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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (3,266)
  • 1995-1999  (3,266)
  • 1999  (3,266)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 52 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Review of the more widely discussed saving theories suggests that they are unable to account for the observed positive impact of a country's rate of economic growth on its saving ratio. In particular, the compositional explanation offered by the Life Cycle theory would appear to be based on debatable premises. A more promising explanation is found in the examination of the saving behavior of individual households and the respective motives: their saving ratio tends to vary positively with the percentage change in their income. The importance of the distribution of such changes among the economic agents is obvious. A number of implications for economic growth are discussed, including the roles of direct taxation, the export and agricultural sectors and, especially, domestic and foreign capital.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZusammenfassungEine Überprüfung der wesentlichen Theorien des Sparens deutet darauf hin, dass sie nicht in der Lage sind, die beobachtete positive Wirkung der Wachstumsrate eines Landes auf die Sparquote zu erklären. Insbesondere die Erklärung der Lebenszyklustheorie scheint auf fraglichen Voraussetzungen aufzubauen. Eine vielversprechendere Erklärung liefert die Untersuchung des Sparverhaltens individueller Haushalte und ihrer jeweiligen Sparmotive: ihre Sparquote variiert positiv mit prozentualen Einkommensveränderungen. Die Bedeutung der Verteilung solcher Veränderungen unter den ökonomischen Agenten ist offensichtlich. Einige Konsequenzen für das Wirtschaftswachstum werden diskutiert, unter anderem die Rolle, die direkte Besteuerung, Export- und Landwirtschaftssektor, sowie in- und ausländisches Kapital spielen.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RésuméUne revue des théories principales de l'épargne nous amène à conclure qu'elles ne peuvent pas expliquer l'effet positif observé du taux d'accroissement d'une économie sur le rapport entre l'épargne et le revenue. En particulier, l'explication compositionelle proposée par la théorie du Cycle de Vie semble être basée sur des prémisses contestables. Une explication plus promettante se révèle en examinant le comportement des families individuelles quant à l'épargne et les motifs correspondants: le rapport entre l'épargne et le revenu tend à changer positivement avec la variation du taux de changement du revenu. L'importance de la distribution de tels taux parmi les agents économiques est évidente. Quelques implications intéressantes à l'égard de la croissance économique sont discutées, y compris les rôles de l'impôt direct, des secteurs exportateurs et agricoles et, en particulier, des capitaux nationaux et étrangers.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 52 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The 1990s have seen several big currency crises. Some observers argue that the crises show ‘fixed’ exchange rates are unsustainable. Dozens of countries have sustained such exchange rates for years or decades, though. Differences between pegged and fixed exchange rates explain why some exchange rates have lasted while others have succumbed to speculative attacks.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZusammenfassungDie neunziger Jahre haben mehrcre grosse Währungskrisen erlebt. Einige Beobachter behaupten, solche Krisen zeigen, dass feste Wechselkurse nicht haltbar seien. Dennnoch hat eine Reihe anderer Lander solche Wechselkurse jahre- oder jahrzehntelang aufrechterhalten. Unterschiede zwischen einem Wechselkurs, der in Bandbreiten schwanken darf (‘pegged’) und einem absolut festen Wechsclkurs erklären, warum sich einige Wechselkurse durchgesetzt haben, wührend andere spekulativen Angriffen zum Opfer gefallen sind.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RésuméLes années 1990 ont connu plusieurs crises monétaires importantes. Quelques observateurs affirment que ces crises démontrent que les taux de change ‘fixes’ sont indéfendables. Pourtant, des douzaines de pays ont soutenu des tels taux de change pendant des décennies, même des siècles. Cela s'explique par la différence entre les taux de change vraiment fixes et les taux de change fixes mais ajustables (‘pegged’).
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 52 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 4
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: This article describes and analyses the membership and uses of the Teaching-Statistics Mailbase list, based upon a review of all messages since its inception and a recent questionnaire sent to all list members.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: This article describes the learning experiences of young children meeting stem-and-leaf plots for the first time.
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  • 7
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: A game of chance in which players can maximise their expected gain by making appropriate decisions is described. Developing an optimal strategy involves computing probabilities and conditional expected values.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 9
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: This article describes the use of Microsoft Excel, graphics calculators and a multimedia CBL package by students on an introductory statistics course.
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  • 10
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Several measures of “success” for a simple game are discussed. Comparisons between players, and between a player and a simulation, can be made in several ways.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: This article reports some results of an informal study of very young children's reactions to some visual displays of data.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 13
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: This is the first of a short series of articles briefly describing the organisations that sponsor Teaching Statistics. The series starts with The Royal Statistical Society.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 21 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: This article shows how simulation can be used to teach sampling distributions to entry level statistics students.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Polyamines are important in the growth, division and differentiation of many cell types, including trypanosomes. The ultrastructure of culture forms of Trypanosoma granulosum was examined following growth in a modified semidefined medium (controls) and in the same medium with added polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors (DFMO, MGBG and Berenil). Untreated trypanosomes had ultrastructural features in common with other cultured flagellates. Those treated with DFMO were generally more rounded in contour. Cytoplasmic vacuoles and swollen mitochondrial membranes suggested osmotic imbalance, perhaps resulting from compromised membrane integrity. An anticlockwise arm dividing subtubule B of the peripheral doublets of the flagellum was noted in some trypanosomes treated with 20 mM DFMO. Vacuolation was also induced by MGBG and flagellar division occurred more frequently at 0.2 mM than in controls. With 1 mM MGBG, mitochondria were difficult to discern and kinetoplasts were disrupted. With 0.2 mM Berenil, vacuoles, swollen mitochondria, membranous whorls, additional microtubules underlying subpellicular tubules and disaggregated kinetoplasts were noted. With 1 mM Berenil, much of the cell structure was destroyed, although the pellicle, flagellum and paraxial rod remained intact. The present study illustrates the importance of hnctional polyamine synthetic pathways for the integrity of membranes, mitochondria, kinetoplasts and possibly microtubules in cultured T. granulosum.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may both occur in the roots of Brazilian rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). AM fungi may stimulate plant growth whereas nematodes usually reduce it. Variations of native AM fungi and M. exigua populations in soil and roots of rubber trees were studied for one year in a Brazilian plantation. The number of AM spores in the soil was generally greater in the rainy season than in the dry season, although AM colonization of roots was unaffected by season. During the dry season, numbers of juveniles and eggs of M. exigua in roots were lower than in the rainy season. A site without nematodes in the soil or roots showed the greatest numbers of AM spores in soil and highest AM colonization of roots. A negative correlation was observed between the percentage of AM colonization and the number of second-stage juveniles in soil and second-stage juveniles and eggs in roots. Microscope observations revealed (i) tissue specificity for each of the microorganisms in the roots, with a cortical location of mycorrhizae and a mainly vascular cylinder location of nematodes, and (ii) that Gigaspora was the most abundant AM genus in the plantation soil.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A 2-year study investigated the relationship between the nematicides aldicarb and fosthiazate and populations of plant growth-promoting (PGP) and plant-growth-inhibiting (PGI) bacteria, and root-lesion nematodes and bacteria-feeding nematodes in the root-zone soils of potatoes. Fewer (P 〈 0.05) bacterial genera and species were recovered from aldicarb-treated soils than from the fosthiazate and untreated soils but bacterial population densities were greatest in the aldicarb-treated soils. In potato plantlet bioassays using root-zone bacteria from the three soil sources, bacteria from the aldicarb-treated soils reduced (P 〈 0.01) the mean wet and dry weight of shoots and roots compared with those from the fosthiazate and untreated soils. In the field, fosthiazate (but not aldicarb) significantly increased tuber yields and reduced nematode population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans in roots and soil. Population densities of bacteria-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were not affected by either nematicide. Aldicarb appeared to suppress the populations of plant-growth-promoting bacteria that contribute to enhanced growth in potatoes. This is attributed to the long-term use of aldicarb at the trial site, which may have encouraged the selection, or adaptation, of soil microorganisms that degrade carbamate pesticides but do not enhance potato growth.