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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (241,959)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-02
    Description: This review article aims to provide an overview and insight into the most relevant aspects of wind energy development and current state-of-the-art. The industry is in a very mature stage, so it seems to be the right time to take stock of the relevant areas of wind energy use for power generation. For this review, the authors considered the essential aspects of the development of wind energy technology: research, modeling, and prediction of wind speed as an energy source, the technology development of the plants divided into the mechanical and electrical systems and the plant control, and finally the optimal plant operation including the maintenance strategies. The focus is on the development in Europe, with a partial focus on Germany. The authors are employees of the Fraunhofer Institutes, Institute for Energy Economics and Energy Systems Technology and Institute for Wind Energy Systems, who have contributed to the development of this technology for decades.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-07-12
    Description: We present experimental results obtained under normal gravity on the dynamics of solid particles in periodic oscillatory thermocapillary-driven flows in a non-isothermal liquid bridge made of decane. Inertial particles of different densities and in the size range approximately 0.75 − 75 μ m are able to form stable coherent structures (particle accumulation structures, or PASs). Two image processing techniques were developed and successfully applied to compute time required for an ensemble of particles to form a structure. It is shown that the formation time grows with the decrease of the Stokes number. The observations indicate the probable irrelevance of the memory term for these experiments. Two types of PAS were observed—single (SL-I) and double-loop (SL-II)—which sometimes co-existed. Only large or very dense particles may form an SL-II type structure. A number of novel features of the system were perceived. In some cases, intermittently stable structures emerged (their dynamics is characterized by alternating time intervals during which a structure exists and is destroyed). Whereas in most experiments we observed a conventional symmetric and centered PAS, there were cases when a long-term stable asymmetric structure appeared. Experiments wherein two different types of PAS-forming particles were used simultaneously revealed the destructive role of collisions between the particles on formation of structures.
    Print ISSN: 1054-1500
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7682
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-07-12
    Description: A three-dimensional model is presented to investigate helium plasma generated by microwave under atmospheric pressure in this paper, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron and heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The model is based on the fluid approximation calculation and local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The simulation results demonstrate that the maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.79 × 10 17  m −3 and 1667 K, respectively, for the operating conditions with microwave power of 500 W, gas flow rate of 20 l/min, and initial gas temperature of 500 K. The electromagnetic field distribution in the plasma source is obtained by solving Helmholtz equation. Electric field strength of 2.97 × 10 4  V/m is obtained. There is a broad variation on microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial gas temperature to obtain deeper information about the changes of the electron density and gas temperature.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-07-12
    Description: The paper analyzes the dielectric breakdown properties of N 2 –O 2 mixtures at different O 2 concentrations and gas pressures, taking into account electron detachments from negative ions. The reduced effective ionization coefficients α(eff)/N in N 2 –O 2 mixtures at different O 2 concentrations and gas pressures were calculated and analyzed, by considering electron detachments. The critical reduced electric fields (E/N) cr and the critical electron temperature T b were then determined. The result indicates a clear enhancement of α(eff)/N by collisional detachments, which causes a reduction in the (E/N) cr . In addition, a synergistic effect in the N 2 –O 2 mixture was also observed in both (E/N) cr and T b . The value of T b was decreased by the increase of pd product, however, T b tended to be constant at relatively high pd products.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: In semiconductors almost all heat is conducted by phonons (lattice vibrations), which is limited by their quasi-particle lifetimes. Phonon-phonon interactions represent scattering mechanisms that produce thermal resistance. In thermoelectric materials, this resistance due to anharmonicity should be maximised for optimal performance. We use a first-principles lattice-dynamics approach to explore the changes in lattice dynamics across an isostructural series where the average atomic mass is conserved: ZnS to CuGaS 2 to Cu 2 ZnGeS 4 . Our results demonstrate an enhancement of phonon interactions in the multernary materials and confirm that lattice thermal conductivity can be controlled independently of the average mass and local coordination environments.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Based on electromagnetic scattering theory, a model of superscatterer enhanced distant wireless power transfer (WPT) device has designed and analyzed with the concept of transformation optics. The numerical results obtained through a series expansion method reveal that a properly designed ss-WPT has high efficiency for long transfer distances as well as a wide transfer range. The transfer distance can be further enlarged by fine tuning of the design. These effects can be explained qualitatively through the study of magnetic flux.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: In this work, we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from samarium-doped luminescent gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO 4 :Sm 3+ ) quantum dots (QDs) to polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) polymer. The photoluminescence emission spectrum of GdVO 4 :Sm 3+ QDs overlaps with the absorption spectrum of PTB7, leading to FRET from GdVO 4 :Sm 3+ to PTB7, and significant enhancements in the charge-carrier density of excited and polaronic states of PTB7 are observed. This was confirmed by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The FRET from GdVO 4 :Sm 3+ QDs to PTB7 led to a remarkable increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7:GdVO 4 :Sm 3+ :PC 71 BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester) polymer solar cells. The PCE in optimized ternary blend PTB7:GdVO 4 :Sm 3+ :PC 71 BM (1:0.1:1.5) is increased to 8.8% from 7.2% in PTB7:PC 71 BM. This work demonstrates the potential of rare-earth based luminescent QDs in enhancing the PCE of polymer solar cells.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO 2 /vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO 2 up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1  μ A/ μ m between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The nanoscale resistive switching in hafnium oxide stack is investigated by the conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The initial oxide stack is insulating and electrical stress from the C-AFM tip induces nanometric conductive filaments. Multimode resistive switching can be observed in consecutive operation cycles at one spot. The different modes are interpreted in the framework of a low defect quantum point contact theory. The model implies that the optimization of the conductive filament active region is crucial for the future application of nanoscale resistive switching devices.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe 2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: High-performance pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories, using polystyrene as a tunneling dielectric and Au nanoparticles as a nano-floating-gate, show parallelogram-like transfer characteristics with a featured transition point. The transition voltage at the transition point corresponds to a threshold electric field in the tunneling dielectric, over which stored electrons in the nano-floating-gate will start to leak out. The transition voltage can be modulated depending on the bias configuration and device structure. For p-type active layers, optimized transition voltage should be on the negative side of but close to the reading voltage, which can simultaneously achieve a high ON/OFF ratio and good memory retention.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Ion implantation of Zn substituting elements in ZnO has been shown to result in a dramatic Li depletion of several microns in hydrothermally grown ZnO. This has been ascribed to a burst of mobile Zn interstials. In this study, we seek to understand the reason behind this interstitial mediated transient enhanced diffusion in Li-containing ZnO samples after Zn implantation. ZnO wafers were implanted with Zn to two doses, 5 × 10 15  cm −2 and 1 × 10 17  cm −2 . Secondary ion mass spectrometry was carried out to profile the Li depletion depth for different annealing temperatures between 600 and 800 °C. The 800 °C annealing had the most significant Li depletion of close to 60  μ m. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out in selected samples to identify the reason behind the Li depletion. In particular, TEM investigations of samples annealed at 750 °C show significant Zn precipitation just below the depth of the projected range of the implanted ions. We propose that the Zn precipitation is indicative of Zn supersaturation. Both the Li depletion and Zn precipitation are competing synchronous processes aimed at reducing the excess Zn interstitials.