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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (241,956)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-02
    Description: This review article aims to provide an overview and insight into the most relevant aspects of wind energy development and current state-of-the-art. The industry is in a very mature stage, so it seems to be the right time to take stock of the relevant areas of wind energy use for power generation. For this review, the authors considered the essential aspects of the development of wind energy technology: research, modeling, and prediction of wind speed as an energy source, the technology development of the plants divided into the mechanical and electrical systems and the plant control, and finally the optimal plant operation including the maintenance strategies. The focus is on the development in Europe, with a partial focus on Germany. The authors are employees of the Fraunhofer Institutes, Institute for Energy Economics and Energy Systems Technology and Institute for Wind Energy Systems, who have contributed to the development of this technology for decades.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: We report the theoretical design, numerical simulation, and experimental demonstration of a flat mirror capable to efficiently focus the reflected sound in three-dimensional space within an ultra-broad band. The proposed mirror is implemented with a textured rigid surface, enabling simple design and easy fabrication. We analytically derive the distribution of geometric parameters needed for producing ultra-broadband focusing, and verify the performance of resulting mirror both numerically and experimentally. Furthermore, our scheme allows further extending of the working band by resizing individual elements. Our design with simplicity and capability may promote the application of focusing devices generally subject to limited bandwidth.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Secondary photocurrents offer an alternative mechanism to photomultiplier tubes and avalanche diodes for making high gain photodetectors that are able to operate even at extremely low light conditions. While in the past secondary currents were studied mainly in ordered crystalline semiconductors, disordered systems offer some key advantages such as a potentially lower leakage current and typically longer photocarrier lifetimes due to trapping. In this work, we use numerical simulations to identify the critical device and material parameters required to achieve high photocurrent and gain in steady state. We find that imbalanced mobilities and suppressed, non-Langevin-type charge carrier recombination will produce the highest gain. A low light intensity, strong electric field, and a large single carrier space charge limited current are also beneficial for reaching high gains. These results would be useful for practical photodetector fabrication when aiming to maximize the gain.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: We directly monitored the lattice dynamics in PbSe quantum dots (QD) induced by laser excitation using ultrafast electron diffraction. The energy relaxation between the carriers and the lattice took place within 10 ps, showing no evidence of any significant phonon bottleneck effect. Meanwhile, the lattice dilation exhibited some unusual features that could not be explained by the available mechanisms of photon-induced acoustic vibrations in semiconductors alone. The heat transport between the QDs and the substrate deviates significantly from Fourier's Law, which opens questions about the heat transfer under nonequilibrium conditions in nanoscale materials.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Cu(In,Ga) Se 2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells have demonstrated very high efficiencies, but still the role of nanoscale inhomogeneities in CIGS and their impact on the solar cell performance are not yet clearly understood. Due to the polycrystalline structure of CIGS, grain boundaries are very common structural defects that are also accompanied by compositional variations. In this work, we apply valence electron energy loss spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy to study the local band gap energy at a grain boundary in the CIGS absorber layer. Based on this example, we demonstrate the capabilities of a 2 nd generation monochromator that provides a very high energy resolution and allows for directly relating the chemical composition and the band gap energy across the grain boundary. A band gap widening of about 20 meV is observed at the grain boundary. Furthermore, the compositional analysis by core-loss EELS reveals an enrichment of In together with a Cu, Ga and Se depletion at the same area. The experimentally obtained results can therefore be well explained by the presence of a valence band barrier at the grain boundary.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) capped with ionophore were fabricated to demonstrate the highly sensitive and selective detection of Hg (II) ions in solution. We systematically investigated the ion detection performances and sensing mechanism of this 2D material. Due to its ambipolar nature, graphene can work as either an n-type or a p-type sensor when a gate voltage is applied to switch its carrier characteristic, resulting in completely different sensing performances. The strong dependence of sensitivity on gate voltage was also investigated. Graphene FETs in optimal regimes were able to detect Hg 2+ down to 0.1 ppb, one-fold lower than the World Health Organization tolerance level. Hg 2+ ions can be effectively detected over a wide range of concentration (from 0.1 ppb to 1000 ppb) with graphene conductance change following the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorption on surface, and the time constant for ion adsorption extracted was only 3.5 s, approximately. The transfer characteristics of graphene FETs capped with mercury ionophore did not show obvious change by the existence of arsenite ions, demonstrating good selectivity. Our results illustrate the potential utility of ionophore integrated graphene FETs for monitoring heavy metal ions in solution.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Orientation and temperature dependence of dielectric and electromechanical properties of Mn-doped (Li,Na,K)(Nb,Ta)O 3 single crystals were investigated. Samples exhibited very low dielectric losses, with tanδ between 0.03 and 0.05 over a broad temperature range between room temperature and 480 °C. Influences of the crystallographic structure and external electric field on polarization and strain parameters are discussed. The orientation-dependent electrical properties were ascribed to the anisotropic polarization rotation in the crystals. Higher maximum polarization, coercive field, and negative strain were achieved when the electric field was oriented along one of the spontaneous polarization directions. The highest maximum unipolar strain of 0.42% (at 3 kV/mm) and the normalized strain d 33 * of 1391 pm/V were obtained in the [001] PC -oriented sample at 100 °C, which was much higher than the values obtained for the [110] PC -oriented sample. Further insight of the phase transition behavior is given by comparing the temperature-dependence of the small- and large-signal dielectric and piezoelectric properties. The observed changes are rationalized by the different increase rates of the dielectric permittivity and piezoelectric coefficients with temperature.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: We report on the functional properties of the Y(Ni 0.5 Mn 0.5 )O 3 epitaxial thin films, growth by pulsed laser deposition, observing the clear features of their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nature at cryogenic temperature. The characterization of temperature-dependent complex impedance spectroscopy has shown a dielectric anomaly around the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (≈100 K) indicative of coupling between magnetic and electric orders.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: We highlight the relevance of demagnetizing-field corrections in the characterization of dense magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. By an analysis that employs in-plane and out-of-plane magnetometry on cylindrical assemblies, we demonstrate the suitability of a simple analytical formula-based correction method. This allows us to identify artifacts of the demagnetizing field in temperature-dependent susceptibility curves (e.g., shoulder peaks in curves from a disordered assembly of essentially bare magnetic nanoparticles). The same analysis approach is shown to be a straightforward procedure for determining the magnetic nanoparticle packing fraction in dense, disordered assemblies.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Here, we investigate the effects of thermal boundary resistance (TBR) and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity on the thermal resistance of GaN/substrate stacks. A combination of parameters such as substrates {diamond, silicon carbide, silicon, and sapphire}, thermal boundary resistance {10–60 m 2 K/GW}, heat source lengths {10 nm–20  μ m}, and power dissipation levels {1–8 W} are studied by using technology computer-aided design (TCAD) software Synopsys. Among diamond, silicon carbide, silicon, and sapphire substrates, the diamond provides the lowest thermal resistance due to its superior thermal conductivity. We report that due to non-zero thermal boundary resistance and localized heating in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors, an optimum separation between the heat source and substrate exists. For high power (i.e., 8 W) heat dissipation on high thermal conductive substrates (i.e., diamond), the optimum separation between the heat source and substrate becomes submicron thick (i.e., 500 nm), which reduces the hotspot temperature as much as 50 °C compared to conventional multi-micron thick case (i.e., 4  μ m). This is attributed to the thermal conductivity drop in GaN near the heat source. Improving the TBR between GaN and diamond increases temperature reduction by our further approach. Overall, we provide thermal management design guidelines for GaN-based devices.