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of rDNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to survey genetic variability among 181 isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa from Ontario and 10 isolates from Japan. RAPD and IGS-RFLP analyses revealed polymorphisms within and between populations of S. homoeocarpa, distinguishing 151 genotypes. Both types of markers gave similar results in phenetic analysis of genetic distances between populations. Cluster analysis showed that Japanese isolates of S. homoeocarpa were genetically distinct from Ontario isolates, demonstrating significant intraspecific differentiation. An average genetic similarity of 0.66 was found between Japanese isolates. Among Ontario isolates, average genetic similarity was 0.86, and genotypic diversity analysis showed that 49.3% of the total genetic variation observed within Ontario populations occurred among individuals within populations compared to 50.7% between populations. Gametic linkage disequilibrium analysis within Ontario populations revealed an average 15.6% significant nonrandom associations between putative RAPD loci, and that half of the populations showed signs of significant linkage disequilibrium. These results suggest that both clonal propagation and recombination events occurred in local populations of S. homoeocarpa. The high level of genetic similarity between populations and the low levels of intraspecific genetic variation may reflect a small founding population for southern Ontario isolates of S. homoeocarpa.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effect of beet yellows virus (genus Closterovirus, BYV) on sugar beet growth was studied in a series of field and glasshouse experiments. Infection reduced total plant weight by 20%, primarily through a 25% reduction in storage root growth. Sugar extraction efficiency was depressed by an increase in root impurities. BYV had little effect on above-ground yield or total crop cover but did decrease green cover significantly. Infection did not reduce water extraction depth in field experiments despite decreasing lateral root growth in the glasshouse. The growth reduction in infected plants resulted from both a decrease in net photosynthesis and an increase in the proportion of light intercepted by yellow leaves. Damage to the photosynthetic mechanism at least partly caused the reduction in net photosynthesis.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Since 1990, massive cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) outbreaks of various symptomatology, especially on tomato, have been observed all over Greece. To characterize local virus populations, 40 CMV isolates of different origin and symptomatology in the field and glasshouse were examined for subgroup identification and presence of satellite RNA (satRNA). The IC-PCR method was used to amplify part of the coat protein gene of the isolates; the products were submitted to RFLP analysis using EcoRI and MspI restriction enzymes. Most isolates gave the characteristic pattern attributed to CMV subgroup I, confirming the results obtained by serotyping with monoclonal antibodies. Some Greek isolates, however, possessed additional EcoRI and MspI sites unusual for subgroup I isolates, and the patterns obtained, especially for MspI, could be confused with those of subgroup II. These data suggest that restriction enzyme analysis of amplified PCR products used for strain characterization needs to be treated with caution, especially for viruses such as CMV showing genomic heterogeneity. IC-PCR was also developed for satRNA amplification and the results agreed with those of molecular hybridization with a dig-DNA probe. A satRNA was carried by 77% of the isolates.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A panel of 30 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was produced against four isolates of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). The panel was tested in plate-trapped antigen ELISA tests against 41 TuMV isolates (with different host and geographical origins and of differing pathotypes). The antibodies were also tested against four other potyviruses (bean common mosaic virus, bean common mosaic necrosis virus, lettuce mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic virus). The reactions were assessed quantitatively (using multivariate analysis) and qualitatively (using the standard deviation obtained against healthy leaf material). The MAbs recognized 16–17 TuMV epitopes that were not present in the other potyviruses and a further two potyvirus epitopes. The isolates were grouped into three serotypes. Only one isolate did not fit this grouping. The classification of seven isolates in coat protein amino acid sequence homology groups correlated with serotypes. There was no correlation between serotype and pathotype, or between reactions to individual MAbs and single lines. There was therefore no evidence that the epitopes recognized by the MAbs are elicitors for the resistance genes present in the Brassicanapus lines. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the MAbs will be useful for both routine detection of TuMV and fundamental studies on plant–virus interactions.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Earlier studies have shown that primary infections of winter wheat crops by septoria tritici blotch are initiated in autumn by air-borne ascospores of the teleomorph stage, Mycosphaerella graminicola, which originate from sources outside the crop. Subsequent disease development within the crop, and damage to the upper leaves in summer, were commonly ascribed to the anamorph stage, Septoria tritici, which first arises from primary, ascosporic lesions and develops to give rise to splash-borne pycnidiospores produced in pycnidia. Trapping studies, using a Burkard volumetric trap sited adjacent to field trials of winter wheat, showed that ascospores are released from pseudothecia throughout the year; peak release is not restricted to the autumn and early winter when the primary infections occur. As M. graminicola ascospores can be confused with those of other species, their authenticity was established by incubating ascospores on trap tapes for 24–48 h before counting. Examination of wheat plants cv. Riband, removed from unsprayed crops just prior to harvest and exposed to external weather conditions over the winter in 1995 and 1996, showed that pseudothecia mature on residues of the upper leaf layers between August and March. However, peak development occurred in December/January, when there was a corresponding decline in pycnidial formation. On regenerated wheat in set-aside (left uncultivated) fields, sources of pseudothecia of M. graminicola were exhausted by February of the following year. Natural development of the teleomorph stage was monitored in an unsprayed crop of winter wheat cv. Riband during the 1996–97 season, and was present on leaf 8 at growth stage 32 (24 April) and on leaf 3 at growth stage 85 (8 July), then a week later, on both leaf 2 and the flag leaf. The temporal development of M. graminicola asexual and sexual phases was also studied in inoculation experiments under external weather conditions on pot-grown seedlings of winter wheat cv. Longbow, using inoculum from two single-ascospore cultures.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effect of interrupted wet periods on pycnidiospores of Mycosphaerella pinodes was studied by assessing spore viability, infection and disease development on pea seedlings. Pycnidiospores survived dry periods of up to 21 days after inoculation. Rewetting restored the infection capacity of the pycnidiospore, resulting in high levels of disease. The effects of wet–dry–wet cycles depended on when the dry period occurred during the infection process. No disease symptoms appeared when dry periods occurred during germination. A low level of disease occurred after rewetting in high relative humidity if the interruption of the wet period was long. However, a wet period resulting in leaf wetness after a dry period gave similar levels of infection to those achieved with a continuous wet period. Pycnidiospores formed appressoria but hyphae did not penetrate if a 6–12 h wet period preceded the dry period, and only a few flecks appeared during the dry period. Coalescent necrosis occurred when the dry period followed penetration. The disease was severe in each case when plants were returned to wet conditions after a period of dryness. Lesion development depended on the duration of the initial wet period, and the characteristics (temperature and duration) of both the dry period and the final wet period.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effects of temperature (5–30°C) and the duration of moisture on the development of ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes) on pea seedlings, grown under controlled conditions, were investigated. The optimum temperature for monocyclic processes was 20°C. At this temperature, pycnidiospores germinated after 2 h, appressoria formed after 6 h and the germ-tube penetrated the leaf cuticle after 8 h. Disease symptoms were evident after 1 day of incubation and the first pycnidia formed after 3 days. Longer wetting periods were required for disease development and pycnidial formation at non-optimal temperatures. Disease severity and the number of pycnidia formed on leaves increased with temperature from 5 to 20°C, then decreased between 20 and 30°C. Polynomial equations were fitted to predict the stages of infection, incubation, latency and disease development as functions of temperature and duration of moisture. These equations allow comparisons of pathogen spread with plant development and could be incorporated into disease development models used for crop management programmes.