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: In this letter, we investigate the origin of the spatial inhomogeneity of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity maps obtained on thin-film solar cells. Based on a hyperspectral imager setup, we record an absolute map of the quasi-Fermi level splitting Δμ by applying the generalized Planck's law. Then, using scanning confocal microscopy, we perform spatially and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. This allowed us to quantify and map the micrometric fluctuations of the trapping defect density within these solar cells. Finally, we demonstrate the existence of a direct correlation between the spatial fluctuations of the quasi-Fermi level splitting and the trapping defect density. The latter was found to be correlated with the frequently reported spatially inhomogeneous PL maps of thin-film solar cells. Based on the observed correlation, we can quantify the local losses in quasi-Fermi level splitting induced by the spatial distribution of the trapping defects.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves are popular to characterize the nonlinearity of materials. However, the widely used nonlinear Lamb mode suffers from two associated complications: inherent dispersive and multimode natures. To overcome these, the symmetric Lamb mode (S0) at low frequency region is explored. At the low frequency region, the S0 mode is little dispersive and easy to generate. However, the secondary mode still exists, and increases linearly for significant distance. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the nonlinear features and therefore demonstrate an easy alternative for nonlinear Lamb wave applications.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Dynamic deposition of silicon nitrides using in-line plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems results in non-uniform structure of the dielectric layer. Appropriate analysis of such layers requires the optical characterization to be performed as a function of the layer's depth. This work presents a method to characterize dynamically deposited silicon nitride layers. The method is based on the fitting of experimental spectroscopic ellipsometry data via grading of Tauc–Lorentz optical parameters through the depth of the layer. When compared with the standard Tauc–Lorentz fitting procedure, used in previous studies, the improved method is demonstrating better quality fits to the experimental data and revealing more accurate optical properties of the dielectric layers. The most significant advantage of the method is the ability to extract the depth profile of the optical properties along the direction of the layer normal. This is enabling a better understanding of layers deposited using dynamic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems frequently used in the photovoltaic industry.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The 120-nm-thick cobalt-doped ZnO (Co-doped ZnO, CZO) dilute magnetic films deposited by pulsed laser deposition were employed as the n-electrodes for both lateral-type blue (450 nm) and green (520 nm) InGaN light emitters. In comparison to the conventional blue and green emitters, there were 15.9% and 17.7% enhancements in the output power (@350 mA) after fabricating the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer. Observations on the role of CZO n-electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters were performed. Based on the results of Hall measurements, the carrier mobilities were 176 and 141 cm 2 /V s when the electrons passed through the n-GaN and the patterned-CZO/n-GaN, respectively. By incorporating the CZO n-electrode into the InGaN light emitters, the electrons would be scattered because of the collisions between the magnetic atoms and the electrons as the device is driven, leading to the reduction of the electron mobility. Therefore, the excessively large mobility difference between electron and hole carriers occurred in the conventional InGaN light emitter can be efficiently decreased after preparing the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer, resulting in the increment of carrier recombination rate and the improvement of light output power.
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: A glassy dilute glycerol-water solution undergoes a mutual polyamorphic transition relating to the transition between high- and low-density amorphous ices of solvent water. The polyamorphic transition behavior depends on the glycerol concentration, indicating that the glycerol affects the water polyamorphism. Here, we used the glassy dilute glycerol-water solution of the solute molar fraction of 0.07 and examined the effect of the polyamorphic change in solvent water on the molecular vibrations of glycerol via Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the molecular vibration of glycerol in high-density liquid like solvent water is different from that in the low-density liquid like solvent water and that the change in the molecular vibration of glycerol is synchronized with the polyamorphic transition of solvent water. The dynamical change of the solute molecule relates to the polyamorphic state of solvent water. This result suggests that the polyamorphic fluctuation of water structure emanated from the presumed liquid-liquid critical point plays an important role for the function of aqueous solution under an ambient condition such as the conformational stability of solute, the functional expression of solute, and so on.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: We propose a new on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method that is based on exhaustive potential energy surface searching carried out with the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) algorithm. Starting from any given equilibrium state, this GRRM-KMC algorithm performs a one-step GRRM search to identify all surrounding transition states. Intrinsic reaction coordinate pathways are then calculated to identify potential subsequent equilibrium states. Harmonic transition state theory is used to calculate rate constants for all potential pathways, before a standard KMC accept/reject selection is performed. The selected pathway is then used to propagate the system forward in time, which is calculated on the basis of 1st order kinetics. The GRRM-KMC algorithm is validated here in two challenging contexts: intramolecular proton transfer in malonaldehyde and surface carbon diffusion on an iron nanoparticle. We demonstrate that in both cases the GRRM-KMC method is capable of reproducing the 1st order kinetics observed during independent quantum chemical molecular dynamics simulations using the density-functional tight-binding potential.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via the E F 1 Σ g + , v ′ = 6 double-well state has been used to probe the energy region below the third dissociation limit of H 2 where several high vibrational levels of the 4 1 Σ u + state are expected. Theoretical ab initio potential energy curves for this state predict a deep inner well and shallow outer well where vibrational levels above v = 8 are expected to exhibit the double-well character of the state. Since the 4 1 Σ u + state has f -state character, transitions to it from the ground state are nominally forbidden. However, the d character of the outer well of the E F 1 Σ g + state allows access to this state. We report observations of transitions to the v = 9–12 levels of the 4 1 Σ u + state and compare their energies to predicted energies calculated from an ab initio potential energy curve with adiabatic corrections. Assignments are based on measured energies and linewidths, rotational constants, and expected transition strengths. The amount of agreement between the predicted values and the observations is mixed, with the largest discrepancies arising for the v = 9 level, owing to strong nonadiabatic electronic mixing in this energy region.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The photodissociation dynamics of the methyl perthiyl radical (CH 3 SS) have been investigated using fast-beam coincidence translational spectroscopy. Methyl perthiyl radicals were produced by photodetachment of the CH 3 SS − anion followed by photodissociation at 248 nm (5.0 eV) and 193 nm (6.4 eV). Photofragment mass distributions and translational energy distributions were measured at each dissociation wavelength. Experimental results show S atom loss as the dominant (96%) dissociation channel at 248 nm with a near parallel, anisotropic angular distribution and translational energy peaking near the maximal energy available to ground state CH 3 S and S fragments, indicating that the dissociation occurs along a repulsive excited state. At 193 nm, S atom loss remains the major fragmentation channel, although S 2 loss becomes more competitive and constitutes 32% of the fragmentation. The translational energy distributions for both channels are very broad at this wavelength, suggesting the formation of the S 2 and S atom products in several excited electronic states.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: A novel backward wave oscillator (BWO) based on a hole-grating slow wave structure is proposed as a dual sheet beam millimeter wave radiation source. In this paper, we focus on the output characteristics of a 0.14 THz hole-grating BWO. The output characteristics of the hole-grating BWO, the conventional single-beam grating BWO, and the dual-beam grating BWO are contrasted in detail. 3-D particle-in-cell results indicate that the hole-grating slow wave structure can help to increase the maximum output power as well as lower the operating current density. Meanwhile, the hole-grating BWO shows good insensitivity to the differences between two sheet electron beams. These characteristics make the hole-grating BWO feasible to be a stable millimeter wave radiation source with higher output power.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
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  • 23
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Particle drift driven by electrostatic wave fluctuations is numerically computed to describe the transport in a gradient velocity layer at the tokamak plasma edge. We consider an equilibrium plasma in large aspect ratio approximation with E × B flow and specified toroidal plasma velocity, electric field, and magnetic field profiles. A symplectic map, previously derived for infinite coherent time modes, is used to describe the transport dependence on the electric, magnetic, and plasma velocity shears. We also show that resonant perturbations and their correspondent islands in the Poincaré maps are much affected by the toroidal velocity profiles. Moreover, shearless transport barriers, identified by extremum values of the perturbed rotation number profiles of the invariant curves, allow chaotic trajectories trapped into the plasma. We investigate the influence of the toroidal plasma velocity profile on these shearless transport barriers.
