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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (241,950)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Noise supported regular motion in a micro-fluidic environment is studied. Recently, it was reported that an aqueous droplet in an oil phase exhibited rhythmic back-and-forth motion under stationary direct current voltage between the cone-shaped electrodes, where the oscillating water droplet moves on a limit cycle orbital. We now confirm that a combination of the limit cycle nature and white noise supports and enhances the regular motion of the object through coherent resonance. The present result will open a way to design an efficient machinery in microfluidic and micromechanical devices.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
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  • 2
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: We demonstrate an on-chip sensor for room-temperature detection of methane gas using a broadband spiral chalcogenide glass waveguide coupled with off-chip laser and detector. The waveguide is fabricated using UV lithography patterning and lift-off after thermal evaporation. We measure the intensity change due to the presence and concentration of methane gas in the mid-infrared (MIR) range. This work provides an approach for broadband planar MIR gas sensing.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Phase-field method micromagnetic microelastic modeling is employed to simulate the thermal domain stability and enhanced magnetostrictive responses around the ferromagnetic morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in giant magnetostrictive Tb 1− x Dy x Fe 2 ( x ≈ 0.27 ) single crystal. The simulation shows that the rhombohedral and tetragonal phases coexist in equilibrium in the vicinity of MPB region due to the balance of weak magnetocrystalline anisotropy and strong exchange, magnetostatic and ferroelastic interaction. Enhanced magnetostrictive response is found in the vicinity of MPB, which could be attributed to the low-energy rotating pathways of local magnetization vectors in the phase coexisting region.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: In the present scenario, petroleum sourced fuel consumption is unsustainable; therefore, there is a high demand for the development of renewable transport fuels for environmental and economic sustainability. Microalgal fuel, with the significant feature of being carbon neutral, serves as one of the potent tools for tackling the fuel crisis. Enormous researches have been explored using fresh water species on biodiesel production; nevertheless, marine species are still in a grey area, even though reported to have higher lipid content. The current review focuses on a wide spectrum of marine microalgal sources with phycology under the criteria of open pond systems for algal oil production. The discussion on the lipid expression in the marine species have been critically analysed through the vital parameters such as solar irradiation, temperature, pH, nutrient pressure, agitation, CO 2 supply, culture depth, aeration, etc. The parameters are interdependent and, if scrutinized wisely, could result in enhanced lipid productivity. Therefore, the open pond culture of marine microalgae with top prioritized parameters such as nitrogen stress, pH, and light penetration will be a suitable combination for the efficient and effective biodiesel production.
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Anomalously strong change of ferromagnetic ordering parameters upon a small variation of aluminum content was revealed in low-temperature experimental studies of electrical resistivity and galvanomagnetic properties of iron-vanadium-aluminum magnetic alloys with the compositions near the stoichiometric Fe 2 VAl. By comparing the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the electrical resistivity and Hall effect in Fe 2.1 V 0.91 Al 0.99 and Fe 2.05 V 0.91 Al 1.04 alloys, it was shown that a small increase of aluminum content leads to doubling of the Curie temperature and a sharp change in the temperature dependences of the magnetoresistance and saturation of the spontaneous magnetization.
    Print ISSN: 1063-777X
    Electronic ISSN: 1090-6517
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Integrated phosphorescence spectra of meta-bromobenzophenone crystals were measured in the temperature range from 1.6 to 297 K. The spectra were found to contain two series of monomeric bands associated with the stretching mode of the C=O carbonyl at all temperatures. Above 70 K in the red spectral region, a broad structureless band of unknown nature was observed, the center of gravity of which was shifted to red with increasing temperature. The above phenomena and others anomalies can be due to the structural properties of both the molecule and the crystal.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: We study the excitonic coupling and homogeneous spectral line width of brick layer J-aggregate films. We begin by analysing the structural information revealed by the two-exciton states probed in two-dimensional spectra. Our first main result is that the relation between the excitonic couplings and the spectral shift in a two-dimensional structure is different (larger shift for the same nearest neighbour coupling) from that in a one-dimensional structure, which leads to an estimation of dipolar coupling in two-dimensional lattices. We next investigate the mechanisms of homogeneous broadening—population relaxation and pure dephasing—and evaluate their relative importance in linear and two-dimensional aggregates. Our second main result is that pure dephasing dominates the line width in two-dimensional systems up to a crossover temperature, which explains the linear temperature dependence of the homogeneous line width. This is directly related to the decreased density of states at the band edge when compared with linear aggregates, thus reducing the contribution of population relaxation to dephasing. Pump-probe experiments are suggested to directly measure the lifetime of the bright state and can therefore support the proposed model.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The local pseudopotential (LPP) is an important component of orbital-free density functional theory, a promising large-scale simulation method that can maintain information on a material’s electron state. The LPP is usually extracted from solid-state density functional theory calculations, thereby it is difficult to assess its transferability to cases involving very different chemical environments. Here, we reveal a fundamental relation between the first-principles norm-conserving pseudopotential (NCPP) and the LPP. On the basis of this relationship, we demonstrate that the LPP can be constructed optimally from the NCPP for a large number of elements using the optimized effective potential method. Specially, our method provides a unified scheme for constructing and assessing the LPP within the framework of first-principles pseudopotentials. Our practice reveals that the existence of a valid LPP with high transferability may strongly depend on the element.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: We observe that a sustained positivity (or negativity) of a system’s second-order response will result in a directional change of the system’s characteristics under the corresponding random exposure. We identify these changes with improvement (or decline) in the state of a system and introduce the concept of self-improving systems as systems which characteristics can sustainably improve under a random exposure. The resulting framework is of a general phenomenological nature and can be applied to complex systems across different areas of knowledge.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: A key element of materials discovery and design is to learn from available data and prior knowledge to guide the next experiments or calculations in order to focus in on materials with targeted properties. We suggest that the tight coupling and feedback between experiments, theory and informatics demands a codesign approach, very reminiscent of computational codesign involving software and hardware in computer science. This requires dealing with a constrained optimization problem in which uncertainties are used to adaptively explore and exploit the predictions of a surrogate model to search the vast high dimensional space where the desired material may be found.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: A thermoacoustic engine is operated within the core of a nuclear reactor to acoustically telemeter coolant temperature (frequency-encoded) and reactor power level (amplitude-encoded) outside the reactor, thus providing the values of these important parameters without external electrical power or wiring. We present data from two hydrophones in the coolant (far from the core) and an accelerometer attached to a structure outside the reactor. These signals have been detected even in the presence of substantial background noise generated by the reactor's fluid pumps.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: This work presents a strategy of nitrogen anion doping to suppress negative gate-bias illumination instability. The electrical performance and negative gate-bias illumination stability of the ZnSnON thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. Compared with ZnSnO-TFT, ZnSnON-TFT has a 53% decrease in the threshold voltage shift under negative bias illumination stress and electrical performance also progresses obviously. The stability improvement of ZnSnON-TFT is attributed to the reduction in ionized oxygen vacancy defects and the photodesorption of oxygen-related molecules. It suggests that anion doping can provide an effective solution to the adverse tradeoff between field effect mobility and negative bias illumination stability.