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  • 25
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Surveys between 1989 and 1993 in the major garlic production areas of Spain identified a new leaf spot disease, characterized by white and purple lesions followed by extensive necrosis. Isolation and pathogenicity tests with fungal isolates taken from these spots indicated that Stemphylium vesicarium was the causal agent. Pseudothecia of the teleomorph stage, Pleospora sp., were found on leaf debris from affected plants. Inoculation of garlic and onion plants with residues carrying mature pseudothecia, or with ascospore suspensions obtained from the pseudothecia, resulted in the development of white and purple leaf spots. Wetness periods longer than 24 h were required for symptom development under controlled conditions. Isolates of S. vesicarium from garlic, onion and asparagus caused disease in all three hosts. In garlic, cv. Blanco de Vallelado was most susceptible, while lines B4P17 and B6P1, and cvs Iberose and Golourose were less susceptible to the disease.
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  • 26
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    Oxford, U.K. and Cambridge, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: DNA primers, based on the ribosomal sequences of lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) phytoplasmas, were used to analyse genetic variation within the lethal yellowing-type diseases of coconut in East Africa. Samples were collected from palms in Kenya, Mozambique and high, medium and low disease incidence areas of Tanzania. The mollicute-specific primer pair P1 and P6 amplified a 1.5 kbp product from all diseased palms and no product from symptomless palms, indicating that phytoplasmas were associated with all of these diseases. However, the Rohde forward and Rohde reverse primers (a second rRNA primer pair designed to detect East African LYD-associated phytoplasmas) only amplified products from Tanzanian and Kenyan diseased palms and not from those of Mozambique. Conversely, primers Ghana 813 and AK-SR, designed for specific detection of coconut-associated phytoplasmas in West Africa, amplified products only from the Mozambique palms, indicating that the phytoplasma associated with LYD in Mozambique is more closely related to those from West Africa. This was supported by restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products. DNA sequencing of PCR products from phytoplasmas within Tanzania revealed no detectable differences in the rDNA sequences of isolates from high, medium and low incidence areas.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Four Pseudomonas strains were evaluated for their intrinsic properties conferring their ability to protect long English cucumber against Pythium aphanidermatum in hydroponic culture. Two of the strains, BTP1 and its siderophore-negative mutant M3, increased plant yield as compared with the non-inoculated control plants. Strain BTP7 was intermediate in its biocontrol activity while strain ATCC 17400 failed to reduce disease development. The role of pyoverdines could not be confirmed since treatment with either BTP1 or its siderophore-negative mutant M3 provided similar suppression of Pythium disease. In addition, no siderophores were detected in the nutrient solution. BTP1 did not inhibit pathogen growth in vitro on several media, suggesting that antibiosis was not a mechanism of suppression. Quantification of root bacterial populations did not indicate differences among the strains. On the other hand, roots treated with either BTP1 or its sid− mutant M3 contained more antifungal phenolics than roots from any other treatments including controls. These results suggest that antifungal compounds induced by inoculation of cucumber roots with the fluorescent Pseudomonas strains BTP1 and M3 participate actively in the protection of cucumber plants against P. aphanidermatum
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Microplot experiments were carried out during the autumn and winter of 1995 to determine the effects of soil moisture and levels of organic matter on the carpogenic germination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and subsequent infection of Phaseolus vulgaris. Soil moisture treatments were established by irrigation to field capacity: (a) when soil had dried to − 25 KPa, (b) when soil had dried to − 54 KPa, and (c) eight days after the soil had dried to − 54 KPa. Three levels of organic matter were established by mixing compost and yellow-red latosol in the following proportions (by volume): (a) 0% compost and 100% soil, (b) 50% compost and 50% soil, and (c) 100% compost and 0% soil. More apothecia and diseased plants were observed in the plots with higher moisture levels. Drier treatments resulted in a reduction in number (in the winter experiment) or elimination (in the autumn experiment) of apothecia. Other experiments were designed to examine the effect of grass mulching and organic matter levels on the carpogenic germination of S. sclerotiorum. In one experiment, grass mulching was compared with no mulching, and in another, the effects of different depths of mulch on the soil surface (0, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 cm) were examined. Fewer apothecia were formed in mulched soil and the effect was most pronounced with 6 and 9 cm of mulch. The highest level of mulch (9 cm) impaired the vigour and yield of bean plants. In these experiments, carpogenic germination was increased by high soil organic matter content. Control of soil moisture and grass mulching may reduce the production of apothecia of S. sclerotiorum even in soils rich in organic matter.
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  • 29
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    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The ability of Trichoderma harzianum to control the rotting of pepper (Capsicum annuum) plant roots caused by Phytophthora capsici was studied. Interactions between the fungi were assessed in vitro on three culture media (V8c, Czapek and 2% water agar) and in vivo in plants grown in a substrate inoculated with P. capsici and T. harzianum. Studies on mutual antagonism in vitro showed that P. capsici was inhibited by T. harzianum; however, the intensity of inhibition differed according to the medium used, being greatest on Czapek. Analysis of the fungal populations in the plant growth substrate showed that T. harzianum consistently reduced that of P. capsici over time. This reduction in the pathogen population was associated with a reduction in root rot of between 24 and 76%, although plant growth (dry weight) was still reduced by 21.2–24.7%, compared with the uninoculated control. In the absence of T. harzianum with the same pathogen inoculum levels, the reduction in dry weight was 59.8–68.6%, suggesting that T. harzianum reduced the damage.