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  • 24
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The propagation of surface plasmons on a quantum plasma half-space in the absence of any external confinement is investigated. By means of the Quantum Hydrodynamic Model in the electrostatic limit, it is found that the equilibrium density profile is a smooth continuous function which, in the linear regime, supports multiple non-normal surface modes. Defining a spectrum function and using a cutting condition, the dispersion relations of these modes and their relevance for realistic dynamics are computed. It is found that the multiple surface plasmons present a significant red-shift with respect to the case of fully bounded quantum plasmas.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: In the present experimental work, the behavior of laminar liquid jet in its own vapor as well as supercritical fluid environment is conducted. Also the study of liquid jet injection into nitrogen (N 2 ) environment is carried out at supercritical conditions. It is expected that the injected liquid jet would undergo thermodynamic transition to the chamber condition and this would alter the behavior of the injected jet. Moreover at such conditions there is a strong dependence between thermodynamic and fluid dynamic processes. Thus the thermodynamic transition has its effect on the initial instability as well as the breakup nature of the injected liquid jet. In the present study, the interfacial disturbance wavelength, breakup characteristics, and mixing behavior are analysed for the fluoroketone liquid jet that is injected into N 2 environment as well as into its own vapor at subcritical to supercritical conditions. It is observed that at subcritical chamber conditions, the injected liquid jet exhibits classical liquid jet characteristics with Rayleigh breakup at lower Weber number and Taylor breakup at higher Weber number for both N 2 and its own environment. At supercritical chamber conditions with its own environment, the injected liquid jet undergoes sudden thermodynamic transition to chamber conditions and single phase mixing characteristics is observed. However, the supercritical chamber conditions with N 2 as ambient fluid does not have significant effect on the thermodynamic transition of the injected liquid jet.
    Print ISSN: 1070-6631
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The high-order mode oscillation is studied in designing a four-cavity intense relativistic klystron amplifier. The reason for the oscillation caused by high-order modes and a method to suppress these kinds of spurious modes are found through theoretical analyses and the study on the influence of major parameters of a high frequency structure (such as the oscillation frequency of cavities, the cavity Q value, the length of drift tube section, and the characteristic impedance). Based on much simulation, a four-cavity intense relativistic klystron amplifier with a superior performance has been designed, built, and tested. An output power of 2.22 GW corresponding to 27.4% efficiency and 61 dB gain has been obtained. Moreover, the high-order mode oscillation is suppressed effectively, and an output power of 1.95 GW corresponding to 26% efficiency and 62 dB gain has been obtained in our laboratory.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The properties of bound-bound transitions in hydrogen-like ions in dense quantum plasmas, characterized by a cosine-Debye-Hückel interaction between charged particles, are studied in detail. The transition frequencies, oscillator strengths, and radiative transition probabilities of Lyman and Balmer series are calculated for a wide range of screening strengths of the interaction up to the n  = 5 shell. For Δ n ≠ 0 transitions, all these quantities exhibit a significant decrease with increasing screening strength, while for the Δ n = 0 transitions and for the radiative lifetimes, the opposite is true. The present results are compared with those available from the literature. They are also compared with the results for the pure Debye-Hückel potential with the same screening strength.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μ m thick, 9 × 7 cm 2 Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil’s calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Normally we think of the glassy state as a single phase and therefore crystallization from chemically identical amorphous precursors should be identical. Here we show that the local structure of an amorphous precursor is distinct depending on the initial deposition conditions, resulting in significant differences in the final state material. Using grazing incidence total x-ray scattering, we have determined the local structure in amorphous thin films of vanadium oxide grown under different conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Here we show that the subsequent crystallization of films deposited using different initial PLD conditions result in the formation of different polymorphs of VO 2 . This suggests the possibility of controlling the formation of metastable polymorphs by tuning the initial amorphous structure to different formation pathways.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: By combining substrate-free structures with anodic bonding technology, we present a simple and efficient micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) thermal shear stress sensor. Significantly, the resulting depth of the vacuum cavity of the sensor is determined by the thickness of the silicon substrate at which Si is removed by the anisotropic wet etching process. Compared with the sensor based on a sacrificial layer technique, the proposed MEMS thermal shear-stress sensor exhibits dramatically improved sensitivity due to the much larger vacuum cavity depth. The fabricated MEMS thermal shear-stress sensor with a vacuum cavity depth as large as 525  μ m and a vacuum of 5 × 10 −2  Pa exhibits a sensitivity of 184.5 mV/Pa and a response time of 180  μ s. We also experimentally demonstrate that the sensor power is indeed proportional to the 1/3-power of the applied shear stress. The substrate-free structures offer the ability to precisely measure the shear stress fluctuations in low speed turbulent boundary layer wind tunnels.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Hot-carrier degradation and room-temperature annealing effects are investigated in unpassivated ammonia-rich AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Devices exhibit a fast recovery when annealed after hot carrier stress with all pins grounded. The recovered peak transconductance can exceed the original value, an effect that is not observed in control passivated samples. Density functional theory calculations suggest that dehydrogenation of pre-existing O N -H defects in AlGaN plays a significant role in the observed hot carrier degradation, and the resulting bare O N can naturally account for the “super-recovery” in the peak transconductance.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Iridium (Ir) layers epitaxially deposited on α-Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates was investigated. The X-ray diffraction, Raman and reflection high energy electron diffraction characterizations revealed that graphene films were epitaxially grown on Ir(111) layers, and the in-plane epitaxial relationship between graphene, Ir(111), and α-Al 2 O 3 (0001) was graphene ⟨ 1 1 ¯ 00 ⟩//Ir⟨ 11 2 ¯ ⟩//α-Al 2 O 3 ⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩. The graphene on Ir(111) was electrochemically transferred onto SiO 2 /Si substrates. We also demonstrated the reuse of the Ir(111)/α-Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates in multiple growth and transfer cycles.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Simple kinematic considerations indicate that, under certain conditions in radio-frequency (rf) plasmas, the amplitude of the low-energy peak in ion energy distributions (IEDs) measured at an electrode depends sensitively on ion velocities upstream, at the presheath/sheath boundary. By measuring this amplitude, the velocities at which ions exit the presheath can be determined and long-standing controversies regarding presheath transport can be resolved. Here, IEDs measured in rf-biased, inductively coupled plasmas in CF 4 gas determined the presheath exit velocities of all significant positive ions: CF 3 + , CF 2 + , CF + , and F + . At higher bias voltages, we detected essentially the same velocity for all four ions. For all ions, measured velocities were significantly lower than the Bohm velocity and the electropositive ion sound speed. Neither is an accurate boundary condition for rf sheaths in electronegative gases: under certain low-frequency, high-voltage criteria defined here, either yields large errors in predicted IEDs. These results indicate that many widely used sheath models will need to be revised.