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  • Articles  (140)
  • J24  (93)
  • J31
  • Educación
  • Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute  (125)
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
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  • Articles  (140)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-10-31
    Description: This paper develops new measures of the task content of occupations that are based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08). Using a detailed set of 3,264 occupation-specific tasks, we construct five measures of non-routine analytic, non-routine interactive, routine cognitive, routine manual and non-routine manual tasks for 427 four-digit occupations. To generate these measures, first we assign each of the 3,264 tasks to one or more of the five task categories. The decision to classify tasks as routine or non-routine, and as cognitive or manual, depends on whether the tasks can be replaced by computer-controlled technology and whether the performance of the tasks requires cognitive or manual skills. We judge the automation potential of tasks on a case-by-case basis and classify tasks to one or more of the five task categories. Because the classification of 3,264 tasks can be prone to errors, we devote substantial attention to the possibility of misclassifying tasks. We discuss three particular types of task misclassifications and provide examples of tasks that could be potentially misclassified. In line with the previous literature, we find that non-routine analytic and interactive tasks are most prevalent in the work of Managers and Professionals, routine cognitive tasks are mainly concentrated in the work of Clerical Support Workers, and routine and non-routine manual tasks are most common in the work of Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers and Elementary Occupations, respectively. We compare the newly developed task measures with three previous studies (Acemoglu and Autor, 2011; Dengler, Matthes and Paulus, 2014; Frey and Osborne, 2017) and demonstrate that our measures are moderately to strongly positively correlated with the previous papers’ indexes. Based on our task content measures, we provide an end of the envelop estimation of the number of occupations that might be at risk of automation. We find that approximately 16 percent of the 427 ISCO-08 occupations fall into the so-called high risk of automation category – they contain 70 percent or more routine tasks. The 16 percent of automatable occupations correspond roughly to 11 percent of total employment in the Netherlands.
    Keywords: O33 ; J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; Technological change ; Computerization ; Occupations ; Routine and non-routine tasks ; International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-10-31
    Description: Previous findings on (fleeting) relative age effects in school suggest that, given innate ability, too few younger and too many older students attend academic tracks. Using a regression discontinuity design around school-specific admission thresholds, we estimate the cognitive and non-cognitive effects of track assignment at the achievement margin, across relative age. We find that attending the higher track does not affect cognitive outcomes at any relative age. For older students, attending the higher track increases perseverance, need for achievement, and emotional stability. The results suggest that older students compensate lower ability (given high track attendance) with higher effort.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; educational economics ; school tracking ; relative age ; non-cognitive skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2019-10-31
    Description: This paper explores how a conditional cash transfer program influences students’ schooling decisions when program payments stop in the middle of the school career. To that end, I examine Mexico’s Progresa, which covered students only until the end of middle school (at age 15) in its early years. The experimental setup permits to study the program’s impact on the probability to continue with high school after middle school. Despite initial randomization, the program itself has likely rendered the respective samples of middle school graduates in the treatment and the control group incomparable. To account for this, I employ a newly developed semiparametric technique that uses a combination of machine learning methods in conjunction with doubly-robust estimation. I find that exposure to Progresa during middle school reduced the probability to transfer to high school by 10 to 14 percentage points. Possible explanations for this effect include parents’ loss aversion, motivation crowding, anchoring, and classroom peer effects.
    Keywords: I22 ; I25 ; O15 ; J24 ; D04 ; D91 ; C52 ; ddc:330 ; education ; conditional cash transfer ; Progresa ; machine learning ; doubly-robust estimation ; loss aversion ; motivation crowding ; anchoring ; classroom peer effects ; Mexico
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-21
    Description: Email is one of the most powerful tools for communication. Many businesses use email as the main channel for communication, so it is possible that substantial data are included in email content. In order to help businesses grow faster, a workflow management system may be required. The data gathered from email content might be a robust source for a workflow management system. This research proposes an email extraction system to extract data from any incoming emails into suitable database fields. The database, which is created by the program, has been planned for the implementation of a workflow management system. The research is presented in three phases: (1) define suitable criteria to extract data; (2) implement a program to extract data, and store them in a database; and (3) implement a program for validating data in a database. Four criteria are applied for an email extraction system. The first criterion is to select contact information at the end of the email content; the second criterion is to select specified keywords, such as tel, email, and mobile; the third criterion is to select unique names, which start with a capital letter, such as the names of people, places, and corporates; the fourth criterion is to select special texts, such as Co. Ltd, .com, and www. The empirical results suggest that when all four criteria are considered, the accuracy of a program and percentage of blank fields are at an acceptable level compared with the results from other criteria. When four criteria are applied to extract 7,340 emails in English, the accuracy of this experiment is approximately 68.66%, while the percentage of blank fields in a database is approximately 68.05. The database created by the experiment can be applied in a workflow management system.
    Keywords: J24 ; O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Business operations ; startup business ; import/export industry ; email ; business data ; workflow management system ; business transactions ; migrating ; email extraction system
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-06-21
    Description: We present a theory of the relation between health and retirement that generates testable predictions regarding the interaction of health, wealth and financial incentives in retirement decisions. The theory predicts (i) that wealthier individuals (compared to poorer individuals) are more likely to retire for health reasons(affordability proposition), and (ii) that health problems make older workers more responsive to financial incentives encouraging retirement (reinforcement proposition). We test these predictions using administrative data on older employees in the Dutch healthcare sector for whom we link adverse health events, proxied by unanticipated hospitalizations, to information on retirement decisions and actual incentives from administrative records of the pension funds. Exploiting unexpected health shocks and quasi-exogenous variation in nancial incentives for retirement due to reforms, we account for the endogeneity of health and financial incentives. Making use of the actual individual pension rights diminishes downward bias in estimates of the effect of pension incentives. We find support for our affordability and reinforcement propositions. Both propositions require the benefits function to be convex, as in our data. Our theory and empirical findings highlight the importance of assessing financial incentives for their potential reinforcement of health shocks and point to the possibility that differences in responses to financial incentives and health shocks across countries may relate to whether the benefit function is concave or convex.
