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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (241,953)
  • 1
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1975 – 29.2003
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0360-0327
    Electronic ISSN: 1063-7737
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 36.2004 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0148-5857
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1991 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 1054-1500
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7682
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
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    Wiley | American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 24.1997 –
    Publisher: Wiley , American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0094-2405
    Electronic ISSN: 1522-8541 , 2473-4209
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1(1).1989 – 5(12).1993
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0899-8213
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1930 –
    Print: 28.1957 – 41.1970 (Location: A18, ---)
    Formerly as: Review of Scientific Instruments with Physics News and Views  (1933–1938)
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP) | American Crystallographic Association (ACA)
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP) , American Crystallographic Association (ACA)
    Electronic ISSN: 2158-3226
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1(1).2016 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Electronic ISSN: 2378-0967
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.2013 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Keywords: Werkstoffkunde
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  • 10
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1960 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0022-2488
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7658
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 11
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 12
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 23.1997 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 1063-777X
    Electronic ISSN: 1090-6517
    Topics: Physics
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  • 13
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1962 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 14
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1969 – 34.2002
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0002-7537
    Topics: Physics
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  • 15
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1931 –
    Formerly as: Physics  (1931–1936)
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
    Acronym: JAP
    Abbreviation: J Appl Phys
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  • 16
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1(1).1989 – 5(12).1993
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0899-8221
    Topics: Physics
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  • 17
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1(1).2014 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Electronic ISSN: 1931-9401
    Topics: Physics
    Keywords: Allgemeine Physik
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  • 18
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP) | IEEE Computer Society | Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Online: 1.1999 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP) , IEEE Computer Society , Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Print ISSN: 1521-9615
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-366X
    Topics: Computer Science , Natural Sciences in General , Technology
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  • 19
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1933 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 20
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP) | früher: Elsevier
    Online: 1(1).2016 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP) , früher: Elsevier
    Print ISSN: 2468-2047
    Electronic ISSN: 2468-080X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 21
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1994 –
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 22
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1.1958 –
    Formerly as: Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics ; Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics  (1989–1993)
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0031-9171 , 1070-6631
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7666
    Topics: Physics
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  • 23
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 52.1999 –
    Print: 39(7).1986 – 45.1992 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 58/6-7)
    Print: 44.1991 – 63.2010 (Location: A43, Archiv)
    Print: 46.1993 – 71.2018 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 58/6-7)
    Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Print ISSN: 0031-9228
    Topics: Physics
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  • 24
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    American Crystallographic Association (ACA) | American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Online: 1(1).2014 –
    Publisher: American Crystallographic Association (ACA) , American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Electronic ISSN: 2329-7778
    Topics: Physics
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  • 25
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1690-1692 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Crystals of different barium ferrite phases (M, K, and R phases) were grown by slow cooling and the top seeded solution growth technique, using the (0.4Na2O–0.6B2O3)–BaO–(4.5Fe2O3+1.5CoSnO3) system. It has been demonstrated that different ferrite phases, e.g., the K and R phases, may coexist in the same crystal with an interface that is free from observable misfit dislocations and amorphous zones. The magnetization of these two phases, measured with an applied magnetic field parallel to the crystallographic c axis, had a paramagnetic behavior. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 26
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1693-1700 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Under plane shock wave compression, a glass may undergo elastic deformation at the shock wave front, and fail catastrophically at a later time. Since this time delay increases with the distance into the material, the phenomenon has been interpreted as a failure wave. In this article, a new theory of failure formation and propagation in shocked glasses is presented. Stress concentration due to the defects and transient loading conditions on the impact surface is assumed as the origin for initiating heterogeneous microdamage. The progressive percolation of microfissures into the material bulk gives rise to the failure wave phenomenon. Through the failure process, the deviatoric strain energy in the intact material is converted to the volumetric potential energy in the comminuted and dilated material. The state of material damage is measured in terms of the dilated volume of comminuted material at full release. The failure propagation is governed by coupled nonlinear diffusion and time-dependent evolution of the dilated volume. Numerical results are presented and compared to the lateral stress gauge measurements in two shocked glasses. It is shown that the proposed theory and simple modeling can capture the essence of the failure wave phenomenon. The theory also eliminates the ambiguity in the previous modeling work on the failure wave phenomenon in shocked glasses. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 27