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Although contact resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most important factors for practical application of electronic devices, a study regarding temperature dependence on contact resistance of CNTs with metal electrodes has not been found. Here, we report an investigation of contact resistance at multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/Ag interface as a function of temperature, using MWNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. Electrical resistance of MWNT/PDMS composite revealed negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Excluding the contact resistance with Ag electrode, the NTC effect became less pronounced, showing lower intrinsic resistivity with the activation energy of 0.019 eV. Activation energy of the contact resistance of MWNT/Ag interface was determined to be 0.04 eV, two times larger than that of MWNT-MWNT network. The increase in the thermal fluctuation assisted electron tunneling is attributed to conductivity enhancement at both MWNT/MWNT and MWNT/Ag interfaces with increasing temperature.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: We report a crucial step towards single-object cavity electrodynamics in the mid-infrared spectral range using resonators that borrow functionalities from antennas. Room-temperature strong light-matter coupling is demonstrated in the mid-infrared between an intersubband transition and an extremely reduced number of sub-wavelength resonators. By exploiting 3D plasmonic nano-antennas featuring an out-of-plane geometry, we observed strong light-matter coupling in a very low number of resonators: only 16, more than 100 times better than what reported to date in this spectral range. The modal volume addressed by each nano-antenna is sub-wavelength-sized and it encompasses only ≈4400 electrons.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: In this paper, a new memristor-based multi-scroll hyper-chaotic system is designed. The proposed memristor-based system possesses multiple complex dynamic behaviors compared with other chaotic systems. Various coexisting attractors and hidden coexisting attractors are observed in this system, which means extreme multistability arises. Besides, by adjusting parameters of the system, this chaotic system can perform single-scroll attractors, double-scroll attractors, and four-scroll attractors. Basic dynamic characteristics of the system are investigated, including equilibrium points and stability, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and so on. In addition, the presented system is also realized by an analog circuit to confirm the correction of the numerical simulations.
    Print ISSN: 1054-1500
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: We have investigated the thickness-dependent transport properties of La 1/3 Sr 2/3 FeO 3 thin films grown on SrTiO 3 (001) and (111) substrates. At a thickness of ∼40 nm, both films show a clear transition in resistivity associated with the characteristic charge disproportionation at approximately 190 K. The transition temperature of the charge disproportionation is nearly unchanged with decreasing film thickness down to a certain thickness of ∼13 nm for both orientations, while the change in resistivity gradually decreases. Below this thickness, the transition becomes unclear, strongly suggesting the suppression of the charge disproportionation at the critical thickness of ∼13 nm. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the thickness dependence of La 1/3 Sr 2/3 FeO 3 thin films between the (001) and (111) orientations. The negligible crystallographic-orientation dependence may reflect the isotropic nature for the domain of charge disproportionation states in La 1/3 Sr 2/3 FeO 3 .
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Titanium oxide (TiO x ) has attracted a lot of attention as an active material for resistive random access memory (RRAM), due to its versatility and variety of possible crystal phases. Although existing RRAM materials have demonstrated impressive characteristics, like ultra-fast switching and high cycling endurance, this technology still encounters challenges like low yields, large variability of switching characteristics, and ultimately device failure. Electroforming has been often considered responsible for introducing irreversible damage to devices, with high switching voltages contributing to device degradation. In this paper, we have employed Al doping for tuning the resistive switching characteristics of titanium oxide RRAM. The resistive switching threshold voltages of undoped and Al-doped TiO x thin films were first assessed by conductive atomic force microscopy. The thin films were then transferred in RRAM devices and tested with voltage pulse sweeping, demonstrating that the Al-doped devices could on average form at lower potentials compared to the undoped ones and could support both analog and binary switching at potentials as low as 0.9 V. This work demonstrates a potential pathway for implementing low-power RRAM systems.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: In this work, electron induced modifications on the bulk etch rate, structural and optical parameters of CR-39 polymer were studied using gravimetric, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) and UV–vis (Ultraviolet–Visible) techniques, respectively. CR-39 samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam for different durations to have the absorbed doses of 1, 10, 550, 5500, 16 500, and 55 000 kGy. From the FTIR analysis, the peak intensities at different bands were found to be changing with electron dose. A few peaks were observed to shift at high electron doses. From the UV-vis analysis, the optical band gaps for both direct and indirect transitions were found to be decreasing with the increase in electron dose whereas the opacity, number of carbon atoms in conjugation length, and the number of carbon atoms per cluster were found to be increasing. The bulk etch rate was observed to be increasing with the electron dose. The primary objective of this investigation was to study the response of CR-39 to high electron doses and to determine a suitable pre-irradiation condition. The results indicated that, the CR-39 pre-irradiated with electrons can have better sensitivity and thus can be potentially applied for neutron dosimetry.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Low temperature thermal to electrical energy converters have the potential to provide a route for recovering waste energy. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of a thermal harvester that uses a naturally driven thermal oscillator free of mechanical motion and operates between a hot heat source and a cold heat sink. The system exploits a heat induced liquid-vapour transition of a working fluid as a primary driver for a pyroelectric generator. The two-phase instability of a fluid in a closed looped capillary channel of an oscillating heat pipe (OHP) creates pressure differences which lead to local high frequency temperature oscillations in the range of 0.1–5 K. Such temperature changes are suitable for pyroelectric thermal to electrical energy conversion, where the pyroelectric generator is attached to the adiabatic wall of the OHP, thereby absorbing thermal energy from the passing fluid. This new pyroelectric-oscillating heat pipe (POHP) assembly of a low temperature generator continuously operates across a spatial heat source temperature of 55 °C and a heat sink temperature of 25 °C, and enables waste heat recovery and thermal energy harvesting from small temperature gradients at low temperatures. Our electrical measurements with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) show an open circuit voltage of 0.4 V (AC) and with lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN-PT) an open circuit voltage of 0.8 V (AC) at a frequency of 0.45 Hz, with an energy density of 95 pJ cm −3 for PMN-PT. Our novel POHP device therefore has the capability to convert small quantities of thermal energy into more desirable electricity in the nW to mW range and provides an alternative to currently used batteries or centralised energy generation.