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: Monoclinic HfO 2−x N x has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO 2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO 2−x N x films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: We present a nanosecond Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser system operating at 1600 nm with a tunable repetition rate from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. A compact fiber coupled, acousto-optic modulator-based EDF ring cavity was used to generate a nanosecond seed laser at 1600 nm, and a double-cladding EDF based power amplifier was applied to achieve the maximum average power of 250 mW. In addition, 12 ns laser pulses with the maximum pulse energy of 2.4  μ J were obtained at 100 kHz. Furthermore, the Stokes shift by Raman scattering over a 25 km long fiber was measured, indicating that the laser can be potentially used to generate the high repetition rate pulses at the 1.7  μ m region. Finally, we detected the photoacoustic signal from a human hair at 200 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 1.2  μ J, which demonstrates that a Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser can be a promising light source for the high speed functional photoacoustic imaging.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: Hybrid grating (HG) reflectors with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG) provide a high reflectance close to 100% over a broader wavelength range than HCGs. The combination of a cap layer and a grating layer brings a strong Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance as well as a weak guided mode (GM) resonance. Most of the reflected power results from the FP resonance, while the GM resonance plays a key role in achieving a reflectance close to 100% as well as broadening the stopband. An HG sample with 7 InGaAlAs quantum wells included in the cap layer has been fabricated by directly wafer-bonding a III-V cap layer onto a Si grating layer. Its reflection property has been characterized. This heterogeneously integrated HG reflector may allow for a hybrid III-V on Si laser to be thermally efficient, which has promising prospects for silicon photonics light sources and high-speed operation.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The structural, optical, and transport properties of sputter-deposited Al-Ti thin films have been investigated as a function of Ti alloying with a concentration ranging from 2% to 46%. The optical reflectivity of Al-Ti films at visible and near-infrared wavelengths decreases with increasing Ti content. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements reveal that the atomic ordering around Ti atoms increases with increasing Ti content up to 20% and then decreases as a result of a transition from a polycrystalline to amorphous structure. The transport properties of the Al-Ti films are influenced by electron scattering at the grain boundaries in the case of polycrystalline films and static defects, such as anti-site effects and vacancies in the case of the amorphous alloys. The combination of Ti having a real refractive index ( n ) comparable with the extinction coefficient ( k ) and Al with n much smaller than k allows us to explore the parameter space for the free-electron behavior in transition metal-Al alloys. The free electron model, applied for the polycrystalline Al-Ti films with Ti content up to 20%, leads to an optical reflectance at near infrared wavelengths that scales linearly with the square root of the electrical resistivity.
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  • 18
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The envelope of narrow-banded, periodic, surface-gravity waves propagating in one dimension over water of finite, non-uniform depth may be modeled by the Djordjević and Redekopp [“On the development of packets of surface gravity waves moving over an uneven bottom,” Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29 , 950–962 (1978)] equation (DRE). Here we find five approximate solutions of the DRE that are in the form of Jacobi-elliptic functions and discuss them within the framework of ocean swell. We find that in all cases, the maximum envelope-amplitude decreases/increases when the wave group propagates on water of decreasing/increasing depth. In the limit of the elliptic modulus approaching one, three of the solutions reduce to the envelope soliton solution. In the limit of the elliptic modulus approaching zero, two of the solutions reduce to an envelope-amplitude that is uniform in an appropriate reference frame.
    Print ISSN: 1070-6631
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7666
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: A 200 mJ laser pulse energy, 39 fs-pulse duration, 10  μ m focal spot, p-polarized radiation has been employed to irradiate thin Au foils to produce proton acceleration in the forward direction. Gold foils were employed to produce high density relativistic electrons emission in the forward direction to generate a high electric field driving the ion acceleration. Measurements were performed by changing the focal position in respect of the target surface. Proton acceleration was monitored using fast SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. A high proton energy, up to about 20 Me V, with a narrow energy distribution, was obtained in particular conditions depending on the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions, and a target optimization.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: With the aim of gaining a better physical insight into linear regimes in gyrotrons, a new linear model was developed. This model is based on a spectral approach for solving the self-consistent system of equations describing the wave-particle interaction in the cavity of a gyrotron oscillator. Taking into account the wall-losses self-consistently and including the main system inhomogeneities in the cavity geometry and in the magnetic field, the model is appropriate to consider real system parameters. The main advantage of the spectral approach, compared with a time-dependent approach, is the possibility to describe all of the stable and unstable modes, respectively, with negative and positive growth rates. This permits to reveal the existence of a new set of eigenmodes, in addition to the usual eigenmodes issued from cold-cavity modes. The proposed model can be used for studying other instabilities such as, for instance, backward waves potentially excited in gyrotron beam tunnels.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: Reducing the detrimental effect of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the target performance is a critical challenge. In this purpose, the use of targets coated with low density foams is a promising approach to reduce the laser imprint. This article presents results of ablative RT instability growth measurements, performed on the OMEGA laser facility in direct-drive for plastic foils coated with underdense foams. The laser beam smoothing is explained by the parametric instabilities developing in the foam and reducing the laser imprint on the plastic (CH) foil. The initial perturbation pre-imposed by the means of a specific phase plate was shown to be smoothed using different foam characteristics. Numerical simulations of the laser beam smoothing in the foam and of the RT growth are performed with a suite of paraxial electromagnetic and radiation hydrodynamic codes. They confirmed the foam smoothing effect in the experimental conditions.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The self-adapting algorithms are improved to optimize a beam configuration in the direct drive laser fusion system with the solid state lasers. A configuration of 32 laser beams is proposed for achieving a high uniformity illumination, with a root-mean-square deviation at 10 −4 level. In our optimization, the parameters such as beam number, beam arrangement, and beam intensity profile are taken into account. The illumination uniformity robustness versus the parameters such as intensity profile deviations, power imbalance, intensity profile noise, the pointing error, and the target position error is also discussed. In this study, the model is assumed a solid-sphere illumination, and refraction effects of incident light on the corona are not considered. Our results may have a potential application in the design of the direct-drive laser fusion of the Shen Guang-II Upgrading facility (SG-II-U, China).
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  • 23
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The presented computations compare the strength of current sheets which develop near and away from the magnetic nulls. To ensure the spontaneous generation of current sheets, the computations are performed congruently with Parker's magnetostatic theorem. The simulations evince current sheets near two dimensional and three dimensional magnetic nulls as well as away from them. An important finding of this work is in the demonstration of comparative scaling of peak current density with numerical resolution, for these different types of current sheets. The results document current sheets near two dimensional magnetic nulls to have larger strength while exhibiting a stronger scaling than the current sheets close to three dimensional magnetic nulls or away from any magnetic null. The comparative scaling points to a scenario where the magnetic topology near a developing current sheet is important for energetics of the subsequent reconnection.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: Using a variation of the celebrated Volkov solution, the Klein-Gordon equation for a charged particle is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, exactly solvable in specific cases. The new quantum relativistic structures can reveal a localization in the radial direction perpendicular to the wave packet propagation, thanks to a non-vanishing scalar potential. The external electromagnetic field, the particle current density, and the charge density are determined. The stability analysis of the solutions is performed by means of numerical simulations. The results are useful for the description of a charged quantum test particle in the relativistic regime, provided spin effects are not decisive.
