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  • Articles  (340)
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  • Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)  (325)
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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Paid parental leave schemes have been shown to increase women's employment rates but decrease their wages in case of extended leave durations. In view of these potential trade-offs, many countries are discussing the optimal design of parental leave policies. We analyze the impact of a major parental leave reform on mothers' long-term earnings. The 2007 German parental leave reform replaced a means-tested benefit with a more generous earnings-related benefit that is granted for a shorter period of time. Additionally, a "daddy quota" of two months was introduced. To identify the causal effect of this policy on long-run earnings of mothers, we use a difference-in-difference approach that compares labor market outcomes of mothers who gave birth just before and right after the reform and nets out seasonal effects by including the year before. Using administrative social security data, we confirm previous findings and show that the average duration of employment interruptions increased for high-income mothers. Nevertheless, we find a positive long-run effect on earnings for mothers in this group. This effect cannot be explained by changes in working hours, observed characteristics, changes in employer stability or fertility patterns. Descriptive evidence suggests that the stronger involvement of fathers, incentivized by the "daddy months", could have facilitated mothers' re-entry into the labor market and thereby increased earnings. For mothers with low prior-to-birth earnings, however, we do not find any beneficial labor market effects of this parental leave reform.
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; J22 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; wages ; labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: We analyze self-selection of refugees and irregular migrants and test our theory in the context of the European refugee crisis. Using unique datasets from the International Organization for Migration and Gallup World Polls, we provide the first large-scale evidence on reasons to emigrate, and the self-selection and sorting of refugees and irregular migrants. Refugees and female irregular migrants are positively self-selected with respect to human capital, while male irregular migrants are negatively self-selected. These patterns are similar when analyzing individually stated main reason to emigrate, country-level conflict intensity, and sub-regional conflict intensity. Migrants respond to economic incentives and border policies.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J16 ; J24 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; international migration ; refugees ; irregular migrants ; self-selection ; human capital ; gender differences in migration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Using quantile regression methods, this paper analyses the gender wage gap across the wage distribution and over time (1990-2014), while controlling for changing sample selection into full-time employment. Our findings show that the selection-corrected gender wage gap is much larger than the one observed in the data, which is mainly due to large positive selection of women into full-time employment. However, we show that selection-corrected wages of male and female workers at the lower half of the distribution have moderately converged over time. The reason for this development have been changes in the composition of the male full-time employment force over time, which in spite of the rather constant male full-time employment rate, have given place to a small but rising selection bias in male observed wages. In the upper half of the wage distribution, however, neither the observed nor the selection-corrected gender wage gap has narrowed over time.
    Keywords: J31 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; quantile regression ; selection into employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-03-21
    Description: Der Gender Pay Gap beträgt in Deutschland 21 Prozent und ist in Teilen darauf zurückzuführen, dass Männer und Frauen in unterschiedlichen Berufen arbeiten. Allerdings sind auch innerhalb der Berufe beachtliche Verdienstunterschiede zwischen Männern und Frauen zu beobachten, deren Höhe sich aber zwischen den Berufen stark unterscheidet. Der Gender Pay Gap ist in den Berufen besonders stark ausgeprägt, in denen der Stundenlohn überproportional mit den Arbeitsstunden ansteigt. Außerdem weisen Berufe mit einem großen Anteil an Führungspositionen einen höheren Gender Pay Gap auf. Berufe, die größtenteils in öffentlichen Unternehmen ausgeführt werden, haben tendenziell kleinere Verdienstlücken. Veränderungen in der Arbeitsorganisation, die flexiblere Arbeitszeiten und Top-Sharing, also dem Aufteilen einer Führungsposition auf zwei Teilzeitstellen, ermöglichen, könnten dazu beitragen, dass der Gender Pay Gap sinkt. Zudem könnten Tarifverträge, wie sie im meist bei öffentlichen Arbeitgebern gelten, zu einer Reduzierung des Gender Pay Gaps führen.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J33 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; wage distribution ; Part Time Gap ; occupations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Germany has a large persistent Gender Pay Gap of 21%; although this gap is not constant across occupations. The question arises why some occupations have large Gender Pay Gaps while others have only small gaps. Using data from the Structural Earnings Study merged with occupational task information provided by the Federal Labor Office, this paper aims to uncover the relationship between occupational characteristics and the Gender Pay Gap. To do so, I apply a two-step approach, where the first step uses individual characteristics to estimate the adjusted occupation-specific Gender Pay Gaps. In the second step, these gaps are regressed on occupational characteristics. I find that wage differences between men and women are lower in occupations with linear earnings and in occupations with a large share of public firms. Moreover, we observe that an increasing share of persons with supervisory power is linked to larger wage differences between men and women, which indicates the presence of a glass ceiling. Finally, the Gender Pay Gap is higher in occupations with routine tasks. Moreover, the findings suggest that the more that employees can be substituted with other employees, the lower is the Gender Pay Gap. Hence, this study extends previous findings on occupation-specific Gender Pay Gaps by linking them to occupational characteristics on a more general level.
    Keywords: J3 ; J31 ; J24 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; gender pay gap ; segregation ; discrimination ; wage differentials ; occupations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Women-friendly policies may have perverse effects on the wages of employed women and mothers in particular. Yet few have addressed the causal impact of such policies and the mechanisms they might trigger at the individual level to produce such wage responses. We assess if and how two decades of reforms of parental leave schemes in Germany have shaped changes in the motherhood wage penalty over time. We compare two sweeps of reforms inspired by opposite principles, one allowing for longer periods out of paid work, the other prompting quicker re-entry in the labour market. We deploy panel data (SOEP 1985-2014) and a within-person difference-in-differences design. Motherhood wage penalties were found to be harsher than previously assessed in the 1990s. As parental leave reform triggered longer time spent on leave coupled with better tenure accumulation, wage losses for mothers remained stable in this first period. Conversely, we can no longer detect motherhood wage penalties for women affected by the later reform. Shorter career breaks and increased work hours may have benefited new mothers in the late 2000s, leading to a substantial improvement in their wage prospects.
    Keywords: D13 ; J13 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; motherhood wage penalty ; difference-in-difference ; gender inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-17
    Description: The gender pay gap of 21 percent in Germany is partly due to the fact that men and women work in different occupations. However, considerable pay gaps between men and women can also be observed within occupations, although the gap is not constant across occupations. In particular, there is a substantial gender pay gap in occupations with non-linear earnings, i.e. earnings increase non-linearly with the number of hours worked. Additionally, occupations which have a high share of leadership positions exhibit a larger gender pay gap. Occupations at public companies tend to have smaller pay gaps. Changes in the organization of work that allow more flexible working hours and top-sharing (dividing a management position into two part-time positions) could help reducing the gender pay gap. Moreover, collective agreements, which usually apply to public sector employers, could also lead to a reduction in the pay gap.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J33 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; wage distribution ; Part Time Gap ; occupations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: This paper investigates the role of works councils in job satisfaction. Using the recently developed Linked Personnel Panel, we consider both the direct and indirect impact via further training. Basic estimates on an individual level do not reveal clearly direct effects, but on an establishment level, the existence of a works council increases the average job satisfaction in a company. In more extended approaches, we also find a positive, weakly significant link on an individual level accompanied by positive training with regard to job satisfaction if we control for personal characteristics, working conditions, firm size, collegiality variables and industry dummies. Firms with industry-wide bargaining agreements drive this result. The effects are stronger if the firm carries the training costs and if the share of trained workers within the firm measures training. The direct impact of works councils remains positive but becomes insignificant if Lewbel's instrumental variables estimator is applied.