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1704-1711 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The diffusion of fluid through a porous medium was modeled for a periodic array. The time dependent bulk effective diffusion coefficient D(t) was calculated using Bloch type eigenfunctions. The calculations were made for periodic media composed of octahedron-like obstacles which ranged from completely separated to highly overlapping obstacles (porosity of 3%). The calculation of D(t) involves evaluation of the nuclear magnetic resonance pulsed field gradient spin echo amplitude M(k,t), which is a measurable quantity. The method, which is most effective for long times, produces results which also agree with short time asymptotics. This method is applicable for any periodic microgeometry and virtually any porosity. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 28
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1701-1703 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this article we report on the temperature dependencies of the longitudinal and shear sound velocities in Ti4AlN3, Ti3Al1.1C1.8, and Ti3SiC2. The velocities are measured using a phase sensitive pulse-echo ultrasonic technique in the 90–300 K temperature range. At room temperature, Young's, ERT, and shear, μRT, moduli and Poisson's ratio of Ti4AlN3 are 310±2, 127±2 GPa, and 0.22, respectively. The corresponding values for Ti3AlC2 are 297.5±2, 124±2 GPa, and 0.2. Both moduli increase slowly with decreasing temperature and plateau out at temperatures below (approximate)125 K. A least squares fit of the temperature dependencies of the shear and Young's moduli of Ti4AlN3 yield: μ/μRT=1−1.5×10−4(T−298), and E/ERT=1−0.74×10−4(T−298), for T〉125 K. The corresponding relationships for Ti3Al1.1C1.8 are: μ/μRT=1−1.2×10−4(T−298), and E/ERT=1−0.84×10−4(T−298) for T〉125 K. The acoustic Debye temperatures calculated for Ti4AlN3 and Ti3AlC2, as well as Ti3SiC2, are all above 700 K, in agreement with values calculated from low temperature heat capacity measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 29
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1712-1721 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report a diffuse interface or phase field model for simulating electromigration and stress-induced void evolution in interconnect lines. Our approach is based on the introduction of an order parameter field to characterize the damaged state of the interconnect. The order parameter takes on distinct uniform values within the material and the void, varying rapidly from one to the other over narrow interfacial layers associated with the void surface. The evolution of this order parameter is shown to be governed by a form of the Cahn–Hilliard equation. An asymptotic analysis of the equation demonstrates, as intended, that the zero contour of the order parameter tracks the motion of a void evolving by diffusion under the coupled effects of stresses and the "electron wind" force. An implicit finite element scheme is used to solve the modified Cahn–Hilliard equation, together with equations associated with the accompanying mechanical and electrical problems. The diffuse interface model is applied to simulate a range of problems involving void evolution in interconnect lines. Results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with those computed previously using equivalent sharp interface models. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 30
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1722-1726 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate interdiffusion and surface properties of CdS/CdTe bilayers. The films were grown by radio-frequency sputtering and received postdeposition heat treatments similar to the ones employed in CdTe solar cell fabrication. It is found that a CdCl2 anneal strongly enhances both the diffusion of S into the CdTe layer and the surface oxidation. The diffusion of S in CdTe in this process can be described by a constant surface source model with the diffusivity given by D=3.2×10−5 exp(−1.2 eV/kT) cm2 s−1 in the temperature range studied. The change in the chemical composition of the surface following the CdCl2 anneal was analyzed by XPS showing that Te oxides and residual compounds containing Cl were present which could account for the straggling in the RBS spectrum. An HCl etch completely removes oxides and residues leaving a smooth surface. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 31
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1727-1733 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetite (Fe3O4) films and multilayers were grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and result in single-phase films grown in registry with a MgO substrate. No evidence of interdiffusion is detected on as-grown films. Both structural and magnetic probes indicate behaviors expected for a magnetite thin film. A thermal stability study of these films was performed by annealing these films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at temperatures below 900 K. Bulk techniques such as x-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirm that the magnesium interdiffuses throughout the entire film, and surface techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/ion scattering spectroscopy show changes in the surface structure and stoichiometry of the film caused by the magnesium intermixing. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polysilicon layers with thicknesses between 8 and 600 nm deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition at temperatures ranging from 560 to 640 °C were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) to determine the layer thicknesses and compositions using multilayer optical models and the Bruggeman effective-medium approximation. The dependence of the structural parameters on the layer thickness and deposition temperature have been investigated. A better characterization of the polysilicon layer is achieved by using the reference data of fine-grained polysilicon in the optical model. The amount of voids in the polysilicon layer was independently measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The SE and RBS results show a good correlation. The comparison of the surface roughness measured by SE and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that independently of the AFM window sizes, a good correlation of the roughness determined by SE and AFM was obtained. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 33
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1743-1747 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Epitaxial CoSi2 (001) layers, deposited on Si(001) substrates by molecular beam allotaxy, were used as substrates for diamond deposition in order to realize applications. The nucleation and textured growth of diamond films were compared with those on the Si(001) substrates. The results indicate that in a microwave-plasma chamber diamond can be nucleated with a higher density on CoSi2 at lower temperatures using a bias-enhanced method. High-quality [001]-textured diamond films can be synthesized on CoSi2 (001) using the [001]-textured growth conditions. So far, epitaxial growth of diamond on CoSi2 cannot be observed. Statistically, a rotating angle distribution of diamond grains around the [001] axis in a [001]-textured film shows, however, preferred in-plane orientations of 13°, 22°, 45°, and 77° relative to the CoSi2 [011] axis. The structural and chemical analyses show that no Co and Si element diffusion from the CoSi2 substrate into the diamond film can be detected. The films grown on CoSi2 have similar crystal quality to that of epitaxial films deposited directly on Si. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 34
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1759-1761 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The two-photon absorption coefficient β and the bound electronic nonlinear index γ of CdTe microcrystals doped in glass were measured by the Z-scan technique. It was found that the figure of merit γ/β of the CdTe microcrystals with nanometer size is enhanced compared to that of bulk CdTe. The optical Stark effect in the nanometer-sized CdTe is the possible origin of the enhanced nonlinearity. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 35