    Keywords: C33 ; D91 ; H55 ; I10 ; I12 ; J00 ; J24 ; J26 ; J45 ; D91 ; ddc:330 ; pensions ; health ; retirement ; disability ; health investment ; lifecycle model ; health capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Researchers contributing to the empirical rent-sharing literature have typically resorted to estimating the responsiveness of workers' wages on firms' ability to pay in order to assess the extent to which employers share rents with their employees. This paper compares rent-sharing estimates using such a wage determination regression with estimates based on a productivity regression that relies on standard firm-level input and output data. We view these two regressions as reduced-form equations stemming from, or at least compatible with, a variety of underlying theoretical structural models. Using a large matched firm-worker panel data sample for French manufacturing, we find that the industry distributions of the rent-sharing estimates based on them are significantly different on average, even if they slightly overlap and are correlated. Precisely, if we only rely on the firm-level information, we find that the median of the relative and absolute extent of rent-sharing parameters amount roughly to 0.40 and 0.30 for the productivity regression and to 0.20 and 0.16 for the wage determination regression. When we also take advantage of the worker-level information to control for unobserved worker ability in the model of wage determination, we find that these parameters further reduce as expected and have a median value of only about 0.10.
    Keywords: C23 ; D21 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; rent sharing ; wage equation ; production function ; matched employer-employee data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: We study hiring in a labor market where worker ability can only be observed on-the-job, but quickly becomes public information after labor market entry. We show that firms in these markets have a socially inefficient incentive to hire low talented, experienced workers instead of more promising labor market entrants, either when an extremely poor hire may bankrupt the firm, or when workers cannot commit to long-term contracts. In a dataset covering 38 years of hiring in the English labor market for football managers, we find that in around one quarter of all cases, where a firm hires an experienced worker, this experienced worker has an estimated ability below the average ability of recent labor market entrants. We argue this hiring behavior is inefficient, because it has persistently depressed the average ability of the active manager labor force over our sample period.
    Keywords: M51 ; J63 ; J24 ; Z22 ; ddc:330 ; hiring ; labor market entrants ; worker ability ; European football
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: One of the most powerful internet communication channels is email. As employees and their clients communicate primarily via email, much crucial business data is conveyed via email content. Where businesses are understandably concerned, they need a sophisticated workflow management system to manage their transactions. A workflow management system should also be able to classify any incoming emails into suitable categories. Previous research has implemented a system to categorize emails based on the words found in email messages. Two parameters affected the accuracy of the program, namely the number of words in a database compared with sample emails, and an acceptable percentage for classifying emails. As the volume of email has become larger and more sophisticated, this research classifies email messages into a larger number of categories and changes a parameter that affects the accuracy of the program. The first parameter, namely the number of words in a database compared with sample emails, remains unchanged, while the second parameter is changed from an acceptable percentage to the number of matching words. The empirical results suggest that the number of words in a database compared with sample emails is 11, and the number of matching words to categorize emails is 7. When these settings are applied to categorize 12,465 emails, the accuracy of this experiment is approximately 65.3%. The optimal number of words that yields high accuracy levels lies between 11 and 13, while the number of matching words lies between 6 and 8.
    Keywords: J24 ; O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Email ; business data ; workflow management system ; business transactions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Men are generally found to be more willing to compete than women and there is growing evidence that willingness to compete is a predictor of individual and gender differences in career decisions and labor market outcomes. However, most existing evidence comes from the top of the education and talent distribution. In this study, we use incentivized choices from more than 1500 Swiss lower-secondary school students to ask how the gender gap in willingness to compete varies with ability and how willingness to compete predicts career choices along the whole ability distribution. Our main results are: 1. The gender gap in willingness to compete is essentially zero among the lowest-ability students, but increases steadily with ability and reaches 30-40 percentage points for the highest-ability students. 2. Willingness to compete predicts career choices along the whole ability distribution. At the top of the ability distribution, students who compete are more likely to choose a math or science-related academic specialization and girls who compete are more likely to choose academic over vocational education in general. At the middle, competitive boys are more likely to choose a business-oriented apprenticeship, while competitive girls are more likely to choose a math-intensive apprenticeship or an academic education. At the bottom, students who compete are more likely to succeed in securing an apprenticeship position. We also discuss how our findings relate to persistent gender differences in career outcomes.
    Keywords: D91 ; J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; willingness to compete ; gender ; career decisions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Empirical studies show low pecuniary returns of switching from wage employment to entrepreneurship. We reconsider the pecuniary gains of this switching by employing a two-stage procedure, where the randomness in the timing of inheritance transfers is used as an exclusion restriction to identify causal effects. The model is estimated on data covering the whole Norwegian population of individuals matched to the entire population of firms established in the period 2002–2011. The results indicate that the average returns to entrepreneurship are significantly negative for individuals entering entrepreneurship through self-employment and modest, but significantly positive, for incorporated startups.
    Keywords: L26 ; C23 ; J31 ; G32 ; ddc:330 ; Returns to entrepreneurship ; Earnings distribution ; Matched person-firm data ; Self-employment ; Random effects probit model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Are differences in inventor productivity due to differences in inventors’ skills or differences in the capabilities of the firms they work for? We analyze a 37-year panel that tracks the patenting of U.S. inventors and find strong evidence for serial correlation in inventors’ productivity. We apply an econometric technique developed by Abowd, Kramarz, and Margolis (1999) to decompose the contributions of inventors’ human capital and firm capabilities for productivity. Our estimates suggest human capital is 4-5 times more important than firm capabilities for explaining the variance in inventor productivity. High human capital inventors work for firms that have (i) other high human capital inventors, (ii) superior financial performance, and (iii) weak firm-specific invention capabilities. On the margins, managers should emphasize selecting talent rather than training workers to enhance innovation performance.