    Keywords: J24 ; J28 ; J53 ; ddc:330 ; job satisfaction ; training ; works councils
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel, the influence of the body mass index on health, earnings and satisfaction is analysed by gender. Basic results are: health worsens, income declines and satisfaction is poorer with higher body mass index. If control variables are added, estimates are split by gender and different effects of over- and underweight people are determined, the health estimates show nonlinear effects but the direction of action is unchanged. Effects on earnings differ. Underweight women earn more and overweight less than others. For normal-weight men the income is on average higher than for over- and underweight men. This is also confirmed for self-employed persons. The pattern for employees is equal to the total sample. No effects on life satisfaction can be found except for underweight men. They reveal less satisfaction. Only in the public sector the sign of the coefficient changes. The results for eastern Germany are different with respect to satisfaction. Overweight women are less satisfied than others while this is not confirmed for underweight men from eastern Germany. When interdependencies are taken into account and matching procedures are applied, the outcome matches to that of independent and unmatched estimates. However, no clear-cut disadvantage in income of underweight men can be found. Stable coefficients result for the health estimates while satisfaction results fluctuate. Underweight women and especially underweight men tend to less happiness. For overweight men the influence is ambiguous but more speaks in favour of a less level of satisfaction. Overweight women seem to be happier.
    Keywords: I15 ; I31 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; over- and underweight ; health ; income ; satisfaction ; gender ; self-confidence ; wage earners vs. self-employed ; private vs. public sector ; eastern vs. western Germany ; interdependencies ; matching
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: In dieser Studie werden auf der Basis einer Weiterentwicklung des ZEW Mikrosimulationsmodells des Abgaben- Steuer- und Transfersystems fiskalische und individuelle Nettoerträge und Renditen von Bildungsinvestitionen für junge Erwachsene bezogen auf das Jahr 2016 untersucht und mit früheren Schätzungen bezogen auf das Jahr 2012 verglichen. Nach den Ergebnissen liegt die fiskalische Bildungsrendite pro Auszubildenden bei einer Ausbildungsdauer von vier Jahren und über das Erwerbsleben hinweg bei 20,6%, im Vergleich zu einer Person ohne Berufsausbildung. Im Falle von Personen mit einem Schul- und Hochschulabschluss, erworben im Alter zwischen 17 und 25 Jahren und betrachtet bis zum Alter von 66 Jahren, beträgt die fiskalische Rendite 10,2%, ebenfalls im Vergleich zu einer Person ohne Berufsausbildung. Während die individuellen Bildungsrenditen aus dem Bruttoeinkommen im Mittel bei über 10% liegen, schrumpfen sie nach Abzug von Steuern und Sozialabgaben sowie aufgrund des Transferentzugs auf etwa 6%. Dies verdeutlicht empirisch das Ausmaß signifikanter Interdependenzen zwischen Bildungs-, Steuer- und Sozialpolitik. Im Vergleich zu 2012 sind die fiskalischen Renditen für die Ausbildung etwas gestiegen und für die Kombination Schule/Studium etwas gefallen.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestitionen ; Bildungsrenditen ; Steuer- und Transsystem
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 12
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Part-time work has vastly expanded in most OECD labor markets during the last decades. At the same time, full- and part-time wages have grown increasingly apart, leading to a substantial raw part-time wage penalty. Using quantile regression methods, this paper analyses the female part-time wage gap across the wage distribution and over time (1990-2009), while controlling for sample selection into full- and part-time employment. The estimated part-time gap is much lower than the raw gap. Nonetheless, a persistent part-time penalty is found for the lowest wage quartile. The wide divide between the observed and estimated part-time gap is due to strong positive selection into full-time work, which increases over time. On the contrary, sample selection into part-time employment goes from being positive at the beginning of the 1990s to disappearing by the end of the 2000s, even turning negative at the lower end of the distribution. An exploration of potential mechanisms reveals a large prevalence of job mismatch at the lower end of the part-time wage distribution as well as rising differences in the distribution of job tasks between full- and part-time employment.
    Keywords: J31 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; part-time employment ; female wages ; selection into employment ; quantile regression
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-29
    Description: In this study we investigate the link between the job search channels that workers use to find employment and the probability of occupational mismatch in the new job. Our specific focus is on differences between native and immigrant workers. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) over the period 2000-2014. First, we document that referral hiring via social networks is the most frequent single channel of generating jobs in Germany; in relative terms referrals are used more frequently by immigrant workers compared to natives. Second, our data reveals that referral hiring is associated with the highest rate of occupational mismatch among all channels in Germany. We combine these findings and use them to develop a theoretical search and matching model with two ethnic groups of workers (natives and immigrants), two search channels (formal and referral hiring) and two occupations. When modeling social networks we take into account ethnic and professional homophily in the link formation. Our model predicts that immigrant workers face stronger risk of unemployment and often rely on recommendations from their friends and relatives as a channel of last resort. Furthermore, higher rates of referral hiring produce more frequent occupational mismatch of the immigrant population compared to natives. We test this prediction empirically and confirm that more intensive network hiring contributes significantly to higher rates of occupational mismatch among immigrants. Finally, we document that the gaps in the incidence of referrals and mismatch rates are reduced among second generation immigrants indicating some degree of integration in the German labour market.
    Keywords: J23 ; J31 ; J38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; job search ; referrals ; social networks ; occupational mismatch ; immigration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-06-19
    Description: Sprachliche Fähigkeiten unterscheiden sich bei Kindern im Alter von vier bis fünf Jahren mitunter deutlich nach der Bildung der Eltern. Die meisten bisherigen Studien - und damit auch viele bildungspolitische Maßnahmen - orientierten sich mit Blick auf die Sprachkompetenzwerte am Durchschnitt innerhalb der verschiedenen Bildungsgruppen. Dieser Bericht zeigt, dass dies zu kurz greift und mögliche Ungleichheitsmuster im Verborgenen bleiben. Als einer von wenigen untersucht er die Verteilung der Sprachkompetenzen detaillierter. Dabei zeigt sich auf Basis von Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS), dass die Unterschiede nach der Bildung der Eltern im unteren Sprachleistungsbereich deutlich größer sind. Kinder mit niedrigerem Bildungshintergrund sind also stärker benachteiligt und müssen sehr viel mehr aufholen als bisher gedacht. Die Ergebnisse sind insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund relevant, dass jährlich mehrere Millionen Euro in Förderprogramme zum Spracherwerb fließen. Um Unterschiede nach der Bildung der Eltern zu reduzieren, sollten Programme so ausgestaltet sein, dass leistungsschwächere Kinder aus bildungsferneren Familien deutlich gezielter unterstützt werden.
    Keywords: I24 ; J13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; language competencies ; inequality ; parental educational background
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: By merging administrative data on public finances of all municipalities in Germany with individual data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we explore whether local public expenditures on sports facilities influences individual labor market outcomes. Our identification strategy follows a selection-on-observables approach and exploits the panel structure of the data covering 12 years between 2001 and 2012. The results of our matching estimations suggest that both women and men living in municipalities with high expenditure levels benefit, exhibiting approximately 7 percent of additional household net income on average. However, this income effect is fully captured by earning gains for men rather than women living in the household. Additional analysis suggests, that these gender differences, which can also be observed in terms of working time, hourly wage and employment status, appear plausible since women in the age cohort under consideration are less likely than men to engage in sports in general and in any of the publicly funded sports facilities in particular. Moreover, improved well-being and health are possible mechanisms that determine how the positive labor market effects for men may unfold.
    Keywords: Z20 ; H72 ; H75 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; labor market effects ; public expenditures ; sports ; health ; well-being
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: In vielen europäischen Ländern lässt sich eine erhebliche geschlechtsspezifische Rentenlücke verzeichnen. Die Gender Pension Gaps variieren jedoch stark zwischen den Ländern. Diese länderübergreifende Studie analysiert, welche institutionellen und arbeitsmarktspezifischen Faktoren in einem Zusammenhang mit den Gender Pension Gaps stehen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Gender Pension Gaps tendenziell in denjenigen Ländern größer sind, die einen größeren geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschied in der Erwerbstätigenquote oder in der Teilzeitquote aufweisen. Dagegen lässt sich kein eindeutiger statistischer Zusammenhang mit den untersuchten Merkmalen der Rentensysteme in Europa identifizieren. Die Ergebnisse unterstreichen damit, dass die Geschlechterungleichheiten am Arbeitsmarkt und im Renteneinkommen zusammenhängen. Um die Rentenlücken zu reduzieren, sollten daher die Erwerbsbiografien von Frauen gestärkt werden, indem die Politik bessere Voraussetzungen für die Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf schafft. Zudem sollte sie steuerlich und familienpolitisch genug Anreize setzen, damit die Erwerbs- und Sorgearbeit im Haushaltskontext gleichmäßiger aufgeteilt und honoriert wird.
