded: in the former case, the growth of magnetotactic bacteria is the main process; in the latter case, it is reductive diagenesis, associated with organic matter decomposition, that is important. The biogenic and diagenetic effects overprint and degrade the detrital magnetic signatures respectively. This suggests that magnetic measurements within the context of north-west Irish coast saltmarshes can provide limited information on clastic sediment input to these environments. Comparisons between sites on the north-west coast of Ireland show similar magnetic properties, despite differences in deposition rates, implying that significant post-depositional alteration of magnetic properties occurs within the first 20–40 years after deposition. Magnetic properties of north-west coast Irish saltmarshes are put into a regional context by comparison with magnetic profiles from similar sites.
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  • 43
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 44
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A Lower Pleistocene carbonate platform is described from north-east Rhodes, Greece. It comprises a succession of warm temperate calcarenites (the Cape Arkhangelos calcarenite facies group) developed in a steep-sided coastal basin. The depositional setting for the sediments is a carbonate wedge developed within a larger-scale forced regression. Deposition began with aggradation of storm-dominated lower and upper shoreface deposits. Later, the development of a prograding platform produced giant clinoform foresets. A marked alternation of cross-bedded and bioturbated clinoforms indicates seasonal transport of carbonate material off the platform. Periodically, the platform edge has been deeply scoured by exceptional storms, after which further deposition repaired the platform margin, and progradation resumed. More than 20 such major storm cycles are preserved. Applying sequence stratigraphy to this succession leads to two different possible interpretations: one with a lowstand systems tract and one with a forced regressive systems tract, depending on the scale of view. The implications of this are discussed. The present example shows clearly that the application of sequence stratigraphic models to real carbonate sequences requires careful consideration of scale and context before interpretations are made.
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  • 45
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    Sedimentology 46 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Flat pebble conglomerates were a common carbonate facies in Cambrian to Early Ordovician open marine settings, but they become extremely rare in these environments after this time. However, the Early Triassic witnessed an anachronistic reappearance of flat pebbles, together with other intraclast types, in a range of carbonate depositional settings. In south China, flat pebble conglomerates are encountered in storm-dominated, platform carbonates to deep basinal settings, while prefossilized bivalve intraclasts and flat pebbles are common in mid-ramp facies of northern Italy. The emplacement mechanisms of the intraclast-bearing beds appear to have been diverse and to have included basinal turbidity flows and storm-generated hyperconcentrated flows: true storm beds, deposited under combined flow conditions, are rare. The cause of the widespread early lithification implied by the Early Triassic intraclasts appears to have been twofold: suppression of bioturbation, allowing the preservation of thin beds, and rapid submarine lithification. Both features appear to be a response to the widespread development of benthic dysoxia/anoxia during and following the end-Permian mass extinction. This event appears to have temporarily recreated the conditions that pertained in Cambro-Ordovician shelf seas. Flat pebble conglomerates may, therefore, constitute a proxy indicator of stressed environmental conditions associated with global anoxic/dysoxic events.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Quantitative logs of grain composition for several sections of platform top and flank of the Vercors carbonate platform (Early Cretaceous, SE France) provide platform-to-basin correlation with a resolution of a few metres over an area of 70 km2. Grain composition was determined by point-counting thin sections. Point-count groups that characterize palaeoenvironmental realms (i.e. open sea, platform margin) were defined for the platform–basin trajectory. Grain-composition logs revealed marked peaks in the number of open-sea biota and peaks in ooid abundance. The peaks in open-sea biota correspond to back-stepping intervals and deepening upward facies successions at the platform margin. These peaks probably relate to incipient drowning of the platform and may be used to delineate marine-flooding surface-bounded sequences. Peaks in ooid occurrence show no relationship with the progradation, aggradation or retreat of the platform. Apparently, the oolitic sands were not part of a facies tract that shifted up and down the platform. Instead, they represent a depositional mode that was either on or off. Times of prolific ooid production and shedding probably occurred during wide but shallow submergence of the platform, accompanied by suitable water chemistry. Peaks in both ooids and open-sea biota are excellent markers for platform-to-basin correlation, as they are recorded in successions on the platform top as well as on the flank. Altogether, the grain-composition logs show that each of the lithologically rather similar platform tongues of the Vercors has a unique signature or compositional fingerprint. These compositional fingerprints are most helpful in evaluating the lateral extent of different stratigraphic units. In outcrops of the Vercors platform, the physical tracing of bedding surfaces delineate wedges of toe-of-slope sediments that show a conspicuous thinning towards the platform. However, our correlation shows that these sediment bodies are not truly basin-restricted wedges but have a platform top equivalent. This implies that these units were, at least partly, deposited during high stands of sea level that flooded the platform.