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: A collimator is an electromagnetic device that focuses or aligns the direction of wave propagation to achieve a narrow, intense beam. In this study, we propose a two-dimensional dielectric collimator for microwave beam focusing. This is something that is difficult to achieve using theoretical- or intuition-based approaches. We therefore used a systematic design process, which is referred to as the phase field design method, to obtain an optimal topological configuration for the collimator. The phase field parameter determines the optimal configuration of the dielectric material and, as a consequence, it determines the relative permittivity of the component. To verify the design results, we fabricated a prototype via three-dimensional printing and performed an experimental verification using an electric field scanner to measure the near field distributions of the designed collimator positioned parallel to an incident wave. We also performed angle dependent experiments for which the collimator position was offset at various angles. We confirmed that the experimental results are consistent with the simulation results.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Ex situ analyses on topological insulator films require protection against surface contamination during air exposure. This work reports on a technique that combines deposition of protective capping just after epitaxial growth and its mechanical removal inside ultra-high vacuum systems. This method was applied to Bi 2 Te 3 films with thickness varying from 8 to 170 nm. Contrarily to other methods, this technique does not require any sputtering or thermal annealing setups installed inside the analyzing system and preserves both film thickness and surface characteristics. These results suggest that the technique presented here can be expanded to other topological insulator materials.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: We used high-resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to investigate the immobilization of a prostate specific antigen (PSA) antibody by measuring the surface potential (SP) on a MoS 2 surface over an extensive concentration range (1 pg/ml–100 μ g/ml). After PSA antibody immobilization, we demonstrated that the SP on the MoS 2 surface characterized by KPFM strongly correlated to the electrical signal of a MoS 2 bioFET. This demonstration can not only be used to optimize the immobilization conditions for captured molecules, but can also be applied as a diagnostic tool to complement the electrical detection of a MoS 2 FET biosensor.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Polystyrene film nanocomposites of 0.3 mm thickness with embedded LaPO 4 -Pr nanoparticles (40 wt. %) have been synthesized. The luminescent and kinetic properties of these polystyrene composites with embedded LaPO 4 -Pr nanoparticles upon pulse X-ray excitation have been studied. The luminescence intensity of this polystyrene material significantly increases as it is loaded with inorganic LaPO 4 -Pr nanoparticles. Nanocomposite films reveal luminescence spectra typical for polystyrene activators (p-Terphenyl and POPOP) and two components of decay time kinetics of luminescence with 12 ns and 2.8 ns time constants, depending on nanoparticle sizes. The component with 12 ns decay constant arises due to the radiative transfer of the 5d-4f-emission of the Pr 3+ ions in the LaPO 4 nanoparticles to the polystyrene. The decay component with the time constant 2.8 ns originates from luminescence of polystyrene matrix excited by electrons emitted from nanoparticles due to the photoeffect. This nonradiative mechanism of energy transfer from nanoparticles to polystyrene matrices is determinative for nanoparticles, as their sizes are smaller than a mean free path of an electron.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: An ab initio investigation has been employed to determine the structural and spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, vertical excitation energies, and the stability of the ethyl-water complex. The ethyl-water complex has a binding energy of 1.15 kcal⋅mol −1 . The interaction takes place between the hydrogen of water and the unpaired electron of the radical. This interaction is found to produce a red shift in the OH stretching bands of water of ca. 84 cm −1 , and a shift of all UV absorption bands to higher energies.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: In this paper, we prove the existence of quasi-periodic solutions of the multidimensional nonlinear beam equation with finitely differentiable nonlinearities and quasi-periodic forcing in time.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2488
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7658
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Theoretical as well as numerical analyses of the full set of Maxwell's equations is carried out to study non-axisymmetric ( m ≠     0 ) guided modes in radially nonuniform helicon (HE) discharges. Unlike the axisymmetric ( m  = 0) modes, these modes reveal a non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal direction. We develop the conditions for propagation and non-propagation of the various modes in the helicon parameter range, thereby focussing on the important role of the radial density gradient. Three types of modes occurring in different parameter ranges are described, i.e., the helicon (HE) mode, the electrostatic (ES) or Trivelpiece-Gould mode, and the locally coupled (LC) mode that is characterized by mode coupling (MC) in a certain region of the plasma density profile. In contrast to m = + 1 modes, the parameter range of m = − 1 modes is much more restricted as rather high densities are needed for the propagation of the helicon and LC modes. An important issue of the investigations is the rf power coupling and absorption via the various modes. Computations based on a simple antenna-plasma model show that the axial wavenumber of the antenna determines decisively which type of mode is excited. In case of LC mode excitation, the dominant role of the MC layer for the absorption is demonstrated. Finally, the rf power coupling to helicon modes is studied. The density limit for m = − 1 helicon mode propagation and the narrow magnetic field profiles of these modes are the main reasons why the rf power absorption in helicon discharges occurs via m = + 1 helicon modes.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Time-resolved parameters of plasma compressed by a shock wave generated by the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array are presented. The plasma was preliminarily formed inside a capillary placed at the equatorial plane along the axis of the array. Temporal evolution analysis of H α and C II spectral lines showed that the plasma density increases from its initial value of ∼3 × 10 17  cm −3 up to ∼5.5 × 10 17  cm −3 within 300 ± 25 ns. These results were found to be in agreement with those of the model that considers the adiabatic compression of the plasma by the converging capillary walls caused by interaction with the incident shock wave with a pressure of ∼3 × 10 9  Pa at a radius of 1.5 mm. The latter results coincide well with those of the 1D hydrodynamic modeling, which assumes uniformity of the converging shock wave.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: With high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from plasma surfaces, it is possible to turn a laser pulse into a train of attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses in the backward radiation. These attosecond pulses may be several orders of magnitude higher than that of the laser pulse under appropriate conditions. We study this process in detail, especially the nanobunching of plasma electron density. We derive an analytical expression that describes the electron density profile and obtain a good agreement with particle-in-cell simulation results. We investigate the most efficient case of HHG at moderate laser intensity ( I ≈ 2 × 10 20   W / cm 2 ) on the over-dense plasma slab with an exponential profile pre-plasma. Subsequently, we calculate the spectra of a single attosecond pulse from the backward radiation using our expression for density shape in combination with the equation for the spectrum of nanobunch radiation.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: The design, construction, and testing of high frequency, high voltage pulse power supply are reported. The purpose of the power supply is to generate dielectric barrier discharges for industrial applications. The power supply is compact and has the advantage of low cost, over current protection, and convenient control for voltage and frequency selection. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses of up to 45 kV at the repetitive frequency range of 1 kHz–50 kHz with 1.2 kW input power. The output current of the power supply is limited to 500 mA. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 2 μ s and the pulse width is 2 μ s. The power supply is short circuit proof and can withstand variable plasma load conditions. The power supply mainly consists of a half bridge series resonant converter to charge an intermediate capacitor, which discharges through a step-up transformer at high frequency to generate high voltage pulses. Semiconductor switches and amorphous cores are used for power modulation at higher frequencies. The power supply is tested with quartz tube dielectric barrier discharge load and worked stably. The design details and the performance of the power supply on no load and dielectric barrier discharge load are presented.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: In this work a new broadband static Fourier transform spectrometer (static-FTS) configuration based on the division of the spectrum into multiple narrow-bands is proposed. This configuration not only decreases the spectrometer size but also allows operation in the traditional spectrometer wavelength range, namely, 400 nm–1100 nm with 1 cm −1 or better resolution. This technique solves the Nyquist sampling rate issue and enables us to record high resolution spectrums with regular CCDs. An algorithm is developed to process the signal and calculate the Fourier transform of the recorded interferograms on the CCD camera.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: A new application of retarding field analyzer for the electron and ion temperature measurement (named eiRFA) has been realized on the J-TEXT tokamak. A novel bias arrangement is adopted for the eiRFA to implement the simultaneous measurement of the electron and ion temperatures in the scrape-off layer, as well as the floating potential, plasma space potential, and sheath potential drop coefficient. It shows that the temperatures measured by eiRFA are reasonable and the plasma space potential obtained by two means is in good self-consistent. Moreover, the calculation of electron temperature can be modified using the eiRFA.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: We present an upgrade to the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer BioRef at the research reactor BER II of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB). Through the integration of an additional chopper into the existing setup, the available wavelength resolution is significantly extended. Now two distinct operation modes can be used: a high resolution mode with Δλ/λ ranging from 1% to 5%, which allows for the investigation of thick films up to 4000 Å, and a high flux mode with Δλ/λ = 7%–11%. In the high flux mode, reflectivity curves from 0.007 Å −1 to 0.2 Å −1 with three angular settings can be recorded in 7 min. For a single angular setting and its respective window in Q-space, a time resolution of even less than 4 min is reached. The different configurations are documented by respective measurements (a) on a Ni–Ti multilayer and (b) the swelling kinetics of a solid-supported phospholipid coating upon incubation in a polyelectrolyte solution.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: High room temperature coercivity CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) thin films are desirable in view of many applications, which is seldom achieved over 3 kOe in solution deposited CFO thin films. Herein, grain growth kinetic is investigated in the solution derived CFO thin films with coercivity larger than 4 kOe, showing a relaxation mechanism. The coercivity and magnetization increase initially and then decrease with increasing dwell time. The high coercivity is originated mainly from the critical grain size and the growth strain induced by the small crystallites and poorly developed grains. The results will provide a route to fabricate larger-area CFO thin films with high coercivity on silicon wafers by low-cost solution processing.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: We study the photoluminescence internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and recombination dynamics in a pair of polar and non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) light-emitting diode (LED) structures as a function of excess carrier density and temperature. In the polar LED at 293 K, the variation of radiative and non-radiative lifetimes is well described by a modified ABC type model which accounts for the background carrier concentration in the QWs due to unintentional doping. As the temperature is reduced, the sensitivity of the radiative lifetime to excess carrier density becomes progressively weaker. We attribute this behaviour to the reduced mobility of the localised electrons and holes at low temperatures, resulting in a more monomolecular like radiative process. Thus we propose that in polar QWs, the degree of carrier localisation determines the sensitivity of the radiative lifetime to the excess carrier density. In the non-polar LED, the radiative lifetime is independent of excitation density at room temperature, consistent with a wholly excitonic recombination mechanism. These findings have significance for the interpretation of LED efficiency data within the context of the ABC recombination model.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: In this paper, a flexible heater based on anisotropic laser-reduced graphene oxide (LRGO) is established. Attributing to precision and shape design of laser processing and excellent adhesion of graphene oxide, the LRGO-based heater can be microminiaturized with custom patterns and integrated on various substrates, which is what the existing film heaters cannot do and can be widely used for wearable heating devices, flexural warming systems in medical science, and light deicing equipment and heaters for aero vehicles. The electrothermal performance of the anisotropic LRGO is investigated systematically through a series of experiments including Raman spectra, SEM, white-light interferograms, IV testing, and infrared thermography. The electrothermal performance of the LRGO with the parallel aligned direction is better than the LRGO with the vertical aligned direction. The electrothermal performance can be improved greatly through radiating repeatedly. The saturated temperature and heating rate of the LRGO radiated twice are almost double that of the LRGO radiated once. Radiating thrice damages the material and structure, reducing electrothermal performance.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Detection jitter quantifies variance introduced by the detector in the determination of photon arrival time. It is a crucial performance parameter for systems using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). In this work, we have demonstrated that the detection timing jitter is limited in part by the spatial variation of the photon detection events along the length of the wire. We define this jitter source as a geometric jitter since it is related to the length and area of the SNSPD. To characterize the geometric jitter, we have constructed a differential cryogenic readout with less than 7 ps of an electronic jitter that can amplify the pulses generated from the two ends of an SNSPD. By differencing the measured arrival times of the two electrical pulses, we were able to partially cancel out the difference of the propagation times and thus reduce the uncertainty of the photon arrival time. We proved that the variation of the differential propagation time was a few ps for a 3 μ m × 3  μ m device, while it increased up to 50 ps for a 20 μ m × 20  μ m device. In a 20  μ m × 20  μ m large SNSPD, we achieved a 20% reduction in the overall detection timing jitter for detecting the telecom-wavelength photons by using the differential cryogenic readout.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Structured metallic tips are increasingly important for optical spectroscopies such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, with plasmonic resonances frequently cited as a mechanism for electric field enhancement. We probe the local optical response of sharp and spherical-tipped atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips using a scanning hyperspectral imaging technique to identify the plasmonic behaviour. Localised surface plasmon resonances which radiatively couple with far-field light are found only for spherical AFM tips, with little response for sharp AFM tips, in agreement with numerical simulations of the near-field response. The precise tip geometry is thus crucial for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, and the typical sharp cones are not preferred.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: We demonstrate real-time, femtosecond-level clock synchronization across a low-lying, strongly turbulent, 12-km horizontal air path by optical two-way time transfer. For this long horizontal free-space path, the integrated turbulence extends well into the strong turbulence regime corresponding to multiple scattering with a Rytov variance up to 7 and with the number of signal interruptions exceeding 100 per second. Nevertheless, optical two-way time transfer is used to synchronize a remote clock to a master clock with femtosecond-level agreement and with a relative time deviation dropping as low as a few hundred attoseconds. Synchronization is shown for a remote clock based on either an optical or microwave oscillator and using either tip-tilt or adaptive-optics free-space optical terminals. The performance is unaltered from optical two-way time transfer in weak turbulence across short links. These results confirm that the two-way reciprocity of the free-space time-of-flight is maintained both under strong turbulence and with the use of adaptive optics. The demonstrated robustness of optical two-way time transfer against strong turbulence and its compatibility with adaptive optics is encouraging for future femtosecond clock synchronization over very long distance ground-to-air free-space paths.