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  • 31
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    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with random decamer primers, and primers targeted to conserved repetitive sequences were used to investigate the genetic relationship between strains of Ralstonia solanacearum that cause the ‘moko’ and ‘bugtok’ vascular wilt diseases of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The closely related bacteria R. pickettii, Pseudomonas syzygii and the banana blood disease bacterium were also included in this study. Data from several PCR fingerprints were collated by cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis divided the isolates into three groups. Group 1 contained a subset of Central American R. solanacearum moko strains. Group 2 consisted of the blood disease bacterium, P. syzygii and some R. solanacearum isolates from clove trees whilst group 3 comprised South-east Asian moko and bugtok isolates as well as another subset of Central American moko strains. Fingerprinting by PCR amplification with repetitive primers (rep-PCR) produced groupings broadly concurrent with those obtained from RAPDs. Both sets of groupings supported previous subdivisions made within R. solanacearum on the basis of tRNA fingerprints and 16 S rRNA sequences, and the data lend support to the renewed description of the blood disease bacterium either as a separate species or as a subspecies within R. solanacearum.
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  • 32
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    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A field experiment of novel systematic design was established on 17 sites in the three years 1988–90 to compare the effect of spray timing on the disease control provided by fungicides. At each site one set of plots received applications of a mixture of fenpropimorph and prochloraz or triadimenol, tridemorph and chlorothalonil fungicides, applied at successively later start dates to produce a series of temporally and spatially related, but discrete, epidemics curtailed at consecutively later stages of development between GS32 and GS75. A second set of plots was treated with a single spray of one of a set of the nine candidate fungicides between GS32 and GS71. Disease developed at each site, with moderate septoria leaf spot (Septoria tritici) at five of the eight sites in 1988 and four of the seven sites in 1989. Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici was present at two sites in 1988, four sites in 1989 and one site only in 1990. Puccinia striiformis (four sites only in 1989 and 1990) and brown rust (one site in each year) were less common. The systematic treatments showed consistent relationships between green leaf retention during grain filling and yield. They also provided clear indications that epidemics of foliar disease initiated before flag leaf emergence had the greatest impact on yield. After this stage, yield loss averaged 27.2 kg ha−1 for each day that elapsed before fungicide was applied. The sequential single spray treatments showed marked differences between the protectant and eradicant activity of the different fungicides used. Each disease was most effectively controlled on the final leaf by treatment at or immediately after its emergence. Chlorothalonil was as effective as any of the fungicides tested against septoria, when applied before flag leaf emergence, but was inferior when applied after this stage. The fungicides were equally effective against yellow rust when applied just before symptoms were detected, when spray timing appeared to be more important than choice of fungicide. The response of brown rust to fungicides was similar, except that chlorothalonil was the least effective. For mildew, timing seemed to be less important, although sprays applied immediately after leaf emergence provided the best control on each individual leaf layer. Yield was well related to disease and green leaf area late in the season, these factors being more important than which disease was present, which fungicide, and which cultivar were used.
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  • 33
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    Plant pathology 48 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are described for determination of the two 16 S rDNA subgroups of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. A third subgroup consisting of Indonesian R. solanacearum isolates belonging to Division II, the blood disease bacterium and Pseudomonas syzygii can also be identified. Primers were designed to sequences within R. solanacearum 16 S rDNA (equivalent to Escherichia coli 16 S rDNA positions 74–97, 455–475, 1454–1474), and the internal transcribed spacer region between the 16 S and 23 S rDNA genes. Different combinations of forward and reverse primers allowed selective PCR amplification of (a) R. solanacearum Division I (biovars 3, 4 and 5), (b) Division II (biovars 1, N2, and 2) including the blood disease bacterium and P. syzygii, or (c) amplification of Division II only except for five biovar 1, 2 or N2 isolates of R. solanacearum from Indonesia, P. syzygii and the BDB. A total of 104 R. solanacearum, 14 blood disease bacterium and 10 P. syzygii isolates were tested. Simultaneous detection of species and subdivision was achieved by designing a multiplex PCR test in which a 288-base pair (bp) band is produced by all R. solanacearum isolates, and an additional 409-bp band in Division I strains.
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  • 34
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This article reviews recent research about the spatial mismatch hypothesis from a range of social science disciplines. Since 1990, researchers have tested the mismatch hypothesis in diverse metropolitan settings; devised more accurate measures of geographical access to employment; and developed models to address issues such as compensating variations, sample selection bias, and contextual effects. We argue for a broader conceptualization of spatial mismatch that considers how social and spatial relations affect employment outcomes for women, immigrants, and other ethnic minorities. This broader view will enhance the contribution of research to current theoretical and policy debates about urban poverty. The effects of metropolitan context and neighborhood-level differences in services, resources, and social networks on spatial access and, independently, on wages and employment also warrant future research attention.
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  • 35
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. In his response to Closure in Cole's Reformulated Leontief Model (Jackson et al. 1997) Cole presents the mechanics of his solution. His spreadsheet demonstration of the model, however, fails to fully address the conceptual issues and model specification concerns raised in our critique. His demonstration does enable us to provide a sorely needed formalization that pinpoints the inconsistencies in his model. While we join with Cole in urging modellers to strive for clarity, transparency, and utility, we caution against allowing these goals to cause us to lose sight of internal consistency requirements.
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  • 36
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. Over the past few years, metropolitan crime has fallen in the United States while nonmetropolitan crime has continued to increase. This article examines nonmetropolitan crime during the period 1977–1995, and describes its characteristics and spatial dynamics. The article outlines eight categories of causal factors and investigates their role in nonmetropolitan county crime variation using regression analysis. This analysis shows that many variables commonly identified with “rural development” are associated with crime. The article concludes by recommending that planners anticipate the social effects of popular rural re-vitalization strategies, such as tourism, retirement communities, highways, and service sector development.
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  • 37
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
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    Topics: Geography , Economics
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  • 38
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
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    Topics: Geography , Economics
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  • 39
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. Krugman states that “Regional science is not a unified subject. It is best described as a collection of tools.” Unfortunately such a perspective fails to fully acknowledge theoretical dimensions of the accompanying refocusing on geographic expressions of economic linkages, such as those highlighted in spatial externalities specifications. Such promulgated aspects of the spatial economic landscape relate to map pattern, and certainly the spatial statistics and spatial econometrics theory that accompanies it, as well as the underlying substantive theory garnered from a variety of sources. The principal implication is other than “loose-jointed, do-the-best-you-can theorizing”.
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  • 40
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The central concern of this article is with measurement of the economic impact of demographic change at a regional level. To facilitate this, a method is developed which involves the linking together of two hitherto separate analytical techniques: labour market accounts and extended input-output models. The application of the method is demonstrated by reference to three UK regions – West Midlands, Merseyside, and East Anglia – with contrasting demographic and economic histories over the time intervals 1971–1981 and 1981–1991. The employment impact of consumption derived from demographic change is measured in relation to individual elements of the labour market account and comparisons are made with the effects of economic change over the same time periods.
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  • 41
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    Papers in regional science 78 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This research note investigates the determinants of Australia's inward and outward direct foreign investment (DFI) using annual and quarterly data. It is found from pooled annual data for Australia and seven developed countries that DFI has been influenced by labor disputes, current account balances, Australia's real GDP and real exchange rates. The application of an econometric model using quarterly data shows that the long run elasticities of DFI with respect to real exchange rates and labor disputes are significant for selected cases.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum, Verticillium bulbillosum, Hypholoma fasciculare, Phanerochaete velutina, Vuilleminiia comedens together with the chemical treatments propiconazole and the culture filtrate of V. bulbillosum were tested on Norway spruce stumps during 2 years in order to evaluate their effectiveness against Heterobasidion annosum. The results were compared, in 1 year, with the effectiveness of Phlebiopsis gigantea. All the treatments reduced H. annosum infections. The best results were obtained with P. velutina, propiconazole and with culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of V. bulbillosum.