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1748-1758 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present a study of the stress state of polycrystalline 3C–SiC thin films grown on a-SiO2/Si(100) substrates by low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition using an organometallic precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS), that contains both Si and C atoms. Substrate curvature and x-ray stress measurements indicate a change from compressive to tensile stress with increasing deposition temperature. Film thickness and TMS flow also influence the total stress of the films. The different microstructure of the films with growth temperature and the presence of impurities are at the origin of the observed differences in the stress. While samples grown below 1100 °C have a columnar structure, are highly oriented along [111], and show compressive stress, those grown at 1130 °C are randomly oriented, with an equiaxial grain shape, and are tensile stressed. The thermal stress is tensile and relatively constant over the temperature range investigated. We speculate the observed intrinsic stress is composed of a tensile and a compressive component. Within the grain-boundary relaxation model we calculate the intrinsic stress variations with temperature due to differences in grain size and density of grain boundaries. The compressive component originates from the presence of oxygen impurities within the film. Peak broadening analysis of the x-ray signal reveals the existence of important microstresses due to low adatom mobility during the deposition process. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1762-1768 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Granular films of composition (CoFe)x(HfO2)1−x with continuous variation of the Co0.5Fe0.5 volume fraction in the range 0.1〈x〈1 have been prepared by e-beam co-evaporation. The optical properties of the granular films have been determined from transmission and reflection spectra in the 300–1100 nm region. The optical characteristics of the films as a function of x were also determined by the ellipsometrical method at λ=632.8 and 830 nm. The Faraday rotation in the films was determined at λ=632.8 nm. We find that the transmission and reflection spectra and the dielectric function have anomalies near the percolation threshold at x(approximate)0.45. The spectral dispersion of Faraday effects has a peak in the region of the plasma frequency. The Faraday effect is greatly enhanced near xp. We also find that the extraordinary Hall resistivity, measured at room temperature and at 8 kOe of applied field, increases dramatically from 0.2 to about 600 μΩ cm near the percolation threshold. These films also possess large magnetoresistance, whose values are about 4% in maximum for x=0.35–0.45. The calculated optical and magneto-optical parameters and the extraordinary Hall resistivity, described in the framework of the effective medium approximation, are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1769-1774 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) has been investigated by Brillouin scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in wide temperature (77–500 K) and erbium concentration (0.1%–50%) ranges. A characteristic temperature Θ, connected to the Debye temperature, has been evaluated by two different methods: from the thermal shifts and broadening of PL spectral lines, and from the elastic constants, estimated by Brillouin scattering. Both methods show that the Debye temperature weakly depends on the doping level (up to 50 at.%) of the erbium ions. This means that YAG is an ideal host for erbium ions; this result is relevant for application of rare earth elements in YAG crystal in the fields of telecommunications and optical devices. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1775-1779 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magneto-optical properties of Co–Pt alloy films were investigated at low and room temperatures. We also investigated atomic and electronic structures of these films. The saturated polar Kerr rotation angles of CoPt and CoPt3 alloy films show different temperature dependence. Synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy was employed to confirm the correlation between the magneto-optical properties and the electronic structures of these films. Changes of a peak at 4.3 eV relevant to the Pt 5d levels hybridized with Co 3d electrons of the CoPt film and of the valence-band shape upon cooling have the same trend as that of the saturated Kerr rotation angle. A structural phase transition of the CoPt film from the tetragonal L10 to orthorhombic phase upon cooling is suggested by the theoretical calculations using linearized-muffin-tin-orbitals methods within the so-called "LDA+U" scheme as well as the experimental observations. X-ray diffraction patterns before and after cooling also support this structural phase transition. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1780-1787 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The optical constants ε(E)[=ε1(E)+iε2(E)] of two epitaxial layers of GaInAsSb/GaSb have been measured at 300 K using spectral ellipsometry in the range of 0.35–5.3 eV. The ε(E) spectra displayed distinct structures associated with critical points (CPs) at E0 (direct gap), spin-orbit split E0+Δ0 component, spin-orbit split (E1,E1+Δ1) and (E0′,E0′+Δ0′) doublets, as well as E2. The experimental data over the entire measured spectral range (after oxide removal) has been fit using the Holden model dielectric function [Holden et al., Phys. Rev. B 56, 4037 (1997)] based on the electronic energy-band structure near these CPs plus excitonic and band-to-band Coulomb-enhancement effects at E0, E0+Δ0, and the E1, E1+Δ1 doublet. In addition to evaluating the energies of these various band-to-band CPs, information about the binding energy (R1) of the two-dimensional exciton related to the E1, E1+Δ1 CPs was obtained. The value of R1 was in good agreement with effective mass/k⋅p theory. The ability to evaluate R1 has important ramifications for recent first-principles band-structure calculations which include exciton effects at E0, E1, and E2 [M. Rohlfing and S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2312 (1998); S. Albrecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4510 (1998)]. The experimental absorption coefficients in the region of E0 were in good agreement with values obtained from a linear interpolation of the end-point materials. Our experimental results were compared to a recent evaluation and fitting (Holden model) of the optical constants of GaSb. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 4885-4888 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Anisotropic etching of GaAs with 100–400 eV ion radiation energies is reported in a low-pressure, magnetically confined multipolar plasma. Etch rates ∼0.5 μm/min and excellent surface texture are obtained in SiCl4, CFCl3, and CF2Cl2 at pressures of 0.5–2.0 mTorr. Schottky barrier measurements show low substrate damage for ion energies ≤200 eV, increasing sharply for higher energies. Survey spectra using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that chlorine surface contamination also increases with ion radiation energy.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 4877-4879 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using a tunable color center laser, photoluminescence excitation measurements were performed on GaAs:Er grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. These measurements show that only one type of Er3+ center is responsible for the sharply structured emission band at 1.54 μm. The multiplicity of the zero-phonon lines indicates that this Er3+ center has lower than cubic symmetry and that the luminescence arises from the intracenter transition 4I13/2→4I15/2 of Er3+ (4f 11).