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Electrode materials selection guidelines for oxide-based memory devices are constructed from the combined knowledge of observed device operation characteristics, ab-initio calculations, and nano-material characterization. It is demonstrated that changing the top electrode material from Ge to Cr to Ta in the Ta 2 O 5 -based memory devices resulted in a reduction of the operation voltages and current. Energy Dispersed X-ray (EDX) Spectrometer analysis clearly shows that the different top electrode materials scavenge oxygen ions from the Ta 2 O 5 memory layer at various degrees, leading to different oxygen vacancy concentrations within the Ta 2 O 5 , thus the observed trends in the device performance. Replacing the Pt bottom electrode material with CMOS compatible materials (Ru and Ir) further reduces the power consumption and can be attributed to the modification of the Schottky barrier height and oxygen vacancy concentration at the electrode/oxide interface. Both trends in the device performance and EDX results are corroborated by the ab-initio calculations which reveal that the electrode material tunes the oxygen vacancy concentration via the oxygen chemical potential and defect formation energy. This experimental-theoretical approach strongly suggests that the proper selection of CMOS compatible electrode materials will create the critical oxygen vacancy concentration to attain low power memory performance.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Thus far, despite many investigations have been carried out for photo-triggered drug delivery systems, most of them suffer from an intrinsic drawback of without real-time monitoring mechanism. Incident intensity of light is a feasible parameter to monitor the drug release profiles. However, it is difficult to measure the incident laser power irradiated onto the photo-triggered carriers in drug delivery systems during in vivo therapy. We design an online measurement method based on the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique through upconversion nanoparticles. FIR value varies with temperature of sample due to the thermal effect induced by the incident laser, which validates the laser power measurement. Effects of rare earth doping concentration, as well as experimental conditions including laser spots and wavelengths on the measurement behavior were also investigated.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Several candidate phenomenological expressions are studied for self-rippling energy that drives ripple formation of free single-layer graphene sheets. One phenomenological expression is admitted, while all others are rejected because they cannot admit stable periodic ripple mode. The admitted phenomenological expression contains two terms: one quadratic term which acts like a compressive force and has a destabilizing effect, and another fourth-order term which acts like a nonlinear elastic foundation and has a stabilizing effect. The two associated coefficients depend on specific mechanism of self-rippling and can be determined based on observed wavelength and amplitude of ripple mode. Based on the admitted expression, the effect of an applied force on ripple formation is studied. The present model predicts that the rippling can be controlled or even suppressed with an applied tensile force or collapsed into narrow wrinkles (of deformed wavelengths down to around 2 nm) under an applied compressive force, and the estimated minimum tensile strain to suppress rippling is in remarkable agreement with some known data. Our results show that self-rippling energy dominates ripple formation of sufficiently long free graphene ribbons, although it cannot drive self-rippling of sufficiently short free graphene ribbons. Consequently, a critical length is estimated so that self-rippling occurs only when the length of free single-layer graphene ribbons is much longer than the critical length. The estimated critical length is reasonably consistent with the known fact that self-rippling cannot occur in shorter free graphene sheets (say, of length below 20 nm).
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge 3 H 8 and SnD 4 hydrides, to fabricate Ge 1- y Sn y photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%–16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the compounds at ultra-low temperatures, allowing efficient control and systematic tuning of the alloy composition beyond the direct gap threshold. This crucial property allows the formation of thick supersaturated layers with device-quality material properties. Diodes with composition up to 14% Sn were initially produced on Ge-buffered Si(100) featuring previously optimized n -Ge/ i -Ge 1- y Sn y / p -Ge 1- z Sn z type structures with a single defected interface. The devices exhibited sizable electroluminescence and good rectifying behavior as evidenced by the low dark currents in the I-V measurements. The formation of working diodes with higher Sn content up to 16% Sn was implemented by using more advanced n -Ge 1- x Sn x / i -Ge 1- y Sn y / p -Ge 1- z Sn z architectures incorporating Ge 1- x Sn x intermediate layers ( x ∼ 12% Sn) that served to mitigate the lattice mismatch with the Ge platform. This yielded fully coherent diode interfaces devoid of strain relaxation defects. The electrical measurements in this case revealed a sharp increase in reverse-bias dark currents by almost two orders of magnitude, in spite of the comparable crystallinity of the active layers. This observation is attributed to the enhancement of band-to-band tunneling when all the diode layers consist of direct gap materials and thus has implications for the design of light emitting diodes and lasers operating at desirable mid-IR wavelengths. Possible ways to engineer these diode characteristics and improve carrier confinement involve the incorporation of new barrier materials, in particular, ternary Ge 1- x - y Si x Sn y alloys. The possibility of achieving type-I structures using binary and ternary alloy combinations is discussed in detail, taking into account the latest experimental and theoretical work on band offsets involving such materials.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Temperature-dependent characteristics of GeSn light-emitting diodes with Sn composition up to 9.2% have been systematically studied. Such diodes were based on Ge/GeSn/Ge double heterostructures (DHS) that were grown directly on a Si substrate via a chemical vapor deposition system. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra have been characterized at temperatures from 300 to 77 K. Based on our theoretical calculation, all GeSn alloys in this study are indirect bandgap materials. However, due to the small energy separation between direct and indirect bandgap, and the fact that radiative recombination rate greater than non-radiative, the emissions are mainly from the direct Γ-valley to valence band transitions. The electroluminescence emissions under current injection levels from 102 to 357 A/cm 2 were investigated at 300 K. The monotonic increase of the integrated electroluminescence intensity was observed for each sample. Moreover, the electronic band structures of the DHS were discussed. Despite the indirect GeSn bandgap owing to the compressive strain, type-I band alignment was achieved with the barrier heights ranging from 11 to 47 meV.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Due to their high strength and advantageous high-temperature properties, tungsten-based alloys are being considered as plasma-facing candidate materials in fusion devices. Under neutron irradiation, rhenium, which is produced by nuclear transmutation, has been found to precipitate in elongated precipitates forming thermodynamic intermetallic phases at concentrations well below the solubility limit. Recent measurements have shown that Re precipitation can lead to substantial hardening, which may have a detrimental effect on the fracture toughness of W alloys. This puzzle of sub-solubility precipitation points to the role played by irradiation induced defects, specifically mixed solute-W interstitials. Here, using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the energetics of mixed interstitial defects in W-Re, W-V, and W-Ti alloys, as well as the heat of mixing for each substitutional solute. We find that mixed interstitials in all systems are strongly attracted to each other with binding energies of −2.4 to − 3.2   eV and form interstitial pairs that are aligned along parallel first-neighbor 〈 111 〉 strings. Low barriers for defect translation and rotation enable defect agglomeration and alignment even at moderate temperatures. We propose that these elongated agglomerates of mixed-interstitials may act as precursors for the formation of needle-shaped intermetallic precipitates. This interstitial-based mechanism is not limited to radiation induced segregation and precipitation in W–Re alloys but is also applicable to other body-centered cubic alloys.