    Keywords: O30 ; O31 ; O32 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Human Capital ; Capabilities ; Innovation ; Matching ; Competitive Advantage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: We analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary unemployment, but also raises skill formation as some individuals avoid unemployment. A minimum wage is an appropriate instrument for redistribution if and only if the public revenue gains from additional skill formation outweigh both the public revenue losses from additional unemployment and the utility losses of inefficient labor rationing. We show that this critically depends on how labor rationing is distributed among workers. A necessary condition for the desirability of a minimum-wage increase is that the public revenue gains from higher skill formation outweigh the revenue losses from higher unemployment. We write this condition in terms of measurable sufficient statistics. Our empirical analysis suggests that a minimum-wage increase is undesirable in nearly all OECD countries. A reduction in the minimum wage, along with tax adjustments that keep net incomes constant, would yield a Pareto improvement.
    Keywords: D61 ; H21 ; J21 ; J24 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; optimal redistribution ; unemployment ; skill formation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: We adopt a process-based approach to investigate the influence of entrepreneurial bosses on the two main decisions of employees towards becoming entrepreneurs: exit from the current firm and entry into entrepreneurship. In other words, we study the push and pull mechanisms possibly underlying the influence of entrepreneurial bosses. We do so by employing an identification strategy based on comparisons of same-gender matches of bosses and employees, using rich register data for Denmark. We show that same-gender entrepreneurial bosses have a great impact on employees’ future entrepreneurship choices, especially among women. We do not find any evidence that female bosses push female employees out of the workplace, by creating a discriminatory environment that forces them to search for alternative career paths. Instead, our analysis finds consistent support for pull mechanisms, with role modeling being the main explanation for the positive influence of female entrepreneurial bosses on female employees’ transition into entrepreneurship. We show that the female boss effect is greater than other social interactions identified in prior research. We conclude that entrepreneurial bosses can be role models and female entrepreneurial bosses may thus act as a lever to reducing gender gaps in entrepreneurship rates.
    Keywords: J19 ; J24 ; L26 ; M12 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; role models ; gender gaps ; female leadership
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: A wide class of models with On-the-Job Search (OJS) predicts that workers gradually select into better-paying jobs, until lay-off occurs, when this selection process starts over from scratch. We develop a simple methodology to test these predictions. Our inference uses two sources of identification to distinguish between returns to experience and the gains from OJS: (i) time-variation in job-finding rates and (ii)the time since the last lay-off. Conditional on the termination date of the job, job duration should be distributed uniformly. Using extreme value theory, we can infer the shape of the wage-offer distribution from the effect of the time since the last lay-off on wages. This methodology is applied to the NLSY 79. We find remarkably strong support for all implications. The offer distribution is Gumbel, which has an unbounded support, which is inconsistent with pure sorting models. The standard deviation of wage offers is 7 to 15% (depending on educational level and urbanisation). OJS accounts for 30% of the experience profile and 9% of total wage dispersion. The average wage loss after lay-off is 11%.
    Keywords: J31 ; J63 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; On-the-job search ; Wage dispersion ; Job duration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: Our paper studies the effects of dialect-speaking on job characteristics of Dutch workers, in particular on their hourly wages. The unconditional difference in median hourly wages between standard Dutch speakers and dialect speakers is about 10.6% for males and 6.7% for females. If we take into account differences in personal characteristics and province fixed effects male dialect speakers earn 4.1% less while for females this is 2.8%. Using the geographic distance to Amsterdam as an instrumental variable to dialect-speaking, we find that male workers who speak a dialect earn 11.6% less while for female workers this is 1.6%. Our main conclusion is that for male workers there is a significant wage penalty of dialect-speaking while for female workers there is no significant difference.
    Keywords: J24 ; I2 ; ddc:330 ; Dialect-speaking ; wage penalty ; job characteristics
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: In response to technological change, U.S. corporations have been investing more in intangible capital. This transformation is empirically associated with lower leverage and greater cash holdings, and commonly explained as a precautionary response to reduced debt capacity. We model how firms' payout and cash holding policies are affected by this shift. Our insight is that the creation of intangibles is largely achieved by human capital investment and requires lower upfront outlays. Firms can self-finance the retention of human capital by granting deferred equity compensation. Interestingly, retaining cash and repurchasing shares enhances the value of unvested equity, thereby facilitating retention and reducing equity dilution. Our empirical evidence confirms that firms with higher intangible investment have lower upfront investment needs. They make similar payouts as tangible investment firms, suggesting they are not on average more financially constrained. They also tend to grant more deferred equity and prioritize repurchases over dividends in particular when their stock volatility is high, in line with our model's predictions.
    Keywords: G32 ; G35 ; J24 ; J33 ; ddc:330 ; Technological change ; corporate leverage ; cash holdings ; human capital ; intangible capital ; equity grants ; deferred equity ; share vesting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-08-31
    Description: The founder (team)’s human capital is a vital determinant of future firm performance. This is a stylized fact. Less is known about the effect of the human capital of the initial workforce hired by the founder(s). We study the performance consequences of a founder’s choice of the initial workforce’s human capital (quantity and quality), besides the human capital of the founder(s). The analysis is based on matched employer-employee data and covers about 5,300 startups in manufacturing industries founded by individuals coming from employment between 1992 and 2007. We acknowledge that initial hiring decisions are endogenous and correlated with the human capital of the founders and the ownership structure of startups (single founder versus team of founders). Given the stickiness of initial choices, human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible matter with significant implications for post-entry survival and growth of the firm.
    Keywords: J24 ; L26 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; entrepreneurship ; startups ; firm performance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Las MYPES son una parte importante de la economía nacional, los microempresarios identifican a la falta de capacitación como un factor determinante para mejorar su productividad; sin embargo, cuando se les pregunta qué tipo de capacitación necesitan, no existe consenso sobre sus necesidades. El presente estudio de caso busca mostrar la situación actual de las MYPES con respecto a sus necesidades de capacitación a través de un trabajo con la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz. Entre las principales razones del porqué no existe consenso entre las necesidades de capacitación está la gran diversidad de las MYPES y el distanciamiento entre la oferta de capacitación brindada por instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales con la demanda de capacitación de las micro y pequeñas empresas. Por otro lado, también se realizó una recapitulación de los tipos de capacitación que se socializó con la FEDEMYPE con el fin de complementar estudio.