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  • 42
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1801-1818 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Droplets of Ga24Mg36Zn40 were solidified in a 3 m, helium-filled drop tube. The solidified droplets contained uniformly distributed MgZn2 dendritic primary crystals, whose number was determined as a function of droplet size. A new model for the solidification in a gas-filled drop tube was developed. It allows introduction, stochastically in space and time, of multiple nuclei with interfering thermal fields. Using classical homogeneous nucleation kinetics, the model reproduces the size dependence of the number of primary crystals. The crystal-melt interfacial tension is estimated at 0.0008–0.002 J/m2. This low value is attributed to the polytetrahedral structural similarity between the melt and the MgZn2 Frank-Kasper phase. The program is available upon request. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 390-396 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Aluminum contacts on silicon have been realized for very large scale integration applications by interposing a titanium nitride diffusion barrier. The TiN films have been prepared by implanting nitrogen ions on silicon wafers coated with titanium layers of different thicknesses (60, 80, and 100 nm); by a subsequent annealing in vacuum, films of TiSi2, from 0 up to 75 nm thick, grow at the nitride/silicon interface. The Al/TiN/Si and Al/TiN/TiSi2/Si structures have been annealed at 600 °C for 30 and 10 min, which in some cases results in barrier degradation, due to Al/Si interdiffusion. Cross-sectioned specimens of these contacts have been studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) employing a Philips EM 400T microscope, equipped with a field emission gun. It has been found that, contrary to previous suggestions, the TiN film does not dissolve during the failure process, but retains its morphology and a sharp interface with the neighboring layers. Unlike scanning electron microscopy experiments, where the Al film must be removed after the barrier degradation to investigate the pits formed by the massive migration of Si into Al, AEM on cross sections allowed us to make an accurate structural and compositional characterization of the material filling these pits. In addition, when the annealing treatment does not result in the barrier failure, the migration of Al, Ti, and Si throughout the structure can be easily detected and analyzed.
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  • 44
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 429-431 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The current-voltage characteristics of zinc oxide varistors were examined prior to and after exposure of up to 107 rad (Si) of 60Co gamma radiation. Nominal voltage, current-voltage nonlinearity, and leakage currents remain relatively unaffected by large doses of ionizing radiation.
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  • 45
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    Notes: Highly c-axis oriented La-modified PbTiO3 (PLT) thin films were deposited on (100) oriented Pt thin film or (100) cleaved MgO single crystals by rf-magnetron sputtering. Figures of merit for infrared detector were studied on the PLT thin films. It was found that a composition Pb1−xLaxTi1−x/4O3 where x=0.10 (PL10) was the most suitable for the infrared detector. The films have the advantage of having pyroelectric effect and polarization with the same direction even without a poling treatment. The films have high figures of merit Fv(=γ/cvεr) of 0.83×10−10 (C cm/J) and Fm(=γ/cv(εr tan δ)1/2) of 1.2×10−8 (C cm/J) because of relative low-dielectric constant εr of 200 and high-pyroelectric coefficient γ of 5.3×10−8 C/cm2 K. Both the Fv and the Fm of the films are 3 times as large as those of PbTiO3 ceramics. High sensitive pyroelectric infrared sensors were fabricated by using the PL10 films. The thickness of the films is 2 μm, and the electrodes were vacuum evaporated Ni-Cr of approximate area 7×10−4 cm2. The MgO substrate under the sensing area is etched off by phosphoric acid. The sensors have a large voltage responsivity of 2400 (V/W) at 25 Hz. A high specific detectivity D*(500,25,1) of 5×108 (cm(Hz)1/2 /W) has been attained.
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  • 46
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    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 427-429 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: An explanation is given of the behavior with applied magnetic field of the weak biaxial magnetic anisotropy observed in pure polycrystalline nickel after plastic deformation. This explanation is based on the analysis of the superposition of torque curves corresponding to regions of orthogonal uniaxial magnetic anisotropies of magnetoelastic origin, produced by residual microstresses in tensile and compressive regions. These generate a biaxial torque curve in unsaturated specimens. This analysis explains some features of the observed biaxial anisotropy that cannot be understood by supposing that its origin is due only to a preferred orientation (texture) of the subgrain structure.
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  • 47
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    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 416-426 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A new high spatial-resolution magnetic-induction probe that measures microwave magnetic field patterns of magnetostatic waves in ferrite thin films has been developed. The probe's sensing element is either a strand of 25.4-μm-diam gold wire wrapped around a plastic support or an aluminum rectangular loop photolithographically fabricated on glass. The gold wire method yielded a smallest size of 120 μm, and the aluminum loops achieved a highest resolution of 45 μm. The probe is designed for studies of amplitude profiles, dispersion relations, and phase-propagation direction. Investigations of magnetostatic surface waves (MSSW) and backward volume waves (MSBVW) propagating in liquid-phase epitaxially (LPE) grown yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) were conducted. The LPE-YIG sample used was 4.5 μm thick with the [111] direction perpendicular to the surface of the sample. MSSW and MSBVW of 2–4 GHz microwave frequency were launched in the LPE-YIG, 4.1° from the [01¯1] direction. Studies of MSSW were done under uniform and nonuniform in-plane magnetic bias fields. When contrasted to expected spreading due to diffraction, MSSW in uniform bias fields were found to "focus'' as the wave propagated. The "focusing'' effect was determined by measurement of the microwave magnetic field profile, transverse to the phase-propagation direction, as a function of propagation distance. As the MSSW propagated, the peak value of the profile increased while the profile width decreased until a maximum profile amplitude occurred, after which the MSSW decreased in amplitude and the width increased. With MSSW and MSBVW in constant uniform bias fields, direct measure of the wavelengths at various microwave frequencies yielded the dispersion relation for each type of wave. Determination of the dispersion relation of MSBVW confirmed the backward nature of these waves.
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  • 48
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    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 431-433 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Silicon nitride films have been prepared by excimer laser photolysis of ammonia/silane or ammonia/disilane mixtures at temperatures in the range 225–625 °C in a hot-walled low-pressure reactor. The highest-quality films, deposited at 225 °C, have high breakdown-field strength, Ebd=8.8 Mv cm−1, low midgap interface-state-trap densities, Nit=1.7×1011 eV−1 cm−2, and a dielectric constant of ε=4.8.
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  • 49
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    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 434-436 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The optical-absorption spectra in the semiconductor CdInGaS4 have been measured precisely at various hydrostatic pressures up to 20 kbar, and analyzed in the region below the fundamental absorption edges. It can be seen that the absorption coefficients plotted semilogarithmically vary linearly with photon energy below the fundamental absorption edges at each hydrostatic pressure. The steepness of the absorption edge is proportional to the inverse of hydrostatic pressure.