    Keywords: H55 ; J14 ; J16 ; J22 ; J31 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pension Gap ; Europe ; pension system ; labor market inequality ; gender inequality ; SHARE
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: In many European countries, there is a substantial gender pension gap. Yet, these gaps vary strongly across countries. This cross-national study examines to what extent institutional and labor market-specific factors correlate with gender pension gaps. The findings show that the gender pension gap tends to be larger in countries with larger gender-specific differences in the employment or part-time employment rate. On the contrary, the study does not find a clear statistical relationship between pension gaps and the characteristics of pension systems that were examined. The findings emphasize that gender inequalities in the labor market and in pension income are related across countries. In order to reduce pension gaps, policy makers should strengthen women's working lives by creating better conditions for the reconciliation of work and family. Moreover, they should provide more tax- and family policy-related incentives for a more equal division and acknowledgment of gainful employment and care work in the household context.
    Keywords: H55 ; J14 ; J16 ; J22 ; J31 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pension Gap ; Europe ; pension system ; labor market inequality ; gender inequality ; SHARE
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: Although universal childcare has become an essential tool to support child development, few economic studies analyze its effects on non-cognitive skills and little is known about causal effects on these skills in the long run. In this paper we go beyond short run analyses and examine the long run effects of one additional year of universal childcare on students' personality traits in adolescence. We focus on personality traits as part of their non-cognitive skills set and as important predictors of later educational achievements. As of 1996, a legal entitlement to universal childcare applied to children of three years and older in Germany. However, severe shortages in the former-West meant that many children could not get a childcare place and had to wait a full year until the next entry date. Using data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) we estimate effects of one additional year of childcare by exploiting geographical variation in the timing of childcare entry arising from local supply constraints. We find that an earlier entry in universal childcare increases extroversion in adolescence, which has been shown to be associated with favorable labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; J18 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; early childcare ; non-cognitive skills ; personality traits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: This study provides new evidence on the levels of economic integration experienced by foreigners and naturalised immigrants relative to native Germans from 1994 to 2015. We decompose the wage gap using the method for unconditional quantile regression models by employing a regression of the (recentered) influence function (RIF) of the gross hourly wage on a rich set of explanatory variables. This approach enables us to estimate contributions made across the whole wage distribution. To allow for a detailed characterization of labour market conditions, we consider a comprehensive set of socio-economic and labour-related aspects capturing influences of, e.g., human capital quality, cultural background, and the personalities of immigrants. The decomposition results clearly indicate a significant growing gap with higher wages for both foreigners (13.6 to 17.6 %) and naturalised immigrants (10.0 to 16.4 %). The findings further display a low explanation for the wage gap in low wage deciles that is even more pronounced within immigrant subgroups. Cultural and economic distances each have a significant influence on wages. A different appreciation of foreign educational qualifications, however, widens the wage gap substantially by 4.5 ppts on average. Moreover, we observe an indication of deterioration of immigrants' human capital endowments over time relative to those of native Germans.
    Keywords: J61 ; J31 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; immigration ; wage gap ; unconditional quantile regression ; Germany
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: There has been a universal statutory minimum wage in Germany for a good four years, but many employees still do not receive it. This is the finding of new calculations based on the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), which have updated noncompliance with the minimum wage for 2017. Even conservative calculations indicate that around 1.3 million people who are entitled to the minimum wage receive a lower wage in their main employment. And they are joined by around a half a million persons in secondary employment. The contractually agreed wages of the ten percent of employees with the lowest wages did indeed rise by around 13 percent between 2014 and 2016. But despite the first-time minimum wage hike to 8.84 euros in 2017, the positive trend did not continue. The extent to which the decision of the European Court of Justice, which obligates employers to record all of the hours worked by employees, can curb noncompliance with the minimum wage depends on how the decision is implemented in practice. Further, the implementation of a 'fair-pay label' to identify companies that can provide traceable documentation of their compliance with the minimum wage is recommended. As with organic certification, such a seal would enable consumers to make conscious informed decisions about which products and services from which manufacturers and providers to buy.
    Keywords: B41 ; C83 ; D31 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; inequality ; employment ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-08-20
    Description: Seit gut vier Jahren gilt in Deutschland ein allgemeiner Mindestlohn - doch nach wie vor erhalten ihn viele ArbeitnehmerInnen nicht. Das zeigen neue Berechnungen auf Basis des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP), die die Nichteinhaltung des Mindestlohns für das Jahr 2017 fortschreiben. Demnach wurden selbst bei einer konservativen Schätzung rund 1,3 Millionen anspruchsberechtigte Personen im Rahmen einer Hauptbeschäftigung unterhalb des Mindestlohns bezahlt. Hinzu kommen etwa eine halbe Million Beschäftige in einer Nebentätigkeit. Zwar sind die vertraglich vereinbarten Löhne der zehn Prozent der Beschäftigten mit den niedrigsten Löhnen in den Jahren 2014 bis 2016 um rund 13 Prozent gestiegen. Trotz der erstmaligen Anhebung des Mindestlohns auf 8,84 Euro im Jahr 2017 hat sich dieser positive Trend aber nicht fortgesetzt. Inwiefern die Nichteinhaltung des Mindestlohns mit dem Urteil des Europäischen Gerichtshofs zur verpflichtenden Erfassung der gesamten Arbeitszeiten der Beschäftigten eingedämmt werden kann, hängt von der konkreten Umsetzung dieses Urteils ab. Darüber hinaus wäre die Einführung einer "Fair Pay"-Plakette zur Kennzeichnung von Betrieben, die die Arbeitszeit nachvollziehbar dokumentieren, ratsam. VerbraucherInnen könnten dann - wie beim Biosiegel - bewusste und informierte Konsumentscheidungen treffen.
    Keywords: B41 ; C83 ; D31 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; inequality ; employment ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 22
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-13
    Description: Die Arbeitsproduktivität hat in der Bundesrepublik gesamtwirtschaftlich über die Jahrzehnte immer langsamer zugelegt; zuletzt hat sie nur noch stagniert. Das steht in Kontrast zum steigenden Qualifikationsniveau der Arbeitskräfte infolge einer rasanten Akademisierung. Beides sind Phänomene, die auch in anderen entwickelten Ländern zu beobachten sind. Mitunter wird als Ursache auf den sektoralen Wandel verwiesen. Tatsächlich hat die Verschiebung der Wirtschaftsaktivitäten hin zu den Dienstleistungen die Produktivitätsentwicklung seit der Jahrtausendwende gehemmt; groß war der Bremseffekt aber nicht. Anknüpfend an eine Debatte etwa in den USA wird in diesem Bericht der Blick auf Bürokratisierungstendenzen gerichtet. So zeigt eine Auswertung der Daten des Mikrozensus, dass Jobs, die zum Kernbereich von Bürokratien zu zählen sind, in Deutschland an Bedeutung gewonnen haben. Dies könnte ein Grund für das geringe Produktivitätswachstum sein. Ob dieser Zusammenhang tatsächlich empirisch belegbar ist und inwieweit diese Entwicklung zur Abschwächung des Produktivitätsanstiegs beigetragen hat, muss durch weitere Forschung geklärt werden.
    Keywords: J24 ; O40 ; I25 ; ddc:330 ; productivity growth ; academization ; bureaucratization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 23
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-13
    Description: After developing at an increasingly slower pace over the decades, labor productivity in Germany has recently stagnated. This is in contrast to the development of the workforce's qualifications, which have been growing steadily due to rapid academicization. These phenomena can be found in other developed countries and are often attributed to sectoral change. Indeed, the shift of economic activity towards services has hampered productivity growth since the turn of the millennium, but not to a large extent. Picking up on a debate in the USA, this report looks at bureaucratization trends. For example, an analysis of German data from the European Labour Force Survey shows that jobs vital to bureaucracies have gained in importance in Germany, one possible reason for low productivity growth. Further research is needed to determine whether this link can be empirically proven and to what extent this development has contributed to the slowdown in productivity growth.