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  • 48
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    Weed research 39 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Spatial biology of weed populations is the study of weed patches and their relevant patch-level processes. In this context, a patch was defined as an area in which individuals are aggregated into discrete subdivided populations. Four Abutilon theophrasti seedling patches in two continuous maize production fields were surveyed using a contiguous grid of quadrats between 1995 and 1997. Surveyed area was dependent on patch size and ranged from 96 m2 to 1134 m2. Within each area, all seedlings were counted in each 1 m × 0.75 m quadrat in June, just before post-emergence weed control, and in mid-July after all weed control practices were completed. The spatial pattern observed in the seedling distribution maps was single or multiple focal points of high seedling density that decreased with distance from the focal point. Two-directional correlograms corroborated this visual observation, such that A. theophrasti seedling density in neighbouring quadrats was spatially autocorrelated, and correlation strength decreased with distance separating quadrats. Autocorrelation coefficients decreased at a greater rate across crop rows than parallel to crop rows. Visually, patch shape was elliptical and oriented in the direction of field traffic. Factors affecting patch-level processes of spatial aggregation, stability and edge dynamics were considered.
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  • 49
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    Weed research 39 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A range of 111 rice cultivars was studied for weed-suppressing ability in field experiments with a sown infestation of Echinochloa crus-galli. Cultivars differed significantly in their ability to suppress the growth of E. crus-galli, and the differences were reasonably reproducible over three seasons. The same rice cultivars were tested in a laboratory screening for allelopathic potential, which showed significant differences in the ability to reduce root growth of E. crus-galli. Correlation between the laboratory screening and the field experiments showed that field performance could be described to some extent by E. crus-galli root length reduction in the laboratory. Plant height in the field experiment was correlated with weed biomass 8 weeks after seeding. Even among the most weed-suppressing rice cultivars, however, all heights were represented. None of the measured growth parameters from greenhouse studies could explain the distribution of weed-suppressing rice cultivars. This indicates that allelopathy in combination with competitive ability determines the weed interference outcome of a given rice cultivar.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effects of timing of N fertilization (early, standard or late) on competition between two sugarbeet cultivars (Ritmo, semi-prostrate; and Rizor, erect) and two weeds (Sinapis arvensis and Chenopodium album) were studied over 2 years at Viterbo. In both years, time of N fertilization did not influence biomass, yield and yield quality of the weed-free crop, but early N fertilization gave higher crop biomass reduction in the presence of S. arvensis and lower crop biomass reduction in the presence of C. album. Root and sucrose yield responded to competition in the same way as biomass. However, percentage reductions were higher, as both weeds affected harvest index. The two cultivars showed the same response to competition. At the weed densities studied, crop competitive ability was favoured by late N fertilization in the presence of S. arvensis and by early N fertilization in the presence of C. album. Crop competition only reduced seed production by C. album but lowered seed germination of both weeds.
