Description / Table of Contents:
Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed across the earth. Utilizing a holistic approach to the environment, the authors show how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the ways in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern natural science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. Following the introduction, the second part of the book provides basic information on the origin, properties, and time variability of cosmic radiation, and the concepts, terminology and formulate that will be used in the later chapters. The third part discusses in detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The fourth part of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different contexts (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors outline the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level accessible to graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.
Type of Medium:
Monograph available for loan
XVI, 426 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
Physics of earth and space environments
Contents: Part 1 Introduction. - 1 Motivation. - 2 Goals. - Reference. - 3 Setting the Stage and Outline. - Part 2 Cosmic Radiation. - 4 Introduction to Cosmic Radiation. - 5 The Cosmic Radiation Near Earth. - 5.1 Introduction and History of Cosmic Ray Research. - 5.2 The "Rosetta Stone" of Paleocosmic Ray Studies. - 5.3 Some Important Definitions. - 5.4 The Origin and Properties of the Galactic Cosmic Radiation. - 5.5 Our Variable Sun. - 5.6 The Heliosphere, the Termination Shock, and the Current Sheet. - 5.7 Modulation of the Cosmic Radiation in the Heliosphere. - 5.7.1 The Cosmic Ray Propagation Equation. - 5.7.2 The Local Interstellar Spectrum. - 5.7.3 The Cosmic Ray Modulation Function and Potential. - 5.7.4 Practical Applications of the Modulation Function. - 5.7.5 Drift Effects (qA Positive and qA Negative Effects). - 5.7.6 Shock Wave Effects (The Forbush Decrease and GMIRs). - 5.8 Geomagnetic Field Effects. - 5.8.1 The Properties of the Geomagnetic Field. - 5.8.2 The Geomagnetic Cut-off Rigidity. - 5.8.3 The Earth's Magnetosphere and the Polar Aurora. - References. - 6 Instrumental Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 Ionization Chambers and Muon Telescopes. - 6.3 The IGY and IQSY Neutron Monitors, and Spaceship Earth. - 6.4 Satellite Borne Detectors. - 6.5 Latitude Effects and the Yield Functions. - 6.6 Inter-calibration of the Different Cosmic Ray Records. - 6.7 Cosmic Ray Archives. - References. - 7 Time Variations of the Cosmic Radiation. - 7.1 Introduction and Atmospheric Effects. - 7.2 The Eleven-and Twenty-Two-Year Variations. - 7.3 The Long-term Variations. - 7.4 Forbush Decreases, Globally Merged Interaction Regions and Some Smaller Effects. - References. - 8 The Solar Cosmic Radiation. - 8.1 Historical Overview. - 8.2 The Observed Production of Cosmic Rays by the Sun. - 8.2.1Ground Level Events. - 8.2.2 SEP Events Observed by Satellites. - 8.2.3 Paleo-Cosmic Ray Measurements of SEP Events. - 8.3 Overall Characteristics of the Solar Cosmic Radiation. - 8.3.1 The Energy Spectra. - 8.3.2 The Effect of Longitude Relative to the Central Solar Meridian. - 8.3.3 The Frequency of Occurrence, and the Detection of Historic SEP Events. - References. - Part 3 Cosmogenic Radionuclides. - 9 Introduction to Cosmogenic Radionuclides. - 10 Production of Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Atmosphere. - 10.1 Introduction. - 10.2 Interaction of Primary Cosmic Rays with the Atmosphere. - 10.2.1 Production of Secondary Particles. - 10.2.2 Ionization and Excitation Processes. - 10.2.3 Simulated Atmospheric Proton and Neutron Fluxes. - 10.3 Production of Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Atmosphere. - 10.3.1 Early Production Models. - 10.3.2 Production Cross-Sections. - 10.3.3 Production Rates and Inventories. - 10.4 Production Results and