    Keywords: J24 ; O40 ; I25 ; ddc:330 ; productivity growth ; academization ; bureaucratization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-10-24
    Description: Die Entscheidung für oder gegen ein Studium hängt in Deutschland nach wie vor von sozioökonomischen Merkmalen ab. Dazu zählen etwa die Bildung der Eltern oder das Einkommen des Haushalts, in dem Abiturientinnen und Abiturienten aufgewachsen sind. Bisher eher unbeachtet blieb die Frage, welchen Einfluss Persönlichkeitseigenschaften haben. Die vorliegende Studie zeigt auf Basis des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS), dass diese bei der Studienabsicht, der Studienaufnahme und auch der damit einhergehenden Studienfachwahl eine Rolle spielen. Offenheit und Gewissenhaftigkeit beeinflussen die Studienentscheidung und sind darüber hinaus auch bedeutend für die Auswahl der Studienfächer. Abiturientinnen und Abiturienten, die eher organisiert und verantwortungsbewusst sind, studieren mit einer höheren Wahrscheinlichkeit Medizin oder Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Sind sie eher kommunikativ, entscheiden sie sich häufiger für Rechts-, Sozialund Wirtschaftswissenschaften und seltener für MINT-Fächer. Wenn der Studierendenanteil in bestimmten Fächern erhöht werden soll, sollten Informationen über einzelne Studienfächer so aufbereitet und vermittelt werden, dass sie nicht an Abiturientinnen und Abiturienten mit bestimmten Persönlichkeitseigenschaften vorbeizielen.
    Keywords: I21 ; I24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; college enrollment ; college major choice ; personality traits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-11-21
    Description: Die Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen ist in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten deutlich gestiegen. Immer mehr von ihnen arbeiten jedoch in Teilzeit: In Westdeutschland waren es 2017 gut 38 Prozent, in Ostdeutschland etwa 27 Prozent - deutlich mehr als noch Mitte der 1990er Jahre. Gleichzeitig ist die durchschnittliche Stundenlohnlücke zwischen Vollzeit- und Teilzeitjobs, der Part-time Wage Gap, erheblich größer geworden: Frauen, die in Teilzeit arbeiten, bekommen durchschnittlich rund 17 Prozent weniger Lohn pro Stunde als Frauen, die in Vollzeit arbeiten. Wie dieser Bericht auf Basis von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) außerdem zeigt, reduzieren Frauen bei der Familiengründung ihre Arbeitszeit, kehren aber auch dann nur selten wieder auf eine Vollzeitstelle zurück, wenn die Kinder älter sind. Um einer Teilzeitfalle entgegenzuwirken, kann das zum Jahresbeginn eingeführte Rückkehrrecht auf eine Vollzeitstelle ein erster Schritt sein. Allerdings muss auch die Familienpolitik, beispielsweise durch einen weiteren Ausbau der Ganztagesbetreuung von Schulkindern, noch stärker zur Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf beitragen. Außerdem könnte eine Reform des Ehegattensplittings dazu führen, dass eine Ausweitung der Arbeitszeit für Frauen attraktiver wird.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; part-time employment ; wages
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Providing equal opportunities to all members of society independent of an individual's socioeconomic background is a major objective of German policy makers. However, evidence on the access to education suggests that opportunities of children with a non-academic family background are still unequally obstructed. When analysing the labour market implications of this disadvantage in human capital, social capital as an additional source of inequality often lacks attention. Drawing on the instrumental value of rather loose contacts (i.e. weak ties) on the labour market as revealed by Mark Granovetter (1974), this research paper goes beyond the human capital approach and includes a measure of instrumental social capital in the form of weak-tie career support in the earnings function. We shed light on the structure of the wage gap between those with and without an academic family background and complement an Oaxaca- Blinder decomposition with quantile regressions to analyse potential capital and return deficits separately. We find that a significant part of the wage gap can be explained by deficits that those from less educated families incur with respect to human and instrumental social capital. While the capital deficit due to educational attainment is larger, a non-academic family background is further associated with a significant deficit in returns to instrumental social capital at some parts of the distribution. As this suggests inequalities of opportunity on the German labour market to occur along the lines of parental education even beyond the education system, it urges policy makers to consider designing equality measures that do the same.
    Keywords: I24 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; wage gap ; (non-)academic family background ; German labour market ; Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition ; quantile regression ; human capital ; instrumental social capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-12-28
    Description: Does the federal minimum wage in Germany introduced in 2015 improve the income situation of low income households and reduce in-work poverty? Previous literature on its distributional impact was either focused on earnings and hourly wages (e.g. Caliendo et al., 2017), or is based on ex-ante simulations (e.g. Müller and Steiner, 2013). This paper provides systematic descriptive ex-post evidence on the distributional implications of the German minimum wage on wages and disposable household incomes as well as some underlying mechanisms. We analyze various measures of hourly wage and disposable household income distributions, both, for the group of affected individuals and the entire population. Most approaches identify individuals affected by the minimum wage based on pre-reform wages ignoring large job fluctuations and measurement error at the bottom of the wage distribution. In contrast, we define the group of affected by people's relative position in the wage distribution in each respective year. Full compliance scenarios are simulated at the actual and markedly higher minimum wage levels to interpret observational outcomes and gauge the redistributive potential of the minimum wage. We find evidence for wage increases at the bottom of the wage distribution. Effects on wage inequality are limited because of non-compliance, difficulties in hourly wage measurement in certain types employment, and unequal wage growth across the distribution. Confirming previous simulation evidence the minimum wage proves to be an ineffective tool for the redistribution of disposable household incomes. Overall inequality has even increased slightly as incomes of poor households grew below average. Affected households are not found primarily at the bottom, but rather in the middle of the income distribution. Working hours of individuals and earnings of other members in households affected by the minimum wage decreased. Benefit withdrawal is of minor importance as welfare transfers and top-up benefits were only marginally reduced by the minimum wage.
    Keywords: J31 ; D31 ; J03 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; wage distribution ; income distribution
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: Using quantile regression methods, this paper analyses the gender wage gap across the wage distribution and over time (1990-2014), while controlling for changing sample selection into full-time employment. Our findings show that the selection-corrected gender wage gap is much larger than the one observed in the data, which is mainly due to large positive selection of women into fulltime employment. However, we show that selection-corrected wages of male and female workers at the lower half of the distribution have moderately converged over time. The reason for this development have been changes in the composition of the male full-time employment force over time, which in spite of the rather constant male full-time employment rate, have given place to a small but rising selection bias in male observed wages. In the upper half of the wage distribution, however, neither the observed nor the selection-corrected gender wage gap has narrowed over time.
    Keywords: J31 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; quantile regression ; selection into employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: Ob junge Erwachsene nach dem Abitur ein Studium aufnehmen, hängt in Deutschland nach wie vor stark von der Bildung der Eltern ab. AbiturientInnen, die aus einem nichtakademischen Elternhaus kommen, studieren deutlich seltener - selbst dann, wenn sie vor dem Abitur eine Studienabsicht hatten. Die vorliegende Studie auf Basis des Berliner-Studienberechtigten- Panels (Best Up) zeigt nun, dass kurze Infoworkshops ein Jahr vor dem Abitur, in denen BildungsforscherInnen den SchülerInnen Informationen zu Nutzen und Finanzierungsmöglichkeiten eines Studiums präsentieren, diese Unterschiede in der Studienaufnahme deutlich reduzieren können. Insbesondere AbiturientInnen mit Eltern ohne Hochschulabschluss, die bereits vor dem Workshop studieren wollten, werden durch die bereitgestellten Informationen in ihrem Vorhaben bestärkt und setzen dieses um. Der Anteil derer, die ihr Studium in den ersten beiden Jahren wieder abbrechen, steigt dadurch nicht. Informationsworkshops an Schulen, die eine vergleichsweise kostengünstige und einfach umzusetzende bildungspolitische Maßnahme sind, erweisen sich demnach als effektiv. Dementsprechend sollten sie von den Ländern, Kommunen und Schulen verstärkt in Betracht gezogen werden.