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  • 51
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    Weed research 39 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Field experiments were carried out in order to assess the selectivity of in-row brush weeding in carrots with a natural flora of annual weeds, represented by Urtica urens L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Chenopodium album L., Senecio vulgaris L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med., Chamomilla suaveolens (L.) Pursh Buch. and Matricaria inodora L. The mechanisms by which the weeds and carrots were controlled (uprooting vs. soil covering) were studied using a portable vacuum-cleaner. Weeds at the two- to four-true-leaf stage proved to be more sensitive to brushing than carrots with two to four true leaves but, for later development stages of the weeds, there were no differences. Weeds at the six- to eight-leaf stage were only killed to an extent of 20–50%. Uprooting generally accounted for 45–90% of the weed mortality at the two- to four-leaf stage, whereas most of the mortality in carrots was the result of soil covering. The vacuum-cleaning method proved to be a simple and rapid way of determining whether plants had been killed by uprooting or soil covering. It was concluded that the major mechanism of weed control obtained by brush weeding is uprooting.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Cyperus rotundus L. is one of the most difficult weeds to control worldwide. In Zimbabwe, it is an important weed in arable areas with high crop production potential. The effect of maize, cotton and groundnut canopies on the suppression of C. rotundus was investigated under field conditions over two growing seasons. Similarly, C. rotundus growth and development under a constant maize population planted in isometric and rectangular stands were also studied over one growing season. The capacity of C. rotundus to spread in the short term and its regenerative capacity were curtailed under maize compared with groundnut and cotton canopies. The same was also true under isometric maize stands compared with rectangular maize stands. Significant interactions between crop canopy and time of sampling for C. rotundus shoot counts, leaf area, rhizome length, tuber counts and tuber dry weight suggest the effectiveness of the maize canopy in suppressing the spread and regenerative capacity of C. rotundus early in the season. The implications of these results for the integrated control of C. rotundus are discussed.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A new algorithm for tomographic inversion of traveltimes of reflected and refracted seismic waves is developed. The inversion gives interface configurations and velocity distributions in layers. The important features of the algorithm are: (a) the inclusion of shot time delays in the list of unknown parameters; (b) the regularization is applied in such a way that the most probable model is characterized by the similarity of neighbouring interfaces. As the problem under consideration is non-linear, several iterations are necessary in order to obtain the final model. In the case of a very inexact initial model, a ‘layer-by-layer’ inversion strategy is recommended as a first inversion step. The inversion program is supplied with a user interface, thanks to which one can: (a) pick interactively and identify seismic traveltimes; (b) build and edit depth/velocity models; and (c) display calculated traveltime curves and compare them with picked traveltimes as well as with the original seismic sections. The efficiency of the inversion software developed is illustrated by a numerical example and a field example in which shallow seismic data are considered. Application to wide-aperture reflection/refraction profiling (WARRP) data is also possible.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Parameter estimation from the elliptical variations in the normal-moveout (NMO) velocity in azimuthally anisotropic media is sensitive to the angular separation between the survey lines in 2D, or equivalently, the source-to-receiver azimuth in 3D, and to the set of azimuths used in the inversion procedure. The accuracy in estimating the orientation of an NMO ellipse, in particular the parameter α, is also sensitive to the magnitude of anisotropy. On the other hand, the accuracy in estimating the semi-axes of the NMO-velocity ellipse is about the same for any magnitude of anisotropy.  To invert for the NMO ellipse parameters at least three NMO-velocity measurements along distinct azimuth directions are needed. In order to maximize the accuracy and stability in parameter estimation, it is best to have the azimuths for the three source-to-receiver directions 60° apart. Having more than three distinct source-to-receiver azimuths (e.g. full azimuthal coverage) provides a useful data redundancy that enhances the quality of the estimates.  In order to maximize quality in the inversion process, it is recommended to design the seismic data acquisition such that it contains small sectors (≤10°) with adequate fold and offset distribution.  Using three NMO-velocity measurements, 60° apart, an azimuthally anisotropic layer overlain by an azimuthally isotropic overburden (as might occur for fractured reservoirs) should have a relative thickness (in time) with respect to the total thickness at least equal to the ratio of the error in the NMO (stacking) velocity to the interval anisotropy of the fractured layer. Coverage along more than three azimuths, however, improves this limitation, which is imposed by Dix differentiation, by at most 50%, depending on the number of observations (NMO velocities) that enter the inversion procedure.