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  • 43
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Cultural characteristics and pathogenicity of Melanconium juglandinum, the agent of the black pustular dieback of Juglans spp. in Europe were investigated. Melanconium juglandinum was consistently isolated from diseased twigs and branches of Persian (English) walnut trees (Juglans regia) in Central Italian Apennine valleys. In growth and conidia germination tests, the fungus was shown to be active within a broad range of temperatures (5–30°C), with the optimum being between 20 and 30°C. Monthly artificial inoculations performed over a period of 2 years with mycelial plugs on 2-year-old seedlings of Persian (English) walnut developed symptoms within 15 days with maximum canker length occurring when inoculation was carried out between June and August. Koch's postulates were fulfilled and M. juglandinum was proved to be a virulent pathogen.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Thirty-six Hevea clones were inoculated with conidia of Microcyclus ulei, the causal agent of South American Leaf Blight in an air-conditioned chamber. Components of disease resistance such as latent period, infectious period, lesion size, percentage of damaged leaf area, number of lesions, spore production and stromatic generation period were studied during a single infection cycle. The clones were easily separated on the basis of these characters that were evaluated under controlled conditions. The main components that were highly correlated were the spore production, lesion size and number of lesions with the percentage of damaged leaf area. Others, such the stromatic generation period, were slightly correlated with all other components; latent period and infectious period was slightly correlated with the lesion size; and lesion size was slightly correlated with lesion density. For screening of varieties, damaged leaf area and spore production were the two components that should be considered the most important. Furthermore, the clones were tested for their capacity to produce scopoletin, a phytoalexin of Hevea, and to produce lignins in their infection sites. A strong correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clone resistance. Moreover, strong lignin accumulation was often associated with a longer stromatic generation period. These two physiological reactions could interfere by limiting fungal development in several clones. However, neither scopoletin nor lignin accumulation could individually explain the behaviour of all clones.
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  • 45
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The status of Siberian spruce seeds along a transect near the Monchegorsk nickel smelter (Kola Peninsula, Russia) was evaluated using the X-ray method. The viability of seeds was significantly reduced under severe deposition of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals.
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  • 46
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Eighty-six isolates of Erwinia salicis, the causal agent of watermark disease of willow, were obtained from culture collections and collected from various willow plantations in south-east England. These isolates were characterized by their reaction in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by enzyme electrophoresis, and for lysis by a panel of five bacteriophage. Eighty-one isolates had similar characteristics and clustered at a level of similarity of at least 60%. Five isolates were found to have less than 20% similarity to the other E. salicis. Antiserum raised against E. salicis (NCPPB 2535) was found to be specific to E. salicis and did not cross-react with other bacteria tested. No geographical clustering of electrotypes was found: however, Dutch and English isolates could be distinguished by bacteriophage typing. The local distribution of electrotypes collected from diseased trees suggests that the bacterium is spread via the propagating material and that tree to tree spread is rare.
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  • 47
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1439-0329
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The aim of this study was to assess the losses in productivity of Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to the attack by Chrysomyxa rhododendri, a rust that only penetrates new developing flushes. Three-year-old seedlings were artificially infected once or twice in two consecutive years and the dry mass was determined at the end of the growing season. Dry mass accumulation of all parts including roots was significantly reduced if more than about one-third of the young foliage was infected. Shoot and root dry mass of once severely infected seedlings were 32 and 48% less than that of controls. This deficit could not be compensated during a following rust-free year. When seedlings were infected in two consecutive years, dry mass accumulation was reduced by 58% compared with controls. Results indicate that rejuvenation of and afforestation with Norway spruce can seriously be impaired by Chrysomyxa at the alpine timberline where Rhododendron sp. (the telial host of the parasite) is widespread.
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  • 49
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were generated for 52 species of lignicolous European polypores belonging to 31 different genera. An enzymatically amplified portion of the nuclear-encoded ribosomal DNA was found to be about 1800–1900 bp long for most taxa. After digestion with Hpa II, 44 distinct phenotypes were detected for the species under study; application of the additional restriction endonucleases, Hin 6 I and Hinf I, resulted in 48 species-specific and two genera-specific phenotypes. The procedure described should allow for a reliable identification of unknown mycelia of lignicolous fungi.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1439-0329
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to study intraspecific variation in growth of the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum in living host sapwood. In experiment 1, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were inoculated with H. annosum isolates, 14 each of the S-and P-intersterility groups, collected from various parts of Sweden. In pine, the P-group isolates were more virulent than the S-group isolates both in terms of infection frequency, induced mortality rate (p 〈 0.05), and fungal growth in sapwood (p 〈 0.05). In spruce, the P-group isolates were also more virulent on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Both S and P isolates had a higher infection frequency and a significantly longer sapwood growth on spruce than on pine. The P-group caused higher mortality on pine than on spruce. The length of the lesion in the inner bark was strongly correlated with fungal growth in spruce, but not in pine where the lesions were short or absent. In experiment 2, ten Norway spruce clones were inoculated with 18 S-isolates, originating from nine live-decayed trees and from nine spore-infected stumps in a single Norway spruce stand. The objective was to test whether any selection for growth rate in sapwood was detectable among individuals of H. annosum originating either from stumps or trees. The results gave no support for such selection since no difference in sapwood growth between the two groups of isolates was found.
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  • 51
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Samples of Heterobasidion annosum were collected in two stands of mixed forest in Changbaishan Nature Reserve in north-eastern China. Pure cultures were isolated from 15 specimens growing on Abies, Picea, Pinus and Populus. Mating tests showed that all these collections belong to the S inter-sterility group. The compatibility of Chinese homokaryons with S homokaryons from Europe was 100%. Clamp connections appeared almost equally in both strains of each pairing, and no distinct demarcation line formed in the pairings. The mating frequency of Chinese isolates with the European F group was also high, approximately 94%. These matings, however, were usually unilateral and a more or less distinct demarcation line was present in most of the pairings. The Chinese isolates were completely intersterile with the European P group. The S group of H. annosum in north-eastern China appears to have similar morphology and ecology as in Europe. It is common on Abies and Picea, but is not a serious pathogen in the pristine forests of north-eastern China.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1439-0329
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: In order to differentiate among Phellinus pini, Inonotus tomentosus and Inonotus circinatus a polyclonal antibody was raised to a N-terminal part of 25-kDa P. pini-specific protein. The specificity of the polyclonal antibody produced against a synthetic N-terminal peptide of this protein was investigated for diagnostic purposes using Western immunoblot, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inhibition ELISA techniques. The N-terminal synthetic peptide, used as the immunogen, was found to be more than 80% pure by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Following immunization, antisera were collected at three different time intervals. The antibody molecules were purified from the crude antisera using immunoaffinity gel chromatography. Following one-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western immunoblot analysis showed that the P. pini I polyclonal-antibody detected the immunogen, the 25-kDa protein, in all but one of the P. pini isolates examined, but in none of the isolates of the nontarget species I. tomentosus and I. circinatus. Nevertheless, cross-reactivity was a problem because the P. pini I polyclonal-antibody also recognized bands at other molecular weights in nearly all of the isolates of the other species tested. With the indirect ELISA the P. pini isolates tended to have higher affinity for the polyclonal antibody than the nontarget species, but some cross-reactivity did occur. Inhibition ELISAs, performed over a range of soluble antigen concentrations (1.56–400 ng/100 μl), failed to show a clear distinction between P. pini and the two Inonotus spp. The low level of cross-reactivity observed for I. tomentosus isolate 52 (9%) was also apparent in the indirect ELISA analysis. All three assays indicated that P. pini isolate 41 was the most antigenic. Despite cross-reactivity, the antibody is useful in Western immunoblots for the diagnosis of most P. pini isolates.