    Keywords: I21 ; I24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; college enrollment ; study persistence ; educational inequality ; information deficit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 30
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: Berechnungen auf Basis des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) zeigen, dass sich nach der Einführung des Mindestlohns in Deutschland im Jahr 2015 das Wachstum der Stundenlöhne für die anspruchsberechtigten Beschäftigten gerade im unteren Bereich der Stundenlohnverteilung beschleunigt hat. So ist der durchschnittliche Stundenlohn unter Verwendung der vertraglichen Arbeitszeit im untersten Dezil der Lohnverteilung zwischen 2014 und 2015 um rund sieben Prozent und zwischen 2015 und 2016 nochmals um sechs Prozent gestiegen. Das Lohnwachstum im unteren Lohnsegment ist gerade in solchen Regionen stark, in denen besonders viele Beschäftigte vor der Reform unter 8,50 Euro verdienten. So ist der Stundenlohn durch die Mindestlohnreform im untersten Fünftel der regionalen Lohnverteilungen um 5,8 Prozent, beziehungsweise 56 Cent, gestiegen. Gleichzeitig ist allerdings die Arbeitszeit im unteren Lohnsegment zurückgegangen, so dass sich der Bruttomonatsverdienst der anspruchsberechtigten Beschäftigten mit niedrigen Löhnen kaum verändert hat. Insofern bleibt abzuwarten, ob die Reform den intendierten Beitrag zur Stabilisierung der sozialen Sicherungssysteme im Sinne steigender sozialversicherungspflichtiger Entgelte leisten kann.
    Keywords: B41 ; C83 ; D31 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; inequality ; employment ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 31
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-15
    Description: Frauen verdienen in Deutschland durchschnittlich immer noch weniger als Männer. Dies gilt auch und sogar verstärkt für Führungskräfte: Für den Zeitraum von 2010 bis 2016 ergibt sich für Vollzeitbeschäftigte in Führungspositionen ein durchschnittlicher Gender Pay Gap im Bruttostundenverdienst von 30 Prozent. Werden geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede in relevanten Verdienstdeterminanten herausgerechnet, verbleibt eine Verdienstlücke von elf Prozent. Eine hohe Erklärungskraft für den Gender Pay Gap insgesamt hat mit sieben Prozent die Berufserfahrung in Vollzeitarbeit. Das zeigt die vorliegende Studie auf der Grundlage von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP). Die Entlohnung von Führungskräften ist offenbar immer noch eng verknüpft mit dem Ideal der durchgängigen Vollzeitarbeit. Zur Reduzierung der Verdienstlücke sind politische Maßnahmen erforderlich, die den großen Unterschieden im Erwerbsumfang zwischen Frauen und Männern im Lebensverlauf entgegenwirken. Dazu ist auch ein Kulturwandel in den Unternehmen notwendig.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J71 ; J78 ; K38 ; L22 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; hourly wages ; horizontal segregation ; vertical segregation ; leadership ; management ; ISCO-08 (1) ; chief executives ; high leadership positions ; economic sectors ; equality ; inequality ; gender ; women ; men
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 32
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Im Zentrum der Diskussion über eine Integration von Geflüchteten steht vielfach die erfolgreiche Eingliederung in den Arbeitsmarkt. Eine Untersuchung auf Basis einer repräsentativen Befragung von Geflüchteten zeigt, dass der Einstieg in den Arbeitsmarkt von Geflüchteten, die seit 2010 nach Deutschland kamen, etwa in der gleichen Geschwindigkeit verlief wie im Fall früherer Fluchtzuwanderung: Im dritten Jahr nach Zuwanderung haben etwa die Hälfte der männlichen Geflüchteten erste Arbeitsmarkterfahrungen in Deutschland gesammelt, bei weiblichen Geflüchteten ist es nur etwa ein Viertel. Oftmals liegt die erste Tätigkeit in Deutschland unter dem Tätigkeitsniveau der Beschäftigung im Herkunftsland. Trotz des schwierigen Arbeitsmarkteinstiegs findet sich unter Geflüchteten eine hohe Motivation, eine Beschäftigung aufzunehmen oder in Bildung zu investieren. Unterschiede innerhalb der Gruppe der Geflüchteten zeigen sich zwischen Geschlechtern, nach dem Grad der selbst eingeschätzten Gesundheit und nach der Erwerbsbiografie im Herkunftsland. Eine besonders hohe Motivation zu Erwerbstätigkeit und Weiterbildung zeigen Personen, die im Herkunftsland bereits erwerbstätig waren. Da ein Großteil der Geflüchteten auch ohne Berufsabschluss über Berufserfahrung in Fachkrafttätigkeiten verfügt und etwa die Hälfte bereit wäre, eine Aus- und Weiterbildung zu absolvieren, sollten schnellere und flexiblere Wege zum formalen Vollabschluss unter Berücksichtigung der Berufserfahrung eingeführt werden.
    Keywords: F22 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; refugees ; labor market integration ; human capital investment ; educational mismatches
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Women still earn less than men on average in Germany. This applies to management positions even more: between 2010 and 2016, there was an average gender pay gap of 30 percent in gross hourly earnings. If gender-specific differences in relevant wage determinants are excluded, a pay gap of 11 percent remains. With seven percentage points, full-time work experience explains the gender pay gap to almost a quarter according to the present study based on data from the Socio-Economic Panel (Sozio-ökonomisches Panel, SOEP). In order to reduce the gender pay gap, measures are needed to counteract the large differences in working time between women and men throughout their working lives. An important step is more individual time sovereignty for both women and men in their jobs and a change in corporate culture to accommodate that.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J71 ; J78 ; K38 ; L22 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; hourly wages ; horizontal segregation ; vertical segregation ; leadership ; management ; ISCO-08 (1) ; chief executives ; high leadershippositions ; economic sectors ; equality ; inequality ; gender ; women ; men
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Gehen Kinder früher in eine Kindertageseinrichtung (Kita) als andere, zeigen sich noch im Jugendalter Unterschiede in den Persönlichkeitseigenschaften, die direkt mit dem Zeitpunkt des Kita-Eintritts zusammenhängen. So sind Jugendliche in Westdeutschland, die Ende der 1990er Jahre bereits mit drei Jahren einen Kita-Platz erhielten, in der neunten Schulklasse deutlich kommunikativer und durchsetzungsfähiger als Jugendliche, die erst ab einem Alter von vier Jahren in eine Kita gehen konnten. Ab welchem Zeitpunkt die Kinder eine Kita besuchten, hängt dabei in dieser Studie nur davon ab, ob genügend Plätze verfügbar waren - andere Einflussfaktoren auf den Kita-Eintritt, etwa der Bildungshintergrund der Eltern, wurden herausgerechnet. Die vorliegende Studie, die auf Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS) basiert und als eine der ersten für Deutschland längerfristige Auswirkungen eines frühen Kita-Besuchs untersucht, unterstreicht die Bedeutung eines frühen Zugangs zu Kinderbetreuung. Dieser kann auf den späteren Bildungs- und Arbeitsmarkterfolg maßgeblichen Einfluss haben. Umso wichtiger erscheint es vor diesem Hintergrund, im Zuge des Kita-Ausbaus künftig grundsätzlich allen Kindern und ihren Eltern Zugang zu früher Kinderbetreuung zu gewähren.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; J18 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; early childhood education and care ; childcare entry ; non-cognitive skills ; personality traits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: The authors analyze gender differences in fairness perceptions of own wages and subsequent wage growth. The main finding is that women perceive their wage more often as fair if controls for hourly wage rates, individual and job-related characteristics are taken into account. Furthermore, the gender difference is more pronounced for married than for single women. This points to the fact that social norms, gender roles, and gender identity are at least partly responsible for the gap in fairness perceptions. Further analysis shows that individuals, who perceive their wage as unfair, experience larger wage growth in subsequent years. An explanation would be that a wage perceived as unfair triggers negotiations for a better wage or induces individuals to search for better paid work. Thus, differences in wage perceptions can contribute to explain the nowadays still persistent gender wage gap.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J71 ; A12 ; ddc:330 ; gender differences ; fairness ; social norms ; wages ; wage growth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: This paper investigates whether personality traits can explain glass ceilings (increasing gender wage gaps across the wage distribution). Using longitudinal survey data from Germany, the UK, and Australia, I combine unconditional quantile regressions with wage gap decompositions to identify the effect of personality traits on wage gaps. The results suggest that the impact of personality traits on wage gaps increases across the wage distribution in all countries. Personality traits explain up to 14.5% of the overall gender wage gap. However, controlling for personality traits does not lead to a significant reduction of unexplained wage gaps in most cases.