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  • 25
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The dispersion of dispersive Alfvén wave in a low β plasma with anisotropic superthermal particles modeled by a bi-nonextensive distribution is derived from a kinetic way. The effect of anisotropic temperature on inertial Alfvén wave is so small that it is negligible. However, it will play an important role on the property of kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW). The numerical results reveal that the presence of superthermal electrons in the small wavenumber limit will lead the damping rate of the KAW bigger than the one with Maxwellian distribution. Whereas, the damping rate of KAW in the large wavenumber limit will decrease with the presence of superthermal electrons. When the effect of electron anisotropic temperature overwhelms the effect of finite ion gyroradius in the small wavenumber regime, the damping rate of KAW grows with the presence of electron temperature anisotropy. On the other hand, when the effects of finite ion gyroradius play a dominant role in the large wavenumber regime, the damping rate of KAW increases with the effective perpendicular and parallel electron temperatures.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: In the high confinement mode of tokamaks, magnitude of the radial electric field increases at the edge. Thus, the poloidal flow inside the transport barrier can be sonic when the edge pressure gradient is not steep enough to make the poloidal flow subsonic. When the poloidal Mach number is close to unity, a shock appears in the low field side and causes a large density perturbation. In this study, we describe a shock induced by the sonic poloidal plasma flow. Then, an entropy production across the shock is calculated. Finally, we introduce a simple model for Type III edge localized modes using the poloidal density variation driven by the sonic poloidal flow.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: The influence of the parallel shear flow on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with the BOUT++ four-field code in this paper. The parallel shear flow has different effects in linear simulation and nonlinear simulation. In the linear simulations, the growth rate of edge localized mode (ELM) can be increased by Kelvin-Helmholtz term, which can be caused by the parallel shear flow. In the nonlinear simulations, the results accord with the linear simulations in the linear phase. However, the ELM size is reduced by the parallel shear flow in the beginning of the turbulence phase, which is recognized as the P-B filaments' structure. Then during the turbulence phase, the ELM size is decreased by the shear flow.
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  • 28
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-08
    Description: A novel radially local approximation of the drift kinetic equation is presented. The new drift kinetic equation that includes both E × B and tangential magnetic drift terms is written in the conservative form and it has favorable properties for numerical simulation that any additional terms for particle and energy sources are unnecessary for obtaining stationary solutions under the radially local approximation. These solutions satisfy the intrinsic ambipolarity condition for neoclassical particle fluxes in the presence of quasisymmetry of the magnetic field strength. Also, another radially local drift kinetic equation is presented, from which the positive definiteness of entropy production due to neoclassical transport and Onsager symmetry of neoclassical transport coefficients are derived while it sacrifices the ambipolarity condition for neoclassical particle fluxes in axisymmetric and quasi-symmetric systems.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Conformal Galilei algebras (CGAs) labeled by d , ℓ (where d is the number of space dimensions and ℓ denotes a spin-ℓ representation w.r.t. the
    Print ISSN: 0022-2488
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7658
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining electron-spin-resonance and a micro-magnet. The micro-magnet makes the local Zeeman field difference between neighboring spins much larger than the nuclear field fluctuation, which ensures the addressable driving of electron-spin-resonance by shifting the resonance condition for each spin. We observe distinct coherent Rabi oscillations for three spins in a semiconductor triple quantum dot with up to 25 MHz spin rotation frequencies. This individual manipulation over three spins enables us to arbitrarily change the magnetic spin quantum number of the three spin system, and thus to operate a triple-dot device as a three-qubit system in combination with the existing technique of exchange operations among three spins.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We report the fabrication of periodically poled domain patterns in x-cut lithium niobate thin-film. Here, thin films on insulator have drawn particular attention due to their intrinsic waveguiding properties offering high mode confinement and smaller devices compared to in-diffused waveguides in bulk material. In contrast to z-cut thin film lithium niobate, the x-cut geometry does not require back electrodes for poling. Further, the x-cut geometry grants direct access to the largest nonlinear and electro-optical tensor element, which overall promises smaller devices. The domain inversion was realized via electric field poling utilizing deposited aluminum top electrodes on a stack of LN thin film/SiO 2 layer/Bulk LN, which were patterned by optical lithography. The periodic domain inversion was verified by non-invasive confocal second harmonic microscopy. Our results show domain patterns in accordance to the electrode mask layout. The second harmonic signatures can be interpreted in terms of spatially, overlapping domain filaments which start their growth on the +z side.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Bulk conductivity data of ionically and electronically conducting solid electrolytes and electronic ceramics invariably show a frequency dependence that cannot be modelled by a single-valued resistor. To model this, common practice is to add a constant phase element (CPE) in parallel with the bulk resistance. To fit experimental data on a wide variety of materials, however, it is also essential to include the limiting, high frequency permittivity of the material in the equivalent circuit. Failure to do so can lead to incorrect values for the sample resistance and CPE parameters and to an inappropriate circuit for materials that are electrically heterogeneous.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Remanent electrical spin injection into an InGaAs/GaAs based quantum well light emitting diode is realized by using a perpendicularly magnetized MgO/CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB/MgO spin injector. We demonstrate that the Ta interlayer plays an important role to establish the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the thickness of Ta interlayer determines the type of exchange coupling between the two adjacent CoFeB layers. They are ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically coupled for a Ta thickness of 0.5 nm or 0.75 nm, respectively. A circular polarized electroluminescence ( P c ) of about 10% is obtained at low temperature and at zero magnetic field. The direction of the electrically injected spins is determined only by the orientation of the magnetization of the bottom CoFeB layer which is adjacent to the MgO/GaAs interface. This work proves the critical role of the bottom CoFeB/MgO interface on the spin-injection and paves the way for the electrical control of spin injection via magnetic tunnel junction-type spin injector.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We report single-photon emission from electrically driven site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The device is fabricated from a planar light-emitting diode structure containing a single InGaN quantum well, using a top-down approach. The location, dimension, and height of each single-photon-emitting diode are controlled lithographically, providing great flexibility for chip-scale integration.