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  • 55
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    Geophysical prospecting 47 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Attenuation of seismic waves, quantified by the seismic quality factor Q, holds important information for seismic interpretation, due to its sensitivity to rock and fluid properties. A recently published study of Q, based on surface seismic reflection data, used a modified spectral ratio approach (QVO), but both source and receiver responses were treated as isotropic, based on simple raypath arguments. Here, this assumption has been tested by computing apparent attenuation generated by frequency-dependent directivity of typical marine source and receiver arrays and acquisition geometries. Synthetic wavelet spectra were computed for reflected rays, summed over the first Fresnel zone, from the base of a single interval, 50–3000 m thick and velocity 2000 m/s, overlying a 2200 m/s half-space, and for offsets of 71–2071 m. The source and receiver geometry were those of an actual survey.The modelled spectra are clearly affected by directivity, most strongly because of surface ghosts. In general, the strong high-frequency component, produced by the array design, leads to apparently negative attenuation in individual reflection events, though this is dependent on offset and target depth. For shallow targets (less than 400–500 ms two-way traveltime (TWT) depth), apparent Q-values as extreme as −50 to −100 were obtained. For deeper target depths, the directivity effect is far smaller. The implications of the model study were tested on real data. QVO was applied to 20 true-spectrum-processed CMPs, in a shallow (405–730 ms TWT) and a deeper (1000–1300 ms TWT) interval, firstly using a measured far-field source signature (effectively isotropic), and secondly using computed directivity effects instead. Mean interval Q−1-values for the deeper interval, 0.029 ± 0.011 and 0.027 ± 0.018 for conventional and directional processing, respectively, suggested no directivity influence on attenuation estimation. For the shallow interval (despite poor spectral signal-to-noise ratios and hence scattered attenuation estimates), directional processing removed directivity-generated irregularities from the spectral ratios, resulting in an improvement from Q−1int = −0.036 ± 0.130 to a realistic Q−1int = 0.012 ± 0.030: different at 94% confidence level. Equivalent Q-values are: for the deeper interval, 35 and 37 for conventional and directional processing, respectively, and −28 and 86 for the shallow interval.These results support the conclusions of the model studies, i.e. that source/receiver directivity has a negligible effect except for shallow targets (e.g. TWT depth ≤ 500 ms) imaged with conventional acquisition geometry. In such cases directivity corrections to spectra are strongly recommended.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Seismic exploration in mountainous areas imposes serious compromises on both acquisition and processing. Access restrictions usually result in profiles that are not straight and are not recorded along the true dip direction (if there is a true dip direction!). Processing constraints often result in very poor approximate corrections for elevations and for deviations from a straight line. Most fundamentally, 2D acquisition and processing assumes that the earth is 2D; this assumption is often seriously violated in mountainous areas. While we cannot efficiently correct 2D seismic data for the effects of a fully 3D subsurface, we can improve the data quality in thrust areas where the assumption of 2D subsurface variation is reasonable. We do this in a series of small steps, which improves the accuracy of several approximations made in processing 2D land data.
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  • 57
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    Geophysical prospecting 47 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Analysis of prestack P-wave seismic data yields information about both the P- and S wave properties of the earth. An anticipated advantage of having two measurements (P and S) is that they can be combined into a new measurement that is less sensitive to lithology variations and more sensitive to fluid effects. The amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) gradient is one such measure that is often used qualitatively as a fluid indicator. The gradient always becomes softer (more negative) when hydrocarbon replaces brine in the pore spaces but the overall AVO response is dominated by the lithology. Fluid effects are expressed primarily by the normal-incidence P-wave response and only secondarily by the offset dependence. The gradient often does not function as an effective fluid indicator. This is partially due to the fact that the gradient is roughly twice as sensitive to S- than to P-wave properties. More importantly, effective random noise in the CMP gathers introduces a strong correlation between the AVO intercept and gradient and, hence, between the measured P- and S-wave properties. This correlation in the AVO attributes corresponds to a significant error in the estimation of the S-wave properties and can dominate the measurements from many of the popular AVO techniques. A simple method to minimize the effect of this noise-induced correlation is to stack the data. The stack corresponds to a coordinate rotation in elastic space with the stack amplitudes measured along one of the new axes and the other (unmeasured) axis naturally tending to line up with the noise and thus suppressing it. Fluid effects cause the data to move roughly perpendicular to this noise trend. The stack axis is then in the direction of the fluid effect. The stack thus combines both the P- and S-wave (normal and oblique incidence) information into a single measurement which can be made to optimally suppress background noise and highlight fluid effects. A major consequence of this interpretation is the simplicity of both prospect identification and quantitative amplitude analysis.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: In order to perform resistivity imaging, seismic waveform tomography or sensitivity analysis of geophysical data, the Fréchet derivatives, and even the second derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters, may be required. We develop a practical method to compute the relevant derivatives for 2.5D resistivity and 2.5D frequency-domain acoustic velocity inversion. Both geophysical inversions entail the solution of a 2.5D Helmholtz equation. First, using differential calculus and the Green's functions of the 2.5D Helmholtz equation, we strictly formulate the explicit expressions for the Fréchet and second derivatives, then apply the finite-element method to approximate the Green's functions of an arbitrary medium. Finally, we calculate the derivatives using the expressions and the numerical solutions of the Green's functions. Two model parametrization approaches, constant-point and constant-block, are suggested and the computational efficiencies are compared. Numerical examples of the derivatives for various electrode arrays in cross-hole resistivity imaging and for cross-hole seismic surveying are demonstrated. Two synthetic experiments of resistivity and acoustic velocity imaging are used to illustrate the method.