    Keywords: J24 ; J49 ; L29 ; ddc:330 ; MYPE ; microempresa ; capacitación ; pequeña empresa ; informalidad ; habilidades ; microempresarios ; emprendedores ; habilidades productivas ; habilidades administrativas ; habilidades gerenciales
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2015-12-17
    Description: We investigate how a transition from paid employment to self-employment in the labor market influences life satisfaction. Furthermore, we consider the dynamics of work and leisure satisfaction because the balance between work and leisure is an important element of life satisfaction. Fixed-effects regressions using German Socio-Economic Panel data (1984-2012) reveal that switching to self-employment benefits life and work satisfaction. The effects on life satisfaction are weak and temporary, but they are pronounced and relatively persistent for work satisfaction. However, the gain in work satisfaction is outweighed by a decrease in leisure satisfaction, thus placing work-life balance under severe pressure.
    Keywords: I31 ; J24 ; J28 ; J31 ; L26 ; ddc:330 ; Self-employment ; Entrepreneurship ; Life satisfaction ; Work satisfaction ; Work-life balance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2015-07-09
    Description: Women are often less willing than men to compete, even in tasks where there is no gender gap in performance. Also, many people experience competitive contexts as stressful and previous research has documented that men and women sometimes react differently to acute stressors. We use two laboratory experiments to investigate whether factors related to stress can help explain the gender gap in competitiveness. Experiment 1 studies whether stress responses (measured with salivary cortisol and through self-assessment) to taking part in a mandatory competition predict individual willingness to participate in a voluntary competition. We find that while the mandatory competition does increase stress levels, there is no gender difference in this reaction. Cortisol response does not predict willingness to compete for men but is positively and significantly correlated with choosing to enter the voluntary competition for women. In Experiment 2 we exogenously induce stress using the cold-pressor task. We find no causal effect of stress on competitiveness for the sample as a whole and only tentative evidence of a positive effect for women. In summary, even though there are some gender differences in the relation between stress responses and the decision to enter a competition or not, these cannot explain the general gender gap in willingness to compete that is generally found in the literature and which we replicate.
    Keywords: C91 ; D03 ; J16 ; J24 ; J33 ; ddc:330 ; gender ; competitiveness ; stress ; cortisol ; lab experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2015-07-09
    Description: Self-employed workers can be own-account workers who control their own work or employers who not only are their own boss but also direct others (their employees). We expect both types of self-employed, i.e., own-account workers and employers, to enjoy more independence in determining their work content (type of work) and more flexibility in shaping their work context (e.g., working conditions) compared to paid employees and hence to be more satisfied with their work. Furthermore, we suspect that employers (who can delegate work to their employees and can help them to develop and grow) enjoy even higher levels of work satisfaction compared to both own-account workers (who are their own boss but do not give direction to others) and (non-supervisory) paid employees (who have to obey orders from others within organizational hierarchies). While prior studies typically broadly compare the work satisfaction of self-employed and paid employees, we distinguish employers from own-account workers within the group of self-employed using data from the ECHP for 14 European countries. Our findings indeed show that employers are significantly more satisfied with their work than both own-account workers and paid employees. Additionally, while employers as well as own-account workers enjoy greater procedural utility than (non-supervisory) paid employees stemming from the content and the context of their work, there also seems to be an additional work satisfaction premium for employers.
    Keywords: J24 ; J28 ; L26 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurship ; self-employment ; employers ; own-account workers ; work satisfaction
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  • 24
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-07-09
    Description: We evaluate, using a randomized trial, two school-based financial literacy education programs in government-run primary and junior high schools in Ghana. One program integrated financial and social education, whereas the second program only offered financial education. Both programs included a voluntary after-school savings club that provided students with a locked money box. After nine months, both programs had significant impacts on savings behavior relative to the control group, mostly because children moved savings from home to school. We observed few other impacts. We do find that financial education, when not accompanied by social education, led children to work more compared to the control group, whereas no such effect is found for the integrated curriculum; however, the difference between the two treatment effects on child labor is not statistically significant.
    Keywords: D14 ; J22 ; J24 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; financial literacy ; youth finance ; savings
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  • 25
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-07-09
    Description: Empirical labor economists have resorted to estimating the responsiveness of workers' wages on firms' ability to pay to assess the extent to which employers share rents with their employees. This paper compares this labor economics approach with two other approaches that rely on standard micro production data only: the productivity approach for which estimates of the output elasticities of labor and materials and data on the respective revenue shares are needed and the accounting approach which boils down to directly computing the extent of rent sharing from firm accounting information. Using matched employer-employee data on 60,294 employees working in 9,849 firms over the period 1984-2001 in France, we quantify industry differences in rent-sharing parameters derived from the three approaches. We find a median absolute extent of rent sharing of about 0.30 using either the productivity or the accounting approach. Only exploiting firm-level information brings this median rent-sharing parameter down to 0.16 using the labor economics approach. Controlling for unobserved worker ability further reduces the median absolute extent of rent sharing to 0.08. Our analysis makes clear that the three different approaches face important trade-offs. Hence, empirical economists interested in establishing that profits are shared should select the appropriate approach based on the particular research question and on the data at hand.
    Keywords: C23 ; D21 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Rent sharing ; wage equation ; production function ; matched employer-employee data
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2015-07-09
    Description: We examine how the gender of a sibling affects earnings, education and family formation. Identification is complicated by parental preferences: if parents prefer certain sex compositions over others, children’s gender affects not only the outcomes of other children but also the very existence of potential additional children. We address this problem by looking at dizygotic twins. In these cases, the two children are born at the same time, so parents cannot make decisions about one twin based on the gender of the other twin. We find that the gender of the sibling influences both men and women, but in a different way. Men with brothers earn more and are more likely to get married and have children than men with sisters. Women with sisters obtain lower education and give birth earlier than women with brothers. Our analysis shows that the family size channel cannot explain the findings. Instead, the most likely explanation is that siblings affect each other via various social mechanisms.