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  • 35
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We report magnetic vortex formation in epitaxially grown Co 2 Fe 0.4 Mn 0.6 Si (CFMS) Heusler alloy discs that was confirmed using photoemission electron microscopy and the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The phase diagram of magnetic domain structures as functions of the disc thickness ( t ) and diameter ( D ) indicates that the magnetic vortex is stable in wide ranges of t and D even for the epitaxial CFMS. The annihilation field of vortex core depended not only on the disc aspect ratio but also on t . Numerical simulation suggests that this t dependence results from extrinsic pinning of a vortex core due to the epitaxial growth.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The control of magnetic Skyrmions confined in a nanometer scale disk using electric field pulses is studied by micromagnetic simulation. A stable Skyrmion can be created and annihilated by an electric field pulse depending on the polarity of the electric field. Moreover, the core direction of the Skyrmion can be switched using the same electric field pulses. Such creation and annihilation of Skyrmions, and its core switching do not require any magnetic field and precise control of the pulse length. This unconventional manipulation of magnetic texture using electric field pulses allows a robust way of controlling magnetic Skyrmions in nanodiscs, a path toward building ultralow power memory devices.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We designed a flexible robust sensor with ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanoarrays to detect Pb 2+ ions. This device is powered by electrical energy transferred from the environmental mechanical energy and senses Pb 2+ ions with the cation exchange reaction between ZnS shell and Pb 2+ ions (ZnS (s) + Pb 2+ (aq) ↔ PbS (s) + Zn 2+ (aq)). The high density intrinsic carriers in PbS diffuse into the ZnO core to partly screen the piezopotential, which results in an exponential relationship between the concentrations of Pb 2+ ions and the piezo-voltages. The detected limit is as low as 1 ppm. This sensor also exhibits a very high selectivity towards Pb 2+ ions due to the limitation of energy band and solubility, which has potential applications in environmental protection and pollutant surveillance.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We study a classical Λ-type three-level system based on three high- Q micromechanical beam resonators embedded in a gradient electric field. By modulating the strength of the field at the difference frequency between adjacent beam modes, we realize strong dynamic two-mode coupling, via the dielectric force. Driving adjacent pairs simultaneously, we observe the formation of a purely mechanical “dark” state and an all-phononic analog of coherent population trapping—signatures of strong three-mode coupling. The Λ-type micromechanical system is a natural extension of previously demonstrated “two-level” micromechanical systems and adds to the toolbox for engineering of all-phononic micromechanical circuits and arrays.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The transition metal oxide, NbO 2 , which exhibits an insulator to metal transition (IMT) is regarded as a promising selector device to be integrated with a resistive memory for cross point array application. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the scaling of an NbO 2 selector using a mushroom device structure. A thorough understanding of the scaling behavior of forming voltage (V f ), threshold voltage (V th ), and current (I th ) is essential to evaluate the potential of voltage as well as current scaling and selectivity of NbO 2 selector. Importantly, by analyzing the scaling trend of threshold current, we believed that the IMT behavior is strongly affected by filamentary conducting path formed during the forming process. The findings provide the promise to maximize the selector device performance by minimizing the conducting path inside the NbO 2 layer.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The epitaxial growth of FeSi film on (001) 0.68Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.32PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.32PT) was fabricated by sputtering and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. A fourfold symmetric angular remanent magnetization curve of as-deposited FeSi thin film is well fitted theoretically by considering the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We found that the fourfold anisotropy decreases slightly when an electric field (E) is applied on the Pt/PMN-0.32PT/FeSi/Ta heterostructures with Pt layer as the positive electrode. However, a magnetic anisotropy transition from fourfold anisotropy to twofold anisotropy occurs under negative E. The strain-electric field curve suggests that the observed different variation trend of magnetic anisotropy results from the asymmetric strain response on the polarity of E. Moreover, once the transition happens, it was irreversible unless the heterostructures are heated above the phase transition temperature of PMN-0.32PT.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Weak magnetic nondestructive testing (e.g., metal magnetic memory method) concerns the magnetization variation of ferromagnetic materials due to its applied load and a weak magnetic surrounding them. One key issue on these nondestructive technologies is the magnetomechanical effect for quantitative evaluation of magnetization state from stress–strain condition. A representative phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the magnetomechanical effect by Jiles in 1995. However, the Jiles' model has some deficiencies in quantification, for instance, there is a visible difference between theoretical prediction and experimental measurements on stress–magnetization curve, especially in the compression case. Based on the thermodynamic relations and the approach law of irreversible magnetization, a nonlinear coupled model is proposed to improve the quantitative evaluation of the magnetomechanical effect. Excellent agreement has been achieved between the predictions from the present model and previous experimental results. In comparison with Jiles' model, the prediction accuracy is improved greatly by the present model, particularly for the compression case. A detailed study has also been performed to reveal the effects of initial magnetization status, cyclic loading, and demagnetization factor on the magnetomechanical effect. Our theoretical model reveals that the stable weak magnetic signals of nondestructive testing after multiple cyclic loads are attributed to the first few cycles eliminating most of the irreversible magnetization. Remarkably, the existence of demagnetization field can weaken magnetomechanical effect, therefore, significantly reduces the testing capability. This theoretical model can be adopted to quantitatively analyze magnetic memory signals, and then can be applied in weak magnetic nondestructive testing.
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The size scale effect on the pyroelectric properties is studied for gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) based on molecular dynamics simulations and the theoretical analysis. Due to the significant influence of the surface thermoelasticity and piezoelectricity at the nanoscale, the pyroelectric coefficient of GaN NWs is found to depend on the cross-sectional size. This size-dependent pyroelectric coefficient of GaN NWs together with the size-dependent dielectric constant reported in our previous study is employed to study the pyroelectric potential of GaN NWs subjected to heating. The results show that the size scale effect is significant for thin NWs (cross-sectional size in nanometers) and may raise the pyroelectric potential of GaN NWs by over 10 times. Such a size scale effect on the pyroelectric properties of NWs originates from the influence of thermoelasticity, piezoelectricity, and dielectricity at the nanoscale and decreases with increasing cross-section of GaN NWs. It is expected that the present study may have strong implication in the field of energy harvesting at the nanoscale, as pyroelectricity offers a new avenue to the design of novel nanogenerators.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: In this work, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the band offsets and interface Fermi level at the heterojunction formed by stoichiometric silicon nitride deposited on Al x Ga 1-x N (of varying Al composition “x”) via low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Silicon nitride is found to form a type II staggered band alignment with AlGaN for all Al compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and present an electron barrier into AlGaN even at higher Al compositions, where E g (AlGaN) 〉 E g (Si 3 N 4 ). Further, no band bending is observed in AlGaN for x ≤ 0.6 and a reduced band bending (by ∼1 eV in comparison to that at free surface) is observed for x 〉 0.6. The Fermi level in silicon nitride is found to be at 3 eV with respect to its valence band, which is likely due to silicon (≡Si 0/−1 ) dangling bonds. The presence of band bending for x 〉 0.6 is seen as a likely consequence of Fermi level alignment at Si 3 N 4 /AlGaN hetero-interface and not due to interface states. Photoelectron spectroscopy results are corroborated by current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements. A shift in the interface Fermi level (before band bending at equilibrium) from the conduction band in Si 3 N 4 /n-GaN to the valence band in Si 3 N 4 /p-GaN is observed, which strongly indicates a reduction in mid-gap interface states. Hence, stoichiometric silicon nitride is found to be a feasible passivation and dielectric insulation material for AlGaN at any composition.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Surface Brillouin light scattering measurements are used to determine the elastic constants of nano-porous low- k SiOC:H (165 nm) and high- k HfO 2 (25 nm) as well as BN:H (100 nm) films grown on Si substrates. In addition, the study investigates the mechanical properties of ultra-thin (25 nm) blanket TiN cap layers often used as hard masks for patterning, and their effects on the underlying low- k dielectrics that support a high level of interconnected porosity. Depending on the relative material properties of individual component layers, the acoustic modes manifest as confined, propagating, or damped resonances in the light scattering spectra, thereby enabling the mechanical properties of the ultra-thin films to be determined.