    Keywords: C21 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; non-cognitive skills ; personality traits ; unconditional quantile regression ; gender wage gap ; glass ceiling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: To analyze well-being effects of minimum wages, the introduction of a minimum wage in Germany in 2015 is used as a quasi-experiment. Based on the representative SOEP data, a difference-in-differences design compares the development of life, job, and pay satisfaction between those who are affected by the reform according to their pre-intervention wages and those who already have marginally higher wages so that they are not directly affected. The results show that the minimum wage has significantly positive effects on all considered dimensions of well-being, on average, with an increase in life satisfaction by 0.10 standard deviations (0.15 points on a ten-point Likert scale). Positive effects last at least until one year after the reform. Life satisfaction tends to increase particularly in the region that is overall economically less developed (East Germany). The results hold if those who are not employed anymore after the reform are included in the analysis.
    Keywords: I31 ; J28 ; J30 ; J31 ; J38 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; natural experiments ; well-being ; satisfaction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-14
    Description: Kleinere Klassen in der Grundschule führen zu besseren Leistungen in den Fächern Deutsch und Mathematik. Außerdem senken sie die Wahrscheinlichkeit, eine Klasse wiederholen zu müssen. Dies zeigt die vorliegende Analyse der Testresultate von mehr als 38.000 SchülerInnen, die Daten der landesweiten Orientierungsarbeiten im Saarland auswertet. Das Ergebnis widerspricht auf den ersten Blick bisherigen Studien für Deutschland, die mehrheitlich keine signifikanten Klassengrößeneffekte finden konnten. In der vorliegenden Studie wird jedoch ein weiterentwickeltes Untersuchungsdesign verwendet. Die Analyse zeigt, dass ein Reduzieren der Klassengröße vor allem in größeren Klassen mit mindestens etwa 20 SchülerInnen effektiv ist. Insofern könnte es sinnvoll sein, die Bildung kleinerer Klassenverbünde zu fördern, um das Leistungsniveau von GrundschülerInnen anzuheben. Dies trifft nicht auf kleinere Klassen zu: Bis zu einer Grenze von etwa 20 SchülerInnen können Klassen sogar vergrößert werden, ohne dass es zu Leistungseinbußen in den Fächern Deutsch und Mathematik kommt.
    Keywords: I20 ; I21 ; J24 ; C50 ; ddc:330 ; class size effects ; student achievement ; quasi-experimental evidence ; primary school
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 39
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Noch immer erhalten Frauen im Mittel geringere Löhne als Männer. Auf Basis einer neuen Auswertung von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) zeigt dieser Bericht, dass sich die mittlere Lohnlücke, der Gender Pay Gap, von Vollzeitbeschäftigten in den letzten drei Jahrzehnten deutlich reduziert hat. Im Zeitraum 2010 bis 2014 lag sie bei 16 Prozent. Die Lohnlücke ist nach wie vor an den Rändern der Lohnverteilung sowie für Personen mit Kindern höher und steigt mit dem Alter an. Dies deutet auf weiterhin bestehende Schwierigkeiten für Frauen hin, aus dem Niedriglohnsektor aufzusteigen und insbesondere Positionen im Top-Segment zu besetzen. Zudem legen die deskriptiven Befunde negative Auswirkungen der ungleichen Aufteilung der Sorgearbeit auf die Lohnentwicklung nahe. Um den Ursachen des Gender Pay Gaps entgegenzuwirken, bedarf es vielfältiger gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen. Die Politik sollte bessere Rahmenbedingungen für eine geschlechtergerechtere Aufteilung der Erwerbsund Sorgearbeit setzen, beispielsweise durch eine Reform des Ehegattensplittings oder einen Ausbau der Partnermonate beim Elterngeld. Unternehmen sind gefordert, ihre Organisationsstrukturen konsequent daraufhin auszulegen, dass Chancengleichheit von Männern und Frauen am Arbeitsmarkt gegeben ist.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; Wage Distribution
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Durch die G8-Schulreform haben sich die PISA-Leistungen von GymnasiastInnen in der neunten Klasse verbessert. Insbesondere leistungsstärkere SchülerInnen schneiden bei den PISA-Tests besser ab, während Leistungsschwächere kaum oder gar nicht profitieren - sie scheinen Probleme mit dem zeitlich nach vorne verlagerten Lernstoff zu haben. Der vorliegenden Studie zufolge, die auf PISA-Daten zu mehr als 33 000 SchülerInnen basiert, hat die G8-Reform jedoch nicht dazu geführt, dass sozioökonomische Merkmale wie der Bildungshintergrund der Eltern einen größeren Einfluss auf die Schülerleistungen haben. Der Kompetenzvorsprung in der neunten Klasse scheint allerdings nicht auszureichen, um das wegfallende 13. Schuljahr vollständig zu kompensieren, denn die Abiturnoten haben sich im Durchschnitt leicht verschlechtert. Anstelle der Länge der Gymnasialschulzeit sollten vielmehr die Unterrichtsinhalte und -qualität im Fokus der Debatte stehen. Der fortwährende Ausbau des Ganztagsschulangebots sollte genutzt werden, um Kinder individueller entsprechend ihrer Bedürfnisse zu fördern.
    Keywords: I23 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; instruction time ; student achievement ; PISA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 41
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-02
    Description: In this paper, we analyze how the formal recognition of immigrants' foreign occupational qualifications afects their subsequent labor market outcomes. The empirical analysis is based on a novel German data set that links respondents' survey information to their administrative records, allowing us to observe immigrants at monthly intervals before, during and after their application for occupational recognition. Our findings show substantial employment and wage gains from occupational recognition. After three years, the full recognition of immigrants' foreign qualifications increases their employment rates by 24.5 percentage points and raises their hourly wages by 19.8 percent relative to immigrants without recognition. We show that the increase in employment is largely driven by a higher propensity to work in regulated occupations. Relating our findings to the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany, we further document that occupational recognition leads to substantially faster convergence of immigrants' earnings to those of their native counterparts.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; J44 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Occupational Recognition ; Immigrants ; Labor Markets
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-02
    Description: In 2015, Germany introduced a statutory hourly minimum wage that was not only universally binding but also set at a relatively high level. We discuss the short-run effects of this new minimum wage on a wide set of socio-economic outcomes, such as employment and working hours, earnings and wage inequality, dependent and selff-employment, as well as reservation wages and satisfaction. We also discuss diffculties in the implementation of the minimum wage and the measurement of its effects related to non-compliance and suitability of data sources. Two years after the minimum wage introduction, the following conclusions can be drawn: while hourly wages increased for low-wage earners, some small negative employment effects are also identifiable. The effects on aspired goals, such as poverty and inequality reduction, have not materialized in the short run. Instead, a tendency to reduce working hours is found, which alleviates the desired positive impact on monthly income. Additionally, the level of non-compliance was substantial in the short run, thus drawing attention to problems when implementing such a wide reaching policy.
    Keywords: J22 ; J23 ; J31 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Minimum wage ; Evaluation ; Earnings ; Working hours ; Employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: This study estimates mean and distributional effects of early between-school ability tracking on student achievement. For identification, I exploit heterogeneity in tracking regimes between German federal states. After comprehensive primary school, about 40% of students are selected for the academic track and taught in separate schools in all states. The remaining students, however, are either taught comprehensively or further tracked into two different school forms depending on the state. I estimate the effects of this tracking on students' mathematics and reading test scores with a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator to eliminate unobserved heterogeneity in achievement levels and trends between states. I find substantial achievement gains from comprehensive versus tracked schooling at ages 10-12. These average effects are almost entirely driven by low-achievers. I do not find evidence for negative effects of comprehensive schooling on the achievement of higher performing students. My results show that decreasing the degree of tracking in early secondary school can reduce inequality while increasing the efficiency of educational production.