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Inspired by cicada wings, biomorphic TiO 2 with antireflective structures (ARSs) was precisely fabricated using a simple, inexpensive, and highly effective sol-gel process combined with subsequent calcination. It was confirmed that the fabricated biomorphic TiO 2 not only effectively inherited the ARS but also exhibited high-performance angle dependent antireflective properties ranging from normal to 45°. Reflectance spectra demonstrated that the reflectivity of the biomorphic TiO 2 with ARSs gradually changed from 1.4% to 7.8% with the increasing incidence angle over a large visible wavelength range. This angle dependent antireflective property is attributed to an optimized gradient refractive index between air and TiO 2 via ARSs on the surface. Such surfaces with ARSs may have potential application in solar cells.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: We report the experimental observation of an increase in the elastic anisotropy of tungsten upon He-ion implantation, probed optically using transient grating spectroscopy. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity measurements were performed on a (110) oriented tungsten single crystal as a function of in-plane propagation direction for unimplanted and implanted samples. Our measurements allow us to finely resolve the remarkably small elastic anisotropy of the samples investigated. SAW velocity calculations are used to interpret the experimental data and to extract the Zener anisotropy parameter η and the elastic constant C 44 . Upon ion implantation, we observe an increase in the quantity ( η − 1 ) by a factor of 2.6. The surprising increase in elastic anisotropy agrees with previous theoretical predictions based on ab initio calculations of the effect of self-interstitial atoms and He-filled vacancy defects on the elastic properties of tungsten.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: The effect of thermal annealing on epitaxial GeSn (6.5% Sn) strained layers grown on Ge-buffered Si(100) wafers has been investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction to unambiguously determine the Sn substitutional content as well as the elastic strain in the layers. Vacuum annealing at temperatures below 400 °C for 20 min has no noticeable effect on the strain in the epitaxial layers. Once the temperature was raised above 400 °C, however, relaxation of the layer sets in and the GeSn layer has essentially completely relaxed following a 20 min anneal at 650 °C. Using Rutherford backscattering and channelling spectrometry to provide compositional information as a function of depth enables one to monitor the effect of the thermal anneal on the Sn distribution throughout the layer, and also to directly extract their substitutional fraction (i.e., their solubility in the lattice). The results obtained show that when the relaxation initially sets in both the Ge and the Sn remain firmly bound in substitutional lattice sites and it is only around 600 °C, and after substantial relaxation has taken place, that Sn is finally expelled from lattice sites and diffuses to the surface of the sample.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Immersion of an elastic cantilevered sheet in a fluid can strongly affect its dynamic response. While significant effort has been expended in studying slender cantilevered sheets, the behavior of wide sheets has received far less attention. Here we study the clamping configuration's effect on the vibrational dynamics of wide cantilever sheets of macroscopic size, which naturally generate inviscid flows. Three practically relevant clamping configurations are investigated: clamping into (i) a thin and rigid horizontal plate, (ii) a rigid vertical wall, and (iii) a rigid line. These are found to produce different resonant frequencies, as expected from the nonlocal flows generated by these cantilevers. The resulting formulas are joined to an existing expression for slender cantilevers, leading to a universal formula valid for all aspect ratios (cantilever length/width) and mode numbers; accuracy is verified using finite element analysis. This study is expected to be of practical value in a host of engineering applications, such as those that utilize fluid-structure interactions for energy harvesting and aerodynamic design.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Formation of high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures (HSFL) in germanium by 90 fs mid-IR pulses at a 1 kHz repetition rate with wavelengths between λ  = 2 and 3.6  μ m was studied with varying angle of incidence and polarization. The period of these structures varied from λ /3 to λ /8. A modified surface-scattering model including Drude excitation and the optical Kerr effect explains the spatial period scaling of HSFL across the mid-IR wavelengths. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of a 30 nm amorphous layer above the structure of crystalline germanium. Various mechanisms including two photon absorption and defect-induced amorphization are discussed as probable causes for the formation of this layer.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) was doped with radioactive 111m Cd and 111 In ions as impurities, and their residence sites and thermal stability were investigated by means of time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy. Well-defined TDPAC spectra unequivocally show their sites: Cd ions are stably located only in the tetrahedral A site in all the temperature range of the present observation (77 K–873 K); In ions also specifically occupy the A site at low temperature, but at high temperature part of them select the B site in a reversible fashion. The energy difference between the A and B sites for the accommodation of In was experimentally determined to be 0.119 (9) eV by assuming a Boltzmann distribution for the populations of the 111 In probe in the respective sites. The element-dependent thermal stabilities observed for Cd and In were well corroborated by density functional theory calculations. The successful observation of thermally activated site-to-site displacement of impurity In ions in Fe 3 O 4 is reported.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function with the third order tight binding Hamiltonian, we show that 12.7 nm long and 1.11 nm wide zigzag and armchair graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR and AGNR) in contact with asymmetric source and drain, consisting of graphene topped with Au and Ti, respectively, can operate as visible and solar blind photodetectors under zero externally applied biases. The carbon atoms at the channels' edges are considered to be hydrogen passivated. Numerical simulations show that the unbiased Au-ZGNR-Ti and Au-AGNR-Ti photodetectors can detect photons of energies 2.72 eV (456 nm, visible reign) and 5.02 eV (247 nm, solar blind reign), respectively, with the corresponding quantum efficiencies as high as 90% and 60% and responsivities of 93.8 and 13.4 A/mW. We also show that in Au-ZGNR-Ti the local photocurrents are distributed more around the ZGNR edges in regions near the source and drain sides of the channel, for the zero gate-source voltage ( V GS  = 0), whereas in Au-AGNR-Ti for the same biasing condition, the local photocurrents are distributed far from the AGNR edges within regions near the source and drain sides of the channel. As the applied gate voltage moves away from the Dirac point, the peaks of the local photocurrents move away from the source and drain sides of the channel in opposite directions, in either asymmetric photodetector. Polarities of the local photocurrents are altered, as the gate-source voltage approaches the Dirac point, where the total photocurrent is maximized for both asymmetric photodetectors.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO 2 matrix were studied with positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Analysis of the S - and W -parameters for the sample annealed at 800 °C reveals a positron trap at the interface between the amorphous nanodots and the surrounding matrix. Another trap state is observed in the 1150 °C heat treated samples where nanodots are in a crystalline form. Positrons are most likely trapped to defects related to dangling bonds at the surface of the nanocrystals. Passivation of the samples results on one hand in the decrease of the S -parameter implying a decrease in the open volume of the interface state and, on the other hand, in the strengthening of the positron annihilation signal from the interface. The intensity of the photoluminescence signal increases with the formation of the nanocrystals. Passivation of samples strengthens the photoluminescence signal, further indicating a successful deactivation of luminescence quenching at the nanocrystal surface. Strengthening of the positron annihilation signal and an increase in the photoluminescence intensity in passivated silicon nanocrystals suggests that the positron trap at the interface does not contribute to a significant extent to the exciton recombination in the nanocrystals.