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Electronic band structure and structural properties of two representative half-Heusler (HH) compounds with 8 electron valence count (VC), KScC and KScGe, have been studied using first principles methods within density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation. These systems differ from the well studied class of HH compounds like ZrNiSn and ZrCoSb which have VC = 18 because of the absence of d electrons of the transition metal atoms Ni and Co. Electronic transport properties such as Seebeck coefficient ( S ), electrical conductivity (σ), electronic thermal conductivity (κ e ) (the latter two scaled by electronic relaxation time), and the power factor ( S 2 σ) have been calculated using semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory within constant relaxation time approximation. Both the compounds are direct band gap semiconductors with band extrema at the X point. Their electronic structures show a mixture of heavy and light bands near the valance band maximum and highly anisotropic conduction and valence bands near the band extrema, desirable features of good thermoelectric. Optimal p- or n-type doping concentrations have been estimated based on thermopower and maximum power factors. The optimum room temperature values of S are ∼1.5 times larger than that of the best room temperature thermoelectric Bi 2 Te 3 . We also discuss the impact of the band structure on deviations from Weidemann-Franz law as one tunes the chemical potential across the band gap.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The electronic band structure and optical gain of GaN x Bi y As 1− x − y /GaAs pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) are investigated using the 16-band k ⋅ p model with constant strain. The optical gain is calculated taking both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings into consideration. The effective band gap falls as we increase the composition of nitrogen (N) and bismuth (Bi) and with an appropriate choice of composition we can tune the emission wavelength to span within 1.3  μ m–1.55  μ m, for device application in fiber technology. The extent of this red shift is more profound in QDs compared with bulk material due to quantum confinement. Other factors affecting the emission characteristics include virtual crystal, strain profile, band anticrossing (BAC), and valence band anticrossing (VBAC). The strain profile has a profound impact on the electronic structure, specially the valence band of QDs, which can be determined using the composition distribution of wave functions. All these factors eventually affect the optical gain spectrum. With an increase in QD size, we observe a red shift in the emission energy and emergence of secondary peaks owing to transitions or greater energy compared with the fundamental transition.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We describe a tool for studying the two-dimensional spatial variation in electronic properties of organic semiconductors: the scanning time-of-flight microscope (STOFm). The STOFm simultaneously measures the transmittance of polarized light and time-of-flight current transients with a pixel size
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We report for the first time the microwave characterization of 0.92(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 -0.08BaTiO 3 (BNT–BT 0.08 ) ferroelectric thin films fabricated by the sol-gel method and integrated in both planar and out-of-plane tunable capacitors for agile high-frequency applications and particularly on the WiFi frequency band from 2.4 GHz to 2.49 GHz. The permittivity and loss tangent of the realized BNT-BT 0.08 layers have been first measured by a resonant cavity method working at 12.5 GHz. Then, we integrated the ferroelectric material in planar inter-digitated capacitors (IDC) and in out-of-plane metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices and investigated their specific properties (dielectric tunability and losses) on the whole 100 MHz–15 GHz frequency domain. The 3D finite-elements electromagnetic simulations of the IDC capacitances are fitting very well with their measured responses and confirm the dielectric properties determined with the cavity method. While IDCs are not exhibiting an optimal tunability, the MIM capacitor devices with optimized Ir/MgO(100) bottom electrodes demonstrate a high dielectric tunability, of 30% at 2.45 GHz under applied voltages as low as 10 V, and it is reaching 50% under 20 V voltage bias at the same frequency. These high-frequency properties of the MIM devices integrating the BNT-BT 0.08 films, combining a high tunability under low applied voltages indicate a wide integration potential for tunable devices in the microwave domain and particularly at 2.45 GHz, corresponding to the widely used industrial, scientific, and medical frequency band.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) induced nanowire (NW) attraction or bundling is a well known effect, which is mainly ascribed to structural or material dependent properties. However, there have also been recent reports of electron beam induced nanowire bending by SEM imaging, which is not fully explained by the current models, especially when considering the electro-dynamic interaction between NWs. In this article, we contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon, by introducing an electro-dynamic model based on capacitor and Lorentz force interaction, where the active NW bending is stimulated by an electromagnetic force between individual wires. The model includes geometrical, electrical, and mechanical NW parameters, as well as the influence of the electron beam source parameters and is validated using in-situ observations of electron beam induced GaAs nanowire (NW) bending by SEM imaging.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We investigated magneto-transport properties of a compressively strained spatially confined La 0.3 Pr 0.4 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 (LPCMO) thin film micro-bridge deposited on LaAlO 3 . Angular dependence of the magneto-resistance R ( θ ) of this bridge, where θ is the angle between the magnetic field and the current directions in the film plane, exhibits sharp positive and negative percolation jumps near T MIT . The sign and the magnitude of these jumps can be tuned using the magnetic field. Such behavior has not been observed in LPCMO micro-bridges subjected to tensile strain, indicating a correlation between the type of the lattice strain, the distribution of electronic domains, and the anisotropic magneto-resistance in spatially confined manganite systems.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We introduce a new simple design of hollow-core microstructured fiber targeted to guide mid-infrared light at a wavelength of 2.94  μ m. The fiber has a triangular-core supported via silica-glass webs enclosed by a large hollow capillary tube. The fiber specific dimensions are determined by the anti-resonant guiding mechanism. For a triangular-core with side length 100  μ m, the fiber has a minimum transmission loss 0.08 ± 0.005 dB/m and dispersion 2.3 ps/km/nm at the operational wavelength of 2.94  μ m.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The effects of graphene on the optical properties of active system, e.g., the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, are thoroughly investigated and clarified. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms accounting for the photoluminescence reduction for the graphene covered GaN/InGaN multiple quantum wells hybrid structure. Compared to the bare multiple quantum wells, the photoluminescence intensity of graphene covered multiple quantum wells showed a 39% decrease after excluding the graphene absorption losses. The responsible mechanisms have been identified with the following factors: (1) the graphene two dimensional hole gas intensifies the polarization field in multiple quantum wells, thus steepening the quantum well band profile and causing hole-electron pairs to further separate; (2) a lower affinity of graphene compared to air leading to a weaker capability to confine the excited hot electrons in multiple quantum wells; and (3) exciton transfer through non-radiative energy transfer process. These factors are theoretically analysed based on advanced physical models of semiconductor devices calculations and experimentally verified by varying structural parameters, such as the indium fraction in multiple quantum wells and the thickness of the last GaN quantum barrier spacer layer.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the geometric structure, binding energy, and magnetic behavior of monolayer germanane substitutional doped with transition metals. Our work demonstrates that germanane with single vacancy forms strong bonds with all studied impurity atoms. Magnetism is observed for Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni doping. Doping of Ti and Mn atoms results in half-metallic properties, while doping of Cr results in dilute magnetic semiconducting state. We estimate a Curie temperature of about 735 K for Mn-substituted system in the mean-field approximation at impurity concentration 5.56%. Furthermore, when increasing the impurity concentration to 12.5%, Curie temperatures of Ti and Mn-substituted systems are 290 and 1120 K, respectively. Our studies demonstrate the potential of Ti and Mn-substituted germanane for room temperature spintronic devices.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum in neutron-irradiated ZnO crystals is assigned to the zinc-oxygen divacancy. These divacancies are observed in the bulk of both hydrothermally grown and seeded-chemical-vapor-transport-grown crystals after irradiations with fast neutrons. Neutral nonparamagnetic complexes consisting of adjacent zinc and oxygen vacancies are formed during the irradiation. Subsequent illumination below ∼150 K with 442 nm laser light converts these ( V Z n 2 −  −  V O 2 + ) 0 defects to their EPR-active state ( V Z n −  −  V O 2 + ) + as electrons are transferred to donors. The resulting photoinduced S = 1/2 spectrum of the divacancy is holelike and has a well-resolved angular dependence from which a complete g matrix is obtained. Principal values of the g matrix are 2.00796, 2.00480, and 2.00244. The unpaired spin resides primarily on one of the three remaining oxygen ions immediately adjacent to the zinc vacancy, thus making the electronic structure of the ( V Z n −  −  V O 2 + ) + ground state similar to the isolated singly ionized axial zinc vacancy. The neutral ( V Z n 2 −  −  V O 2 + ) 0 divacancies dissociate when the ZnO crystals are heated above 250 °C. After heating above this temperature, the divacancy EPR signal cannot be regenerated at low temperature with light.