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  • 59
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    Geophysical prospecting 47 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Magnetic methods are used in detection of environmental, engineering and military objects fabricated of thin ferromagnetic sheets having volume susceptibilities higher than 100 SI units. Magnetic modelling of such objects would be advantageous, but it requires knowledge of the susceptibility and remanence values of sheet materials, which is scarce. We introduce a magnetometer method for the determination of susceptibility and remanence on thin steel samples. The area of the sample must be so large that its within-sheet magnetization remains below the saturation state. The measurements are made in normal office surroundings in the Earth's magnetic field with an ordinary fluxgate magnetometer.The square-shaped sheet samples measured in this work have an edge length of 17.5 cm and a thickness in the range 0.5–1.0 mm. During the measuring procedure the sample is placed in four positions on a subvertical measurement board. For each position, the magnetic field in the dip direction of the board plane is measured on the opposite sides of the sample. The secondary field values are averaged for each sample position in order to reduce the effect of sample inhomogeneities. With these data, the susceptibility and remanence of the sample in its edge directions are then determined, based on a model curve which is calculated numerically using thin-sheet integral equations.The susceptibilities measured for different steel types (cold rolled and hot-dip zinc-coated steel sheets) varied in the range 200–500 SI units, and the remanence varied in the range 1000–20 000 A/m. No systematic differences were observed between the magnetic properties of various steel types. The repeatability of the susceptibility measurements was good (variations 〈 5%) but the remanence could be changed by 50% between repeated determinations.The measured susceptibility range signifies that pieces of steel with a typical thickness of 0.5 mm remain below magnetic saturation when their edge dimension is larger than 5 cm. Therefore magnetic modelling of larger steel pieces must be made using the thin-sheet theory with known magnetic properties, whereas smaller saturated pieces can be alternatively modelled as an equipotential system.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: We consider 2D earth models consisting of laterally variable layers. Boundaries between layers are described by their depths at a set of nodes and interpolated laterally between nodes. Conductivity within each layer is described by values at a set of nodes fixed within each layer, and is interpolated laterally within each layer. Within the set of possible models of this sort, we iteratively invert magnetotelluric data for models minimizing the lateral roughness of the layer boundaries, and the lateral roughness of conductivities within layers, for a given level of data misfit. This stabilizes the inverse problem and avoids superfluous detail. This approach allows the determination of boundary positions between geological units with sharp discontinuities in properties across boundaries, while sharing the stability features of recent smooth conductivity distribution inversions.We compare sharp boundary inversion results with smooth conductivity distribution inversion results on a numerical example, and on inversion of field data from the Columbia River flood basalts of Washington State. In the synthetic example, where true positions and resistivities are known, sharp boundary inversion results determine both layer boundary locations and layer resistivities accurately. In inversion of Columbia flood basalt data, sharp boundary inversion recovers a model with substantially less internal variation within units, and less ambiguity in both the depth to base of the basalts and depth to resistive basement.
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  • 61
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    Geophysical prospecting 47 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The applicability of seismic refraction profiling for the detection of velocity inversion, which is also known as a low-velocity layer (LVL), is investigated with the aid of synthetic seismogram computations for a range of models. Our computational models focus on the inherent ambiguities in the interpretation of first-arrival time delays or ‘skips’ in terms of LVL model parameters. The present modelling results reveal that neither the measure nor even the existence of a shadow zone and/or a time shift (skip) in first arrivals is necessarily indicative of an LVL. Besides attenuation effects, the cap-layer velocity gradient is a critical parameter, determining the termination point of the cap-layer diving wave and thus the time skip.We suggest that shallow LVLs can be delineated more reliably by traveltime and amplitude modelling of coherent phases reflected from their top and bottom boundaries, often clearly observed in the pre- and near-critical ranges in seismogram sections of refraction profiling experiments with a close receiver spacing. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach for a field data set of a refraction profile in the West Bengal Basin, India. The inferred LVL corresponds to the Gondwana sediments underlying the higher-velocity layer of the Rajmahal Traps. This interpretation is consistent with the data from a nearby well in the region.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Using a lightweight portable vibrator, we have evaluated the accuracy of the ‘weighted sum’ method for calculating ground force. Experiments in which the vibrator was suspended elastically have shown that, contrary to expectations based on standard theory, the amplitude of the weighted sum ground force was significantly above zero at high frequencies (〉 500 Hz). Complementary investigations with load cells confirmed these results. If not accounted for, these deviations may introduce significant ‘vibroseis-correlation noise’ in processed records. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ground force and base-plate velocity can be used to estimate the radiation impedance, which describes the interaction of (vibratory) sources with the ground. Using the mechanical characteristics of the system (i.e. maximum displacement, maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of the base-plate) and the radiation impedance, the behaviour of the portable vibrator on typical Dutch soil types was evaluated. We found that for the same sweep, more high-frequency energy could be generated on hard grounds (e.g. concrete) characterized by a higher radiation impedance than on softer grounds (e.g. clay or sand). Knowledge of this behaviour may provide important information for use in data interpretation.