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  • 53
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Ophiostoma crassivaginatum is the most important blue stain fungus on Populus tremuloides and causes considerable reduction in the value of the end product. The effect of a hyphomycetous fungus, Phialemonium curvatum, on the in vitro growth and wood chip colonization by O. crassivaginatum was studied. The in vitro growth of O. crassivaginatum was significantly inhibited when grown in dual culture or when treated with culture filtrate of P. curvatum. Ophiostoma crassivaginatum failed to colonize P. tremuloides wood chips when they were pre-inoculated with mycelial suspension of P. curvatum. The potential use of P. curvatum as a biological control agent against O. crassivaginatum is suggested.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Cambial electrical resistance (CER) was used as an objective measure of vitality of silver fir (Abies alba) in the forests of Slovenia. Trees were rated during the growing season by CER and a subjective crown status index (CSI). Both CER and CSI were inversely correlated to annual ring width increment. Using both CER and CSI, fir were assigned to vitality and vigour categories. Inferences made from these categories and radial growth trends indicated that ring growth decreased prior to the development of canopy symptoms. This decrease in ring growth would have been detected as an increase in CER. This pattern of decline is consistent with the decline of trees due to chronic below-ground stress. Variation in CER was due both to the vascular cambium and to the thickness of the nonconducting phloem.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Biochemical effects of both low and high ozone impact in long-term and short-term experiments are well investigated and documented; however, short-term treatments with moderate ozone levels have revealed divergent information concerning the biochemistry of needle tissues. Damage to the meristems of spruce trees have been found for several ozone treatments, in the form of an enhanced number of chromosomal aberrations, which appeared to be persistent for up to 2 years after the ozone challenge. One of the main aims of the present study was to determine whether a moderate ozone concentration is able to induce damage in needle biochemistry and/or only in the genetic material of root meristems. In the experiment three different clones of Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) were challenged with moderate ozone concentrations (up to 80 nl/l) for 11 weeks in greenhouses. Simultaneous investigations of root tip meristematic cells and the biochemical status of needle tissues regarding antioxidants and pigments were performed at two different sampling times: directly after the ozone treatment and 1 year later. Ozone effects in needles were absent both at the end of the fumigation and also after 1 year, but different clonal behaviour was found. Effect of ozone on chromosomal aberration rates in root tip meristems were observed and also the types of persisting chromosomal aberrations changed within the time course and within the different clones.
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  • 56
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Severe stem cankers in Eucalyptus nitens, from a 14-year-old mixed provenance plantation, were associated with infection by Endothia gyrosa, present in its teleomorph state. Surveys of incidence among canker severity classes were carried out in a thinned and pruned stand and an adjacent unthinned and unpruned stand within the affected plantation. No differences in incidence among the canker severity classes were found between the thinned/pruned and unthinned/unpruned stands or between different crown dominance classes within the unthinned/unpruned stand. However, the incidence among canker severity classes was strongly associated with bark roughness with 97% of rough-barked trees developing either annual cankers or cankers causing cambial damage. Stem cankers were found on only 11% of trees with smooth bark. Bark roughness in E. nitens was shown to differ significantly between provenances. Deployment of provenances prone to rough bark in routine plantation establishment may pose a risk of damaging stem canker outbreaks.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Oligonucleotide primers were developed for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of selected Phytophthora species which are known to cause root-rot diseases in European forest trees. The primer pair CITR1/CITR2, complementing both internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal RNA genes, gave a 711 bp amplicon with Phytophthora citricola. The Phytophthora cambivora specific primer pair CAMB3/CAMB4, producing a 1105bp amplicon, as well as the Phytophthora quercina specific primer pair QUERC1/QUERC2, producing a 842 bp amplicon, were derived from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-fragments presented in this paper. All three primer pairs revealed no undesirable cross-reaction with a diverse test collection of isolates including other Phytophthora species, Pythium, Xerocomus, Hebeloma, Russula, and Armillaria. Under the PCR conditions described the detection of a well discernable amplicon was possible down to 100 pg (P. cambivora), 4pg (P. quercina), and 2pg (P. citricola) target DNA. This diagnostic PCR system was able to detect P. citricola, P. quercina, and P. cambivora in seedlings of pendunculate oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) which were artificially infected under controlled conditions.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The efficiency of RAPD analysis in the evaluation of genetic variability in Hypoxylon mediterraneum has been tested on 49 monoascospore isolates of the fungus from different localities. A large genetic variability was detected within single stromata and among monoascospore isolates in a restricted area. The large variability in restricted populations can be explained by the heterothallic mating system and the life cycle of the fungus and its ecological adaptations. RAPD markers can discriminate monoascospore isolates both in the single stromata and among stromata. The application of RAPD markers for epidemiological studies is discussed.
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  • 59
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Random amplified microsatellite (RAMS) markers were used for the analysis of genetic variation within and among the intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum. Isolates from seven European countries were used, and the analysis of 77 markers revealed banding patterns with several markers unique to intersterility (IS) groups S, P and F. The highest number of polymorphic markers and the lowest number of fixed markers was observed within IS group P. In addition, a low level of geographic differentiation was observed within IS groups S and P by amova analysis.
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  • 60
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Book reviewed in this article:Hansen, E. M.; Lewis, K. J. (eds): Compendium of Conifer Diseases.Waller, J. M.; Ritchie, B. J.; Holderness, M.: Plant Clinic Handbook
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: On the ‘local county monitoring plots’ located throughout Norway a reduction of crown density has been noted during the period 1988–1997. The aim of this study was to determine whether this change could be attributed to normal effects due to the increased age of trees in the plots. The dataset comprised around 580 plots and 27 000 single trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies), with 10 years of crown density measurements available for each tree. A two-step approach was used, first to search for an expectancy for normal reduction of crown density by age derived from the dataset, and then to compare this with the actual reduction. The interpretation was somewhat complicated as the various results were dependent upon each other. Highly significant correlations were found between crown density and age. The relationship indicated an annual reduction of crown density of around 0.12%. However, the relationship varied both between years and between regions, and it was not possible to definitely determine whether the relationship was best described by linear or nonlinear models. Of major importance here is that the relationship appeared to be influenced by the presence of stresses, whose effects tended to be more severe in old stands. On this basis it seems questionable whether an expectancy for normal ageing can be properly defined. In the present study, however, it could still be definitely determined that the mean crown density change of—0.41% annually was too negative to be attributed to normal ageing, as it was clearly below all the suggested expectancies from the various models. This suggests that the amount of stress in the period under study has been higher than normal, and this encourages the search for causal agents in further studies. Changes in silviculture may have had some influence. The results were valid for most of Norway, with the exception of western and northern regions. Crown density assessments are subjective, which may possibly give erroneous time trends. However, it is argued that this is less likely to be of major importance in the present data.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Widespread mortality of Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) occurs in developed and pristine forests in south-western Argentina and possibly south-eastern Chile. Affected trees may die rapidly but mortality is commonly preceded by several decades of severely restricted radial stem growth. Roots are often affected by one or more types of decay. Cypress mortality, locally termed ‘mal del cipres’, is similar to a major forest disease in North America: Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) root disease in Oregon and California and a major tree decline: Alaska yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) decline in south-east Alaska. This paper discusses several hypotheses concerning mal del cipres and compares current forest decline research in Patagonia with North America.