    Keywords: J24 ; J12 ; ddc:330 ; Sibling's gender ; earnings ; education ; family formation
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  • 27
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-12-17
    Description: We investigate how early life circumstances— - childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES) - —are associated with labor market outcomes over an individual's entire life cycle. A life cycle approach provides insights not only into which labor market outcomes are associated with adverse childhood events but also into whether these associations show up early or only later in working life, and whether they vanish or persist over the life cycle. The analysis is conducted using the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, which contains retrospective information on early life circumstances and full work histories for over 20,000 individuals in thirteen European countries. We find that the associations between early life circumstances and (accumulated) labor market outcomes vary over an individual's life cycle. For men and women, the effect of childhood SES on lifetime earnings accumulates over the life cycle through the associations with both working years and annual earnings. Moreover, for men this association with lifetime earnings reverses sign from negative to positive over their working life. We also find a smaller, positive long-term association between childhood health and lifetime earnings operating mainly through annual earnings and only to a lesser extent through working years, and which is not present at the beginning of the working life for women. Most of these life cycle profiles differ between European country-groups. Finally, for women we find a so-called buffering effect, i.e. that a higher parental SES reduces the negative impact of poor health during childhood on accumulated earnings over the life cycle.
    Keywords: D10 ; I14 ; J14 ; J24 ; J31 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Early life circumstances ; lifetime earnings ; life cycle ; SHARE
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  • 28
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-03-18
    Description: This paper presents a unified theory of human capital with both health capital and, what we term, skill capital endogenously determined within the model. By considering joint investment in health capital and in skill capital, the model highlights similarities and differences in these two important components of human capital. Health is distinct from skill: health is important to longevity, provides direct utility, provides time that can be devoted to work or other uses, is valued later in life, and eventually declines, no matter how much one invests in it (a dismal fact of life). Lifetime earnings are strongly multiplicative in skill and health, so that investment in skill capital raises the return to investment in health capital, and vice versa. The theory provides a conceptual framework for empirical and theoretical studies aimed at understanding the complex relati onship between education and health, and generates several new testable predictions.
    Keywords: D91 ; I10 ; I12 ; J00 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; health investment ; lifecycle model ; human capital ; health capital
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  • 29
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper investigates the potential of information technologies to improve public service delivery and empower citizens in the context of two unusual randomized natural experiments occurring within one particular bureaucratic process: the renewal of a national identification card by the Bolivian Police. The first experiment arises from the random assignment of both police officers and applicants to a manual or digital renewal process, which is identical in all aspects except that the digital renewal process makes use of information technologies as part of the renewal process. The second experiment arises by the existence of technical failures within the digital renewal process, which allows police officers to change from the digital to the manual renewal process randomly across renewal day. The efficiency of public service delivery is measured in terms of both renewal success rates (which average to a strikingly low rate of 72 percent in our sample) and time-it-takes to renew an identification card. The causal effect of information technologies on public service delivery is estimated using two different identification strategies. In the first one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to each one of these two renewal processes are compared after controlling for renewal day fixed effects. In the second one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to the digital process are compared to those randomly assigned to this same process but who experienced a technical failure within the process, which allows to directly control for unobserved heterogeneity at the police officer level. We find that information technologies significantly improve the quality of public service delivery. Applicants randomly assigned to the digital renewal process are on average 12 percentage points more likely to complete the renewal process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Further, successful applicants randomly assigned to the digital process take on average 31 percent less time to complete the process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Lastly, we find that information technologies significantly lower barriers in access to national identification cards by promoting a more equitable provision across the population. We discuss several channels through which technologies might be improving efficiency and promoting equity within this particular bureaucratic process. Overall, our findings suggest that information technologies might be achieving these goals by introducing efficiencies (such as reducing administrative shortcomings and transaction costs), and limiting the exercise of discretion by police officers within the renewal process.
    Keywords: C93 ; O38 ; J24 ; ddc:330
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  • 31
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-03-18
    Description: This discussion paper resulted in a publication in 'Economics and Human Biology' (forthcoming).〈P〉 Taller individuals typically have occupations with higher social status and higher earnings than shorter individuals. Further, entrepreneurship is associated with high social status in numerous countries; hence, entrepreneurs might be taller than wage workers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (2002-2010), we find that a 1 cm increase in an individual’s height raises the probability of being self-employed (the most common proxy for entrepreneurship) versus paid employed by 0.16 percentage-points. Within self-employment the probability of being an employer is increased by 0.11 percentage-points as a result of a 1 cm increase in height whereas this increase is 0.05 percentage-points for an own-account worker. Furthermore, we confirm that a height premium in earnings exists for not only paid employees, as indicated by prior studies, but also for self-employed individuals. An additional 1 cm in height is associated with a 0.44% increase in hourly earnings for paid employees, and a 0.87% increase for self-employed individuals. The predicted earnings differences between short and tall individuals are substantial. Short paid employees—first quartile of height—earn 15.5 Euros per hour whereas tall paid employees—third quartile of height—earn 16.5 Euros per hour; in self-employment the earnings are 12.8 and 14.4 Euros per hour, respectively. Another novel finding is that we establish the existence of a height premium for work and life satisfaction, but only for paid employees. Finally, our analysis reveals that 44% of the height premium in earnings is explained by differences in educational attainment whereas the height premium in work and life satisfaction is only marginally explained by education.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Self-employment ; Stature ; Height premium ; Education ; Life satisfaction
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  • 32
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-03-18
    Description: When verifiable performance measures are imperfect, organizations often resort to subjective performance pay. This may give supervisors the power to direct employees towards tasks that mainly benefit the supervisor rather than the organization. We cast a principal-supervisor-agent model in a multitask setting, where the supervisor has an intrinsic preference towards specific tasks. We show that subjective performance pay based on evaluation by a biased supervisor has the same distorting effect on the agent's effort allocation as incentive pay based on an incongruent performance measure. If the principal can combine incongruent performance measures with biased supervision, the distortion in the agent's efforts is mitigated, but cannot always be eliminated. We apply our results to the choice between specialist and generalist middle managers, where a trade-off between expertise and bias may arise.