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: To investigate the possible sources of the switching field distribution in bit-patterned media, we applied a scanning hard-X-ray nanoprobe technique based on X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to an array of Co-Pt dots with the typical diameters of 200 nm. Element-specific magnetization curves at the Pt L 3 edge were measured for individual dots isolated from each other, and the magnetization switching field (coercivity) values were determined for more than 100 individual dots. To assess the effect of dot diameters as a possible source of switching field distribution, a statistical analysis of the coercivity values and dot diameters measured for many dots was performed. The resulting switching field distribution had a mean of ⟨ H SW ⟩ = 1.80   kOe and a standard deviation of σH SW  = 0.64 kOe. The relative deviation of σ H SW / ⟨ H SW ⟩ = 36 % was not in good agreement with the relative dispersion in a dot diameter of σ D / ⟨ D ⟩ = 2.7 % , and no clear correlation between the coercivity and dot diameter was observed. These results may suggest other possible sources of switching field distribution than dot diameter, such as dispersion in the c -axis orientation and in magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: An analytical model is developed to explore the shape-dependent electronic and optoelectronic properties of silicon nanostructure solar cells, including nanocones (NCs), nanowires (NWs), and truncated-nanocones (TNCs), on the basis of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and detailed balance principle. It is found that the inhomogeneous NCs can not only make the band gap shrink gradually from the top to the bottom, but also suppress the surface recombination and enhance light absorption. Moreover, the optimal performance of silicon nanostructures can be achieved through modulating the geometrical parameters. Strikingly, the SiNCs show the highest solar conversion efficiency compared with that of NWs and TNCs under identical conditions, which suggest that this kind of nanostructures could be expected to be applicable for the new-typed and friendly alternative solar cell unit.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Drop generation from an axially vibrating nozzle exhibits a transition in drop diameter when varying the vibration amplitude. Below a threshold amplitude, forcing has essentially no effect on drop size and drops form in dripping mode. Above the threshold, drop size is controlled by forcing: drops detach at resonance, i.e., when the first eigenfrequency of the growing drop coincides with the forcing frequency. We experimentally study the impact of the nozzle inner diameter, dispersed phase flow rate, interfacial tension, and dispersed phase viscosity on this transition. Drop diameter is well correlated to the mode 1 eigenfrequency of Strani and Sabetta for a drop in partial contact with a spherical bowl. We propose a transient model to describe drop dynamics until detachment. The drop is modelled as a linearly forced harmonic oscillator, with the eigenfrequency of Strani and Sabetta. Since the dispersed phase does not wet the nozzle tip, an additional damping coefficient is introduced to account for the viscous dissipation in the film of continuous phase between the drop and nozzle surface. The model adequately reproduces the effect of the different parameters on the threshold amplitude.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: This study investigates the dynamics of non-isothermal swirling jets undergoing vortex breakdown, with an emphasis on helical coherent structures. It is proposed that the dominant helical coherent structure can be suppressed by heating the recirculation bubble. This proposition is assessed with stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the breakdown region of isothermal and heated swirling jets. The coherent kinetic energy of the dominant helical structure was derived from PIV snapshots via proper orthogonal decomposition. For one set of experimental parameters, mild heating is found to increase the energy content of the dominant helical mode. Strong heating leads to a reduction by 30% of the coherent structures energy. For a second set of experimental parameters, no alteration of the dominant coherent structure is detectable. Local linear stability analysis of the time-averaged velocity fields shows that the key difference between the two configurations is the density ratio at the respective wavemaker location. A density ratio of approximately 0.8 is found to correlate to a suppression of the global mode in the experiments. A parametric study with model density and velocity profiles indicates the most important parameters that govern the local absolute growth rate: the density ratio and the relative position of the density profiles and the inner shear layer.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: Cooling within gloveboxes is often restricted to expensive refrigerated bath circulators or small temperature differences. Here, we present a sturdy, inexpensive cooling system which matches various glovebox types and can be readily fabricated by a mechanical workshop in a few days. The system is suitable for cold plates of areas up to 150 cm 2 and temperatures as low as −100 °C.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: In the field of vibration qualification testing, random excitations are typically imposed on the tested system in terms of a power spectral density (PSD) profile. This is the one of the most popular ways to control the shaker or slip table for durability tests. However, these excitations (and the corresponding system responses) exhibit a Gaussian probability distribution, whereas not all real-life excitations are Gaussian, causing the response to be also non-Gaussian. In order to introduce non-Gaussian peaks, a further parameter, i.e., kurtosis, has to be controlled in addition to the PSD. However, depending on the specimen behaviour and input signal characteristics, the use of non-Gaussian excitations with high kurtosis and a given PSD does not automatically imply a non-Gaussian stress response. For an experimental investigation of these coupled features, suitable measurement methods need to be developed in order to estimate the stress amplitude response at critical failure locations and consequently evaluate the input signals most representative for real-life, non-Gaussian excitations. In this paper, a simple test rig with a notched cantilevered specimen was developed to measure the response and examine the kurtosis values in the case of stationary Gaussian, stationary non-Gaussian, and burst non-Gaussian excitation signals. The laser Doppler vibrometry technique was used in this type of test for the first time, in order to estimate the specimen stress amplitude response as proportional to the differential displacement measured at the notch section ends. A method based on the use of measurements using accelerometers to correct for the occasional signal dropouts occurring during the experiment is described. The results demonstrate the ability of the test procedure to evaluate the output signal features and therefore to select the most appropriate input signal for the fatigue test.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: This paper describes the mechanical and electrical characteristics of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cantilever integrated with a high-sensitivity strain sensor. The strain sensor is fabricated using PDMS and graphene flakes that are uniformly distributed in the PDMS. In order to prepare PDMS/graphene composite with uniform resistance, a tetrahydrofuran solution is used to decrease the viscosity of a PDMS base polymer solution. A horn-type sonicator is then used to mix the base polymer with graphene flakes. Low viscosity of the base polymer solution improves the reliability and reproducibility of the PDMS/graphene composite for strain sensor applications. After dicing the composite into the desired sensor shape, a tensile test is performed. The experimental results show that the composite with a concentration of 30 wt.% exhibits a linear response up to a strain rate of 9%. The graphene concentration of the prepared materials affects the gauge factor, which at 20% graphene concentration reaches about 50, and with increasing graphene concentration to 30% decreases to 9. Furthermore, photolithography, PDMS casting, and a stencil process are used to fabricate a PDMS cantilever with an integrated strain sensor. The change in resistance of the integrated PDMS/graphene sensor is characterized with respect to the displacement of the cantilever of within 500 μm. The experimental results confirmed that the prepared PDMS/graphene based sensor has the potential for high-sensitive biosensor applications.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: A project has been started at ORNL to develop a dual-wavelength digital holography system for plasma facing component erosion measurements on prototype material plasma exposure experiment. Such a system will allow in situ real-time measurements of component erosion. Initially the system will be developed with one laser, and first experimental laboratory measurements will be made with the single laser system. In the second year of development, a second CO 2 laser will be added and measurements with the dual wavelength system will begin. Adding the second wavelength allows measurements at a much longer synthetic wavelength.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: We describe a high-performance wave guide cryogenic thermal break. This has been constructed both for Ka band, using WR28 wave guide, and Q band, using WR22 wave guide. The mechanical structure consists of a hexapod (Stewart platform) made from pultruded carbon fibre tubing. We present a tentative examination of the cryogenic Young’s modulus of this material. The thermal conductivity is measured at temperatures above the range explored by Runyan and Jones, resulting in predicted conductive loads through our thermal breaks of 3.7 mW to 3 K and 17 μK to 1 K.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-10-13