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  • 63
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Five Armillaria species were identified in a nationwide survey in Greece. Armillaria mellea was present in coniferous and broad-leaved forests in most of the areas examined, except the high altitudes (above 1100 m) of the mountains of north Greece. It was found to cause significant damage in fir forests as well as in fruit orchards and vineyards. Armillaria gallica was common in coniferous and broad-leaved forests in the high altitudes of central and northern Greece, predominating in the beech forests. The fungus was a weak parasite or a saprophyte of forest trees and was occasionally found on cultivated plants. Armillaria ostoyae was not found in southern and central parts of the country, but it has a wide distribution in the mountain forests of northern Greece and causes significant damage on fir, black pine, Scots pine and spruce. Armillaria cepistipes was recorded at high altitudes (1400–1800 m) on two mountains of northern Greece, mostly as a saprophyte in coniferous and broad-leaved forests. Armillaria tabescens was rare in the forests of Greece; it was found to cause disease in almond tree orchards.
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  • 64
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Cryphonectria parasitica is not common in the forests of the Emilia Romagna region of Italy on hosts other than chestnut. Three isolates with morphological cultural characteristics of C. parasitica were collected: two from infected bark of Quercits pubescens (EQ1 and EQ2) and one from Carpinus betulus (EC1). Pathogenicity tests on chestnut and crosses in vitro with strains of C. parasitica of different mating types confirmed that EQ1 and EQ2 are C. parasitica isolates, whereas EC1 seems to belong to a different species. Progeny analysis of crosses with the isolate EQ1 and a strain from chestnut showed the formation of new vegetative compatibility groups. Therefore hosts other than chestnut can contribute to increasing pathogen variability through recombination of the v-c genes.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Interactions between three species of bacteria (Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Paxillus involutus), and three root pathogenic fungi (Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani) were studied. Burkholderia cepacia significantly reduced the in vitro mycelial growth of P. involutus, whereas, B. cepacia, Ps. chlororaphis, Ps. fluorescens and P. involutus reduced the mycelial growth of F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum and R. solani. Culture filtrates of B. cepacia, Ps. chlororaphis, Ps. fluorescens and P. involutus reduced conidial germination and increased the formation of chlamydospores of F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum. Burkholderia cepacia also reduced the formation of ectomycorrhizal short roots by P. involutus on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings 2 months after inoculation. However, no significance difference in mycorrhizal short roots was observed after 4 months. The fungicide Anchor (a mixture of carboxine and thiram) significantly reduced root rot severity and increased the survival of lodgepole pine seedlings grown in a growth mix infested with F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum and R. solani. Control of the diseases of white spruce caused by these pathogens was not as successful. Treatment of seeds with either B. cepacia or P. involutus alone significantly increased the survival of seedlings grown in a mix that was inoculated with F. moniliforme and reduced the root rot severity caused by F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum, but not R. solani. Higher seedling survival and lower root rot severity were observed when conifer seeds were concomitantly inoculated with one of the bacterial species, P. involutus and Anchor.
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  • 66
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A study was completed to determine if willows propagated vegetatively for bioenergy in New York State were infected by viruses. Unrooted, dormant cuttings from 10 willow clones were planted in a greenhouse. Four months later the young foliage and roots were tested for tomato mosaic tobamovirus, tobacco necrosis necrovirus (TNV), and brome mosaic bromovirus by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All three viruses were detected in the roots of some plants, but rarely in foliage. Every clone was infected with at least one virus. Tobacco mosaic virus and TNV were also transmitted to Chenopodium quinoa from extracts of roots collected from field-grown willows. Imported willow material may be virus-infected.
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  • 67
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 68
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: In 1982 and 1983, natural blight cankers, located in a zone extending from the ground to 183 cm on the main stem of grafted American chestnut trees, were inoculated with a mixture of dsRNA-containing, white (European) and pigmented hypovirulent strains of Cryphonectria parasitica (H-inoculated zone). In 1996, white isolates (34% of 156 C. parasitica isolates) were recovered from superficial cankers throughout the grafts and as far as 564 cm from the H-inoculated zone. Lloyd's index of patchiness value (1.36) indicated that white isolates were slightly aggregated in cankers on the grafts. Forty-five percent of 95 C. parasitica isolates, recovered 5–50 months after inoculating the grafts with pigmented virulent strain WK, were white and some converted strain WK to the white phenotype in vitro. All cankers and bark cores yielding only pigmented isolates, vegetatively compatible with virulent strain WK, had superficial necrosis 5 and 11 months after inoculation with strain WK. All white isolates of C. parasitica assayed contained a 12.7 kbp dsRNA in high concentrations, and were hypovirulent in pathogenicity trials. Twenty-eight vegetative compatibility groups were identified among 65 pigmented graft area isolates; none of 48 pigmented isolates contained dsRNA. In addition to host resistance factors, spread of white strains may be responsible for the unusually high level of blight control on the grafts.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Tree survival and causes of mortality were studied in an experimental afforestation in the upper subalpine forest zone in the Swiss Alps. A total of 59.8% of Pinus cembra and 45.6% of Pinus mugo were killed by Gremmeniella abietina during the first 20 years after planting, compared to 1.5% of Larix deddua trees. The mortality rates caused by G. abietina were highly correlated with the duration of snow cover in spring. Tree losses were lowest at sites where the snow melted early and highest at sites where the snow ablation was delayed in spring. Tree mortality varied greatly between years. In the year after the coldest summer of the observation period mortality due to G. abietina infections was highest, suggesting high susceptibility of trees in poor condition. Phaddium infestans, which was the second most important factor for mortality in P. cembra, killed trees irrespective of their condition. Other biotic and abiotic causes of tree mortality had negligible influence compared with the impact of G abietina and P. infestans. Excluding anthropogenic impacts, the diverse spatial pattern of forested and treeless sites close to the subalpine timberline may predominantly result from the action of parasitic fungi, depending on the ablation pattern of the snow cover in spring.