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: The static and dynamic properties of water in small silicon-carbide and carbon nanotubes have been studied over the temperature range 100 K–298 K, using extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The computed properties include the radial distribution function, the cage correlation function, the space-time autocorrelation function, the velocity autocorrelation function, and the self-diffusivity. They all indicate that, under the conditions that we study, water does not freeze in small nanotubes; the Stokes-Einstein relation breaks down, and the self-diffusivity exhibits a transition around 230 K, very close to 228 K, the temperature at which a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover is supposed to happen. The cage correlation function C ( t ) decays according to a stretched-exponential function, C ( t ) ∼ exp[ − ( t / τ ) β ], where τ is a relaxation time and β is a topological exponent.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: Feasibility of laser-cooling AlCl molecule is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. Potential energy curves, permanent dipole moments, and transition dipole moments for the X 1 Σ + , a 3 Π, and A 1 Π states are studied based on multi-reference configuration interaction plus Davidson corrections (MRCI+Q) method with ACVQZ basis set, spin-orbit coupling effects are considered at the MRCI+Q level. Highly diagonally distributed Franck–Condon factors ( f 00 = 0.9988 and f 11 = 0.9970) and branching ratios ( R 00 = 0.9965, R 01 = 2.85 × 10 −3 , R 02 = 6.35 × 10 −4 , and R 03 = 2.05 × 10 −6 ) for the A 1 Π 1 ( ν ′ = 0 ) → X 1 Σ 0 + + ( ν ″ = 0 ) transition are determined. A sufficiently radiative lifetime τ ( A 1 Π 1 ) = 4.99 ns is predicted for rapid laser cooling. The proposed cooling wavelength is deep in the ultraviolet region at λ 00 = 261.75 nm. Total emission rates for the a 3 Π 0 + → X 1 Σ 0 + + , a 3 Π 1 → X 1 Σ 0 + + , A 1 Π 1 → a 3 Π 0 + , and A 1 Π 1 → a 3 Π 1 transitions are particularly small (∼10 s −1 –650 s −1 ). The calculated vibrational branching loss ratio to the intermediate a 3 Π 0 + and a 3 Π 1 states can be negligible. The results imply the probability of laser cooling AlCl molecule with three-electronic-level.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-07-14
    Description: This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin–overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = − 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric “torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators” by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e ± ni α . The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A 1 and A 2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: In terms of the local bond-orientational order (LBOO) parameters, a cluster approach to analyze local structures of simple liquids was developed. In this approach, a cluster is defined as a combination of neighboring seeds having at least n b local-orientational bonds and their nearest neighbors, and a cluster ensemble is a collection of clusters with a specified n b and number of seeds n s . This cluster analysis was applied to investigate the microscopic structures of liquid Ga at ambient pressure (AP). The liquid structures studied were generated through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By scrutinizing the static structure factors (SSFs) of cluster ensembles with different combinations of n b and n s , we found that liquid Ga at AP contained two types of cluster structures, one characterized by sixfold orientational symmetry and the other showing fourfold orientational symmetry. The SSFs of cluster structures with sixfold orientational symmetry were akin to the SSF of a hard-sphere fluid. On the contrary, the SSFs of cluster structures showing fourfold orientational symmetry behaved similarly as the anomalous SSF of liquid Ga at AP, which is well known for exhibiting a high-q shoulder. The local structures of a highly LBOO cluster whose SSF displayed a high-q shoulder were found to be more similar to the structure of β-Ga than those of other solid phases of Ga. More generally, the cluster structures showing fourfold orientational symmetry have an inclination to resemble more to β -Ga.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: An automated property optimization method was developed based on the ab initio O( N ) elongation (ELG) method and applied to the optimization of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in DNA as a first test. The ELG method mimics a polymerization reaction on a computer, and the reaction terminal of a starting cluster is attacked by monomers sequentially to elongate the electronic structure of the system by solving in each step a limited space including the terminal (localized molecular orbitals at the terminal) and monomer. The ELG-finite field (ELG-FF) method for calculating (hyper-)polarizabilities was used as the engine program of the optimization method, and it was found to show linear scaling efficiency while maintaining high computational accuracy for a random sequenced DNA model. Furthermore, the self-consistent field convergence was significantly improved by using the ELG-FF method compared with a conventional method, and it can lead to more feasible NLO property values in the FF treatment. The automated optimization method successfully chose an appropriate base pair from four base pairs (A, T, G, and C) for each elongation step according to an evaluation function. From test optimizations for the first order hyper-polarizability (β) in DNA, a substantial difference was observed depending on optimization conditions between “choose-maximum” (choose a base pair giving the maximum β for each step) and “choose-minimum” (choose a base pair giving the minimum β). In contrast, there was an ambiguous difference between these conditions for optimizing the second order hyper-polarizability (γ) because of the small absolute value of γ and the limitation of numerical differential calculations in the FF method. It can be concluded that the ab initio level property optimization method introduced here can be an effective step towards an advanced computer aided material design method as long as the numerical limitation of the FF method is taken into account.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: We report an implementation of the molecular gradient using the divide-expand-consolidate resolution of the identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (DEC-RI-MP2). The new DEC-RI-MP2 gradient method combines the precision control as well as the linear-scaling and massively parallel features of the DEC scheme with efficient evaluations of the gradient contributions using the RI approximation. We further demonstrate that the DEC-RI-MP2 gradient method is capable of calculating molecular gradients for very large molecular systems. A test set of supramolecular complexes containing up to 158 atoms and 1960 contracted basis functions has been employed to demonstrate the general applicability of the DEC-RI-MP2 method and to analyze the errors of the DEC approximation. Moreover, the test set contains molecules of complicated electronic structures and is thus deliberately chosen to stress test the DEC-RI-MP2 gradient implementation. Additionally, as a showcase example the full molecular gradient for insulin (787 atoms and 7604 contracted basis functions) has been evaluated.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: Magnetic flux ropes (MFR) are universal magnetoplasma structures (similar to cylindrical screw pinches) formed in reconnecting current sheets. In particular, MFR with scales from about the ion inertial length to MHD range are widely observed in the Earth magnetosphere. Typical MFR have force-free configuration with the axial magnetic field peaking on the MFR axis, whereas bifurcated MFR with an off-axis peak of the axial magnetic field are observed as well. In the present paper, we develop kinetic models of force-free and bifurcated MFR and determine consistent ion and electron distribution functions. The magnetic field configuration of the force-free MFR represents well-known Gold-Hoyle MFR (uniformly twisted MFR). We show that bifurcated MFR are characterized by the presence of cold and hot current-carrying electrons. The developed models are capable to describe MFR observed in the Earth magnetotail as well as MFR recently observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission at the Earth magnetopause.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: In the literature, collisional processes are customarily discussed within the context of the Boltzmann-Balescu-Lenard-Landau type of collision integral, but such an equation is strictly valid for unmagnetized plasmas. For plasmas immersed in the ambient magnetic field, the foundational equation that describes binary collisions must be generalized to include the effects of magnetic field. The present paper makes use of such an equation in order to describe the collisional relaxation of temperatures under the assumption of bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. The formalism derived in the present paper may be useful for studying the effects of binary collisions on the isotropization of temperatures in the solar wind plasma, among possible applications.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2016-07-16
