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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (182,039)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Efforts to collaboratively manage the risk of flooding are ultimately based on individuals learning about risks, the decision process, and the effectiveness of decisions made in prior situations. This article argues that much can be learned about a governance setting by explicitly evaluating the relationships through which influential individuals and their immediate contacts receive and send information to one another. We define these individuals as “brokers,” and the networks that emerge from their interactions as “learning spaces.” The aim of this article is to develop strategies to identify and evaluate the properties of a broker's learning space that are indicative of a collaborative flood risk management arrangement. The first part of this article introduces a set of indicators, and presents strategies to employ this list so as to systematically identify brokers, and compare their learning spaces. The second part outlines the lessons from an evaluation that explored cases in two distinct flood risk management settings in Germany. The results show differences in the observed brokers' learning spaces. The contacts and interactions of the broker in Baden‐Württemberg imply a collaborative setting. In contrast, learning space of the broker in North Rhine‐Westphalia lacks the same level of diversity and polycentricity.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Description: MWK Baden‐Württemberg
    Keywords: 333.91 ; brokerage ; collaborative water governance ; comanagement ; comparative analysis ; social networks
    Type: article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-07-04
    Description: Most common machine learning (ML) algorithms usually work well on balanced training sets, that is, datasets in which all classes are approximately represented equally. Otherwise, the accuracy estimates may be unreliable and classes with only a few values are often misclassified or neglected. This is known as a class imbalance problem in machine learning and datasets that do not meet this criterion are referred to as imbalanced data. Most datasets of soil classes are, therefore, imbalanced data. One of our main objectives is to compare eight resampling strategies that have been developed to counteract the imbalanced data problem. We compared the performance of five of the most common ML algorithms with the resampling approaches. The highest increase in prediction accuracy was achieved with SMOTE (the synthetic minority oversampling technique). In comparison to the baseline prediction on the original dataset, we achieved an increase of about 10, 20 and 10% in the overall accuracy, kappa index and F‐score, respectively. Regarding the ML approaches, random forest (RF) showed the best performance with an overall accuracy, kappa index and F‐score of 66, 60 and 57%, respectively. Moreover, the combination of RF and SMOTE improved the accuracy of the individual soil classes, compared to RF trained on the original dataset and allowed better prediction of soil classes with a low number of samples in the corresponding soil profile database, in our case for Chernozems. Our results show that balancing existing soil legacy data using synthetic sampling strategies can significantly improve the prediction accuracy in digital soil mapping (DSM). Highlights Spatial distribution of soil classes in Iran can be predicted using machine learning (ML) algorithms. The synthetic minority oversampling technique overcomes the drawback of imbalanced and highly biased soil legacy data. When combining a random forest model with synthetic sampling strategies the prediction accuracy of the soil model improves significantly. The resulting new soil map of Iran has a much higher spatial resolution compared to existing maps and displays new soil classes that have not yet been mapped in Iran.
    Description: Alexander von Humboldt‐Stiftung http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005156
    Description: German Research Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Description: Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran
    Keywords: 631.4 ; covariates ; imbalanced data ; machine learning ; random forest ; soil legacy data
    Type: article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-06-16
    Description: The application of biochar to agricultural soils to increase nutrient availability, crop production and carbon sequestration has gained increasing interest but data from field experiments on temperate, marginal soils are still under‐represented. In the current study, biochar, produced from organic residues (digestates) from a biogas plant, was applied with and without digestates at low (3.4 t ha−1) and intermediate (17.1 t ha−1) rates to two acidic and sandy soils in northern Germany that are used for corn (Zea mays L.) production. Soil nutrient availability, crop yields, microbial biomass and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from heterotrophic respiration were measured over two consecutive years. The effects of biochar application depended on the intrinsic properties of the two tested soils and the biochar application rates. Although the soils at the fallow site, with initially low nutrient concentrations, showed a significant increase in pH, soil nutrients and crop yield after low biochar application rates, a similar response was found at the cornfield site only after application of substantially larger amounts of biochar. The effect of a single dose of biochar at the beginning of the experiment diminished over time but was still detectable after 2 years. Whereas plant available nutrient concentrations increased after biochar application, the availability of potentially phytotoxic trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr) decreased significantly, and although slight increases in microbial biomass carbon and heterotrophic CO2 fluxes were observed after biochar application, they were mostly not significant. The results indicate that the application of relatively small amounts of biochar could have positive effects on plant available nutrients and crop yields of marginal arable soils and may decrease the need for mineral fertilizers while simultaneously increasing the sequestration of soil organic carbon. Highlights A low rate of biochar increased plant available nutrients and crop yield on marginal soils. Biochar application reduced the availability of potentially harmful trace elements. Heterotrophic respiration showed no clear response to biochar application. Biochar application may reduce fertilizer need and increase carbon sequestration on marginal soils.
    Description: German Academic Exchange Service http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001655
    Description: Institute Strategic Programme grants, “Soils to Nutrition”
    Keywords: 631.4 ; black carbon ; carbon sequestration ; corn ; digestate ; heterotrophic respiration ; marginal soils ; microbial biomass
    Type: article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-06-27
    Description: Social inequalities lead to flood resilience inequalities across social groups, a topic that requires improved documentation and understanding. The objective of this paper is to attend to these differences by investigating self‐stated flood recovery across genders in Vietnam as a conceptual replication of earlier results from Germany. This study employs a regression‐based analysis of 1,010 respondents divided between a rural coastal and an urban community in Thua Thien‐Hue province. The results highlight an important set of recovery process‐related variables. The set of relevant variables is similar across genders in terms of inclusion and influence, and includes age, social capital, internal and external support after a flood, perceived severity of previous flood impacts, and the perception of stress‐resilience. However, women were affected more heavily by flooding in terms of longer recovery times, which should be accounted for in risk management. Overall, the studied variables perform similarly in Vietnam and Germany. This study, therefore, conceptually replicates previous results suggesting that women display slightly slower recovery levels as well as that psychological variables influence recovery rates more than adverse flood impacts. This provides an indication of the results' potentially robust nature due to the different socio‐environmental contexts in Germany and Vietnam.
    Keywords: 333.7 ; flood recovery ; resilience ; societal equity ; vulnerability
    Type: article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: Nitrogen (N) fertilization is the major contributor to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soil, especially in post‐harvest seasons. This study was carried out to investigate whether ryegrass serving as cover crop affects soil N2O emissions and denitrifier community size. A microcosm experiment was conducted with soil planted with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and bare soil, each with four levels of N fertilizer (0, 5, 10 and 20 g N m−2; applied as calcium ammonium nitrate). The closed‐chamber approach was used to measure soil N2O fluxes. Real‐time PCR was used to estimate the biomass of bacteria and fungi and the abundance of genes involved in denitrification in soil. The results showed that the presence of ryegrass decreased the nitrate content in soil. Cumulative N2O emissions of soil with grass were lower than in bare soil at 5 and 10 g N m−2. Fertilization levels did not affect the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Soil with grass showed greater abundances of bacteria and fungi, as well as microorganisms carrying narG, napA, nirK, nirS and nosZ clade I genes. It is concluded that ryegrass serving as a cover crop holds the potential to mitigate soil N2O emissions in soils with moderate or high NO3− concentrations. This highlights the importance of cover crops for the reduction of N2O emissions from soil, particularly following N fertilization. Future research should explore the full potential of ryegrass to reduce soil N2O emissions under field conditions as well as in different soils. Highlights This study was to investigate whether ryegrass serving as cover crop affects soil N2O emissions and denitrifier community size; Plant reduced soil N substrates on one side, but their root exudates stimulated denitrification on the other side; N2O emissions were lower in soil with grass than bare soil at medium fertilizer levels, and growing grass stimulated the proliferation of almost all the denitrifying bacteria except nosZ clade II; Ryegrass serving as a cover crop holds the potential to mitigate soil N2O emissions.