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  • 70
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Bacterial blight is considered one of the most serious diseases affecting the genus Juglans. Artificial inoculations with Xanthomonas campestris pv. Juglandis were performed in the field by spraying seedlings of Juglans cinerea, Juglans hindsii, Juglans mandshurica, Juglans nigra, Juglans regia and Juglans sieboldiana. Juglans nigra, J. cinerea ana J. sieboldiana proved to be the most resistant. The multiplication ability of Xanthomonas campestris pv. corylina, X. c. pv. juglandis, and X. c. pv. campestris was evaluated by injecting 2-year-old seedling leaves of J. mandshurica, J. nigra and J. regia. The bacterial growth was monitored in the infected tissue over 12 days. Xanthomonas c. pv. juglandis exhibited a high growth rate and induced black greasy spots in J. mandshurica and J. regia; X. c. pv. campestris grew in leaf tissues without inducing symptoms, X. c. pv. corylina showed a very low growth rate. None of the tested bacterial strains multiplied in the leaves of J. nigra. This confirms the results obtained in the field tests. Juglans regia was the most susceptible among the walnut species tested.
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  • 71
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    Forest pathology 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0329
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The incidence of Heterobasidion annosum was examined in three young hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis) plantations in southern Sweden that were established after felling Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands heavily infected by the fungus. The incidence of H. annosum was 7 %, 33 %, and 70 %, respectively, in the 2-, 3-, and 5-year-old plantations. In all plantations, H. annosum was the most frequent rot-causing fungus (81 %) and all isolates tested belonged to the P-intersterility group. No visible external differences between infected and healthy seedlings were found on any site. Both tap and lateral roots were infected by H. annosum. The results suggest that when hybrid larch is planted on sandy soils after clear felling of Norway spruce heavily infected by H. annosum, it is very susceptible to infection by H. annosum. Furthermore, transfer of H. annosum from infected stumps to hybrid larch occurs during the first few years after planting on scarified sites. In this study, scarification may have exacerbated the root disease situation and actually led to more early infections by distributing pieces inoculum across the sites.
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  • 72
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The paper summarizes the selection and improvement of pollen fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male-sterile lines during the past 30 years at Jiangsu Province, China. A fertility restorer line (R16) with a good history of strong and stable restoring ability to different sterile lines was bred by accumulating fertility-restoring genes from derivatives of T797 and other restorer lines such as Primepi. A series of well-performing restorer lines with similar fertility-restoring ability has been bred by improving agronomic characters, disease-resistance and kernel size of R16. The restoring ability of these restorer lines using different male-sterile lines demonstrates that fertility restoration is no longer an obstacle for commercial utilization of hybrid wheat with the Triticum timopheeviii cytoplasmic male-sterile system. Line 2114 is a restorer with a single restoring gene transferred from Aegilops umbellulata. Its restoring ability, using both difficult and easily restored lines was 82% and 93.3% respectively. Maiyou No. 5, one hybrid variety, showed 13.2% yield advantage over the control variety in the Jiangsu Province registration test in 1997-1998 and was superior to nine other varieties adapted to the Jiangsu Province.
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  • 73
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The genotype-environment (GE) interaction of barley doubled haploid (DH) lines was studied in relation to some malting quality characters. DH lines were obtained, using the bulbosum method, from F1 hybrids between the cultivars ‘Grit’ and ‘Havila’. Thirty DH lines, the parental forms, F2 and F3 hybrids of ‘Grit’בHavila’ and the standard cultivar ‘Rudzik’ were studied in a series of field experiments repeated at six environments. Malt protein content, Kolbach index, extract yield and malt fine-coarse difference were measured. The statistical analysis was performed using the computer program SERGEN. For protein content, it was found that most of the lines studied were stable, i.e. their GE interactions were not significant. Among the malt traits, phenotypic values of Kolbach index and fine-coarse difference were most dependent on environmental conditions. For Kolbach index, only one line was found to be stable, while for fine-coarse difference, all lines displayed interaction with the environment.
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  • 74
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The wheat-rye translocation (IBL-IRS) that carries the tightly linked genes Lr26/Sr31/Yr9, has been widely exploited in the development of wheat cultivars worldwide. This resistance, however, has become ineffective owing to the evolution of new pathotypes of Puccinia recondita that neutralize the resistance of Lr26. Inheritance studies on ‘Federation4′/‘Kavkaz’ revealed complementary genes derived separately from ‘Federation’ and ‘Kavkaz’ for adult plant resistance. This previously undescribed source of resistance appears to be widely effective and could therefore be used to broaden the genetic base for resistance in India. Its effectiveness in other geographical areas is unknown.
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  • 75
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    Plant breeding 118 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The reaction of two barley cultivars (‘Thibaut’ and ‘Arizona’) and three lines (AECS 76,‘Tadmor’ and WI 2291) to infection by Cochliobolus sativus was evaluated by three methods. Deep seeding of inoculated seeds was performed in pots and field. Gibberellin (GA3) was applied to inoculated seeds in vitro. Susceptibility assessments were made in vitro at 2 weeks, and in pots at 7 weeks after inoculation, using a scale of 1 (very resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage infected area of the subcrown internodes. There were no differences between the results using the three methods.‘Arizona’ was the most susceptible, whereas ‘Thibaut’ and AECS 76 were partially resistant genotypes. The WI 2291 line and ‘Tadmor’ were moderately susceptible and moderately resistant, respectively. In vitro tests yielded the same order as tests from pot and field experiments.
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  • 76
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Although data on chemical properties of Achillea species are numerous, morphological studies are rare. Therefore, during 1995-97, some morphological and production biological characters (height, width, number of stems, dry flower mass and leaf colour) of Achillea crithmifolia, their stability over years and generations, their dependence upon plant age and their correlations with the accumulation of essential oil were examined. The populations investigated were raised from seed materials stored in the genebank of the Department.The considerable diversity of the populations indicated a high degree of heterozygosity of these traits in natural stands. Variability was highest in number of stems (15.3-37.4 pieces) and essential oil content (0.63-1.27%). This variability did not disappear during three successive generations of inbreeding, although a decrease in variance was observed. Essential oil content was shown to have a higher heritability than other properties. Correlations of plant height, width and number of shoots were medium (r = 0.539-0.757), and their correlation with the essential oil content was also significant. Both the year of examination and age of the plants exerted a strong influence on most of the characters studied.
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  • 77
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were generated from 20 wheat, Triticum aestivum lines. Fifty-four fragments generated by six primers of a 10-mer arbitrary sequence were used to study their potential power in differentiating parents with different characteristics and predicting the yield performance of hybrids produced from these parents. Experimental results showed that the 20 wheat lines were divided into four groups. Group I was characterized by more grains per spike, group II by heavy grains and group III by more spikes per unit area and short plants; group IV was similar to group III but had a much higher biomass yield and grain yield. Hybrids from parents in different groups were generally superior to most hybrids from parents in the same group. Both yield performance and heterosis of hybrids from parents between group I and group III were much better than those of other intergroup hybrids. These results suggest that, based on RAPD markers, it is possible to differentiate wheat lines with different performances and that the classification of parents from these markers is of predictive value for developing superior hybrids. However, genetic distance (GD) based on RAPD markers was not significantly correlated with hybrid performance and heterosis. It appears to be impossible to predict hybrid performance from GD itself.
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