    Keywords: I24 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; tracking ; student achievement ; inequality ; triple differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: This paper argues that the socialist episode in East Germany, which constituted a radical experiment in gender equality in the labor market and other instances, has left persistent tracks on gender norms. We focus on one of the most resilient and pervasive gender gaps in modern societies: mathematics. Using the German division as a natural experiment, we show that the underperformance of girls in math is sharply reduced in the regions of the former GDR, in contrast with those of the former FRG. We show that this East-West difference is due to girls' attitudes, confidence and competitiveness in math, and not to other confounding factors, such as the difference in economic conditions or teaching styles across the former political border. We also provide illustrative evidence that the gender gap in math is smaller in European countries that used to be part of the Soviet bloc, as opposed to the rest of Europe. The lesson is twofold: (1) a large part of the pervasive gender gap in math is due to social stereotypes; (2) institutions can durably modify these stereotypes.
    Keywords: I2 ; J16 ; J24 ; P36 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Gap in Math ; Institutions ; German Division ; Gender Stereotypes
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Although the proportion of students enrolled in college increased in the last decades, students from non-college family backgrounds remain underrepresented in higher education around the world. This study sheds light on whether the provision of information in a randomized controlled trial with more than 1,000 German high school students results in higher college enrollment rates. One year prior to high school graduation, we treated students in randomly selected schools by giving an in-class presentation on the benefits and costs of higher education as well as on possible funding options for college education. We collected data from students prior to the information intervention and followed them for four consecutive years. We find evidence that an information intervention increases students' application as well as their enrollment rates, in particular for students from non-college backgrounds with enrollment intentions prior to treatment. Moreover, treated students persist in college at a similar rate as students in the control group, i.e. they are not more likely to drop out of college. Our results indicate that a low-cost information intervention is an efficient tool to encourage students to translate their college intentions into actual enrollment.
    Keywords: I21 ; I24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; college enrollment ; college benefits ; college costs ; educational inequality ; information ; randomized controlled trial
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital. Training increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well-documented labor market effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; non-pecuniary returns ; social capital ; work-related training ; matched difference-in-differences approach ; entropy balancing
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  • 47
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Motivations to participate in the labour market as well as to invest in labour market skills are crucial for the successful integration of refugees. In this paper we use a unique dataset - the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Refugee Survey, which is a representative longitudinal study of all refugees reported on administrative records in Germany - and analyse which determinants and characteristics are correlated with high motivation and intention to participate in the labour market. We find that overall men have a strong intention to work and to invest in human capital. The result for women is different: among women, having children, lack of German language skills, and having no previous work experience significantly and consistently correlate with lower expectations and intentions of future economic integration. Furthermore, we find a significant relationship between the degree of traditional or patriarchal views of women's societal roles, and our corresponding outcomes of interest.
    Keywords: F22 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; refugees ; labor market integration ; human capital investment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-04-07
    Description: Labor supply in the market for low-paid jobs in Germany is strongly influenced by tax exemptions - even for individuals to whom these exemptions do not apply. We present compelling evidence that an individual's choice set depends on other workers' preferences because firms cater their job offers to aggregate preferences in the market. We estimate an equilibrium job search model which rationalizes the strong earnings bunching at the tax exemption threshold using German administrative data. We then simulate modifications to the tax schedule that remove the discontinuity and thus the bunching at the threshold. Results highlight the indirect costs of (discontinuous) tax policies which are shown to be reinforced by firm responses: Workers who would work anyway are hurt by subsidies benefiting groups who enter the market as a result of tax incentives.
    Keywords: J64 ; J31 ; J22 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; tax exemptions ; welfare-to-work ; labor supply elasticities ; minijobs ; job search ; firm responses ; bunching
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2017-03-21
    Description: This paper examines the effects of a substantial change in publicly funded paid parental leave in Germany on child development and socio-economic development gaps. For children born before January 1, 2007, parental leave benefits were means-tested and paid for up to 24 months after childbirth. For children born thereafter, parental leave benefits were earnings-related and only paid for up to 14 months. Higher-income households benefited more from the reform than low-income households. We study the reform effects on children's language skills, motor skills, socio-emotional stability, and school readiness using administrative data from mandatory school entrance examinations at age six and a difference-in-differences design. We find no impact of the reform on child development and socio-economic development gaps. The effects are precisely estimated and robust to various model specifications and sample definitions. Our resultssuggest that such substantial changes in parental leave benefits are unlikely to impact children's development. These findings are consistent with recent studies showing that temporary unrestricted transfers and maternal part-time employment have a limited impact on parental investments in their children.
    Keywords: J13 ; J18 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave benefit ; child development ; skill formation ; parental investments ; school readiness ; motor skills ; language skills ; socio-emotional stability ; socio-economic differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: Lange Zeit kamen in Deutschland nur die besser bezahlten Arbeitskräfte in den Genuss von Reallohnsteigerungen. Die abhängig Beschäftigten mit niedrigen Stundenentgelten mussten dagegen erhebliche Reallohnverluste hinnehmen und zeitweilig breitete sich der Niedriglohnsektor immer mehr aus. Diese Trends setzen sich etwa seit Beginn dieses Jahrzehnts nicht mehr fort. Die verschiedenen Lohngruppen profitieren nun gleichmäßiger vom durchschnittlichen Lohnanstieg, wenngleich jetzt die Arbeitskräfte mit mittleren Stundenentgelten bei der Lohnentwicklung etwas hinterherhinken. Entsprechend hat sich die Schere zumindest zwischen hohen und geringen Löhnen seitdem nicht weiter geöffnet. Diese Entwicklung ist keineswegs selbstverständlich, da sich die Struktur der Arbeitsplätze weiter hin zu höher qualifizierten Tätigkeiten verschiebt. Nach wie vor schneiden die Beschäftigten mit höheren Stundenverdiensten relativ gut bei der Lohnentwicklung ab; das gilt nicht nur für den längerfristigen Trend, sondern auch für die jüngere Entwicklung. Eine Längsschnittanalyse anhand von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) zeigt, dass es vielen Geringverdienern gelingt, über die Zeit auf deutlich höhere Stundenlöhne zu kommen. So zählte von denjenigen 20 Prozent der Arbeitskräfte mit den niedrigsten Löhnen im Jahr 2010, die in einer Beschäftigung blieben, mehr als die Hälfte fünf Jahre später nicht mehr zu den Geringentlohnten. Besonders starke Lohnanhebungen konnten hier die Vollzeitkräfte erzielen. Insgesamt zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass die Stundenlöhne nach der Finanzkrise real durchweg zugenommen haben und der Anstieg gleichmäßiger als früher verteilt war. Dennoch haben diese Steigerungen die Reallohnverluste in den unteren vier Dezilen aus den 15 Jahren zuvor nicht wettgemacht.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; D30 ; ddc:330 ; wage increases ; real wages ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 51
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: For many years, only better-paid workers benefited from Germany's real wage increases. In contrast, dependent employees with lower hourly wages suffered substantial losses, while the low-wage sector expanded. Around 2010, these trends came to an end. Now all wage groups benefit from wage increases-even if those in the middle of the distribution lag somewhat behind. At the very least, this new pattern means that the gap between high and low wages is not getting wider. This development is kind of surprising, as the labor market is shifting to higher-skilled jobs. Workers with higher hourly wages are still doing relatively well when it comes to wage developments; this applies not only to the long-term trend, but also to the recent developments. A longitudinal analysis based on data from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) shows that with time, a large share of low-wage workers were able to earn much higher hourly wage rates. For example, more than half of those workers whose wages were in the bottom 20 percent in 2010, and who were still dependently employed in 2015, were no longer among the low-wage workers. Full-time employees in this group experienced stronger increases. Overall, the results show that hourly wages have been increasing consistently in real terms since the financial crisis and that the growth has been more evenly distributed than it was before. Nevertheless, the increases since 2010 have not made up for the real wage losses incurred by workers who were in the bottom 40 percent 15 years earlier.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; D30 ; ddc:330 ; wage increases ; real wages ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 52
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-11-09
    Description: In Deutschland ist der Arbeitsmarkt von starker beruflicher Segregation zwischen Frauen und Männern geprägt. In typischen Frauenberufen wird dabei im Mittel weniger verdient als in typischen Männerberufen. Das ist einer der Gründe für den Gender Pay Gap. Zudem gibt es jedoch auch innerhalb eines Berufes zwischen Männern und Frauen zum Teil große Unterschiede in den Verdiensten. Diese berufsspezifischen Gender Pay Gaps sind in jenen Berufen geringer, die einen hohen Anteil von Beschäftigten im öffentlichen Dienst haben. Dies ist ein Hinweis darauf, dass mehr Transparenz bei den Verdiensten den Gender Pay Gap in der Privatwirtschaft verringern könnte.