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Despite the complexity of wave propagation in anisotropic media, reflection moveout on conventional common-midpoint (CMP) spreads is usually well described by the normal-moveout (NMO) velocity defined in the zero-offset limit. In their recent work, Grechka and Tsvankin showed that the azimuthal variation of NMO velocity around a fixed CMP location generally has an elliptical form (i.e. plotting the NMO velocity in each azimuthal direction produces an ellipse) and is determined by the spatial derivatives of the slowness vector evaluated at the CMP location. This formalism is used here to develop exact solutions for the NMO velocity in anisotropic media of arbitrary symmetry.For the model of a single homogeneous layer above a dipping reflector, we obtain an explicit NMO expression valid for all pure modes and any orientation of the CMP line with respect to the reflector strike. The contribution of anisotropy to NMO velocity is contained in the slowness components of the zero-offset ray (along with the derivatives of the vertical slowness with respect to the horizontal slownesses) — quantities that can be found in a straightforward way from the Christoffel equation. If the medium above a dipping reflector is horizontally stratified, the effective NMO velocity is determined through a Dix-type average of the matrices responsible for the ‘interval’ NMO ellipses in the individual layers. This generalized Dix equation provides an analytic basis for moveout inversion in vertically inhomogeneous, arbitrarily anisotropic media. For models with a throughgoing vertical symmetry plane (i.e. if the dip plane of the reflector coincides with a symmetry plane of the overburden), the semi-axes of the NMO ellipse are found by the more conventional rms averaging of the interval NMO velocities in the dip and strike directions.Modelling of normal moveout in general heterogeneous anisotropic media requires dynamic ray tracing of only one (zero-offset) ray. Remarkably, the expressions for geometrical spreading along the zero-offset ray contain all the components necessary to build the NMO ellipse. This method is orders of magnitude faster than multi-azimuth, multi-offset ray tracing and, therefore, can be used efficiently in traveltime inversion and in devising fast dip-moveout (DMO) processing algorithms for anisotropic media. This technique becomes especially efficient if the model consists of homogeneous layers or blocks separated by smooth interfaces.The high accuracy of our NMO expressions is illustrated by comparison with ray-traced reflection traveltimes in piecewise-homogeneous, azimuthally anisotropic models. We also apply the generalized Dix equation to field data collected over a fractured reservoir and show that P-wave moveout can be used to find the depth-dependent fracture orientation and to evaluate the magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Near-surface inhomogeneities (NSIs) can lead to severe problems in the interpretation of apparent resistivity pseudosections because their effects significantly complicate the image aspect. In order to carry out a more efficient and reliable interpretation process, these problematic features should be removed from field data. We describe a filtering scheme using two-sided half-Schlumberger array data. The scheme was tested on synthetic data, generated from a simple 2D resistivity model contaminated by NSIs, and is shown to be suitable for eliminating such contaminations from apparent resistivity data. Furthermore, the original model without NSIs can be recovered satisfactorily from the inversion of filtered apparent resistivity data. The algorithm is also applied efficiently to a real data set collected at Nsimi, in southern Cameroon, along a 200-m shallow depth profile crossing a complex transitional zone. For this case, the filtering scheme provides accurate structural and behavioural interpretations of both the geometry of the major soil constituents and the groundwater partitioning.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 47 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The reliability and ruggedness of LaCoste-and-Romberg gravity meters has meant that their use has extended over recent years from gravity mapping to the investigation of small gravity changes (〉 10 μGal) with time. When using the instrument at the limit of its capability, limitations become apparent. Some instruments drift more than others and some are prone to excessive tares. However, with regular servicing these problems are minimized. Here we demonstrate clear evidence for calibration changes of the order of 1000 ppm for LaCoste-and-Romberg meter G513, which, for gravity differences of over 50 mGal, represents a highly significant induced error of over 50 μGal. Data collected over 15 years using nearly 4000 mGal of the 7000 mGal range of the instrument illustrates that long periods of stability may be interspersed with periods lasting several months while the calibration changes by up to 0.1%. This is comparable with the calibration drift of a new Scintrex CG-3M instrument, although the process causing the change may not be the same.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: An experiment was conducted to examine the response of herbage grazed by dairy cows to sodium fertilizer applied with or without sulphur fertilizer. The residual effects of applying sodium fertilizer in the previous year were also evaluated. The application of sodium or sulphur fertilizer did not affect herbage growth or height, but the application of sulphur fertilizer increased crude protein content of herbage. The increase in sodium content with application of sodium fertilizer was small, but was greater when sodium fertilizer had also been applied in the previous year. Herbage potassium was increased when sodium fertilizer was applied in the year of the experiment, but only if sodium had not been applied in the previous year. Application of sulphur fertilizer increased herbage sulphur content and reduced the contents of boron, chromium, molybdenum and nickel. Cows grazing pasture that had received sodium fertilizer had increased milk yields and the content of lactose in milk, whereas those grazing pasture that had received sulphur fertilizer application had reduced milk yields and the content of milk fat.