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Dipolar interactions on magnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated by various techniques. One of the most powerful techniques is the ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, because the resonance field depends directly on the anisotropy field strength and its frequency dependence. In order to evaluate the influence of magnetostatic dipolar interactions among ferromagnetic nanowire arrays, several densely packed hexagonal arrays of NiFe nanowires have been prepared by electrochemical deposition filling self-ordered nanopores of alumina membranes with different pore sizes but keeping the same interpore distance. Nanowires’ diameter was changed from 90 to 160 nm, while the lattice parameter was fixed to 300 nm, which was achieved by carefully reducing the pore diameter by means of Atomic Layer Deposition of conformal Al 2 O 3 layers on the nanoporous alumina templates. Field and frequency dependence of ferromagnetic resonance have been studied in order to obtain the dispersion diagram which gives information about anisotropy, damping factor, and gyromagnetic ratio. The relationship between resonance frequency and magnetic field can be explained by the roles played by the shape anisotropy and dipolar interactions among the ferromagnetic nanowires.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The vibrational spectra of group 12 difluorides, MF 2 (M = Zn, Cd, Hg), were investigated via coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples, CCSD(T), including core correlation, with a series of correlation consistent basis sets ranging in size from triple-zeta through quintuple-zeta quality, which were then extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit using a variety of extrapolation procedures. The explicitly correlated coupled cluster method, CCSD(T)-F12b, was employed as well. Although exhibiting quite different convergence behavior, the F12b method yielded the CBS limit estimates closely matching more computationally expensive conventional CBS extrapolations. The convergence with respect to basis set size was examined for the contributions entering into composite vibrational spectroscopy, including those from higher-order correlation accounted for through the CCSDT(Q) level of theory, second-order spin-orbit coupling effects assessed within four-component and two-component relativistic formalisms, and vibrational anharmonicity evaluated via a perturbative treatment. Overall, the composite results are in excellent agreement with available experimental values, except for the CdF 2 bond-stretching frequencies compared to spectral assignments proposed in a matrix isolation infrared and Raman study of cadmium difluoride vapor species [Loewenschuss et al. , J. Chem. Phys. 50 , 2502 (1969); Givan and Loewenschuss, J. Chem. Phys. 72 , 3809 (1980)]. These assignments are called into question in the light of the composite results.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures – while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute’s response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N , N , N -trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20–250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al . [Phys. Rev. A 85 , 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91 , 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron–furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: In this study, we investigated plasma initiation delay times for argon volume breakdown at the W-band frequency regime. The threshold electric field is defined as the minimum electric field amplitude needed for plasma breakdown at various pressures. The measured statistical delay time showed an excellent agreement with the theoretical Gaussian distribution and the theoretically estimated formative delay time. Also, we demonstrated that the normalized effective electric field as a function of the product of pressure and formative time shows an outstanding agreement to that of 1D particle-in-cell simulation coupled with a Monte Carlo collision model [H. C. Kim and J. P. Verboncoeur, Phys. Plasmas 13 , 123506 (2006)].
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  • 61
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Complexities of flow patterns in the azimuthal cross-section of a cylindrical magnetized helicon plasma and the corresponding plasma dynamics are investigated by means of a novel scheme for time delay estimation velocimetry. The advantage of this introduced method is the capability of calculating the time-averaged 2D velocity fields of propagating wave-like structures and patterns in complex spatiotemporal data. It is able to distinguish and visualize the details of simultaneously present superimposed entangled dynamics and it can be applied to fluid-like systems exhibiting frequently repeating patterns (e.g., waves in plasmas, waves in fluids, dynamics in planetary atmospheres, etc.). The velocity calculations are based on time delay estimation obtained from cross-phase analysis of time series. Each velocity vector is unambiguously calculated from three time series measured at three different non-collinear spatial points. This method, when applied to fast imaging, has been crucial to understand the rich plasma dynamics in the azimuthal cross-section of a cylindrical linear magnetized helicon plasma. The capabilities and the limitations of this velocimetry method are discussed and demonstrated for two completely different plasma regimes, i.e., for quasi-coherent wave dynamics and for complex broadband wave dynamics involving simultaneously present multiple instabilities.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19 , 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al. 's linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al. 's result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al. , Phys. Plasmas 6 , 2834 (1999) and Belli et al. , Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50 , 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. A new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker (air DCCB). Using magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) theory, 3D laminar model and turbulence model are constructed and calculated. The standard k-epsilon model is utilized to consider the turbulence effect in the arc chamber of the DCCB. Several important phenomena are found: the arc column in the turbulence-model case is more extensive, moves much more slowly than the counterpart in the laminar-model case, and shows stagnation at the entrance of the chamber, unlike in the laminar-model case. Moreover, the arc voltage in the turbulence-model case is much lower than in the laminar-model case. However, the results in the turbulence-model case show a much better agreement with the results of the breaking experiments under DC condition than in the laminar-model case, which is contradictory to the previous conclusions from the arc researches of both the low-voltage circuit breaker and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) nozzle. First, in the previous air-arc research of the low-voltage circuit breaker, it is assumed that the air plasma inside the chamber is in the state of laminar, and the laminar-model application gives quite satisfactory results compared with the experiments, while in this paper, the laminar-model application works badly. Second, the turbulence-model application in the arc research of the SF6-nozzle performs much better and gives higher arc voltage than the laminar-model application does, whereas in this paper, the turbulence-model application predicts lower arc voltage than the laminar-model application does. Based on the analysis of simulation results in detail, the mechanism of the above phenomena is revealed. The transport coefficients are strongly changed by turbulence, which will enhance the arc diffusion and make the arc volume much larger. Consequently, the arc appearance and the distribution of Lorentz force in the turbulence-model case substantially differ from the arc appearance and the distribution of Lorentz force in the laminar-model case. Thus, the moving process of the arc in the turbulence-model case is slowed down and slower than in the laminar-model case. Moreover, the more extensive arc column in the turbulence-model case reduces the total arc resistance, which results in a lower arc voltage, more consistent with the experimental results than the arc voltage in the laminar-model case. Therefore, the air plasma inside this air DCCB is believed to be in the turbulence state, and the turbulence model is more suitable than the laminar model for the arc simulation of this kind of air DCCB.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We report on the possibility of the beam-plasma instability development in the system with electron beam interacting with the single-component hot electron plasma without ions. As considered system, we analyse the interaction of the low-current relativistic electron beam (REB) with squeezed state in the high-current REB formed in the relativistic magnetically insulated two-section vircator drift space. The numerical analysis is provided by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation in CST Particle Studio. We have conducted an extensive study of characteristic regimes of REB dynamics determined by the beam-plasma instability development in the absence of ions. As a result, the dependencies of instability increment and wavelength on the REB current value have been obtained. The considered process brings the new mechanism of controlled microwave amplification and generation to the device with a virtual cathode. This mechanism is similar to the action of the beam-plasma amplifiers and oscillators.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: We study stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in shock ignition by comparing fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Under typical parameters for the OMEGA experiments [Theobald et al ., Phys. Plasmas 19 , 102706 (2012)], a series of 1D fluid simulations with laser intensities ranging between 2 × 10 15 and 2 × 10 16  W/cm 2 finds that SBS is the dominant instability, which increases significantly with the incident intensity. Strong pump depletion caused by SBS and SRS limits the transmitted intensity at the 0.17 n c to be less than 3.5 × 10 15  W/cm 2 . The PIC simulations show similar physics but with higher saturation levels for SBS and SRS convective modes and stronger pump depletion due to higher seed levels for the electromagnetic fields in PIC codes. Plasma flow profiles are found to be important in proper modeling of SBS and limiting its reflectivity in both the fluid and PIC simulations.