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  • 50
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    Notes: A novel method of highly sensitive detection of pairs of ions and electrons has been developed for resonance ionization spectroscopy and tested for a thallium atomic beam. Only the pairs of ion and electron signals whose time differences corresponded to the time of flight of a thallium ion were detected. The signal-to-noise ratio has been improved by the order of 102 compared with the single detection of electrons or ions. The sensitivity of this method reached the order of thallium density of 102 cm−3.
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  • 51
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1858-1862 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We obtain the temperature dependence of the homogeneous linewidth of excitons in GaAs quantum wells (QWs) and bulk GaAs using photoluminescence measurements. The results indicate that exciton scattering rates with optical phonons are larger in bulk GaAs than in QWs. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 52
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    Notes: Time-resolved piezoelectric detection of wide-band ultrasonic transients induced by laser pulses in absorbing medium was studied. An optoacoustic transducer was developed for measuring the profiles of ultrasonic transients propagating in backward direction out of the laser-irradiated medium. For this purpose, an optical fiber for delivery of laser pulses to the surface of absorbing medium and a wide-band lithium niobate acoustic transducer were incorporated in one compact system, optoacoustic front surface transducer (OAFST). The transducer possesses temporal resolution (rise time) of 3.5 ns, low effective thermal noise pressure (10 Pa), and high sensitivity of piezoelectric detection (10 μV/Pa) over the ultrasonic frequency range from 1 to 100 MHz. Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed to generate distribution of acoustic sources in water solutions of potassium chromate with various concentrations. A temporal course of ultrasonic transients launched into an optically and acoustically transparent medium, coupled to the absorbing medium, was studied. Ultrasonic profiles experimentally measured at the site of laser irradiation were compared with profiles calculated using theoretical model. Experimental curves were in a good agreement with theoretical profiles. The backward detection mode permitted accurate reconstruction of the axial distribution of heat deposition in the laser-irradiated homogeneous or layered medium from the measured profiles. OAFST may become a useful modality for optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues and nondestructive evaluation of industrial materials. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 53
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    Notes: The carbon and zinc incorporations in GaAs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using triethylgallium as the gallium source have been studied. Carbon and zinc incorporations are identified by photoluminescence spectrum and Hall measurement. The carbon incorporation in undoped GaAs decreases as the growth temperature increases and can be explained by the dissociation effect of triethylgallium at high growth temperature. The zinc incorporation in p-type GaAs doped with diethylzinc also decreases with increasing growth temperature. It can be explained by a vacancy control model.
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  • 54
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    Notes: SiO2 and phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films containing Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) as small as a few nanometers were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and photoluminescence (PL), and the correlation between the two measurements was examined. It is shown that the incorporation of nc-Si in SiO2 results in the drastic increase in the ESR signal; the signal is assigned to the Si dangling bonds at the interfaces between nc-Si and matrices (Pb centers). The ESR signal becomes weaker by doping P into SiO2 matrices, i.e., by using PSG as matrices. By increasing the P concentration, the ESR signal decreases further. By decreasing the ESR signal, the low-energy PL peak at 0.9 eV decreases, while the band-edge PL at 1.4 eV increases. These results suggest that the 0.9 eV peak is related to Pb centers, and that the decrease in the density of the Pb centers by P doping brings about an improvement in the band-edge PL efficiency of nc-Si. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1869-1873 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The Hall effect in amorphous TbxCo1−x thin films has been studied quantitatively with respect to Tb at. % in films. Amorphous TbxCo1−x thin films exhibit unusually large spontaneous Hall coefficients (Rs(approximate)2×10−9 Ω cm/G, whose sign is strongly dependent on the film composition as governed by the relation ρH=Rs4πMS. At Tb compositions below the compensation composition xcomp, the Hall resistivity ρH is positive and the sign is reversed for Tb compositions above xcomp. Even though the saturation magnetization at x〉xcomp is lower than at x〈xcomp, the absolute Hall resistivity |ρH| and Hall coefficient |Rs| are higher. As the Tb content increases in the films, the resistivity increases. In amorphous TbxCo1−x thin films, the Hall angle |ρH/ρ| is sensitive to the resistivity of the films. On the basis of electrical resistivities, Hall resistivities, and Hall angles in amorphous TbxCo1−x films, the side jump Δy of 0.16 to 0.26 Å was calculated. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 2052-2054 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A structure for high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is demonstrated. A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is used to enhance the quantum efficiency of the LEDs. This unique DBR uses a composite structure that consists of two DBRs to provide both high reflectivity and wide angle reflection. For 590 nm (amber range) AlGaInP LEDs, the quantum efficiency is increased to 5.05% by using this composite DBR structure. This result is much better than those obtained from conventional DBRs, and is comparable to that of wafer bonded AlGaInP LEDs. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 2058-2060 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A multiline visible emission spectrum, yielding "white" light, has been observed from a low-pressure Ba discharge. A five atomic level numerical model reproduces the observations qualitatively, suggesting that a low-pressure Ba discharge light source is capable of a significantly better color rendering than previously thought. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 2055-2057 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The phase formation, crystallization products, microstructure, and magnetic behavior of Fe-rich Sm–Fe alloys modified with Ti and C have been determined. Alloys of nominal composition (Sm0.11−xFe0.89+x)94Ti3C3 with x=0, 0.02, and 0.04 were produced by melt spinning. Crystalline phases observed included SmFe7 and α-Fe and an increasing amorphous fraction was observed with increasing x. Upon crystallization the amorphous fraction converted to Sm2Fe17 and α-Fe, with a grain size of 30 nm for the sample with x=0.02. The magnetic measurements of nitrided alloys revealed a remanent ratio above 0.5 for x=0 and 0.02, although the coercivity was rather low. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 2046-2051 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and spectral ellipsometry have been used to study ozone/atomic oxygen assisted direct oxidation of single crystalline SiGe. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor changes in the gas phase composition of O3/O2 gas mixtures. At all temperatures studied, 125–530 °C, XPS results indicate that Ge is incorporated into the growing oxide as GeO2. Increasing the oxidation temperature causes a decrease in the percentage of Ge incorporated in the growing oxide and an increase in the silicon content. Further, at oxidation temperatures of 400 °C and above, substantial Ge segregation is observed using SIMS. The change in composition is described using a temperature dependent flux model. Also, as the oxidation temperature increases, the oxide/SiGe interface becomes more abrupt with 1.9 monolayer (ML) of suboxide (Si+1, Si+2, Si+3) detected at 125 °C and 0.8 ML of suboxide at 530 °C. Based on thickness measurements from XPS and spectral ellipsometry, initial growth rates of 5 and ∼1 Å/min were achieved for ozone oxidation of Si0.85Ge0.15 at 530 and 125 °C, respectively. For the ultrathin regime (oxide thickness 〈25 Å), the effective activation energy for SiGe oxidation in 950 ppm of O3 is determined to be approximately 0.12 eV. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 60
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    Notes: A new methodology based on a novel combination of a high-resolution specular x-ray reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering has been developed to evaluate the structural properties of low-dielectric-constant porous silica thin films about one micrometer thick supported on silicon wafer substrates. To complement these results, film composition was determined by high-energy ion scattering techniques. For the example thin film presented here, the overall film density was found to be (0.55±0.01) g/cm3 with a pore wall density of (1.16±0.05) g/cm3 and a porosity of (53±1)%. The characteristic average dimension for the pores was found to be (65±1) Å. It was determined that (22.1±0.5)% of the pores had connective paths to the free surface. The mass fraction of water absorption was (3.0±0.5)% and the coefficient of thermal expansion was (60±20)×10−6/°C from room temperature to 175 °C. Lastly, model fitting of the specular x-ray reflectivity data indicated the presence of a thin surface layer with an increased electron density compared to the bulk of the film as well as an interfacial layer with a reduced electron density. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 61
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    Notes: The effect of rapid thermal annealing processes on the properties of SiO2.0 and SiN1.55 films was studied. The films were deposited at room temperature from N2 and SiH4 gas mixtures, and N2, O2, and SiH4 gas mixtures, respectively, using the electron cyclotron resonance technique. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. According to the FTIR characterization, the SiO2.0 films show continuous stress relaxation for annealing temperatures between 600 and 1000 °C. The properties of the films annealed at 900–1000 °C are comparable to those of thermally grown ones. The density of defects shows a minimum value for annealing temperatures around 300–400 °C, which is tentatively attributed to the passivation of the well-known E′ center Si dangling bonds due to the formation of Si–H bonds. A very low density of defects (5×1016 cm−3) is observed over the whole annealing temperature range. For the SiN1.55 films, the highest structural order is achieved for annealing temperatures of 900 °C. For higher temperatures, there is a significant release of H from N–H bonds without any subsequent Si–N bond healing, which results in degradation of the structural properties of the film. A minimum in the density of defects is observed for annealing temperatures of 600 °C. The behavior of the density of defects is governed by the presence of non-bonded H and Si–H bonds below the IR detection limit. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1201-1210 
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    Notes: An atomic force microscope is used to study the effect of tip radius and humidity on the adhesive force and coefficient of friction. Samples studied are Si (100), 2 nm thick bonded perfluoropolyether lubricant (Z-DOL) coated Si (100), 20 nm thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated Si (100) and plasma etched DLC coated Si (100). Tip diameters ranged from 100 nm to 14.5 μm. It is observed that both adhesive force and coefficient of friction are strongly dependent on the tip radius and humidity. The change is caused by the formation of meniscus bridges from capillary condensation of water vapor. DLC coated surface is rather insensitive to the changes in the radius and humidity because of its passivated surface. Etching of DLC activates the surface and makes it sensitive to the environment. In addition, a technique is developed to get adhesive force maps of surfaces, which can be used to obtain an estimate of film thickness only a couple of monolayers thick. Examples and applications of this technique are presented. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 63
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    Notes: Considerable research and development has been done, in recent years, on combinations of optically absorbing thin films and substrates for digital optical storage media. Recent theoretical models have considered the formation of pits, by laser heating, in such media in two stages: (i) a preinitiation stage before pit formation; (ii) a pit growth stage. To compare the validity of suggested mechanisms for initiation accurate temperature calculations are required. In this paper the full transient thermal conduction equation is solved by finite element methods for both a tellurium and an organic dye layer system and the results compared.