    Keywords: J31 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; gender pay gap ; occupational segregation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Berechnungen auf Basis des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) zeigen, dass sich nach der Einführung des Mindestlohns im Januar 2015 das Lohnwachstum der anspruchsberechtigten Beschäftigten mit niedrigen Löhnen deutlich beschleunigt hat: So lag das nominale Wachstum bei den vertraglichen Stundenlöhnen im unteren Dezil, das heißt im untersten Zehntel der Lohnverteilung, vor der Reform bei weniger als 2 Prozent im langfristigen zweijährigen Mittel, während es von 2014 bis 2016 bei ungefähr 15 Prozent lag. Dennoch lag auch im ersten Halbjahr 2016 der vertragliche Stundenlohn von rund 1,8 Millionen anspruchsberechtigten Beschäftigten noch immer unterhalb der gesetzlichen Grenze von 8,50 Euro brutto pro Stunde. Im Jahr 2015 waren es noch ungefähr 2,1 Millionen und im Jahr vor der Einführung knapp 2,8 Millionen Beschäftigte. Die hier ausgewiesenen Werte für 2015 und 2016 liegen damit höher als die entsprechenden Zahlen aus Unternehmensbefragungen. Berücksichtigt man auch Erwerbstätige ohne Anspruch auf den Mindestlohn, wie Selbständige, verdienten im Jahr 2016 sogar etwa 4,4 Millionen Menschen weniger als 8,50 Euro brutto pro Stunde. Trotz des überproportionalen Lohnanstiegs im untersten Lohndezil ist es also nicht gelungen, für alle anspruchsberechtigten Beschäftigten einen Bruttolohn von mindesten 8,50 Euro pro Stunde sicherzustellen. Vor allem bei der Gruppe der geringfügig Beschäftigten werden die Ziele des Mindestlohngesetzes vielfach nicht erreicht. Als Instrumente für eine bessere Durchsetzung des Mindestlohngesetzes kommen häufigere Kontrollen, eine schärfere Sanktionierung, wirksamere Beschwerdemöglichkeiten für die Beschäftigten sowie höhere Anforderungen bei den Dokumentationssystemen (insbesondere bei der Zeiterfassung) in Betracht.
    Keywords: B41 ; C83 ; D31 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; inequality ; employment ; SOEP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 54
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Kinder im Alter von vier bis fünf Jahren, die eine Kindertageseinrichtung (Kita) besuchen, verhalten sich prosozialer, wenn die Bildungs- und Betreuungsqualität ihrer Kita höher ist. Das heißt, sie sind beispielsweise eher rücksichtsvoll und teilen mit anderen Kindern. Insbesondere Kinder, deren Mütter einen niedrigeren Bildungsabschluss haben, profitieren von einer hohen Kita-Qualität. Das zeigt diese Studie auf Basis von Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS). Als Qualitätsmerkmale einer Kita wurden die Gruppengröße, der Personalschlüssel, Gemeinschaftsaktivitäten in der Gruppe, die Bildung des pädagogischen Personals und die zur Verfügung stehenden Materialen zum Spielen und Lernen untersucht. Die Ergebnisse unterstreichen die Bedeutung der Kita-Qualität, denn das prosoziale Verhalten kann im späteren Lebensverlauf die schulischen Leistungen und auch die Arbeitsproduktivität und Teamfähigkeit verbessern. Zudem können sozioökonomische Unterschiede im prosozialen Verhalten, die etwa auf die Bildung der Mutter zurückgehen, durch eine höhere Kita-Qualität zumindest teilweise kompensiert werden. Eine weitere Verbesserung der Qualität von Kindertageseinrichtungen, zum Beispiel durch einheitliche Mindeststandards, ist daher sinnvoll.
    Keywords: I21 ; I26 ; J13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; early childhood education and care ; childcare quality ; non-cognitive skills ; prosocial behavior
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2017-06-28
    Description: Aufgrund der Festlegung des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns als Stundenlohn müssen valide Informationen, zu Bruttostundenlöhnen aus den Angaben zu Monatsentgelten und wöchentlichen Arbeitszeiten, berechnet werden. Dieser Beitrag vergleicht methodisch sowie empirisch das Sozio-oekonomische Panel und die Verdienst(struktur)erhebung. Demnach bestehen grundlegende konzeptionelle Unterschiede, in der Stichprobenziehung und Erhebung von Angaben zu Beschäftigten in der Haushaltsbefragung, des SOEP und zu Beschäftigungsverhältnissen in der amtlichen Erhebung der V(S)E. Dementsprechend, differieren die Abgrenzungsmöglichkeiten der Beschäftigungsformen sowie die Verteilung, der beobachteten Einheiten nach zentralen Merkmalen. Mit Blick auf die monatlichen Arbeitsentgelte, wöchentlichen Arbeitszeiten und Bruttostundenlöhne zeigen sich insbesondere im unteren Bereich, der jeweiligen Verteilung Unterschiede.
    Description: The statutory minimum wage in Germany was set as hourly wage. Thus, valid information on gross hourly wages must be calculated from monthly wages and weekly working hours. This paper compares the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Structure of Earnings Survey. There exist conceptual differences regarding sampling and collection of data on employees in the household survey (SOEP) and on jobs in the mandatory survey (V(S)E.) Accordingly, weighting and definition of types of employment vary. This also accounts for central characteristics of units observed. Monthly wages, weekly working hours and gross hourly wages differ especially in the lower range of the respective distribution.
    Keywords: J08 ; J30 ; J31 ; J33 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2017-07-27
    Description: Die Reform des Elterngeldes hat nicht dazu geführt, dass Ungleichheiten in der kindlichen Entwicklung zunehmen. Das zeigt die vorliegende Studie des DIW Berlin, die als eine der ersten anhand der Ergebnisse von Schuleingangsuntersuchungen der Frage nachgeht, welche Effekte die Einführung des Elterngeldes auf sprachliche und motorische Fähigkeiten, die sozio-emotionale Stabilität und den schulischen Förderbedarf hatte. Als das Elterngeld im Jahr 2007 das Bundeserziehungsgeld ersetzte, mutmaßten Kritikerinnen und Kritiker der Reform, dass sich die Ungleichheit erhöhen könnte. Hintergrund ist, dass im Gegensatz zum Erziehungsgeld auch viele Familien im mittleren und oberen Einkommensbereich nicht unerhebliche staatliche Leistungen erhalten. Somit können nun auch besser gebildete Mütter häufiger und länger vom Job pausieren und damit grundsätzlich mehr Zeit mit ihren Kindern verbringen. Dennochzeigen sich sowohl für Kinder bildungsnaher als auch für Kinder weniger gebildeter Eltern trotz sehr präziser Schätzergebnisse keine statistisch signifikanten Effekte der Elterngeldreform auf die erfassten Entwicklungsmaße. Somit werden die anderen Effekte des Elterngeldes - etwa eine höhere wirtschaftliche Stabilität von Familien und die insgesamt gestiegene Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern - nicht geschmälert.
    Keywords: J13 ; J18 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave benefit ; child development ; skill formation ; school readiness ; motor skills ; language skills ; socio-emotional stability ; socio-economic differences ; inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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