    Description: China Scholarship Council http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004543
    Description: The National Science Project for University of Anhui Province
    Keywords: 551.9 ; 631.4 ; denitrification ; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) ; soil bacteria ; soil CO2 emissions ; soil N2O emissions
    Type: article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2021-07-04
    Description: High‐performance numerical codes are an indispensable tool for hydrogeologists when modeling subsurface flow and transport systems. But as they are written in compiled languages, like C/C++ or Fortran, established software packages are rarely user‐friendly, limiting a wider adoption of such tools. OpenGeoSys (OGS), an open‐source, finite‐element solver for thermo‐hydro‐mechanical–chemical processes in porous and fractured media, is no exception. Graphical user interfaces may increase usability, but do so at a dramatic reduction of flexibility and are difficult or impossible to integrate into a larger workflow. Python offers an optimal trade‐off between these goals by providing a highly flexible, yet comparatively user‐friendly environment for software applications. Hence, we introduce ogs5py, a Python‐API for the OpenGeoSys 5 scientific modeling package. It provides a fully Python‐based representation of an OGS project, a large array of convenience functions for users to interact with OGS and connects OGS to the scientific and computational environment of Python.
    Description: German Federal Environmental Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007636
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Keywords: 551.49 ; hydrogeology ; subsurface flow ; modeling ; software
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-06-27
    Description: Transport processes that lead to exchange of mass between surface water and groundwater play a significant role for the ecological functioning of aquatic systems, for hydrological processes and for biogeochemical transformations. In this study, we present a novel integral modeling approach for flow and transport at the sediment–water interface. The model allows us to simultaneously simulate turbulent surface and subsurface flow and transport with the same conceptual approach. For this purpose, a conservative transport equation was implemented to an existing approach that uses an extended version of the Navier–Stokes equations. Based on previous flume studies which investigated the spreading of a dye tracer under neutral, losing and gaining flow conditions the new solver is validated. Tracer distributions of the experiments are in close agreement with the simulations. The simulated flow paths are significantly affected by in‐ and outflowing groundwater flow. The highest velocities within the sediment are found for losing condition, which leads to shorter residence times compared to neutral and gaining conditions. The largest extent of the hyporheic exchange flow is observed under neutral condition. The new solver can be used for further examinations of cases that are not suitable for the conventional coupled models, for example, if Reynolds numbers are larger than 10. Moreover, results gained with the integral solver provide high‐resolution information on pressure and velocity distributions at the rippled streambed, which can be used to improve flow predictions. This includes the extent of hyporheic exchange under varying ambient groundwater flow conditions.
    Description: Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
    Description: German Research Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Keywords: 551.4 ; aquatic systems ; sediment-water interface ; transport model
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: Sustainable arable cropping relies on repeated liming. Yet, the associated increase in soil pH can reduce the availability of iron (Fe) to plants. We hypothesized that repeated liming, but not pedogenic processes such as lessivage (i.e., translocation of clay particles), alters the Fe cycle in Luvisol soil, thereby affecting Fe isotope composition in soils and crops. Hence, we analysed Fe concentrations and isotope compositions in soil profiles and winter rye from the long‐term agricultural experimental site in Berlin‐Dahlem, Germany, where a controlled liming trial with three field replicates per treatment has been conducted on Albic Luvisols since 1923. Heterogeneity in subsoil was observed at this site for Fe concentration but not for Fe isotope composition. Lessivage had not affected Fe isotope composition in the soil profiles. The results also showed that almost 100 years of liming lowered the concentration of the HCl‐extractable Fe that was potentially available for plant uptake in the surface soil (0–15 cm) from 1.03 (standard error (SE) 0.03) to 0.94 (SE 0.01) g kg−1. This HCl‐extractable Fe pool contained isotopically lighter Fe (δ56Fe = −0.05 to −0.29‰) than the bulk soil (δ56Fe = −0.08 to 0.08‰). However, its Fe isotope composition was not altered by the long‐term lime application. Liming resulted in relatively lower Fe concentrations in the roots of winter rye. In addition, liming led to a heavier Fe isotope composition of the whole plants compared with those grown in the non‐limed plots (δ56FeWholePlant_ + Lime = −0.12‰, SE 0.03 vs. δ56FeWholePlant_‐Lime = −0.21‰, SE 0.01). This suggests that the elevated soil pH (increased by one unit due to liming) promoted the Fe uptake strategy through complexation of Fe(III) from the rhizosphere, which favoured heavier Fe isotopes. Overall, the present study showed that liming and a related increase in pH did not affect the Fe isotope compositions of the soil, but may influence the Fe isotope composition of plants grown in the soil if they alter their Fe uptake strategy upon the change of Fe availability. Highlights Fe concentrations and stocks, but not Fe isotope compositions, were more heterogeneous in subsoil than in topsoil. Translocation of clay minerals did not result in Fe isotope fractionation in the soil profile of a Luvisol. Liming decreased Fe availability in topsoil, but did not affect its δ56Fe values. Uptake of heavier Fe isotopes by graminaceous crops was more pronounced at elevated pH.
    Description: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347
    Keywords: 551.9 ; liming ; plant‐available Fe pool in soil ; winter rye ; δ56Fe
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: We present a workflow to estimate geostatistical aquifer parameters from pumping test data using the Python package welltestpy. The procedure of pumping test analysis is exemplified for two data sets from the Horkheimer Insel site and from the Lauswiesen site, Germany. The analysis is based on a semi‐analytical drawdown solution from the upscaling approach Radial Coarse Graining, which enables to infer log‐transmissivity variance and horizontal correlation length, beside mean transmissivity, and storativity, from pumping test data. We estimate these parameters of aquifer heterogeneity from type‐curve analysis and determine their sensitivity. This procedure, implemented in welltestpy, is a template for analyzing any pumping test. It goes beyond the possibilities of standard methods, for example, based on Theis' equation, which are limited to mean transmissivity and storativity. A sensitivity study showed the impact of observation well positions on the parameter estimation quality. The insights of this study help to optimize future test setups for geostatistical aquifer analysis and provides guidance for investigating pumping tests with regard to aquifer statistics using the open‐source software package welltestpy.
    Description: Article impact statement: We present a workflow to infer parameters of subsurface heterogeneity from pumping test data exemplified at two sites using welltestpy.
    Description: German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007636
    Keywords: ddc:551.49
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: In designed experiments, different sources of variability and an adequate scale of measurement need to be considered, but not all approaches in common usage are equally valid. In order to elucidate the importance of sources of variability and choice of scale, we conducted an experiment where the effects of biochar and slurry applications on soil properties related to soil fertility were studied for different designs: (a) for a field‐scale sampling design with either a model soil (without natural variability) as an internal control or with composited soils, (b) for a design with a focus on amendment variabilities, and (c) for three individual field‐scale designs with true field replication and a combined analysis representative of the population of loess‐derived soils. Three silty loam sites in Germany were sampled and the soil macroaggregates were crushed. For each design, six treatments (0, 0.15 and 0.30 g slurry‐N kg−1 with and without 30 g biochar kg−1) were applied before incubating the units under constant soil moisture conditions for 78 days. CO2 fluxes were monitored and soils were analysed for macroaggregate yields and associated organic carbon (C). Mixed‐effects models were used to describe the effects. For all soil properties, results for the loess sites differed with respect to significant contributions of fixed effects for at least one site, suggesting the need for a general inclusion of different sites. Analysis using a multilevel model allowed generalizations for loess soils to be made and showed that site:slurry:biochar and site:slurry interactions were not negligible for macroaggregate yields. The use of a model soil as an internal control enabled observation of variabilities other than those related to soils or amendments. Experiments incorporating natural variability in soils or amendments resulted in partially different outcomes, indicating the need to include all important sources of variability. Highlights Effects of biochar and slurry applications were studied for different designs and mixed‐effects models were used to describe the effects. Including an internal control allowed observation of, e.g., methodological and analytical variabilities. The results suggested the need for a general inclusion of different sites. Analysis using a multilevel model allowed generalizations for loess soils. The results indicated the need to include all important sources of variability.