    Description: The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μ s. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD’s DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator ( λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10 20 m −2 with spatial resolution near 10 μ m. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method’s accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Three dimensional diamond ultraviolet (UV) photodetector have been fabricated on diamond epitaxial layer through down-top approach, where diamond epitaxial layer was grown between metal electrodes. A thin diamond epitaxial layer was first grown on high-pressure high-temperature single crystal diamond substrate. Then, the diamond epitaxial layer was covered by interdigitated tungsten electrodes. Furthermore, another diamond epitaxial layer was grown on uncovered area. At last, UV-Ozone treatment was used to oxidize the surface. The optoelectronic performance of the photodetector was characterized, exhibiting a large responsivity and a repeatable transient response behavior. Moreover, down-top process is beneficial for the electrode conductivity stability. Also, an ohmic contact could be formed between tungsten and diamond during growth. The results indicate that down-top process is an efficient way for fabrication of three dimensional diamond photodetectors.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Despite its use as a constituent layer for realization of a polar metal and interfacial conductivity, the microscopic study of electronic structure of CaTiO 3 is still very limited. Here, we epitaxially stabilized CaTiO 3 films on NdGaO 3 (110) substrates in a layer-by-layer way by pulsed laser deposition. The structural and electronic properties of the films were characterized by reflection-high-energy-electron-diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and element-specific resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To reveal the orbital polarization and the crystal field splitting of the titanium 3 d state, X-ray linear dichroism was carried out on CaTiO 3 films, demonstrating the orbital configuration of d xz / d yz  
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: We report on the demonstration of a monolithically integrated mid-IR interband cascade (IC) laser and photodetector operating at room temperature. The base structure for the integrated laser and detector is a six-stage type-I IC laser with GaInAsSb quantum well active regions. The laser/detector pair was defined using focused ion beam milling. The laser section lased in cw mode with an emission wavelength of ∼3.1  μ m at 20 °C and top-illuminated photodetectors fabricated from the same wafer had Johnson-noise-limited detectivity of 1.05 × 10 9  cm Hz 1/2 /W at this wavelength and temperature. Under the same condition, the detectivity for the edge illumination configuration for the monolithically integrated laser/photodetector pairs is projected to be as high as 1.85 × 10 10  cm Hz 1/2 /W, as supported by experimentally observed high photocurrent and open-circuit voltage. These high performance characteristics for monolithically integrated IC devices show great prospects for on-chip integration of mid-IR photonic devices for miniaturized sensors and on-chip optical communication systems.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: External quantum efficiency and transient photocapacitance (TPC) spectra were obtained for perovskite solar cells with methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite absorbers formed by either dip or vapor conversion. These measurements reveal an extended band of sub-gap states in all of the devices studied. The defect band is best fit by a pair of defects, and the appearance of the defect signal in the transient photocapacitance spectra indicates that at least one of the observed defects is in the perovskite absorber. The cells with the largest density of defect states show the lowest short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage for slow, quasi-steady-state, current density-voltage sweeps and the largest hysteresis in short-circuit current density for fast sweeps. This suggests that defect states in the perovskite absorber limit steady-state device performance, and that these defects or associated mobile charges play a role in the hysteresis observed in current density-voltage measurements.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Quantized conductance was observed in a cation-migration-based memristor with the structure of Ag/AgInSbTe(AIST)/Ta. The conductance of the memristor exhibits stepwise increases in units of single quantum conductance (77.5  μ S), which is attributed to the formation of a metal filament with an atomic contact of different integer multiples. We designed a high speed circuit to conduct the pulse measurement. The quantized conductance can be obtained by applying voltage pulses in intervals as fast as 3 ns with constant amplitude. Considering that the quantized conductance can be modulated by different pulse widths, our results suggest that the AIST-based memristor is a robust candidate for multi-level data storage and neuromorphic computing systems.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: As-cast amorphous AsSe (a-AsSe) has been characterized by in-situ high pressure XRD and Raman spectroscopy up to the pressure of ∼30 GPa using diamond anvil cell together with ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. A gradual densification has been observed under compression along with the breakdown of intermediate range ordering at ∼16 GPa. The whole transformation process can be divided into three relatively distinct pressure regimes from 1 bar to 7 GPa, from 7 to 16 GPa, and beyond 16 GPa. Our XRD results together with Raman spectroscopic studies confirm that in the a-AsSe pressure tuning results in network transformations only, without sudden jump in the density. The results obtained by high pressure ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the variations in the local structures associated with the experimentally observed transformations. The amorphous-to-amorphous network transformation is found to be reversible upon decompression.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Mostly, optical spectroscopies are used to investigate the physics of excitons, whereas their electrical evidences are hardly explored. Here, we examined a forward bias activated differential capacitance response of GaInP/AlGaInP based multi-quantum well laser diodes to trace the presence of excitons using electrical measurements. Occurrence of “negative activation energy” after light emission is understood as thermodynamical signature of steady state excitonic population under intermediate range of carrier injections. Similar corroborative results are also observed in an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot laser structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing biases, the measured differential capacitance response slowly vanishes. This represents gradual Mott transition of an excitonic phase into an electron-hole plasma in a GaInP/AlGaInP laser diode. This is further substantiated by more and more exponentially looking shapes of high energy tails in electroluminescence spectra with increasing forward bias, which originates from a growing non-degenerate population of free electrons and holes. Such an experimental correlation between electrical and optical properties of excitons can be used to advance the next generation excitonic devices.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: The effects of nitrogen incorporation by high-dose ion implantation in epitaxial Gd 2 O 3 films on Si(111) followed by annealing have been investigated. Nitrogen incorporation is believed to occur by filling the oxygen vacancies or by removing hydroxyl group ions in gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ). The nitrogen content in the oxide layer has been altered by changing the implantation dose. The impact of nitrogen incorporation on Gd-O bonding is studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A shift in the Gd and O peak positions indicate the presence of nitrogen in the layer. Raman spectroscopy reveals heavy structural changes. The newly appearing structure is crystalline, but not in agreement with either the known bixbyite (Gd 2 O 3 ) or rocksalt (GdN) structure. Electron microscopic investigations reveal the formation of cracks and small areas with lower densities or even voids. That structure exhibits similarities with transmission electron microscopy images of gadolinium nitride (GdN) layers. The electronic band gap of Gd 2 O 3 estimated from O1s plasmon energy loss measurements was found to decrease significantly by the incorporation of nitrogen. Reduction in the valence band and conduction band offset is obtained as a function of implantation dose.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: We study the effect of particles' shape on the radiative heat transfer in a three-body system. It is found that the radiative heat flux between two nanoparticles in a three-body system can be tuned by the shape of the third particle. In particular, we show that the heat flux is very sensitive to the particle shapes, and slight mismatches of shapes result in either enhanced or suppressed heat flux.