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  • American Physical Society  (651,798)
Collection
Years
  • 1
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    American Physical Society
    Online: 1995 –
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Journal cover
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    American Physical Society
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Electronic ISSN: 2475-9953
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 3
    Journal cover
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    American Physical Society
    Online: 1.1998 –
    Formerly as: Physical Review Focus  (1998–2011)
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2879
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Journal cover
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    American Physical Society
    Online: 1993 –
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Print ISSN: 0003-0503
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
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    American Physical Society
    Online: 1(1).1964 – 4(1).1968
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
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    American Physical Society
    Online: 4(5).1995 –
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Print ISSN: 1058-8132
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: In this study we model population dynamics in a three-species food web with heterogeneous resources and intraguild predation by using a nonspatial Lotka-Volterra system with a density-dependent interaction of resource items. The model consists of two predators with an intraguild predation (IGP) relation competing for a common resource. The resource is subdivided into subpopulations of different quality that are distinguished by grazing rates of the two predators, contact rates between subpopulations and mortality rates. The proposed system describes an exchange of traits between species from distinct subpopulations by using a species interaction term. In particular, we examine the percentage of stable coexistence solutions versus resource carrying capacity and contact rates between distinct resource pools. We also present a numerical comparison of the percentage of stable food webs found for different numbers of subpopulations. While at high enrichment no stable coexistence was found in the IGP system with a single resource, our model predicts a stable coexistence of two IGP-related predators and resources at high and intermediate enrichment already at a low contact rate between subpopulations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-04
    Description: The fascinating ability of algae, insects, and fishes to survive at temperatures below normal freezing is realized by antifreeze proteins (AFPs). These are surface-active molecules and interact with the diffusive water-ice interface thus preventing complete solidification. We propose a dynamical mechanism on how these proteins inhibit the freezing of water. We apply a Ginzburg-Landau-type approach to describe the phase separation in the two-component system (ice, AFP). The free-energy density involves two fields: one for the ice phase with a low AFP concentration and one for liquid water with a high AFP concentration. The time evolution of the ice reveals microstructures resulting from phase separation in the presence of AFPs. We observed a faster clustering of pre-ice structure connected to a locking of grain size by the action of AFP, which is an essentially dynamical process. The adsorption of additional water molecules is inhibited and the further growth of ice grains stopped. The interfacial energy between ice and water is lowered allowing the AFPs to form smaller critical ice nuclei. Similar to a hysteresis in magnetic materials we observe a thermodynamic hysteresis leading to a nonlinear density dependence of the freezing point depression in agreement with the experiments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Physical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Physical Review Letters 96 (2006): 018305, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.018305.
    Description: We study the liquid-crystalline phase behavior of a concentrated suspension of helical flagella isolated from Salmonella typhimurium. Flagella are prepared with different polymorphic states, some of which have a pronounced helical character while others assume a rodlike shape. We show that the static phase behavior and dynamics of chiral helices are very different when compared to simpler achiral hard rods. With increasing concentration, helical flagella undergo an entropy-driven first order phase transition to a liquid-crystalline state having a novel chiral symmetry.
    Description: M. S. and R. O. are supported by NIH Grant No. EB002583.
    Keywords: Entropy ; Molecular biophysics ; Liquid crystal phase transformations ; Symmetry ; Chirality
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 765344 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
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    American Physical Society
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Physical Review E Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 92 (2015): 052128, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.052128.
    Description: Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 2388357, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the National Science Foundation, Award No. OCE-1315201.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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