    Keywords: ddc:631.4
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Temperate forest soils are often considered as an important sink for atmospheric carbon (C), thereby buffering anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, the effect of tree species composition on the magnitude of this sink is unclear. We resampled a tree species common garden experiment (six sites) a decade after initial sampling to evaluate whether forest floor (FF) and topsoil organic carbon (Corg) and total nitrogen (Nt) stocks changed in dependence of tree species (Norway spruce—Picea abies L., European beech—Fagus sylvatica L., pedunculate oak—Quercus robur L., sycamore maple—Acer pseudoplatanus L., European ash—Fraxinus excelsior L. and small‐leaved lime—Tilia cordata L.). Two groups of species were identified in terms of Corg and Nt distribution: (1) Spruce with high Corg and Nt stocks in the FF developed as a mor humus layer which tended to have smaller Corg and Nt stocks and a wider Corg:Nt ratio in the mineral topsoil, and (2) the broadleaved species, of which ash and maple distinguished most clearly from spruce by very low Corg and Nt stocks in the FF developed as mull humus layer, had greater Corg and Nt stocks, and narrow Corg:Nt ratios in the mineral topsoil. Over 11 years, FF Corg and Nt stocks increased most under spruce, while small decreases in bulk mineral soil (esp. in 0–15 cm and 0–30 cm depth) Corg and Nt stocks dominated irrespective of species. Observed decadal changes were associated with site‐related and tree species‐mediated soil properties in a way that hinted towards short‐term accumulation and mineralisation dynamics of easily available organic substances. We found no indication for Corg stabilisation. However, results indicated increasing Nt stabilisation with increasing biomass of burrowing earthworms, which were highest under ash, lime and maple and lowest under spruce. Highlights We studied if tree species differences in topsoil Corg and Nt stocks substantiate after a decade. The study is unique in its repeated soil sampling in a multisite common garden experiment. Forest floors increased under spruce, but topsoil stocks decreased irrespective of species. Changes were of short‐term nature. Nitrogen was most stable under arbuscular mycorrhizal species.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaff (DFG)
    Keywords: ddc:551.9 ; ddc:631.41
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-09-29
    Description: Coping with the growing impacts of flooding in EU countries, a paradigm shift in flood management can be observed, moving from safety‐based towards risk‐based approaches and holistic perspectives. Flood resilience is a common denominator of most of the approaches. In this article, we present the ‘Flood Resilience Rose’ (FRR), a management tool to promote harmonised action towards flood resilience in European regions and beyond. The FRR is a result of a two‐step process. First, based on scientific concepts as well as analysis of relevant policy documents, we identified three ‘levels of operation’. The first level refers to the EU Floods Directive and an extended multi‐layer safety approach, comprising the four different layers of protection, prevention, preparedness and recovery, and related measures to be taken. This level is not independent but depends both on the institutional (second level) and the wider (third level) context. Second, we used surveys, semi‐structured interviews and group discussions during workshops with experts from Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom to validate the definitions and the FRR's practical relevance. The presented FRR is thus the result of rigorous theoretical and practical consideration and provides a tool capable to strengthen flood risk management practice.
    Description: European Regional Development Fund http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008530
    Keywords: 551.48 ; flood defence measures ; governance and institutions ; integrated flood risk management ; resilience
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Despite the advance in our understanding of the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, semiarid ecosystems have been poorly investigated and little is known about their role in the global carbon balance. We used eddy covariance measurements to determine the exchange of CO2 between a semiarid steppe and the atmosphere over 3 years. The vegetation is a perennial grassland of Stipa tenacissima L. located in the SE of Spain. We examined diurnal, seasonal and interannual variations in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in relation to biophysical variables. Cumulative NECB was a net source of 65.7, 143.6 and 92.1 g C mˉ2 yrˉ1 for the 3 years studied, respectively. We separated the year into two distinctive periods: dry period and growing season. The ecosystem was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere, particularly during the dry period when large CO2 positive fluxes of up to 15 μmol mˉ2 sˉ1 were observed in concomitance with large wind speeds. Over the growing season, the ecosystem was a slight sink or neutral with maximum rates of -2.3 μmol mˉ2 sˉ1. Rainfall events caused large fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere and determined the length of the growing season. In this season, photosynthetic photon flux density controlled day-time NECB just below 1000 μmol mˉ2 sˉ1. The analyses of the diurnal and seasonal data and preliminary geological and gas-geochemical evaluations, including C isotopic analyses, suggest that the CO2 released was not only biogenic but most likely included a component of geothermal origin, presumably related to deep fluids occurring in the area. These results highlight the importance of considering geological carbon sources, as well as the need to carefully interpret the results of eddy covariance partitioning techniques when applied in geologically active areas potentially affected by CO2-rich geofluid circulation.
    Description: Published
    Description: 539–554
    Description: 4.5. Studi sul degassamento naturale e sui gas petroliferi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: alpha grass ; carbon sequestration ; ecosystem respiration ; eddy covariance ; geogas ; geothermal activity ; grasslands ; net ecosystem carbon balance ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We present an improved evaluation of the current strain and stress fields in Southern Apennines (Italy) obtained through a careful analysis of geodetic, seismological and borehole data. In particular, our analysis provides an updated comparison between the accrued strain recorded by geodetic data, and the strain released by seismic activity in a region hit by destructive historical earthquakes. To this end, we have used 9 years of GPS observations (2001-2010) from a dense network of permanent stations, a dataset of 73 well constrained stress indicators (borehole breakouts and focal mechanisms of moderate to large earthquakes), and published estimations of the geological strain accommodated by active faults in the region. Although geodetic data are generally consistent with seismic and geologic information, previously unknown features of the current deformation in southern Italy emerge from this analysis. The newly obtained GPS velocity field supports the well-established notion of a dominant NE-SW-oriented extension concentrated in a ~50 km wide belt along the topographic relief of the Apennines, as outlined by the distribution of seismogenic normal faults. Geodetic deformation is, however, non uniform along the belt, with two patches of higher strain-rate and shear stress accumulation in the north (Matese Mountains) and in the south (Irpinia area). Low geodetic strain-rates are found in the Bradano basin and Apulia plateau to the east. Along the Ionian Sea margin of southern Italy, in southern Apulia and eastern Basilicata and Calabria, geodetic velocities indicate NW-SE extension which is consistent with active shallow-crustal gravitational motion documented by geological studies. In the west, along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Campania region, the tectonic geodetic field is disturbed by volcanic processes. Comparison between the magnitude of the geodetic and the seismic strain-rates (computed using a long historical seismicity catalogue) allow detecting areas of high correlation, particularly along the axis of the mountain chain, indicating that most of the geodetic strain is released by earthquakes. This relation does not hold for the instrumental seismic catalogue, as a consequence of the limited time span covered by instrumental data. In other areas (e.g. Murge plateau in central Apulia), where seismicity is very low or absent, the yet appreciable geodetic deformation might be accommodated in aseismic mode. Overall, the excellent match between the stress and the strain-rate directions in much of the Apennines indicates that both earthquakes and ground deformation patterns are driven by the same crustal forces.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1270-1282
    Description: 3.2. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Satellite geodesy ; Plate motions ; Neotectonics ; Europe ; Apennines ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Several volcanoes worldwide have shown changes in their stress state as a consequence of the deformation produced by the pressurization of a magmatic body. This study investigates seismic swarms occurring on the western flank of Mt. Etna in January 1997 - January 1998. Integrating seismic observations and geodetic data, we constrained the seismogenic fault system, and on the basis of stress tensor inversion and SHMAX analyses, we infer an inflating pressure source located at 5.5 km b.s.l. beneath the west portion of summit area. Evaluation of Coulomb failure stress (CFS) related to the proposed model, showed how a large part of the seismogenic fault underwent a significant CFS increase (500 kPa). We infer the presence of a sub-vertical faulted region, potentially weak, N50°E oriented beneath the western sector of Mt. Etna. This structure could be brought closer to failure thereby generating seismic swarms as the effect of elastic stress transfer induced by movement and/or overpressure of magmatic masses within the upper crust under the volcano.