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Conical intersections (CIs) between molecular potential energy surfaces with non-vanishing non-adiabatic couplings generally occur in any molecule consisting of at least three atoms. They play a fundamental role in describing the molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and have been used to understand a large variety of effects, from photofragmentation and isomerization to more exotic applications such as exciton fission in semiconductors. However, few studies have used the features of a CI as a tool for coherent control. Here we demonstrate two modes of control around a conical intersection. The first uses a continuous light field to control the population on the two intersecting electronic states in the vicinity of a CI. The second uses a pulsed light field to control wavepackets that are subjected to the geometric phase shift in transit around a CI. This second technique is likely to be useful for studying the role of nuclear dynamics in electronic coherence phenomena.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: We have investigated the growth and stability of molecular ultra-thin films, consisting of rod-like semiconducting para -hexaphenyl (6P) molecules vapor deposited on ion beam modified TiO 2 (110) surfaces. The ion bombarded TiO 2 (110) surfaces served as growth templates exhibiting nm-scale anisotropic ripple patterns with controllable parameters, like ripple depth and length. In turn, by varying the ripple depth one can tailor the average local slope angle and the local step density/terrace width of the stepped surface. Here, we distinguish three types of substrates: shallow, medium, and deep rippled surfaces. On these substrates, 6P sub-monolayer deposition was carried out in ultra-high vacuum by organic molecular beam evaporation (OMBE) at room temperature leading to the formation of islands consisting of upright standing 6P molecules, which could be imaged by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been found that the local slope and terrace width of the TiO 2 template strongly influences the stability of OMBE deposited 6P islands formed on the differently rippled substrates. This effect is demonstrated by means of tapping mode AFM, where an oscillating tip was used as a probe for testing the stability of the organic structures. We conclude that by increasing the local slope of the TiO 2 (110) surface the bonding strength between the nearest neighbor standing molecules is weakened due to the presence of vertical displacement in the molecular layer in correspondence to the TiO 2 atomic step height.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Phthalonitrile compounds with Si bridges were recently suggested for producing thermosetting polymer composites with reduced T g and thus expanded processing range. The detailed experimental investigation of this class of phthalonitriles is still difficult due to development time and costs limitations and the need to take into account the structural changes during the crosslinking. In this paper, we try to overcome these limitations using computer simulations. We performed full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of various phthalonitrile compounds to understand the influence of molecular structure on the bulk glass temperature T g . Two molecular properties affect T g of the resulting bulk compound: the size of the residue and the length of the Si bridge. The larger residues lead to higher T g s, while compounds with longer Si bridges have lower T g s. We have also studied relaxation mechanisms involved in the classification of the samples. Two different factors influence the relaxation mechanisms: energetic, which is provided by the rigidity of molecules, and entropic, connected with the available volume of the conformational space of the monomer.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: This paper deals with the critical issue of approximating the pre-exponential factor in semiclassical molecular dynamics. The pre-exponential factor is important because it accounts for the quantum contribution to the semiclassical propagator of the classical Feynman path fluctuations. Pre-exponential factor approximations are necessary when chaotic or complex systems are simulated. We introduced pre-exponential factor approximations based either on analytical considerations or numerical regularization. The approximations are tested for power spectrum calculations of more and more chaotic model systems and on several molecules, for which exact quantum mechanical values are available. The results show that the pre-exponential factor approximations introduced are accurate enough to be safely employed for semiclassical simulations of complex systems.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: In the shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal Ag nanocrystals, structure-directing agents, particularly polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), are known to be a key additive in making nanostructures with well-defined shapes. Although many Ag nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized using PVP, the mechanism by which PVP actuates shape control remains elusive. Here, we present a multi-scale theoretical framework for kinetic Wulff shape predictions that accounts for the chemical environment, which we used to probe the kinetic influence of the adsorbed PVP film. Within this framework, we use umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the potential of mean force and diffusion coefficient profiles of Ag atom deposition onto Ag(100) and Ag(111) in ethylene glycol solution with surface-adsorbed PVP. We use these profiles to calculate the mean-first passage times and implement extensive Brownian dynamics simulations, which allows the kinetic effects to be quantitatively evaluated. Our results show that PVP films can regulate the flux of Ag atoms to be greater towards Ag(111) than Ag(100). PVP’s preferential binding towards Ag(100) over Ag(111) gives PVP its flux-regulating capabilities through the lower free-energy barrier of Ag atoms to cross the lower-density PVP film on Ag(111) and enhanced Ag trapping by the extended PVP film on Ag(111). Under kinetic control, {100}-faceted nanocrystals will be formed when the Ag flux is greater towards Ag(111). The predicted kinetic Wulff shapes are in agreement with the analogous experimental system.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: A non-uniform buncher and a depth-tunable collector have been proposed to improve the power capacity and conversion efficiency of the coaxial foilless transit-time oscillator (TTO) in our previous work. Recently, our Ku-band coaxial TTO with low guiding magnetic field is improved by employing them, and the related experimental investigations are carried out on the TORCH-01 accelerator. It is shown that the non-uniform buncher plays a key role in the enhancement of microwave pulse duration. The influences of the collector's depth on characteristics of the device indicate that the conversion efficiency can be improved by optimizing the collector's depth in the experiments. With the diode voltage 460 kV, the beam current 8.7 kA, and the guiding magnetic field of 0.6 T, a radiation power of 1 GW with the conversion efficiency of 25% at 14.3 GHz is generated by our improved TTO. The output pulse duration is 26 ns and no obvious pulse shortening is observed. The experimental results demonstrate the abilities of this improved Ku-band device to generate gigawatt-class Ku-band microwave with low guiding magnetic field.
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  • 66
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Print ISSN: 0031-9228
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-0699
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  • 67
    facet.materialart.
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Print ISSN: 0031-9228
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: An analytical study is presented on the steady states of a plasma diode that is uniformly occupied by infinitely massive ions of constant density and driven by a cold electron beam in the presence of an external transverse magnetic field. In contrast to our previous work [Pramanik et al. , Phys. Plasmas 23 , 062118 (2016)], here, we investigate the case when electrons are reflected back to the emitter by the magnetic field for arbitrary values of the neutralization parameter. Using the emitter electric field as a characteristic parameter, the steady-state solutions have been evaluated for the specific values of the diode gap, applied voltage, neutralization parameter, and magnetic field strength. It was found that unlike vacuum diodes (e.g., the Bursian diode), steady state solutions also exist for negative values of the emitter field strength. In case of the Bursian diode, only a single type of solutions (Bursian branches) was observed. However, for the Pierce diode, the new family of solutions appeared along with the Bursian ones. In the absence of the external magnetic field as well as when it is weak, the potential distribution shows a wavy nature. However, when the Larmor radius was ten times the beam Debye length, the wavy potential profile and non-Bursian branches disappeared. Based on this phenomenon, a non-neutral diode can be used to operate fast electronic switches.