    Description: We demonstrated epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films on nearly lattice-matched Hf (0001) substrates by using a low-temperature (LT) epitaxial growth technique. High-temperature growth of GaN films results in the formation of polycrystalline films due to significant reaction at GaN/Hf heterointerfaces, while LT-growth allowed us to suppress the interfacial reactions and to obtain epitaxial GaN films on Hf substrates with a GaN 11 2 ̄ 0 / / Hf 11 2 ̄ 0 in-plane orientation. LT-grown GaN films can act as buffer layers for GaN growth at high temperatures. The interfacial layer thickness at the LT-GaN/Hf heterointerface was as small as 1 nm, and the sharpness of the contact remained unchanged even after annealing up to approximately 700 °C, which likely accounts for the dramatic improvement in GaN crystalline quality on Hf substrates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: The slowing down as well as the deflection time of test particles in the plasma is studied in the non-extensive statistics. The relevant relations are derived using Fokker Planck equation. It is remarked that the slowing down and deflection times modify considerably in the non-extensive statistics in comparison with Boltzmann Gibbs one. It is found that by decreasing non-extensivity index q ( 1 / 3 〈 q ≤ 1 which corresponds to plasma with excess super extensive particles), both the slowing down and deflection times will be increased. Also, for q ≥ 1 , i.e., the sub-extensive particles, the same results are obtained by decreasing q . Additionally, the effects of non-extensive distributed particles on the electrical conductivity and diffusion coefficient of plasma are studied. It is shown that plasmas with smaller q s are better conductors in both 1 / 3 〈 q ≤ 1 and q ≥ 1 . In addition, it is observed that by increasing q , Dreicer field will increase in both super-extensive and sub-extensive particles. Moreover, it is found that the diffusion coefficient across a magnetic field is decreased by decreasing q . Furthermore, our results reduce to the solutions of Maxwellian plasma at the extensive limit q → 1. This research will be helpful in understanding the relaxation times and transport properties of fusion and astrophysical plasmas.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a “tall-thin” rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse “Violin-Mode” vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor’s DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor’s more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC / DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f , resulted in the construction of the AC / DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC / DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz–300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m −1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC / DC transimpedance gain ratio of 922.5 for this sensor, at 500 Hz, translated into a maximum Violin-Mode ( AC ) responsivity of (1.16 ± 0.05) MV m −1 , at that frequency.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: A device is presented allowing for in situ investigation of chemically changing materials by means of X-ray imaging. A representative cork ablator sample, additionally instrumented with thermocouples, is encapsulated in an evacuated cell heating a sample surface with a heat flux of 230 kW/m 2 . The images show the sample surface and the in-depth progression of the char front dividing the char layer from the virgin material. Correlating the images to thermocouple data allows for the deduction of a reaction temperature. For the representative cork ablator investigated at the present conditions, the progression rate of the pyrolysis layer is determined to 0.0285 mm/s and pyrolysis temperature is 770 or 737 K, depending on the pre-existing conditions. It is found that the novel device is ideally suited for volume process imaging.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-07-16
    Description: In this communication, a novel optical technique has been proposed for the reconstruction of the shape of a Taylor bubble using measurements from multiple arrays of optical sensors. The deviation of an optical beam passing through the bubble depends on the contour of bubble surface. A theoretical model of the deviation of a beam during the traverse of a Taylor bubble through it has been developed. Using this model and the time history of the deviation captured by the sensor array, the bubble shape has been reconstructed. The reconstruction has been performed using an inverse algorithm based on Bayesian inference technique and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. The reconstructed nose shape has been compared with the true shape, extracted through image processing of high speed images. Finally, an error analysis has been performed to pinpoint the sources of the errors.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2016-07-16
    Description: Based on vibrational spectroscopy, coherent Raman Scattering (CRS) microscopy allows label-free imaging of biological and chemical samples with endogenous image contrast. Two-color, synchronized picosecond pulses are typically used for high spectral resolution imaging, which in turn constitutes a dramatic laser source challenge for CRS microscopy. Recently, synchronized time-lens source, inspired from ultrafast optical signal processing, has emerged as a promising laser source solution and has found application in various modalities of CRS microscopy. Time-lens is based on space-time analogy, which uses a “lens” in the time domain to compress long optical pulses or even continuous waves to ultrashort pulses, mimicking a lens in the space domain. Phase and intensity modulators driven with electrical signals are used in the time-lens source for picosecond pulse generation. As a result, the time-lens source is highly versatile and naturally compatible with modulation capabilities. More importantly, if the electrical signals used to drive the time-lens source are derived from other laser sources, such as mode-locked lasers, then synchronization between them can be realized, underlying the physics of a synchronized time-lens source. In this paper, we review recent progress on the basic principle, design of the synchronized time-lens source, and its applications to CRS microscopy of both biological and chemical samples.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2016-07-16
    Description: In this paper, a new double micropipettes configuration mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is presented to better overcome ionic current drift and further improve the performance of SICM, which is based on a balance bridge circuit. The article verifies the feasibility of this new configuration mode from theoretical and experimental analyses, respectively, and compares the quality of scanning images in the conventional single micropipette configuration mode and the new double micropipettes configuration mode. The experimental results show that the double micropipettes configuration mode of SICM has better effect on restraining ionic current drift and better performance of imaging. Therefore, this article not only proposes a new direction of overcoming the ionic current drift but also develops a new method of SICM stable imaging.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2016-07-16