    Description: This research was funded by the INGV–DPC 2007–2009 Agreement (Project V4_Flank).
    Description: Published
    Description: 339-348
    Description: 1.4. TTC - Sorveglianza sismologica delle aree vulcaniche attive
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Etna ; modelling ; Seismicity ; GPS monitoring ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Methane soil flux measurements have been made in 38 sites at the geothermal system of Sousaki (Greece) with the closed chamber method. Fluxes range from –47.6 to 29,150 mg m-2 d-1 and the diffuse CH4 output of the system has been estimated at 19 t a-1. Contemporaneous CO2 flux measurements showed a moderate positive correlation between CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Comparison of the CO2/CH4 soil flux ratios with the CO2/CH4 ratio of the gases of the main gas manifestations provided evidence for methanotrophic activity within the soil. Laboratory CH4 consumption experiments confirmed the presence of methanotrophic microorganisms in soil samples collected at Sousaki. Consumption was generally in the range from –4.9 to –38.9 pmolCH4 h-1 g-1 but could sometimes reach extremely high values (–33,000 pmolCH4 h-1 g-1.). These results are consistent with recent studies on other geothermal systems that revealed the existence of thermoacidophilic bacteria exerting methanotrophic activity in hot, acid soils, thereby reducing methane emissions to the atmosphere.
    Description: Published
    Description: 97–107
    Description: 4.5. Studi sul degassamento naturale e sui gas petroliferi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: Sousaki ; accumulation chamber ; soil degassing ; hydrothermal systems ; methane output ; methanotrophic activity ; 01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.07. Volcanic effects ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 17
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    Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We present a new crustal model for the European plate, derived from collection and critical integration of information selected from the literature. The model covers the whole European plate from North Africa to the North Pole (20N - 90N) and from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to the Urals (40W - 70E). The chosen parameterization represents the crust in three layers (sediments, upper crust and lower crust), and describes the 3D geometry of the interfaces and seismologically-relevant parameters — isotropic P- and S-wave velocity, plus density — with a resolution of 0.5 × 0.5 degrees on a geographical latitude-longitude grid. We selected global and local models, derived from geological assumptions, active seismic experiments, surface-wave studies, noise correlation, receiver functions. Model EPcrust presents significant advantages with respect to previous models: it covers the whole European plate; it is a complete and internally-consistent model (with all the parameters provided, also for the sedimentary layer); it is reproducible; it is easy to update in the future by adding new contributions; and it is available in a convenient digital format. EPcrust could be used to account for crustal structure in seismic wave propagation modeling at continental scale or to compute linearized crustal corrections in continental-scale seismic tomography, gravity studies, dynamic topography and other applications that require a reliable crustal structure. Because of its resolution, our model is not suited for local-scale studies, such as the computation of earthquake scenarios, where more detailed knowledge of the structure is required. We plan to update the model as new data will become available, and possibly improve its resolution for selected areas in the future.
    Description: Published
    Description: 352-364
    Description: 3.3. Geodinamica e struttura dell'interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: Europe ; crust ; crustal properties ; Moho ; 04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.99. General or miscellaneous ; 04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.01. Composition and state
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: An earthquake of Mw=6.3 struck L’Aquila town (central Italy) on April 6, 2009 rupturing an approximately 18 km long SW-dipping normal fault. The aftershock area extended for a length of more than 35 km and included major aftershocks on April 7 and 9, and thousands of minor events. Surface faulting occurred along the SW-dipping Paganica fault with a continuous extent of ~2.5 km. Ruptures consist of open cracks and vertical dislocations or warps (0.1 maximum throw) with an orientation of N130°-N140°. Small triggered slip and shaking effects also took place along nearby synthetic and antithetic normal faults. The observed limited extent, and small surface displacement, of the Paganica ruptures with respect to the height of the fault scarps and vertical throws of paleoearthquakes along faults in the area, puts the faulting associated with the L’Aquila earthquake in perspective with respect to the maximum expected magnitude, and the regional seismic hazard.
    Description: In press
    Description: 3.2. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence ; co-seismic surface effects ; earthquake geology ; normal faulting earthquake ; Abruzzi, central Apennines ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.01. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: An earthquake of Mw = 6.3 struck L Aquila town (central Italy) on 6 April 2009 rupturing an ~18-km-long SW-dipping normal fault. The aftershock area extended for a length of more than 35 km and included major aftershocks on 7 and 9 April and thousands of minor events. Surface faulting occurred along the SW-dipping Paganica fault with a continuous extent of ~2.5 km. Ruptures consist of open cracks and vertical dislocations or warps (0.1m maximum throw) with an orientation of N130°–140°. Small triggered slip and shaking effects also took place along nearby synthetic and antithetic normal faults. The observed limited extent and small surface displacement of the Paganica ruptures with respect to the height of the fault scarps and vertical throws of palaeo-earthquakes along faults in the area put the faulting associated with the L' Aquila earthquake in perspective with respect to the maximum expected magnitude and the regional seismic hazard.
    Description: Published
    Description: 43-51
    Description: 3.2. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: surface faulting from moderate earthquake ; coseismic effects ; L'Aquila earthquake ; cemtral Italy ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.01. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: This thematic issue of Geofluids includes 11 papers representing the three main topics discussed in the 10th edition of the International Conference on Gas Geochemistry (ICGG-10): (i) gas in petroleum systems and seepage, (ii) gas in geothermal systems and volcanoes and (iii) gas, seismicity and geohazards. ICGG-10 was held in 2009 in Romania, a country extraordinarily rich in surface gas manifestations, that offers innumerable opportunities for innovative studies on gas geochemistry. We briefly describe the present knowledge on gases occurring both in petroliferous sedimentary basins and geothermal areas of Romania. The 11 contributions of this special issue, which include data from eight countries, are then summarised. Based on these papers and other works presented at the ICGG-10, we find that significant advances in analytical capabilities, data treating and interpretation have led to innovative insights into the origin, distribution and environmental impact of gases migrating to the Earth’s surface. It is increasingly clear, in particular, that gas geochemistry can be more effective for petroleum exploration, volcano-tectonic, geodynamic and environmental studies, if multiparametric studies are performed and the data are interpreted in the geological context.