    Keywords: J24 ; M12 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; subjective performance evaluation ; middle managers ; incentives ; multitasking
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  • 33
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-03-18
    Description: We empirically analyze the language proficiency of migrants in the Netherlands. Traditionally, the emphasis in studying language proficiency and economic outcomes has been on the relation between earnings and indicators for language proficiency, motivated by the human capital theory. Here we analyze whether there is a relation between proficiency of the destination language and job level. A lack of language skills may induce the migrant to work in jobs of a lower level leading to lower job satisfaction. We use subjective survey information about job satisfaction and the fit between the migrant's education and skill level and the job. We also use objective information on professional level. Our estimation strategy allows for unobservable correlations between language proficiency and labour market outcomes by employing a simultaneous two equations framework which also exploits the panel nature of our data, by allowing for time persistent random effects. We use a variety of different instrumental variables, some of which are related to linguistic distance, to shed light on the robustness of the results. For men, we find evidence for a positive relationship between indicators for language proficiency and satisfaction with work type and professional level. For women, no impact of language proficiency on the level of the job can be found. Rather, women with lower proficiency levels are not selected into employment in the first place.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; C33 ; ddc:330 ; Skills ; Occupational choice ; Economics of Immigrants ; Panel data models
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  • 34
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: In an influential study, Mas and Moretti (2009) find that “worker effort is positively related to the productivity of workers who see him, but not workers who do not see him”. They interpret this as evidence that social pressure can reduce free riding. In this paper we report an attempt to reproduce the findings of Mas and Moretti in a lab experiment. Lab experiments have the advantage that they can shut down alternative channels through which workers can influence the productivity of colleagues whom they observe. Although the subjects in our experiment are aware of the productivity of others and although there is sufficient scope for subjects to vary their productivity, we find no evidence of the type of peer effects reported by Mas and Moretti. This suggests that their findings are less generalizable than has been assumed.
    Keywords: C91 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; peer effects ; experiment ; laboratory experiment
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  • 35
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: We extend Lazear’s theory of skills variety and entrepreneurship in three directions. First, we provide a theoretical framework linking new business creation with an entrepreneur’s skill variety. Second, in this model we allow for both generalists and specialists to possess skill variety. Third, we test our model empirically using data from Germany and the Netherlands. Individuals with more varied work experience seems indeed more likely to successfully start up a new business and being a generalist does not seem to be important in this regard. Finally, we find that innovation positively moderates the relationship between having varied experiences, and being successful in starting up a new business. Our conclusion is that entrepreneurs with more varied work experience are more likely to introduce innovations that have not only technical, but also commercial value. Our findings support the notion that entrepreneurship can be learned.
    Keywords: L26 ; M13 ; J24 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurship ; start-ups ; human capital ; innovation ; skills
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  • 36
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team’s performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous variation in — otherwise random — team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over different tasks in order to escape diminishing marginal returns under specialization. The model comes with a boundary condition: our experimental finding is most likely to emerge in settings where different tasks exhibit moderate differences in their productive contributions to total output.
    Keywords: C93 ; D83 ; J24 ; L25 ; L26 ; M13 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; Ability dispersion ; team performance ; field experiment ; entrepreneurship
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account teams into treatment and control groups. Employees in treatment teams received rewards if their ideas were approved. Nothing changed for employees in control teams. Our main finding is that rewards substantially increased the quality of ideas submitted. Further, rewards increased participation in the suggestion system, but decreased the number of ideas per participating employee, with zero net effect on the total quantity of ideas. The broader participation base persisted even after the reward was discontinued, suggesting habituation. We find no evidence for motivational crowding out. Our findings suggest that rewards can improve innovation and creativity, and that there may be a tradeoff between the quantity and quality of ideas.
    Keywords: C93 ; J24 ; M52 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; innovation ; rewards ; creativity ; field experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: Teams, in both firms and in sports, jointly produce a product. While a fixed task is assigned to each member of a team, the individual team productivity of a worker or player is difficult to conceptualize. This is particularly true, if this concept is aimed to be operable on observable data. In this paper we, therefore, propose two versions of a new concept of individual team productivity which is closely related to eigenvalue centrality; accordingly we refer to it as eigenvalue productivity. For each version of eigenvalue productivity we provide an example demonstrating the operability of our concept.
    Keywords: D24 ; J24 ; L23 ; L83 ; ddc:330 ; individual team productivity ; eigenvalue productivity ; centrality ; team production ; team sports
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: Wealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by developing a theory of health behavior, and exploiting both lottery winnings and inheritances to test the theory. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of unhealthy consumption. The health cost increases with wealth and the degree of unhealthiness, leading wealthier individuals to consume more healthy and moderately unhealthy, but fewer severely unhealthy goods. The empirical evidence presented suggests that differences in health costs may indeed provide an explanation for behavioral differences, and ultimately health outcomes, between wealth groups.
    Keywords: D91 ; I10 ; I12 ; I14 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; consumption ; health ; health capital ; health behavior ; wealth ; Gesundheit ; Ökonomischer Anreiz ; Glücksspiel ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Konsumentenverhalten ; Großbritannien
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: While it seems evident that occupations affect health, effect estimates are scarce. We use a job characteristics matrix in order to characterize occupations by their physical and psychosocial burden in German panel data spanning 26 years. Employing a dynamic model to control for factors that simultaneously affect health and selection into occupation, we find that manual work and low job control both have a substantial negative effect on health that increases with age. The effects of late career exposure to high physical demands and low control at work are comparable to health deterioration due to aging by 16 and 23 months respectively.