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: The effect of ambient pressure on Stark broadening of emission lines from neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser (100 fs, 800 nm) produced zinc plasma is investigated. Measured spectra reveal that the full width at half maximum (δλ) of neutral lines remains unchanged in the pressure range of 10 −6 to 10 −1  Torr, shows an even fluctuation in the pressure range of 0.1 to 100 Torr, and then increases with pressure. On the other hand, δλ of ion lines is nearly a constant from 10 −6 to 10 −3  Torr, and then increases consistently with ambient pressure. A line narrowing of neutral emissions observed in the region of 1 to 100 Torr can be attributed to larger plasma temperatures, whereas the consistent increase in δλ with pressure seen for ion emission results from the prevalence of additional broadening mechanisms related to Coulomb interactions, ion-ion interaction, and Debye shielding. An accurate knowledge of emission line width is crucial for unambiguously calculating number density values for any given ambient pressure. Moreover, it can be relevant for the design of narrow line width, bright plasma sources for various applications.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: In restructured electric power systems under electricity market regulations, Distribution Companies (DISCOs) mainly aim at maximizing their profit subject to safe operation of the network. In this regard, optimal planning of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) can be a very effective method to maximize DISCOs profit. This paper addresses an optimal methodology to signify the location and capacity of ESSs in distribution network under electricity market environment. The proposed optimal ESSs planning aims at maximizing DISCO profit subject to safe and secure operation constraints (e.g., voltage and flow limits). The maximization problem is mathematically expressed as a mixed integer non-linear programming and solved using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulations are carried out on a typical distribution network. Simulation results demonstrate significant impact of ESSs on the network operation, security constraint, and costs. The proposed planning not only increases the DISCO profit but also guarantees the safe operation of the network. As well, several stativity analyses are carried out to indicate the impact of parameters on the planning.
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: This work uses an information-based methodology to infer the connectivity of complex systems from observed time-series data. We first derive analytically an expression for the Mutual Information Rate (MIR), namely, the amount of information exchanged per unit of time, that can be used to estimate the MIR between two finite-length low-resolution noisy time-series, and then apply it after a proper normalization for the identification of the connectivity structure of small networks of interacting dynamical systems. In particular, we show that our methodology successfully infers the connectivity for heterogeneous networks, different time-series lengths or coupling strengths, and even in the presence of additive noise. Finally, we show that our methodology based on MIR successfully infers the connectivity of networks composed of nodes with different time-scale dynamics, where inference based on Mutual Information fails.
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  • 70
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drop impact on a thin fiber. Using high-speed videography, we analyze the dynamics of droplet collision with a fiber. Based on the systematic experiments, we identify three outcomes of collision: capturing, single drop falling, and splitting. The outcomes are presented in a regime map, where the regime boundaries are explained through a scale analysis of forces. We also measure the liquid retention on the fiber after the droplet impact. By considering a liquid film on the fiber, we develop a mechanical model that predicts the residual water mass. Our model reveals that the residual mass depends critically on the fiber thickness and less on the impact speed. Our study can be extended to predicting the remaining droplet, critical problems in air filtration, water collection, and fiber coating.
    Print ISSN: 1070-6631
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: An analytic solution describing an ion-acoustic collisionless shock, self-consistently with the evolution of shock-reflected ions, is obtained. The solution extends the classic soliton solution beyond a critical Mach number, where the soliton ceases to exist because of the upstream ion reflection. The reflection transforms the soliton into a shock with a trailing wave and a foot populated by the reflected ions. The solution relates parameters of the entire shock structure, such as the maximum and minimum of the potential in the trailing wave, the height of the foot, as well as the shock Mach number, to the number of reflected ions. This relation is resolvable for any given distribution of the upstream ions. In this paper, we have resolved it for a simple “box” distribution. Two separate models of electron interaction with the shock are considered. The first model corresponds to the standard Boltzmannian electron distribution in which case the critical shock Mach number only insignificantly increases from M ≈ 1.6 (no ion reflection) to M ≈ 1.8 (substantial reflection). The second model corresponds to adiabatically trapped electrons. They produce a stronger increase, from M ≈ 3.1 to M ≈ 4.5 . The shock foot that is supported by the reflected ions also accelerates them somewhat further. A self-similar foot expansion into the upstream medium is described analytically.
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  • 72
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: An exact solution for the steady state Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates is presented in this work. It serves to investigate the fluid flow and heat transfer occurring between two stretchable disks rotating co-axially at constant distance apart. The governing equations of motion and energy are first transformed into a set of nonlinear differential equation system by the use of von Karman similarity transformations, which are later solved numerically. The small Reynolds number case allows us to extract closed-form solutions for the physical phenomenon. The effects of the same or opposite direction rotation, as well as the stretching parameter and the Reynolds number, are discussed on the flow and heat characteristics. The main physical implication of the results is that stretching action of a disk surface alters considerably the classical flow behavior occurring between two disks and the physically interesting quantities like the torque and heat transfer are elucidated in the presence of a new physical mechanism; that is the surface stretching in the current research.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: Transport of intense proton beams in solid-density matter is numerically investigated using an implicit hybrid particle-in-cell code. Both collective effects and stopping for individual beam particles are included through the electromagnetic fields solver and stopping power calculations utilizing the varying local target conditions, allowing self-consistent transport studies. Two target heating mechanisms, the beam energy deposition and Ohmic heating driven by the return current, are compared. The dependences of proton beam transport in solid targets on the beam parameters are systematically analyzed, i.e., simulations with various beam intensities, pulse durations, kinetic energies, and energy distributions are compared. The proton beam deposition profile and ultimate target temperature show strong dependence on intensity and pulse duration. A strong magnetic field is generated from a proton beam with high density and tight beam radius, resulting in focusing of the beam and localized heating of the target up to hundreds of eV.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: In this study, a fluid model has been used to study the effect of gas mixing ratio and pressure on the density distribution of important etchant species, i.e., hydrogen (H), bromine (Br), Br + , and HBr + in HBr/He plasma. Our simulation results show that the densities of active etchant species H, Br, and HBr + increase with the increase in pressure as well as the HBr fraction in HBr/He mixture. On the contrary, the density of Br + decreases with the increase in He percentage in HBr/He mixture and with the increase in the pressure. Time averaged reaction rates (of the reactions involved in the production and consumption of these species) have been calculated to study the effect of these reactions on the density distribution of these species. The spatial distribution of these species is explained with the help of the time averaged reaction rates. Important reactions have been identified that contribute considerably to the production and consumption of these active species. The code has been optimized by identifying 26 reactions (out of 40 reactions which contribute in the production and consumption of these species) that have insignificant effect on the densities of H, Br, Br + , and HBr + . This shows that out of 40 reactions, only 14 reactions can be used to calculate the density and distribution of the important species in HBr/He plasma discharge.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-04-13
    Description: Collisionless dissipation in turbulent plasmas such as the solar wind and the solar corona has been an intensively studied subject recently, with new insights often emerging from numerical simulation. Here we report results from high resolution, fully kinetic simulations of plasma turbulence in both two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions, studying the relationship between intermittency and dissipation. The simulations show development of turbulent coherent structures, characterized by sheet-like current density structures spanning a range of scales. An approximate dissipation measure is employed, based on work done by the electromagnetic field in the local electron fluid frame. This surrogate dissipation measure is highly concentrated in small subvolumes in both 2D and 3D simulations. Fully kinetic simulations are also compared with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations in terms of coherent structures and dissipation. The interesting result emerges that the conditional averages of dissipation measure scale very similarly with normalized current density J in 2D and 3D particle-in-cell and in MHD. To the extent that the surrogate dissipation measure is accurate, this result implies that on average dissipation scales as ∼ J 2 in turbulent kinetic plasma. Multifractal intermittency is seen in the inertial range in both 2D and 3D, but at scales ∼ion inertial length, the scaling is closer to monofractal.