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  • 69
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of radio-frequency microelectromechanical (RF-MEM) resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the photodetector noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in present systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of the tiny specimen. Noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible to realize for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity and resolution improvement of our approach.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: We have developed a hyperthermal molecular beam source employing a non-diaphragm-type small shock tube for gas–surface interaction studies. Unlike conventional shock-heated beam sources, the capability of repetitive beam generation without the need for replacing a diaphragm makes our beam source suitable for scattering experiments, which require signal accumulation for a large number of beam pulses. The short duration of shock heating alleviates the usual temperature limit due to the nozzle material, enabling the generation of a molecular beam with higher translational energy or that containing dissociated species. The shock-heated beam is substantially free from surface-contaminating impurities that are pronounced in arc-heated beams. We characterize the properties of nitrogen and oxygen molecular beams using the time-of-flight method. When both the timing of beam extraction and the supply quantity of nitrogen gas are appropriately regulated, our beam source can generate a nitrogen molecular beam with translational energy of approximately 1 eV, which corresponds to the typical activation energy of surface reactions. Furthermore, our beam source can generate an oxygen molecular beam containing dissociated oxygen atoms, which can be a useful probe for surface oxidation. The dissociation fraction along with the translational energy can be adjusted through the supply quantity of oxygen gas.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: We formed Pt or Pd particles as cocatalysts on a 3C-SiC photocathode. Photocurrents from the 3C-SiC photocathodes increased by presence of the cocatalysts, and there was an optimum particle size of cocatalysts for the photocurrents. By the measurements of chopped light photocurrent-voltage characteristics and spectral responses, we also confirmed the enhanced charge transfer from the 3C-SiC photocathodes to hydrogen owing to the presence of cocatalysts. A 3C-SiC photocathode with Pt cocatalysts showed the highest hydrogen production volume by water splitting. The energy conversion efficiency of the 3C-SiC photocathode with Pt cocatalysts was 0.52%.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: Vertically aligned TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 -NTs), obtained by anodization in organic electrolyte, are decorated with 15 nm Ag nanoparticles prepared by a micro-wave assisted polyol synthesis. The Ag/TiO 2 system is characterized by electronic microscopies in order to build a Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) model to simulate the interaction of light with the system. By combining UV-visible spectroscopy and FDTD simulations, the observed red shift in the surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the Ag nanoparticles, deposited on TiO 2 , is explained. The Ag/TiO 2 -NT system is used as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical water splitting setup and shows an increasing Incident Photon to Current Conversion Efficiency ( IPCE ) in the visible light domain with an increasing amount of deposited Ag. The spectral position of this activity enhancement coincides with the one expected from the FDTD calculations for the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles deposited on TiO 2 .
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: Three-dimensional branched GaN nanowire homostructures have been synthesized on the Si substrate via a two-step approach by chemical vapor deposition. Structural characterization reveals that the single crystal GaN nanowire trunks have hexagonal wurtzite characteristics and grow along the [0001] direction, while the homoepitaxial single crystal branches grow in a radial direction from the six-sided surfaces of the trunks. The field emission measurements demonstrate that the branched GaN nanowire homostructures have excellent field emission properties, with low turn-on field at 2.35 V/ μ m, a high field enhancement factor of 2938, and long emission current stability. This indicates that the present branched GaN nanowire homostructures will become valuable for practical field emission applications.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: Radio frequency wave propagation in finite temperature, magnetized plasmas exhibits a wide range of physics phenomena. The plasma response is nonlocal in space and time, and numerous modes are possible with the potential for mode conversions and transformations. In addition, diffraction effects are important due to finite wavelength and finite-size wave launchers. Multidimensional simulations are required to describe these phenomena, but even with this complexity, the fundamental plasma response is assumed to be the uniform plasma response with the assumption that the local plasma current for a Fourier mode can be described by the “Stix” conductivity. However, for plasmas with non-uniform magnetic fields, the wave vector itself is nonlocal. When resolved into components perpendicular ( k ⊥ ) and parallel ( k || ) to the magnetic field, locality of the parallel component can easily be violated when the wavelength is large. The impact of this inconsistency is that estimates of the wave damping can be incorrect (typically low) due to unresolved resonances. For the case of ion cyclotron damping, this issue has already been addressed by including the effect of parallel magnetic field gradients. In this case, a modified plasma response ( Z function) allows resonance broadening even when k ||  = 0, and this improves the convergence and accuracy of wave simulations. In this paper, we extend this formalism to include electron damping and find improved convergence and accuracy for parameters where electron damping is dominant, such as high harmonic fast wave heating in the NSTX-U tokamak, and helicon wave launch for off-axis current drive in the DIII-D tokamak.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: Yb 3+ /Al 3+ co-doped silica glasses with different Ce 2 O 3 contents were prepared using the sol–gel method combined with high-temperature sintering. Changes in refractive index, absorption, emission and fluorescence lifetime of these glasses caused by X-ray irradiation were recorded and analyzed systematically. It is found that co-doping with certain amount of Ce could greatly improve the radiation resistance without evident negative effects on the basic optical properties of the Yb 3+ ions in the near-infrared region. The nature of the radiation-induced color centres and the mechanism by which Ce prevented the formation of these centres were studied using optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. Direct evidence confirmed that trapped electron centres (Yb 2+ /Si-E′/Al-E′) and trapped hole centres (Al-OHCs) were effectively inhibited by Ce doping, which was correlated to the coexistence of the redox couple Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ in the glasses. These results are helpful to understand the micro-structural origin and the suppression mechanism by Ce co-doping of the photodarkening effect in Yb 3+ -doped silica fibers.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: The light-induced surface modification of a thin film of poly-(disperse orange-3-methylmethacrylate) is investigated computationally using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations specifically tailored to include photoisomerization dynamics. For a model surface consisting of a periodic pattern of alternating irradiated and dark spots, it is shown that repeated photoisomerization in the irradiated areas initially leads to a local temperature increase and a raised surface profile accompanied by a migration of molecules away from the bright spots. After switching off the light source and letting the system cool down, this leads to an inversion of the surface profile, i.e., dips in the bright spots and bumps in the dark spots. To separate the effect of photoisomerization from the pure heating effect, a second simulation is performed in which no photoisomerization is allowed to occur in the bright spots, but the equivalent amount of energy is introduced there locally in the form of heat. This also leads to a raised surface in these areas; however, no outward migration of molecules is observed and the surface pattern practically vanishes when the system is subsequently cooled back to room temperature.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: Silicon 1s Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of silicon nanocrystals have been examined as a function of nanocrystal size (3–100 nm), varying surface functionalization (hydrogen or 1-pentyl termination), or embedded in oxide. The NEXAFS spectra are characterized as a function of nanocrystal size and surface functionalization. Clear spectroscopic evidence for long range order is observed silicon nanocrystals that are 5-8 nm in diameter or larger. Energy shifts in the silicon 1s NEXAFS spectra of covalently functionalized silicon nanocrystals with changing size are attributed to surface chemical shifts and not to quantum confinement effects.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: The self-consistent 1D kinetic Harris-like model of a collisionless current sheet is developed for the case of the current sheet experiencing the impact of an external uniform gravity field. The ambipolar Pannekoek-Rosseland electric field appears in the system as a result of the additional drift motion of ions and electrons. This produces separation of charges, which is responsible for corresponding changes of the current sheet form. The presence of gravitation leads to formation of asymmetric distributions of the magnetic field as well as the plasma and the current density changes. Our estimations show that gravity-forced disruptions of the current sheet profile may occur in the Mercurial magnetosphere and, most probable, in the Io plasma torus near the Jupiter. Also, the model can be applied to magnetospheres of exoplanets.
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2016-10-19
    Description: The development of stress and fracture in Si-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries is strongly affected by lithiation-induced plasticity. Recent experiments indicate that the nature of plasticity of lithiated silicon is rate-dependent. We establish a theoretical model to capture the viscoplastic mechanical behavior of Si anodes during two-phase lithiation. It is demonstrated that the lithiation-induced stress field is determined by the migration speed of the Li- Li 3.75 Si interface and the characteristic size of the Si anodes. If experimentally measured interface velocity data in Si nanoparticle are available, the mechanistic model can directly predict the rate-sensitive spatiotemporal stress profile, which is hardly measured in experiments.
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  • 81