    Keywords: J24 ; I12 ; ddc:330 ; Labor ; health ; dynamic panel data ; Berufsgruppe ; Gesundheitsrisiko ; Panelforschung ; Deutschland
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: In this era of globalisation the traditional Ricardian theory of trade in products governed by comparative advantages is replaced by a modern theory of trade in tasks. Tasks are outsourced to those places in the world where the lower production costs outweigh the additional transaction costs associated with coordinating the tasks. The labour market consequences of this outsourcing of tasks is a major concern, both for the country that outsources tasks and for the country to which tasks are outsourced. This paper discusses the labour market effects of outsourcing in the Netherlands using a survey amongst human research officers and in depth-interviews with the strategic management of seven industrial companies. The interviews and survey make clear that a major motive for outsourcing is to organise production in such a way that total production costs are minimized. More outsourcing requires more coordination but the reduction of costs due to producing at a cheap location outweigh the increase in transaction costs so that total production costs fall and productivity increases. However, it brings about a change in the composition of jobs in the outsourcing country: less workers are engaged in sheer production jobs, but more workers have transaction jobs. The net effect on total employment is uncertain, but our survey and interviews show that outsourcing should not necessarily be associated with a loss of jobs.
    Keywords: F14 ; J21 ; J24 ; L23 ; M11 ; ddc:330 ; Globalization ; labour market ; transformation jobs ; transaction jobs ; outsourcing ; managing transaction costs ; new institutional economics.
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  • 42
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: In this paper we investigate trade union formation. To this end we apply a model with two types of labour where both groups decide on whether they prefer to be represented by either two independent craft-specific (professional) labour unions or by a joint (encompassing) labour union. Applying the asymmetric Nash bargaining solution, we find that it is beneficial for at least one group of labourers to resist a unification and to form instead its own independent labour union - and in some cases even both groups are worse off under the umbrella of a joint union. Consequently, a joint union must be considered as a rather unstable institution. As a mirror image, profits are lower if the firm bargains with two independent craft unions. This explains why employers vehemently oppose recent split offs of some occupational groups from existing unions and from stipulated tariff unions.
    Keywords: C78 ; J31 ; J41 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; trade-union formation ; wage-employment bargains ; Nash bargaining solution ; encompassing and craft-specific labour unions ; trade union merger
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  • 43
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: Inspired by a recent observation about an online retail company, this paper explains why a firm may find it optimal to offer an exit bonus to recent hires so as to induce self-selection. We study a double adverse selection problem, in which the principal can neither observe agents’ commitment to the job nor their intrinsic motivation. A steep wage-tenure profile deters uncommitted agents from applying. An exit bonus can stimulate that –among the committed agents– those who discovered that they are not intrinsically motivated for the job discontinue employment with the principal. Our key findings are that offering an exit bonus increases profits when the first adverse selection problem is sufficiently severe compared to the second and that the exit bonus needs to come as a surprise for the agents in order to function well.
    Keywords: J31 ; J33 ; M52 ; M55 ; ddc:330 ; intrinsic motivation ; commitment ; self-selection ; wage compensation ; exit bonus ; transparency
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: In simple static linear simultaneous equation models the empirical distributions of IV and OLS are examined under alternative sampling schemes and compared with their first-order asymptotic approximations. We demonstrate that the limiting distribution of consistent IV is not affected by conditioning on exogenous regressors, whereas that of inconsistent OLS is. The OLS asymptotic and simulated actual variances are shown to diminish by extending the set of exogenous variables kept fixed in sampling, whereas such an extension disrupts the distribution of IV and deteriorates the accuracy of its standard asymptotic approximation, not only when instruments are weak. Against this background the consequences for the identification of parameters of interest are examined for a setting in which (in practice often incredible) assumptions regarding the zero correlation between instruments and disturbances are replaced by (generally more credible) interval assumptions on the correlation between endogenous regressor and disturbance. This yields OLS-based modified confidence intervals, which are usually conservative. Often they compare favorably with IV-based intervals and accentuate their frailty.
    Keywords: C12 ; C13 ; C15 ; C26 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; partial identification ; weak instruments ; (un)restrained repeated sampling ; (un)conditional (limiting) distributions ; credible robust inference
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: This paper identifies the role of cultural diversity in explaining spatial disparities in wages and housing prices across Dutch cities, using unique individual panel data of home owners. We distinguish between the effects of interactions-based productivity, consumption amenities and sorting of heterogeneous home owners while controlling for interactions between the labor and housing market. We find that an increase in the cultural diversity of the population positively impacts equilibrium wages and housing prices, particularly in the largest and most densely populated cities. This result is largely driven by spatial sorting of individuals in both the labor and housing market. After controlling for home owner heterogeneity we find that increasing cultural diversity no longer impacts local labor markets and negatively impacts local housing markets. The latter result is likely to be driven by a negative causal effect of increased cultural diversity on neighb orhood quality that outweighs a positive effect of increased cultural diversity in consumption goods.
    Keywords: J31 ; R21 ; R23 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; cultural diversity ; immigrants ; local amenities ; sorting ; housing prices ; productivity ; Kulturelle Identität ; Migranten ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Immobilienpreis ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Niederlande
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  • 46
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: This paper studies the impact of diversity in cognitive ability among members of a team on their performance. We conduct a large field experiment in which teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. Exogenous variation in - otherwise random - team composition is imposed by assigning individuals to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. The setting is one of business management practices in the longer run where tasks are diverse and involve complex decision-making. We propose a model in which greater ability dispersion generates greater knowledge for a team, but also increases the costs of monitoring necessitated by moral hazard. Consistent with the predictions of our model, we find that team performance as measured in terms of sales, profits and profits per share first increases, and then decreases, with ability dispersion. Teams with a moderate degree of ability dispersion also experience fewer dismissals due to few er shirking members in those teams.