    Description: Published
    Description: 457-462
    Description: 4.5. Studi sul degassamento naturale e sui gas petroliferi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: geothermal gas ; international conference on gas geochemistry ; natural gas ; romania ; seeps ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Gas seepage from petroleum basins is the second largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, after wetlands. The uncertainty in global emission estimates should be reduced by extending the flux database which is fundamental for defining the emission factors and the actual area of seepage adopted for up-scaling. As a contribution to this goal, we report a new seepage data-set for the Transylvanian Basin, one of the largest natural gas producing regions of Europe, that is characterized by the widespread occurrence of natural leakages of gas at the surface, including at least 73 mud volcanoes and gas seeps. In this study, methane flux was measured using closed-chambers, from 12 seepage sites, in correspondence with focused gas vents (mud volcano craters, bubbling pools, and flammable gas leaks), in the soil surrounding the vents, and at 15 sites located far from macroseep zones but close to gas fields. Fluxes from individual vents (macro-seeps) were found to reach orders of kg CH4 m)2 day)1 (up to 12 kg m)2 day)1) and diffuse fluxes from soils (miniseepage) were found to be up to a few g CH4 m)2 day)1. Far from seep zones, positive CH4 fluxes (microseepage) may occur locally, typically on the order of tens to hundreds of mg m)2 day)1. The values, as well as the occurrence of seepage even far from vent zones and in mud volcanoes that are apparently extinct, are coherent with results obtained in other countries. Gas fluxes from macro-seeps and soils may change seasonally, but the interannual variation of the average emission factor was found to be minimal. The total CH4 output for Transylvania macro-seeps is estimated conservatively to be around 680 t year)1; the total geo-CH4 seepage emission from the Transylvania petroleum system could be approximately 40 · 103 t year)1, and at least 100 · 103 t year)1 for all Romanian petroleum systems, that is roughly 10% of the total anthropogenic CH4 emission in the country.
    Description: Published
    Description: 463-475
    Description: 4.5. Studi sul degassamento naturale e sui gas petroliferi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: gas reservoirs ; methane emissions ; mud volcanoes ; seeps ; Transylvanian Basin ; 04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Natural gas seeps in the Alpine region are poorly investigated. However, they can provide useful information regarding the hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary Alpine units and related geofluid migration, typically controlled by pressurized gas accumulations and tectonics. A gas seep located near Giswil, in the Swiss Northern Alps, was investigated, for the first time, for molecular and isotopic gas composition, methane flux to the atmosphere, and gas flux variations over time. The analyses indicated that the gas was thermogenic (CH4 〉 96%; d13C1: )35.5& to )40.2&) and showed evidence of subsurface petroleum biodegradation (13C-enriched CO2, and very low C3+ concentrations). The source rock in the region is marine Type II kerogen, which is likely the same as that providing thermogenic gas in the nearby Wilen shallow well, close to Lake Sarnen. However, the lack of d13CCO2 and d13C3 data for that well prevented us from determining whether the Wilen and Giswil seeps are fed by the same reservoir and seepage system. Gas fluxes from the Giswil seep, measured using a closedchamber system, were significant and mainly from two major vents. However, a substantial gas exhalation from the soil occurs diffusely in an area of at least 115 m2, leading to a total CH4 output conservatively estimated to be at least 16 tonnes per year. Gas flux variations, monitored over a 1-month period by a special tent and flowmeter, showed not only daily meteorological oscillations, but also an intrinsic ‘pulsation’ with periods of enhanced flux that lasted 2–6 h each, occurring every few days. The pulses are likely related to episodes of gas pressure build-up and discharge along the seepage system. However, to date, no relationship to seismicity in the active Sarnen strike-slip fault system has been established.
    Description: Published
    Description: 476-485
    Description: 4.5. Studi sul degassamento naturale e sui gas petroliferi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Alps ; isotopes ; methane ; organic geochemistry ; seeps ; Switzerland ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Most of the ancient town of Tindari (NE, Sicily) was settled on a plateau the most surficial layer of which was made of unconsolidated material. Ongoing excavations at the archaeological site at Tindari uncovered a large portion of the decumanus which suffered deformations preliminarily assigned to coseismic effects. An analysis of the local dynamic response through the simulation of strong seismic shaking to the bedrock and modelling of spectral ratios of the bedrock-soft soil was carried out to verify the susceptibility of superficial terrains of the promontory to coseismic deformations. To perform this simulation the finite element method (FEM) was used. Four accelerometric recordings of three earthquakes of medium-high magnitude, recorded on rocky sites, were chosen to simulate the seismic shaking, using a constitutive law for the materials composing the promontory layers both of linear-elastic type and of elastoplastic type. The analysis of the linear-elastic field allowed the definition of the frequencies for which the spectral ratios of the accelerations recorded the highest amplifications; in particular the frequency range 31.5–37.2 Hz can be combined with deformation of the paved floor of the decumanus. The analysis in the elastoplastic field highlighted the zones of promontory more susceptible to suffer plasticization process. The results show that the topmost layer of the decumanus is the most susceptible to suffer plasticization. Therefore, the performed analysis lends greater support to the hypothesis that the deformations were produced by seismic shaking.
    Description: Published
    Description: 213-222
    Description: 3.10. Sismologia storica e archeosismologia
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: Fourier analysis ; Elasticity and anelasticity ; Earthquake ground motions ; Site effects ; Computational seismology ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.05. Historical seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The tectonic deformation of the Lipari-Vulcano complex, one of the most important active volcanic areas of Mediterranean region, is studied here through the analysis of ten years (1996-2006) of GPS data from both 3 permanent and 13 non-permanent stations. This area can be considered crucial for the understanding of the Eurasia-Africa plates interaction in the Mediterranean area, and, in general, this work emphasize a methodological approach, already applied in other areas worldwide (e.g. Shen et al., 1996, El-Fiki and Kato, 1999) where geodetic data and strain parameters maps of critical areas can help to improve our understanding of their geodynamical aspects. In this framework, this study is aimed at providing a kinematic deformation model on the basis of the dense geodetically estimated velocities of the Lipari-Vulcano complex. In particular, the observed deformation pattern can be described by a mix between 1) the main N-S regional compression and 2) a NNE-SSW compression with a small right-lateral strike slip component acting along a tectonic structure N°40W trending located between the two islands. This pattern was inspected through a simplified synthetic model.
    Description: This research has benefited from funding provided by the Italian Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri – Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC).
    Description: Published
    Description: 370–377
    Description: 1.9. TTC - Rete GPS nazionale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: GPS ; Aeolian Islands ; strain ; modelling ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2012-02-03
    Description: We analyse P-wave traveltimes for the Mediterranean area, using both teleseismic and regional arrivals for shallow earthquakes reported in the Bulletins of the International Seismological Centre. We model delays between pairs of 0.5° × 0.5° cells, obtaining a detailed representation of the P traveltime heterogeneities. Examination of these anomalies shows the clear presence of geographically coherent patterns—consistent with known geological features—due to significant structure in the upper mantle. We present a scheme, based on an empirical heterogeneity correction (EHC) to P-wave traveltimes, to improve earthquake location. This method provides similar benefits to those of a location procedure based on ray tracing in a 3-D model, but it is simpler and computationally more efficient. The definition of the traveltime heterogeneity model, being based on a statistical procedure, bypasses most of the critical points and possible instabilities involved in model inversion. EHC relocation, applied to Mediterranean earthquakes, allows one to predict about 70 per cent of the estimated signal due to heterogeneity and produces epicentral and origin time-shifts of, respectively, 4.22 km and 0.35 s (rms). From a synthetic experiment, in which we use the proposed algorithm to retrieve known source locations, we estimate that the rms improvement achieved by the EHC relocation over a simpler, standard, 1-D location is more than 20 per cent for both epicentral mislocation and origin time-shifts.
    Description: Published
    Description: 232-254
    Description: 3.3. Geodinamica e struttura dell'interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: earthquake location ; Mediterranean ; P waves ; traveltime ; upper mantle ; 04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.02. Geodynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Recent geological studies performed at Etna allow reassessing the stratigraphic frame of the volcano where distinct evolutionary phases are defined. This stratigraphic reconstruction was chronologically constrained on the basis of a limited number of U–Th and K–Ar age determinations whose uncertainty margins are sometimes too wide. For this reason, we successfully adopted at Etna the 40Ar/39Ar technique that allowed obtaining more precise age determinations. The incremental heating technique also gives information on sample homogeneity, and potential problems of trapped argon. Five samples were collected from stratigraphically well-controlled volcanic units in order to chronologically define the transition between the fissure-type volcanism of the Timpe phase to the central volcanism of the Valle del Bove Centers. Isotopic ages with an uncertainty margin of 2–4% have been obtained emphasizing that this transition occurred (130– 126 ka) without significant temporal hiatus.