Analytical Tools. - References. - 11 Production of Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Other Environmental Systems. - 11.1 Introduction. - 11.2 Terrestrial Solid Matter (Rocks, Ice). - 11.2.1 36Cl Production in Limestone and Dolomite. - 11.2.2 10Be and 14C Production in Ice. - 11.3 Extraterrestrial Solid Matter. - References. - 12 Alternative Production Mechanisms. - 12.1 Introduction. - 12.2 Natural Production Mechanisms. - 12.2.1 Cosmic Ray Induced Reactions. - 12.2.2 Radioactive Decay-Induced Reactions. - 12.3 Anthropogenic Production Mechanisms. - 12.3.1 Nuclear Power Plant and Nuclear Bomb-Induced Reactions. - 12.3.2 Research, Industrial, and Medical Induced Reactions. - References. - 13 Transport and Deposition. - 13.1 Introduction. - 13.2 Basics of the Atmosphere. - 13.3 Removal or Scavenging Processes. - 13.3.1 Wet Deposition. - 13.3.2 Dry Deposition. - 13.3.3 Gravitational Settling. - 13.3.4 The Big Picture. - 13.4 Modelling the Atmospheric Transport. - 13.4.1 Summary. - 13.5 Geochemical Cycles. - 13.5.1 Introduction. - 13.5.2 The Beryllium Cycle. - 13.5.3 Carbon Cycle. - 13.5.4 The Chlorine Cycle. - 13.5.5 The Iodine Cycle. - References. - 14 Archives. - 14.1 Introduction. - 14.2 Intrinsic Properties of the Cosmogenic Radionuclide Archives. - 14.3 Time Scales. - 14.4 Examples of Archives. - 14.5 Proxies and Surrogates. - 14.6 Properties of Data in the Cosmogenic Archives. - 14.6.1 Sampling Effects. - 14.6.2 Transfer Functions. - 14.7 Modelled Transfer Functions. - 14.7.1 10Be and 7Be in the Atmosphere. - 14.7.2 10Be and 26Al in Deep-Sea Sediments. - References. - 15 Detection. - 15.1 Introduction. - 15.2 Low-Level Decay Counting. - 15.3 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. - 15.4 Decay Versus Atom Counting. - 15.5 Other Techniques, Optical Methods. - 15.5.1 Final Remarks. - References. - Part 4 Applications. - 16 Introduction to Applications. - 17 Solar Physics. - 17.1 Introduction. - 17.2 Solar Periodicities and the "Grand Minima" in the Cosmogenic Radionuclide Record. - 17.2.1 Solar Periodicities: Time Domain Studies. - 17.2.2 Solar Periodicities: Frequency Domain Studies. - 17.3 Cosmic Rayand Solar Effects in the Past. - 17.3.1 The Past Millennium. - 17.3.2 The Past 10,000 Years (the "Holocene"). - 17.3.3 The Long Solar Minimum of 2007-2009. - 17.4 The Heliomagnetic Field Throughout the Past 10,000 Years. - 17.5 Solar Irradiance and Terrestrial Climate. - 17.6 Radiation Doses on Earth and in Space in the Future. - 17.7 Quantitative Measures of Solar Activity for the Past. - 17.7.1 Reconstructed Sunspot Numbers. - 17.7.2 Modulation Function. - References. - 18 Galactic Astronomy. - 18.1 Introduction. - 18.2 Galactic Structure. - 18.3 Individual Supernova. - References. - 19 Atmosphere. - 19.1 Introduction. - 19.2 Studies of Atmospheric Mixing. - 19.3 36Cl Bomb Pulse as a Tracer of Atmospheric Transport. - 19.4 Concentrations and Fluxes. - References. - 20 Hydrosphere. - 20.1 Introduction. - 20.2 Tritium. - 20.3 Carbon-14. - 20.4 Krypton-81. - 20.5 Chlorine-36. - 20.6 Beryllium-7 to Beryllium-10 Ratio. - References. - 21 Geosphere. - 21.1 Introduction. - 21.2 Geomagnetic Field Intensity. - 21.3 Transport of Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Geological Systems. - 21.3.1 Introduction. - 21.3.2 Migration in Ice. - 21.3.3 Transport in Soils. - 21.3.4 Transport in Rocks. - 21.3.5 Formation of Loess Plateaus. - 21.3.6 Subduction. - References. - 22 Biosphere. - 22.1 Introduction. - 22.2 Radiocarbon Applications. - 22.3 Chlorine-36 in Ecosystems. - 22.4 Iodine-129. - 22.5 Aluminium-26. - References. - 23 Dating. - 23.1 Introduction. - 23.2 Absolute Dating. - 23.2.1 Principle of Radiocarbon Dating. - 23.2.2 Exposure Dating. - 23.2.3 10Be/36Cl- and 7Be/10Be-Dating. - 23.3 Synchronization of Records. - 23.3.1 10Be or 36Cl with 14C During the Holocene. - 23.3.2 The Use of Time Markers. - References. - Glossary. - Index.
AWI Reading room