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  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Grass and forage science 54 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The content of ergot alkaloids (ergovaline and chanoclavine), and their production in October 1996 and during the period May–September 1997, were investigated in seventeen ecotypes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and in nineteen ecotypes of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), naturally infected with Neotyphodium spp. The ecotypes were collected in the north-eastern part of the Czech Republic. In 1996 the content of ergovaline in the ecotypes of perennial ryegrass ranged from 0·00 to 2·73 μg g–1 dry matter (DM) (one cut), and in 1997 from 0·00 to 4·65 μg g–1 DM (five cuts). In meadow fescue the content of ergovaline varied from 0·00 to 0·61 μg g–1 DM (one cut) in 1996, and in 1997 from 0·00 to 2·31 μg g–1 DM (five cuts). The content of chanoclavine (investigated in 1997 in four cuts only) in perennial ryegrass ranged between 0·00 and 3·39 μg g–1 DM, and in meadow fescue between 0·00 and 2·26 μg g–1 DM. Most ecotypes of L. perenne reacted to the high temperature and heavy rainfall in June and July of 1997 with an enhanced production of ergovaline, whereas the content of chanoclavine was not changed. Such reaction to stress conditions was not observed in the ecotypes of F. pratensis. Large differences in the production of both ergot alkaloids between different ecotypes of both plant species were observed.
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  • 68
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Grass and forage science 54 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The pool of nitrate-N (NO3–-N) in the soil is more prone to losses than that of ammonium-N (NH4+-N) so any shift towards NO3–-N dominance in the soil pools, caused by management intensity, could have environmental implications. The change in the balance of soil NH4+-N and NO3–-N content with time was studied using grazed grass swards receiving different fertilizer N inputs. In addition, the effect of past management on net nitrification of 400 μg NH4+-N g–1 was investigated in a soil incubation study. Mineral N was determined at frequent intervals (at least every 2 weeks) throughout the year in the top 5 or 7·5 cm of a sandy clay-loam soil at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland at Hillsborough, County Down, for a 7-year period (1989–90 to 1995–96). The treatments were a perennial ryegrass–white clover sward receiving no fertilizer N, together with perennial ryegrass swards receiving 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 kg N ha–1 year–1 as calcium ammonium nitrate. The plots were continuously grazed by beef steers from April to October to maintain a constant sward height of 7 cm. There was little or no change in average soil NO3–-N and NH4+-N content from 1989–90 to 1995–96 on the grass–clover sward and plots receiving 100 and 200 kg N ha–1 year–1. However, with the plots receiving 300, 400 and 500 kg N ha–1 year–1 NO3–-N became progressively more dominant with time. The incubation study confirmed that this was due to an increase in net nitrification rate. There was evidence that rapid microbial assimilation of NO3–-N occurred during the soil incubations. Past management history can play an important role in determining soil NO3–-N content and hence potential losses of N to the environment.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The photosynthetic characteristics of eleven commercial perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and nine red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) turf-grass cultivars were evaluated. In general, perennial ryegrass had a faster growth, with higher net photosynthesis and quantum efficiency and lower dark respiration (Rd) than red fescue. Among the perennial ryegrass cultivars two major groups were observed: the first one with slow growth, high light compensation point (Ic) and low Rd and the second one with fast growth, low Ic and high Rd. A similar ranking was evident for the red fescue cultivars tested. The chewings fescue (F. rubra ssp. commutata) cultivars belonged to the first group, whereas the strong creeping red fescue (F. rubra ssp. rubra) cultivars were classified into the second group. Slender creeping red fescues (F. rubra ssp. trichophylla) had intermediate features. These variations make it possible to use some of these characteristics in breeding programmes for turf-grasses.