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  • 76
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    In: Chaos
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: The effect of stochastic perturbations on nearly homoclinic pulse trains is considered for three model systems: a Duffing oscillator, the Lorenz-like Shimizu–Morioka model, and a co-dimension-three normal form. Using the Duffing model as an example, it is demonstrated that the main effect of noise does not originate from the neighbourhood of the fixed point, as is commonly assumed, but due to the perturbation of the trajectory outside that region. Singular perturbation theory is used to quantify this noise effect and is applied to construct maps of pulse spacing for the Shimizu–Morioka and normal form models. The dynamics of these stochastic maps is then explored to examine how noise influences the sequence of bifurcations that take place adjacent to homoclinic connections in Lorenz-like and Shilnikov-type flows.
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  • 77
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    In: Chaos
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Network-scale effect on synchronizability of fully coupled network with connection delay is investigated in this paper. The master stability function, which governs the stability of synchronization manifold, is first obtained by separating the synchronization manifold direction from other transverse directions. Then, by introducing a new time variable in the master stability function, it is shown the effect of connection delay can be weakened with the increase of network scale, and thus, in contrast to the situation without connection delay, large network scale is more positive to the synchronizability of fully coupled network with connection delay. Those findings are confirmed by the studies on two specific networks with nodes of typical nonlinear dynamical systems.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Like-charges repel, and opposite charges attract. This fundamental tenet is a result of Coulomb's law. However, the electrostatic interactions between dielectric particles remain topical due to observations of like-charged particle attraction and the self-assembly of colloidal systems. Here, we show, using both an approximate description and an exact solution of Maxwell's equations, that nonlinear charged particle forces result even for linear material systems and can be responsible for anomalous electrostatic interactions such as like-charged particle attraction and oppositely charged particle repulsion. Furthermore, these electrostatic interactions and the deformation of such particles have fundamental implications for our understanding of macroscopic electrodynamics.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: We investigate the structure and ferroelectric behavior of a lanthanide based metal-organic framework (MOF), [Nd(C 4 H 5 O 6 )(C 4 H 4 O 6 )][3H 2 O]. X-ray crystal structure analyses reveal that it crystallizes in the P4 1 2 1 2 space group with Nd centres, coordinated by nine oxygen atoms, forming a distorted capped square antiprismatic geometry. The molecules, bridged by tartrate ligands, form a 2D chiral structure. The 2D sheets are further linked into a 3D porous framework via strong hydrogen-bonding scheme (O-H…O ≈ 2.113 Å). Dielectric studies reveal two anomalies at 295 K and 185 K. The former is a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition, and the later is attributed to the freezing down of the motion of the hydroxyl groups. The phase transition is of second order, and the spontaneous polarization in low temperature phase is attributed to the ordering of protons of hydroxyl groups. The dielectric nonlinearity parameters have been calculated using Landau– Devonshire phenomenological theory. In addition, the most recent semiempirical models, Sparkle/PM7, Sparkle/RM1, and Sparkle/AM1, are tested on the present system to assay the accuracy of semiempirical quantum approaches to predict the geometries of solid MOFs. Our results show that Sparkle/PM7 model is the most accurate to predict the unit cell structure and coordination polyhedron geometry. The semiempirical methods are also used to calculate different ground state molecular properties.
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  • 80
    facet.materialart.
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: We investigate the direct-current response of crystalline organic semiconductors in the presence of finite external electric fields by the quantum-classical Ehrenfest dynamics complemented with instantaneous decoherence corrections (IDC). The IDC is carried out in the real-space representation with the energy-dependent reweighing factors to account for both intermolecular decoherence and energy relaxation by which conduction occurs. In this way, both the diffusion and drift motion of charge carriers are described in a unified framework. Based on an off-diagonal electron-phonon coupling model for pentacene, we find that the drift velocity initially increases with the electric field and then decreases at higher fields due to the Wannier-Stark localization, and a negative electric-field dependence of mobility is observed. The Einstein relation, which is a manifestation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, is found to be restored in electric fields up to ∼10 5 V/cm for a wide temperature region studied. Furthermore, we show that the incorporated decoherence and energy relaxation could explain the large discrepancy between the mobilities calculated by the Ehrenfest dynamics and the full quantum methods, which proves the effectiveness of our approach to take back these missing processes.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: For binary fluid mixtures of spherical particles in which the two species are sufficiently different in size, the dominant wavelength of oscillations of the pair correlation functions is predicted to change from roughly the diameter of the large species to that of the small species along a sharp crossover line in the phase diagram [C. Grodon et al. , J. Chem. Phys. 121 , 7869 (2004)]. Using particle-resolved colloid experiments in 3d we demonstrate that crossover exists and that its location in the phase diagram is in quantitative agreement with the results of both theory and our Monte-Carlo simulations. In contrast with previous work [J. Baumgartl et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 , 198303 (2007)], where a correspondence was drawn between crossover and percolation of both species, in our 3d study we find that structural crossover is unrelated to percolation.
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 10 8 –10 9 V m −1 , which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ∼1 V (∼2 ⋅ 10 8 V m −1 ) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ∼1.4 V (∼2.8 ⋅ 10 8 V m −1 ) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DMPC) membranes but comparable to the number inferred for 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPE) membranes. Some of the properties of the DMPG membrane are compared with those of the neutral zwitterionic DMPC bilayer membrane at 303 K and 1 atm, which is the same reduced temperature with respect to the gel-to-fluid transition temperature as 310 K is for the DMPG bilayer membrane.
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Both local geometry and collective extended excitations drive the moves of a particle in the cage of its neighbours in dense liquids. The strength of their influence is investigated by the molecular dynamics simulations of a supercooled liquid of fully flexible trimers with semirigid or rigid bonds. The rattling in the cage is investigated on different length scales. First, the rattling anisotropy due to local order is characterized by two order parameters sensing the monomers succeeding or failing to escape from the cage. Then the collective response of the surroundings excited by the monomer-monomer collisions is considered. The collective response is initially restricted to the nearest neighbours of the colliding particle by a Voronoi analysis revealing elastic contributions. Then the long-range excitation of the farthest neighbours is scrutinised by searching spatially extended correlations between the simultaneously fast displacements of the caged particle and the surroundings. It is found that the longitudinal component has stronger spatial modulation than the transverse one with a wavelength of about one particle diameter, in close resemblance with experimental findings on colloids. It is concluded that the cage rattling is largely affected by solid-like extended modes.
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