    Description: University of Catania grants (COFIN- 2002, resp. F. Lentini); CNR-IDPA and INGV-Sezione di Catania grants.
    Description: Published
    Description: 292-298
    Description: 3.5. Geologia e storia dei sistemi vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: 40Ar/39Ar dating ; Etna ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.99. General or miscellaneous
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The paper describes a case of a natural emission of methane from soil in an urban development area, generating a significant risk for the local population and buildings, due to gas explosiveness and asphyxiation potential. The site is located on the south-western margin of the East-European Platform in eastern Romania, in a hydrocarbon-prone area crossed by the Pericarpathian lineament and regional faults. Molecular composition of gas and stable isotopic analyses of methane (CH4〉90%, δ to the power of 13 C1: -49.4‰, δD1: -173.4‰) indicate a dominant thermogenic origin, with significant amounts of C2-C5 alkanes (~5%), likely migrating through faults from a deep reservoir. Possible candidates are the Saucesti and Secuieni gas fields, located in the same petroleum system. Two surface geochemical surveys, based on closed-chamber flux measurements, were performed to assess the degassing intensity and the extent of the affected area. Methane fluxes from soil reach orders of 10 to the power of 4 mg m to the power of -2 day to the power of -1. Gas seepage mainly occurs in one zone 30 000 m2 wide, and it is likely controlled by channeling along a fault and gas accumulation in permeable sediments and shallow subsoil. The estimated total CH4 emission is about 40 t year to the power of -1 CH4, of which 8–9 t year to the power of -1 are naturally released from soil and 30–35 t year to the power of -1 are emitted from shallow boreholes. These wells have likely channeled the gas accumulated in shallow alluvial sediment but gas flux from soil is still high and mitigation measures are needed to reduce the risk for humans and buildings.
    Description: Published
    Description: 311-320
    Description: 3.8. Geofisica per l'ambiente
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: gas hazard ; methane seepage ; soil degassing ; thermogenic gas ; 03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The Chimaera gas seep, near Antalya (SW Turkey), has been continuously active for thousands of years and it is known to be the source of the first Olympic fire in the Hellenistic period. New and thorough molecular and isotopic analyses including methane (approximately 87% v/v; δ to the power of 13 C1 from -7.9‰ to -12.3‰; δ to the power of 13 D1 from -119‰ to -124‰), light alkanes (C2 + C3 + C4 + C5 = 0.5%; C6+: 0.07%; δ to the power of 13 C2 from -24.2‰ to -26.5‰; δ to the power of 13 C3 from -25.5‰ to -27‰), hydrogen (7.5–11%), carbon dioxide (0.01–0.07%; δ to the power of 13 CCO2: -15‰), helium (approximately 80 ppmv; R/Ra: 0.41) and nitrogen (2–4.9%; δ to the power of 15 N from -2‰ to -2.8‰) converge to indicate that the seep releases a mixture of organic thermogenic gas, related to mature type III kerogen occurring in Palaeozoic and Mesozoic organic-rich sedimentary rocks, and abiogenic gas produced by low-temperature serpentinization in the Tekirova ophiolitic unit. Methane is not related to mantle or magma degassing. The abiogenic fraction accounts for about half of the total gas released, which is estimated to be well beyond 50 ton year to the power of -1. Ophiolites and limestones are in contact along a tectonic dislocation leading to gas mixing and migration to the Earth’s surface. Chimaera represents the biggest emission of abiogenic methane on land discovered so far. Deep and pressurized gas accumulations are necessary to sustain the Chimaera gas flow for thousands of years and are likely to have been charged by an active inorganic source.
    Description: Published
    Description: 263-273
    Description: 3.8. Geofisica per l'ambiente
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: abiogenic methane ; isotopic composition ; ophiolites ; seep ; serpentinization ; 03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: In eastern Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy), a shallow crustal level felsic, tourmaline-bearing, dyke-sill swarm of Late Miocene age is associated with abundant tourmaline-quartz hydrothermal veins and metasomatic masses. Development of these veins and masses in the host rocks demonstrates multiple hydro-fracturing by magmatic, boron-rich saline fluid. Tourmalines in felsic dykes are schorl, whereas in veins and metasomatic masses, tourmaline composition ranges from schorl-dravite through dravite to uvite. This compositional shift is evidence for an increasing contribution to the magmatic boron-rich fluids by a Mg-Ca-Ti-rich external component represented by biotite-rich and amphibolite host rocks. This system can be envisaged as an exposed proxy of the high temperature hydrothermal system presently active in the deepest part of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field (Tuscany).
    Description: Published
    Description: 318-326
    Description: 3.3. Geodinamica e struttura dell'interno della Terra
    Description: 3.5. Geologia e storia dei sistemi vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: Hydro-fractures ; geothermal systems ; Magmatism ; southern Tuscany ; 04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.99. General or miscellaneous ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This article broadly positions the successful establishment of the field of French tropical geography in the immediate postwar period against developments stemming from a longer history of French colonial engagement in Africa, Asia and South America, and clarifies the seemingly late timing of, and paradoxes involved in, the creation of a body of French scientific knowledge about the tropics. Colonial scientific research did not develop in France until the end of the nineteenth century. However, the colonial geography appearing at this time did not rely on fieldwork but, rather, catered to the demands of the business class for overseas expansion and to public curiosity. Even while the medical geography of tropical areas and knowledge of tropical soils and ecology progressed greatly between 1900 and 1940, there were still only a few French geographers working in the tropics. With the advent of the Second World War, when “big science” appeared in France and its colonial empire, the number of French geographers involved in tropical research grew rapidly. The field of tropical geography built up by Pierre Gourou was a synthesis of approaches developed in South America, Africa and Indochina. Although it soon came under strong criticism for its pessimistic view of prospects for industrialisation and urbanisation in the tropics, it seduced French geographers because it matched the contemporary interest in zonality and relied on a genre de vie analysis of, typically, rural areas. Thus, the postwar blossoming of tropical geography shaped by Gourou was more a response to various internal dynamics within French geography than an exercise in imperialism. Its demise was not due to the eclipse of French colonialism but, rather, its inability to deal with the modernisation of tropical societies.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This paper discusses four key phases in the study of the tropical milieu of monsoon Asia by French geographers and colonial actors over the last 150 years. First, it sees how the natural milieu initially occupied a central and determining place in French colonial and scientific assessments of Indochina, and how the notion of monsoon Asia appeared within the framework of an academic geography (and formatively in the two regional theses produced by Charles Robequain and Pierre Gourou). It then shows how, after the Second World War, francophone geographers developed a “tropicalist” approach to monsoon Asia, one that was inextricably linked with the culturalist approach that was pioneered by Gourou, which later evolved into new, model-building and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of tropical systems. It argues that these successive phases have marked a shift from a centred tropicality - a system of knowledge anchored in French colonialism and centring on debate about the determinist influence of the natural milieu - to a decentred tropicality that rejects environmental determinism, questions the ethnocentric character of tropical geography and integrates the study of tropical geography into the wider social sciences. The paper concludes with the suggestion that tropicality has had an epistemologically stronger and more institutionalised relationship with francophone geography than was the case in anglophone geography.