    Description: A new imaging algorithm is proposed to capture the kinematics of flexible, thin, light structures including frequencies and motion amplitudes for real time analysis. The studied case is a thin flexible beam that is preset at different angles of attack in a wind tunnel. As the angle of attack is increased beyond a critical value, the beam was observed to undergo a static deflection that is ensued by limit cycle oscillations. Imaging analysis of the beam vibrations shows that the motion consists of a superposition of the bending and torsion modes. The proposed algorithm was able to capture the oscillation amplitudes as well as the frequencies of both bending and torsion modes. The analysis results are validated through comparison with measurements from a piezoelectric sensor that is attached to the beam at its root.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2016-07-16
    Description: A thermal dissociation cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (TD-CAPS) instrument was developed for measuring total peroxy nitrates (PNs) and organic nitrates (ONs) concentrations in the clean atmosphere. This instrument is easy to operate and can be applied to continuous measurement of PNs and ONs. A continuously measurable system is convenient to perform observations, especially in remote areas. Three lines (NO 2 , PNs, and ONs lines) were used for thermal dissociation. The NO 2 line contains a quartz tube that is not heated, while the PN and ON lines contain quartz tubes that are heated at 433 K and 633 K, respectively. The concentrations of NO 2 , NO 2 + PNs, and NO 2 + PNs + ONs can be obtained from the NO 2 , PN, and ON lines, respectively. The lower limit values of the detection limit (3σ) for PNs and ONs were estimated to be 21 parts per trillion by volume with an integration time of 2 min. PNs were selectively thermally decomposed in the PNs line and formed NO 2 quantitatively. In the ONs line, both PNs and ONs were thermally decomposed to produce NO 2 quantitatively, but partial decomposition of HNO 3 at 633 K interfered with the ONs measurement. Therefore, a HNO 3 scrubber is required before the ONs line. Continuous observations were conducted with the TD-CAPS instrument in a remote area, and the instrument performed well for obtaining PNs and ONs concentrations.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
    Description: A novel diamond anvil cell suitable for electrical transport measurements under high pressure has been developed. A boron-doped metallic diamond film was deposited as an electrode on a nano-polycrystalline diamond anvil using a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique combined with electron beam lithography. The maximum pressure that can be achieved by this assembly is above 30 GPa. We report electrical transport measurements of Pb up to 8 GPa. The boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes showed no signs of degradation after repeated compression.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
    Description: Optical birefringence imaging systems demonstrate a high potential for comprehensively investigating various phase transitions. To completely demonstrate such abilities, the temperature dependence of birefringence (Δ n ) was measured in Δ n ≃ 0 materials (i.e., cubic crystals with imperfect crystallization) via a background subtraction method. As a result, highly accurate birefringence imaging at 384 × 288 pixels was obtained using phase transition processes as well as varying temperatures visually characterized by the spatial distribution of not only the retardance level but also the optical fast-axis azimuth.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
    Description: A free space measurement method, which consists of two horn antennas, a network analyzer, two frequency extenders, and a sample holder, is used to measure transmission ( S 21 ) coefficients in 75-110 GHz (W-Band) frequency range. Singular spectrum analysis method is presented to eliminate the error and noise of raw S 21 data after calibration and measurement processes. The proposed model can be applied easily to remove the repeated calibration process for each sample measurement. Hence, smooth, reliable, and accurate data are obtained to determine the dielectric properties of materials. In addition, the dielectric constant of materials (paper, polyvinylchloride-PVC, Ultralam® 3850HT, and glass) is calculated by thin sheet approximation and Newton-Raphson extracting techniques using a filtered S 21 transmission parameter.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
    Description: An electron density diagnostic (≥10 10 cm −3 ) capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free spectral line profile of the n = 6–2 hydrogen Balmer series transition. The profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The quasi-static approach used to calculate the Doppler-free spectral line profile is outlined here and the results from the model are presented for H-δ spectra for electron densities of 10 10 –10 13 cm −3 . The profile shows complex behavior due to the interaction between the magnetic substates of the atom.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: This paper reports a piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) based micro-machined infrasonic hydrophone. We have conducted a systematic design study for the hydrophone sensor to meet the stringent requirements of underwater applications. The hydrophone sensor was fabricated on a cavity silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate using an in-house CMOS-compatible AlN-on-SOI process platform. A 5 × 5 arrayed hydrophone sensor was characterized thoroughly using an industry-standard hydrophone calibration instrument. The results show that the hydrophone achieved a sound sensitivity of −182.5 dB ± 0.3 dB (ref. to 1 V rms/ μ Pa) and an eligible acceleration sensitivity of only −196.5 dB (ref. to 1 V rms/ μ g), respectively, a non-linearity of 0.11%, a noise resolution of 57.5 dB referenced to 1  μ Pa/√Hz within an ultra-low operation bandwidth of 10 Hz∼100 Hz, the highest noise resolution of micro-machined hydrophones reported to date, and better than traditional bulky hydrophones in terms of the same application. The size of the 5 × 5 arrayed hydrophone sensor is about 2 mm × 2 mm.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: The development of miniaturized robotic swimmers is hindered by technical limitations in micro- and nanofabrication. To circumvent these limitations, we investigated the minimal geometrical requirements for swimming in low Reynolds number. Micro- and nanofabrication of complex shapes, such as helices, on a massive scale requires sophisticated state of the art technologies and has size limitations. In contrast, simple shaped structures, such as spherical particles, can be fabricated massively using chemical synthesis with relative ease. Here, simple microswimmers were fabricated using two microparticles with debris attached to their surface. The debris on the microswimmer's surface creates a geometry with two or more planes of symmetry, allowing the microswimmer to swim in bulk fluid at low Reynolds number. The microswimmers are magnetically actuated and controlled via a uniform rotating magnetic field generated by an approximate Helmholtz electromagnetic coil system. We characterized the microswimmer's velocity profile with respect to rotating frequency and analyzed the motion of the microswimmer using image processing. Finally, we demonstrated the controllability of the microswimmers by freely steering them in any desired directions.
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  • 77
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    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    In: Chaos
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: This paper deals with the stability and bifurcation analysis of a general form of equation D α x ( t ) = g ( x ( t ) , x ( t − τ ) ) involving the derivative of order α ∈ (0, 1] and a constant delay τ  ≥ 0. The stability of equilibrium points is presented in terms of the stability regions and critical surfaces. We provide a necessary condition to exist chaos in the system also. A wide range of delay differential equations involving a constant delay can be analyzed using the results proposed in this paper. The illustrative examples are provided to explain the theory.
    Print ISSN: 1054-1500
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7682
    Topics: Physics