    Keywords: C93 ; D83 ; J24 ; L25 ; L26 ; M13 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; Ability dispersion ; team performance ; field experiment ; entrepreneurship ; knowledge pooling ; moral hazard ; Arbeitsgruppe ; Kognition ; Arbeitsleistung ; Feldforschung ; Unternehmer ; Planspiel
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We study career choice when competition for promotion is a contest. A more meritocratic profession always succeeds in attracting the highest ability types, whereas a profession with superior promotion benefits attracts high types only if the hazard rate of the noise in performance evaluation is strictly increasing. Raising promotion opportunities produces no systematic effect on the talent distribution, while a higher base wage attracts talent only if total promotion opportunities are sufficiently plentiful.
    Keywords: J45 ; J24 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; career choice ; promotion competition ; selection ; meritocracy ; Politiker ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Wahlkampf ; Neue politische Ökonomie ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: Parental entrepreneurship is a strong, probably the strongest, determinant of own entrepreneurship. We explore the origins of this intergenerational association in entrepreneurship. In particular, we identify the separate effects of pre- and post-birth factors (nature and nurture), by using a unique dataset of Swedish adoptees. Its unique characteristic is that it not only includes data on occupational status for the adoptees and their adoptive parents, but also for their biological parents. Moreover, we use comparable data on entrepreneurship for a large, representative sample of the Swedish population. Based on the latter sample, and consistent with previous findings, we show that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children's entrepreneurship by about 60%. We further show that for adoptees, both biological and adoptive parents make significant contributions. These effects, however, are quite different in size. The effect of post-bir th factors (adoptive parents) is approximately twice as large as the effect of pre-birth factors (biological parents). The sum of these two effects for adopted children is almost identical to the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship for own-birth children. We explore several candidate explanations for this important post-birth effect and present suggestive evidence in favor of role modeling.
    Keywords: J24 ; J62 ; L26 ; ddc:330 ; adoption ; entrepreneurship ; self-employment ; intergenerational mobility ; occupational choice ; role model ; Unternehmer ; Selbstständige ; Generationengerechtigkeit ; Berufswahl ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils' development of relevant skill sets for entrepreneurial activity, both cognitive and non-cognitive. The results indicate that cognitive entrepreneurial skills are unaffected by the program. However, the program has a robust positive effect on non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills. This is surprising since previous evaluations found zero or negative effects. Because these earlier studies all pertain to education for adolescents, our result tentatively suggests that non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills are best developed at an early age.
    Keywords: L26 ; I21 ; J24 ; C93 ; ddc:330 ; Skill formation ; field experiment ; entrepreneurship education ; entrepreneurship ; Gründungsausbildung ; Unternehmer ; Kognition ; Feldforschung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: This is the first study to analyze effects of in utero exposure to the severe Dutch Hunger Winter famine (1944/45) on labor market outcomes and hospitalization. This famine is clearly demarcated in time and space. It was not anticipated. Nutritional conditions were stable before and after the famine. We provide results of exposure by sub-interval of gestation. We are the first to use population registers for the full population. We find a significantly negative effect of exposure during the first trimester of gestation on employment outcomes 53 or more years after birth, as well as effects on hospitalization.
    Keywords: I10 ; I12 ; J01 ; J13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; famine ; long-run effects ; labor and hospitalization outcomes ; Unterernährung ; Schwangerschaft ; Kriegsfolgen ; Alte Menschen ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Gesundheit ; Niederlande
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: The paper provides a theoretical foundation for the empirical regularities observed in estimations of wage consequences of overeducation and undereducation. Workers with more education than required for their jobs are observed to suffer wage penalties relative to workers with the same education in jobs that only require their educational level. Similarly, workers with less education than required for their jobs earn wage rewards. These departures from the Mincer human capital earnings function can be explained by Nash bargaining between workers and employers. Under fairly mild assumptions, Nash bargaining predicts a wage penalty for overeducation and a wage reward for undereducation, and further predicts that the wage penalty will exceed the wage reward. This paper reviews the established empirical regularities and then provides Nash bargaining results that explain these regularities.
    Keywords: J31 ; J24 ; C78 ; C51 ; ddc:330 ; Overeducation ; Undereducation ; Nash bargaining ; Qualitative mismatches ; Mincer earnings function ; Wages ; Lohn ; Unterbeschäftigung ; Bildungsertrag ; Tarifverhandlungen ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: This paper analyzes the relationship between unexplained racial/ethnic wage differentials on the one hand and social network segregation, as measured by inbreeding homophily, on the other hand. Our analysis is based on both U.S. and Estonian surveys, supplemented with Estonian telephone communication data. In case of Estonia we consider the regional variation in economic performance of the Russian minority, and in the U.S. case we consider the regional variation in black-white differentials. Our analysis finds a strong relationship between the size of the differential and network segregation: regions with more segregated social networks exhibit larger unexplained wage gaps.
    Keywords: J71 ; J31 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; social networks ; wage differential ; homophily ; segregation ; race ; minorities ; Minderheit ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Lohnstruktur ; Rasse ; USA ; Estland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 53
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: In the media role models are increasingly being acknowledged as an influential factor in explaining the reasons for the choice of occupation and career. Various conceptual studies have proposed links between role models and entrepreneurial intentions. However, empirical research aimed at establishing the importance of role models for (nascent) entrepreneurs is scarce. Knowledge of the presence of entrepreneurial role models, their specific functions and characteristics is therefore limited. Our explorative empirical study is a first step towards filling this gap. Our study is based on the outcomes of a questionnaire completed by a representative sample of 292 entrepreneurs in three major Dutch cities - entrepreneurs who have recently started up a business in the retail, hotel and restaurant sectors, business services and other services. We provide indications of the presence and importance of entrepreneurial role models, the function of these role models, the similarity between the entrepreneur and the role model, and the strength of their relationship.
    Keywords: L26 ; M13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; role models ; entrepreneurs ; human capital ; new firm start-ups ; Unternehmer ; Soziale Rolle ; Unternehmensgründung ; Humankapital ; Selbstständige ; Niederlande
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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