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: In important respects, the disciplinary field of “tropical geography” is a uniquely French field of study, and Pierre Gourou is conventionally seen as its founder and doyen. Yet Gourou did not see himself as the creator of a new paradigm or research school, and geographers were generally more influenced by his writings than by his teaching or any personal connection. With particular reference to French geographical research in and on tropical Africa during the second half of the twentieth century, it is suggested that the development of tropical geography as a subfield - and tropicalism as a research orientation - can be put down to a variety of factors and circumstances. Geographical research on Africa was pivotal, as was the rise to prominence in French research institutes of some of Gourou's disciples. But African academics also played a part, as did criticism of tropical geography for its marginalisation of issues of development and geopolitics. The paper examines this postwar intellectual history and attempts to draw from it a positive and forward looking legacy - a reinvigorated and interdisciplinary “tropicalism”, the main axis of which would be the analysis of the specific characteristics of tropical ecology, and its use and transformation by the societies that live from it. Such a project may help us to confront the contemporary world ecological crisis, and forge critical research projects on globalisation (altermondialisme) that can discern and deal with the complex local-global, and rural-urban, articulations of this phenomenon.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This article discusses the relevance of the work of Pierre Gourou for Vietnamese and non-Vietnamese scholarship on colonial and postcolonial rural society in Vietnam. The term “tropicality” is used to situate Gourou's work within the framework of both French and Vietnamese regimes of truth. It is argued that Gourou was aware of the complex human geographies of the tropics and monsoon Asia and the challenges this posed to both Western and “tropical” peoples. Gourou and the issue of tropicality is used to show that Vietnamese scholars did not completely reject French colonial systems of knowledge, and that decolonisation did not herald a complete shift in knowledge about rural Vietnam. Rather, since the 1940s there has been antagonism and accommodation between colonial and postcolonial, French and Vietnamese modes of knowledge production. While Gourou underscored the otherness of the tropics, and there are colonial overtones in his work, he had an immense influence on indigenous ethnography and geography in Vietnam and elsewhere in the formerly colonised world. The article traces this important influence and how it has been both questioned and affirmed since independence in the Vietnamese context. It is suggested that the humanistic approach that Gourou pioneered in his 1936 study of the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam has outlived and been able to overcome the setbacks and drawbacks of both colonial and revolutionary/Vietnamese politico-intellectual projects.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: The paper examines how land and forest management policies were elaborated in French Indochina circa 1900–40. It places their development in the context of a scientific and economic discourse about the value of land and forest resources, the most appropriate ways in which they might be exploited and the relationship between colonial science and indigenous knowledge. By focusing on debates and laws relating to the development of small-scale and plantation farming systems (Land Code legislations) and forest management and exploitation (Forest Code legislations) the paper seeks to ground arguments about Western conceptions of the “tropics” within a discussion of national policy development and impacts. Focusing primarily on Cochinchina and Annam (southern and central Vietnam) and drawing on materials from French archives, the paper shows how changes in both attitudes and legislation have had lasting consequences on systems of property rights in forest management and on the place and status of indigenous peoples in Indochina.
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    Notes: Books reviewed in this article: ‘Letting Them Die’: Why HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes Fail. Catherine Campbell Red Hills: Migrants and the State in the Highlands of Vietnam. Andrew Hardy Sri Lankan Society in an Era of Globalization: Struggling to Create a New Social Order. S.H. Hasbullah and Barrie M. Morrison (eds.) Female Labour Migration in Southeast Asia: Change and Continuity. Christina Wille and Basia Passl (eds.) Unauthorized Migration in Southeast Asia. Graziano Battistella and Maruja M.B. Asis (eds.)
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    Notes: Despite recent interest in sacred (fetish) groves as remnant forests, few studies have investigated their sustainability and conservation role in West Africa. This article employs a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis of time series images (1960-98), comprehensive social surveys and ecological field methods to evaluate four sacred groves and eight unprotected tree stands in the coastal savanna of Ghana and compare these with vegetation in the distant forested hinterland. There were strong similarities and substantial differences in tree species between different sacred groves, and between these and the unprotected stands and proximate deciduous forests. In addition, far fewer tree losses were documented in the sacred groves than in the local unprotected stands. Although these sacred groves were on average only partially representative of deciduous forest vegetation, their stronger sustainability compared with unprotected tree stands may be important to consider in detail for conservation.
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    Notes: This paper aims to examine how seafarers from the Pacific Republic of Kiribati cope with the experience of working with crews of different nationalities, and, further, how the exposure to different cultures during their journeys through international waters influences both their own identity as well as their perceptions of I-Kiribati culture. Based on examples from open and semi-structured interviews with seafarers working on German merchant ships and Japanese fishing vessels, the paper questions the application of concepts of “hybridity” in the case of these I-Kiribati men in favour of the idea of “cultural flexibility”. It further considers to what degree seafarers strongly rooted in the clearly confined cultural values of Kiribati have adapted the values received through their training and employment by German or Japanese and Korean companies and officers. The paper adds to the framework of transnationalism by advancing the notion of emporion, in which the circular and transversal journeys of seafarers are viewed as a connecting space between land-based areas; a space which provides a basis for an extended knowledge and understanding of different cultural outlooks as well as relations between nations.
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    Notes: This paper focuses on the large-scale land use and land cover changes that have taken place in Sarawak state, East Malaysia over the three decades of 1972-2002. Results are presented from a detailed land use and cover change (LUCC) study in the Niah River catchment using satellite imagery, questionnaire surveys and interviews. Successive waves of land cover changes have taken place. Large forest areas have been logged and gradually replaced by oil palm plantations, which now occupy more than 40 per cent of the total land area in the catchment. Concurrently, small-scale farming systems have also changed. Formerly dominant Iban shifting cultivation practices are increasingly being replaced by cash crop production on permanent fields and impacted by off-farm activities involving many ethnic groups. It is argued that land cover changes are continuous and complex processes involving a large number of variables which can be analysed for different time periods at various scales.
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    Notes: This paper adopts ideas from critical geopolitics to explore how Western human rights discourses have been enabled and used to construct Myanmar by Australian governments and nongovernmental aid organisations. Three distinct human rights scripts are observed that position donors as either punishers, saviours or partners. It is argued that the scripts are enabled by factors external to the actual abuses themselves, including the traditional scripting of Burma within Australian geopolitical memories; the feminine Burmese identity and the networks embodied by the opposition leader, Daw Suu Kyi; and Australia's shifting geopolitical interests in the Southeast Asia region. The case study is used to argue for a broader geography of human rights that recognises their spatiality. Such geographies can improve and broaden human rights politics and debates beyond state-based campaigning, ensuring that campaigns are in the interests of the most marginalised, rather than the most vocal.
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    Notes: It has been posited that small-scale industry – businesses with less than 30 workers – provides a large share of employment and income in Ghana. This paper examines the proposition that while such enterprises in the informal sector are said to act as a sponge to soak up surplus labour in marginal activities, they are unprofitable. Using data from a survey in 1998 of 175 micro and small-scale enterprises in the Central Region of Ghana, the paper also confirms problematic aspects of employment in this sector including the lack of formal contracts, irregular pay, low remuneration, non-existent social protection and only marginal employment growth. The implication is that the small-scale industry sector is not economically sustainable in its present form in Ghana.
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    Notes: Advocacy of the advantages accruing to business clusters in developing economies has followed that in developed economies. With doubts emerging about the evidence for these in developed economies, it is therefore appropriate to review the experience in the developing world. A model of cluster emergence and growth has guided accounts of developing country clusters. Drawing on experience from Indonesia, doubts are raised about that model's prediction of the emergence of successful joint action in maintaining cluster advantages. Any advantages from clustering are insufficient to face development challenges arising from the globalisation of economic activity. The significance of business clusters in low income economies needs to be reviewed in the light of actual experience and the reappraisal emerging in developed or high income countries.