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  • 70
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Grass and forage science 54 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A simple model of depletion by a grazing ruminant was tested at high depletion levels and for different sizes of feeding station. The model divides an initially uniform sward profile into grazing horizons, dependent on bite depth, and assumes a constant within-horizon bite area.Two grazing experiments were conducted using cattle. Uniform areas of oats and alfalfa herbage were grazed individually to a high level of depletion (≈150 bites m–2). Feeding station areas were 0·16, 0·30 and 0·53 m2. Initial sward heights were 10 and 20 cm in oats and 20 cm in alfalfa. Size of area did not significantly affect the observed number of bites removed per square metre, the mean residual herbage height or mass, or the proportion of each grazing horizon depleted, derived from the frequency distribution of residual heights. The mean residual height for all treatment combinations could be explained by assuming a ‘take half’ rule for mean bite depth, and allowing for the derived proportion of the area of each grazing horizon depleted.A simple bite placement simulator was used to generate, for a single grazing horizon and for a given maximum potential area of a bite, the expected relationship among mean effective area of a bite, the proportion of the area of the horizon grazed and the number of bites removed per unit area. The simulator mimics a loosely systematic grazing style. The observed bite numbers and the derived proportions of grazing horizon depleted can be reconciled if the within-horizon mean effective bite area is not constant but declines as predicted by the bite placement simulator. The implications for the shape of the gain function within a feeding station are discussed.
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  • 71
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A long-term fertilizer experiment, which was set up in 1941 on extensively grazed heathland, naturally dominated by Calluna vulgaris L. and Nardus stricta L., is presented. The turf layer was grubbed and reseeded with a grass/legume mixture, and plots were fertilized with (a) lime only as calcium (including magnesium), (2) lime and nitrogen (Ca/N), (3) lime, nitrogen and phosphorus (Ca/N/P2O5) and (4) lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Ca/N/P2O5/KCl and Ca/N/P2O5/K2SO4). Since 1941 these experimental plots have been mown but not grazed.After 50 years of imposing the experimental treatments, dry-matter (DM) yield was found to be positively affected by N, P and K application. Soil N and P concentrations were significantly higher in fertilized than in unfertilized plots. No differences in soil K concentration were found between the two treatments with KCl and K2SO4. Net energy concentration in the plant DM was highest with the Ca/N treatment, but differences were slight. Crude protein concentrations varied from about 110 to 170 g kg–1 DM. In all plots and all years protein concentrations were lower in the first cuts than in the second cuts.Considerable differences in floristic composition were found between different fertilizer treatments. The treatments receiving only Ca contained more than sixty species, many of them representative of oligotrophic extensively managed grassland. In fully fertilized plots, herbs were suppressed by tall-growing grasses. In these plots the number of species was low.
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  • 72
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method has been tested at a site in Haldensleben, northern Germany, to assess the suitability of this new method for groundwater exploration and environmental investigations. More information is obtained by SNMR, particularly with respect to aquifer parameters, than with other geophysical techniques. SNMR measurements were carried out at three borehole locations, together with 2D and 1D direct current geoelectrics, as well as ground-penetrating radar, and well logging (induction log, gamma-ray log and pulsed neutron-gamma log). Permeabilities were calculated from the grain-size distributions of core material determined in the laboratory. It is demonstrated that the SNMR method is able to detect groundwater and the results are in good agreement with other geophysical and hydrogeological data. Using the SNMR method, the water content of the unsaturated and saturated zones (i.e. porosity of an aquifer) can be reliably determined. This information and resistivity data permit in situ determination of other aquifer parameters. Comparison of the SNMR results with borehole data clearly shows that the water content determined by SNMR is the free or mobile water in the pores. The permeabilities estimated from the SNMR decay times are similar to those derived from sieve analysis of core material. Thus, the combination of SNMR with geoelectric methods promises to be a powerful tool for studying aquifer properties.
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  • 73
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Since the work of Postma and Backus, much has been learned about elastic constants in vertical transversely isotropic (VTI)