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    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Romance on a Global Stage: Pen Pals, Virtual Ethnography, and “Mail Order” Marriages. Nicole Constable The Globalization of Nothing. George Ritzer Southeast Asia Transformed: A Geography of Change. Chia Lin Sien (ed.) Indonesian Sea Nomads. Money, Magic and Fear of the Orang Suku Laut. Cynthia Chou Indonesia's Small Entrepreneurs: Trading on the Margins. Sarah Turner
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    Notes: The EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) crop model, developed by scientists of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), has been successfully applied to the study of erosion, water pollution, crop growth and production in the US but is yet to be introduced for serious research purposes in other countries or regions. This paper reports on the applicability of the EPIC 8120 crop model for the assessment of the potential impacts of climate variability and climate change on crop productivity in sub-Saharan West Africa, using Nigeria as the case study. Among the crops whose productivity has been successfully simulated with this model are five of West Africa's staple food crops: maize, millet, sorghum (guinea corn), rice and cassava. Thus, using the model, the sensitivities of maize, sorghum and millet to seasonal rainfall were demonstrated with coefficients of correlation significant at over 98 per cent confidence limits. The validation tests were based on a comparison of the observed and the model-generated yields of rice and maize. The main problems of validation relate to the multiplicity of crop varieties with contrasting performances under similar field conditions. There are also the difficulties in representing micro-environments in the model. Thus, some gaps appear between the observed and the simulated yields, arising from data or model deficiencies, or both. Based on the results of the sensitivity and validation tests, the EPIC crop model could be satisfactorily employed in assessing the impacts of and adaptations to climate variability and climate change. Its use for the estimation of production and the assessment of vulnerabilities need to be pursued with further field surveys and field experimentation.
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    Notes: Data collected on rainfall events covering one wet season in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, were found to be highly correlated with the rate of erosion on all the representative land surface types found in the city – namely bare land, fallow land, short grass and tall tree cover. Of all the rainfall components, rainfall total was best at predicting the rate of soil erosion on all these surfaces. In addition, the study found that a significant constituent of all surfaces, silt which fell through seiver grades 1.18 mm did not cohere, therefore increasing the rate of erosion. However, when grass cover (regenerating with the rains) was at least 95 per cent, erosion was well controlled. Therefore, grass coverage before the onset of the wet season is recommended as an efficient and simple measure to manage erosion in this typical developing urban centre in Nigeria.
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    Notes: Rural-urban classification constitutes an important framework for the collection and compilation of population data in many countries. While “urban” is often specifically defined, “rural” is treated simply as a residual category. The criteria defining urban also differ from country to country. This paper argues that these rural and urban statistical categories are also highly significant for local governance, increasingly so in recent years given the emphasis on local governance and its restructuring. In India, constitutional amendments have given constitutional status to local bodies in the federal structure of the country. Local bodies are thus now expected to draw up their own plans and initiate development works, which requires them to generate their own resources and lessen their dependence on central government funding. It is thus necessary to reorganize urban space into viable spatial units in terms of their revenue base. While rural-urban classification is the task of the Census of India, state governments are responsible for granting municipal status to urban centres. This paper examines the criteria and limitations of the rural-urban classification followed by the Census, its congruence with the dynamics of state-accorded municipal/non-municipal status and some implications for municipal governance in India.
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    Notes: This paper explores the activities and problems of indigenous women's organisations in Ghana. The survey data that form the basis of the analysis were collected in 1998 from a sample of 66 women's organisations in the districts of Atebubu and Techiman of Brong Ahafo Region in Ghana. The results suggest that despite the debilitating impacts of patriarchy, poverty and illiteracy, the women in both districts have managed to use their grassroots organisations to improve the socioeconomic circumstances of their members in particular and their communities in general. Given the dearth of theoretical and empirical analyses on grassroots mobilisation of women in sub-Saharan Africa, the results presented here are intended to stimulate further research and discussion on the subject.
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    Notes: Using a general statistical model, this study attempts to characterise the trend of deforestation in the northeast region (Isan) of Thailand between 1975 and 1991, a period when the kingdom had sustained high rates of economic growth and steady increases in population. Using data obtained directly from government bodies on the 17 provinces comprising this heavily deforested region, the study examines the correlations between forest area and a set of six variables: population density, agricultural area, real per capita income, accumulated irrigated area, agricultural credit levels, and distance from Bangkok, the national political and economic centre. It also considers the effect of the two logging bans instituted in 1979 and since 1989. The study found a negative correlation between forest area and population density in particular, followed in ranking by agricultural credit, per capita income, the logging bans and distance from Bangkok. Viewed together with more recent data showing that rates of deforestation in the kingdom as a whole have slowed and appear to be stabilising, these results also suggest the beginnings in the 1990s of a forest transition – from an industrial to a post-industrial stage in forest utilisation – in Thailand.
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    Industrial relations journal 36 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: There has been a growing interest in the way patterns of employment relations are changing in China. However, there remains insufficient understanding in employment relations in small private businesses. This study of small businesses in China explores major issues in employment relations in these firms. The finding shows that there are major differences between large and small businesses in China in their employment practices and that considerable similarities exist between small firms in China and those in other countries.
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    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Applied psychologists have long been interested in the relationship between applicant personality and employment interview ratings. Analysis of data from two studies, one using a situational interview and one using a behavioral interview, suggests that the correlations of structured interview ratings with self-report measures of personality factors are generally rather low. Further, a small meta-analysis integrates these two studies and the limited previous literature to arrive at a similar conclusion – there is relatively little relationship between structured interviews and self-reported personality factors.
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    Notes: An international foundation for the promotion of basic research in biomedicine, the Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds (B.I.F.), reports that fellowships are awarded to post-graduate researchers according to the following main criteria: (1) scientific quality as demonstrated by the applicant's achievements to date, (2) the originality of the proposed research project, and (3) the scientific standing of the laboratory where the research will be conducted. Using the Boolean probit statistical technique, this study examines the multiple conjunctural causation that a fellowship will be awarded only if all three of these criteria are assessed positively by the B.I.F. peer review committee. In agreement with the prescriptive principles of the foundation the results suggest that the B.I.F. approves applications only if all of the three criteria are rated positively.
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    Notes: The French system of continuing vocational training was set up in 1970 by an intersectoral collective agreement that was then followed by legislation. More than 30 years on, the economic and social context has changed and the system now faces new challenges. In 2001 and again in 2003 the social partners embarked upon new negotiations in a bid to redesign the system. Analysis of the negotiation process and of its outcomes  reveals  both  the  persistence  of  societal  characteristics  and  the  emergence  of significant innovations, particularly in the individualisation of training. This dual trend is explained by the characteristics of the actors involved as well as by the weakness of the state.
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    Notes: Books reviewed: Decentralised Pay Setting: A Study of the Outcomes of Collective Bargaining Reforms in the Civil Service in Australia, Sweden and the UK 
K. A. Bender and R. F. Elliott 
Ashgate, 2003, xii + 160 pp., £50.00 A Very Late Development: An Autobiography 
Alan Fox 
British Universities Industrial Relations Association, 2nd and revised edition, 2004, 306 pp., £8.00 (paperback) Unions in the 21st Century: An International Perspective 
Anil Verma and Thomas A. Kochan (eds) 
Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 296 pp., £50.00 The Management of Human Resources in the Asia Pacific Region: Convergence Reconsidered 
Chris Rowley and John Benson (eds)
Cass (Studies in Asia Pacific Business), 2004, 208 pp., £18.99
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    Notes: Although recruitment researchers often discuss influences on decisions to apply for jobs, few studies assess actual application behavior. This study of individuals who expressed an interest in a firefighter job revealed that applying was related to recruiting source informativeness and organizational familiarity. Source informativeness was not related to self-selection out of the process after application or performance on the selection process, but was related to perceptions of familiarity and to applicant demographics. Implications for recruitment are discussed.
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