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  • 64
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    Notes: In this paper, laser ablation atomic fluorescence (LAAF) spectroscopy has been applied for a nanometer-scale solid surface analysis of Na-doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). LAAF spectroscopy is a new sensitive element detection technique which involves atomizing of a sample by the laser ablation and detection of the ablated plume by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. Using this technique in the detection of Na atoms with a sample of Na-doped PMMA, an ablation rate of 4.4 nm/shot is attained and a detection limit is estimated to be 36 fg for a single laser shot. Further, a two-layer PMMA sample is ablated and by observing the shot-by-shot LIF intensity from Na atoms, the depth distribution in the sample is measured with a very high spatial resolution. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1034-1041 
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    Notes: Pulsed illumination of lithium–niobate crystals with green light excites electrons from deep traps into the intrinsic defect NbLi5+ (Nb on Li site in the valence state 5+) and creates NbLi4+ centers (small polarons). The electrons trapped in this more shallow center increase the light absorption in the red and near infrared. The dark decay of the polaron concentration is observed by monitoring the relaxation of these absorption changes. Iron-doped lithium–niobate crystals with different concentrations of NbLi are investigated for various illumination conditions and temperatures. The relaxation shows a stretched-exponential behavior which is in disagreement with the predictions of the standard rate-equation-based model. The observed lifetimes of the polarons range from tens of nanoseconds to some milliseconds. Computer simulations reveal that all results can be explained considering distance-dependent excitation and recombination rates, i.e., the lifetime of an individual polaron depends on the distance to the next available deep electron trap. Based on the new insights, tailoring of lithium–niobate crystals for nonvolatile holographic storage becomes possible. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 66
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    Notes: In this work, thermal effects on the spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd:YAl3(BO3)4 crystal caused by pump heating are systematically investigated. Changes in the refractive indices, absorption coefficient, and emission band shape have been studied in a temperature range 20–200 °C. Temperatures up to 88 °C have been measured in a thermally isolated crystal when pumping with 800 mW of laser power at 807 nm. A decrease in infrared laser power at 1.06 μm and its second harmonic (0.53 μm) generated by self-frequency doubling is observed during the early seconds of laser operation. These reductions are explained in terms of the absorption efficiency reduction and of thermal phase mismatch (for second harmonic) induced by pump heating. Instabilities observed in the output (infrared and green) laser power during the initial seconds of laser action are satisfactorily explained in terms of Fabry–Pérot-induced interference effects. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1049-1053 
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    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Evolution of an ultrashort pulse having frequency spectrum above the band edge in a sample of GaAs has been investigated. The evolution operator technique is used for solving the wave equation under slowly varying envelope approximation coupled with the dynamic response of the medium. The pulse duration has been taken to be less than the dephasing time of the material so that there is no k mixing. Severe distortion and attenuation of pulses in the linear regime is predicted. The pulse is found to stabilize in the nonlinear regime. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1054-1059 
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    Notes: Intervalence band absorption spectra of InP and related materials over a range of temperatures are calculated using different k⋅p methods for band structure. It is shown that band structure models which neglect valence band intermixing effects, such as the Kane model, fail to provide any quantitative agreement with experiment. However, the Luttinger–Kohn model [Phys. Rev. 97, 869 (1955)] if properly fitted, does yield quantitatively accurate results for InP, GaAs, and InGaAs, in wide spectral and temperature ranges of interest for practical optoelectronic devices without adjusting the effective masses and split-off energy. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1070-1075 
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    Notes: A two-dimensional hybrid model for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor is improved by taking into account the microwave absorption. With this code, the velocity and angle distribution function of ions in the source and downstream areas, and the ion current density at the substrate surface in an extended ECR plasma reactor were investigated. The spatial profiles as well as the dependence of these distribution functions on pressure and microwave power were discussed. It is shown that the results are in good agreement with many experimental measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1060-1069 
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    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Plasma-surface interactions during plasma etching are important in that, in addition to determining the rate and quality of the etch, they can also influence the properties of the bulk plasma. To address this coupling of bulk and surface processes the surface kinetics model (SKM) was developed as a module in the two-dimensional hybrid plasma equipment model (HPEM) with the goal of combining plasma chemistry and surface chemistry in a self-consistent fashion. The SKM obtains reactive fluxes to the surface from the HPEM, and generates the surface species coverages and the returning fluxes to the plasma by implementing a user defined surface reaction mechanism. Although the SKM is basically a surface-site-balance model, extensions to those algorithms have been made to include an overlying passivation layer through which reactants and products diffuse. Etching of Si in an inductively coupled plasma sustained in Ar/C2F6 was investigated using the SKM. Results from parametric studies are used to demonstrate the sensitivity of etching rates and polymer thickness to the sticking coefficient of fluorocarbon radicals on the reactor walls, polymer erosion rates and F atom diffusion through the polymer layer. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1076-1085 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Particle size and number density are measured versus discharge operating time (t) in pure silane, capacitively coupled rf discharges. Discharge conditions are those typically used to produce amorphous silicon devices, except the temperature is 300 K. Particle radii (Rp) from 4 to 25 nm are observed, where Rp is determined from the rate of particle diffusive loss in the plasma afterglow. The scattered light intensity then yields the particle number density. We generally observe a Rp(t) consistent with initial rapid growth to Rp∼2 nm, followed by a constant dRp/dt at a rate consistent with growth due to SiH3 reactions. However, at higher pressures and film growth rates, or rf voltage, the particle growth rate exceeds that due to SiH3, indicating additional growth mechanisms. Particle density increases orders of magnitude when pressure and rf voltage increase by small amounts. Measurement of the particle spatial distribution in the afterglow, when most particles are neutral, shows that they have sufficient sticking probability on the upper electrode to yield essentially equal deposition on both electrodes. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1086-1090 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: It is shown that particle diffusion in the afterglow of a dusty plasma can be used to establish several properties of the active plasma. Specifically, the ratio of the average mass of light negative and positive ions, and a limit for the ratio of electron to ion charge densities can be determined. From the afterglow decay of visible particles, with and without electrode bias, the charged fraction of particles can be measured. An afterglow ambipolar-diffusion model is developed to relate this neutral fraction to the densities and masses of electrons and light ions in the active plasma. We then use this technique to analyze a silane radio-frequency plasma. In the active plasma positive charge is dominated by small SiyHn+ cations, and the negative charge by small SixHm− anions, with x and y〈100. This analysis establishes that the electron density is less than 10% of the ion density in the operating discharge and that the anion/cation average mass ratio (x/y) is ∼6. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1091-1095 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Implantation of n- and p-type GaN with Ti+, O+, Fe+, or Cr+ was found to produce defect levels which pinned the Fermi level in these materials at EC−(0.20–0.49) eV (n type) or EV+0.44 eV (p type). Maximum sheet resistances of ∼1012 Ω/(square, open) (n type) and ∼1010 Ω/(square, open) (p type) were obtained after implantation and annealing in the range of 300–600 °C. At higher annealing temperatures, the sheet resistance decreased to near the unimplanted values (3×104 Ω/(square, open) in p type, 7×102 Ω/(square, open) in n type). The evolution of the sheet resistance with annealing temperature is consistent with damage-related trap sites removing carriers from the conduction or valence bands. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: High resolution images of cross-tie domain wall structures have been obtained by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) for a 37.5 nm Co91Nb6Zr3 film using a NiFe thin film coated tip. Between successive cross ties, the main or spinal wall was found to be consistently subdivided unequally into pairs of oppositely oriented Néel wall sections separated by circular Bloch lines. Main and wing walls intersect at cross Bloch lines. A reversed-contrast MFM image of the same uneven cross-tie wall structure was obtained after reversing the tip magnetization. MFM images reflect only the field from the divergence of the underlying magnetization M and contain no direct information on curl M. Accordingly they are best interpreted by comparison with the magnetization pattern of a similar cross-tie structure obtained by micromagnetic computation. This enables the cross and circular Bloch line singularities to be distinguished in the MFM images of the cross-tie structure. By combining repeated observations made with opposite tip magnetizations, disturbance of the main and wing wall structures by the tip was extracted from the MFM signal which was then compared with the signal computed for a two-dimensional model wall. The main wall was found to be an asymmetric Néel wall with a weak S shaped magnetic structure. The wing walls were found to be Néel walls of acute angle, decreasing with distance from the spine. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1103-1109 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this work we use dislocation loops and boron-doped δ layers to monitor the interstitial injection during nitrous oxidation of silicon at low temperatures (850–950 °C). The interstitials captured by the loops are measured using transmission electron microscopy. The number of Si atoms released after oxynitridation was calculated from the difference between the total number of atoms stored in the loops for oxidizing and inert ambient. We found that this number is larger compared with the same dry oxygen oxidation conditions, although the oxidation rate is lower during oxynitridation in comparison to dry oxidation. Analysis of the earlier data leads to higher supersaturation ratio of interstitials in the former case. This result is also confirmed by measuring the diffusivity enhancement of boron δ layers during oxidation under both ambients. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1276-1279 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Ag and Cu ions were implanted sequentially into LiNbO3 at different ratios of Cu and Ag ions, and in two different energy regimes: kiloelectron volt and megaelectron volt. Optical absorption spectra were measured in the visible region at each stage in the process of annealing the sample. For the samples implanted sequentially with Ag and Cu ions at the low energy of 20 keV, only one peak appeared between 430 and 630 nm, the position of which depended on the ratios of Ag and Cu ions. For the samples implanted at high energies of 3 or 4.2 MeV, two large and distinct absorption peaks were observed at 480 and 590 nm. When the samples were heated to high temperatures, the peak at 480 nm ascribed to colloids of Ag shifted gradually to longer wavelengths and reached 530 nm, whereas the red shift of the peak ascribed to colloids of Cu was approximately 15 nm. Cu atoms diffuse out of the doubly implanted layer faster and at lower temperatures compared with Ag, even when Cu ions were implanted deeper than the Ag. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 60 (1986), S. 2672-2677 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The influence of electrical conductivity on the piezoelectricity of polymers was studied using a three-phase model. The model consists of a continuous nonpiezoelectric phase (phase 1) surrounding a spherical piezoelectric phase (phase 2), which is itself bounded by an electrically conductive shell (phase 3). The piezoelectric constants for the system can be expressed as d=d2KPKT and e=e2KPKS, where d2 and e2 are the piezoelectric strain and stress constants of phase 2, respectively, and KP is a function of the dielectric constants of phases 1, 2, and 3. KT and KS are expressed as functions of the elastic constant of each phase. The piezoelectric constants d and e decrease with decreasing elastic constant of phase 3 and with increasing dielectric constant of phase 3. The three-phase system shows a Maxwell–Wagner piezoelectric relaxation with a relaxation time given by τ=(2ε1+ε2+ηε3)/(2σ1+σ2+ησ3), where η=2δ/a. In these expressions εi and σi are the dielectric constant and the electrical conductivity of phase i, respectively, a is the radius of the sphere (piezoelectric phase), and δ is the thickness of the electrically conductive shell around the piezoelectric phase. When τ1(=ε1/σ1)〉τ2[=(ε2+ηε3)/(σ2+ησ3)], the functional dependence of KP on frequency implies the occurrence of a relaxation process. Conversely, when τ1〈τ2, a retardation process is observed.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 60 (1986), S. 2690-2693 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The Curie transition in a VF2-TrFE random copolymer of fixed chemical composition (60/40 mol %) has been investigated as a function of processing history. Both solution cast and melt crystallized materials were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle x-ray diffraction. Results indicate that due to the higher solubility of TrFE units in dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and cyclohexanone, solution cast films of VF2-TrFE yielded crystalline regions deficient of TrFE units. Upon annealing, a redistribution and equalization of the TrFE comonomer units within the crystalline regions was observed to occur resulting in a lowering of the Curie point. Melt crystallization, on the other hand, provided a more uniform distribution of TrFE units within the crystalline and amorphous regions, each having nearly the same proportion as in the overall composition. Subsequent annealing caused negligible changes in the Curie temperature.
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    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A confocal interference microscope incorporating an electro-optic phase modulator has been used to make simultaneous measurements of the inphase and quadrature components of the confocal signal as a reflecting surface is scanned axially, the so-called V(z) response. Comparison with previously published theoretical predictions is seen to be favorable.
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    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We calculate the spectrum of a signal derived from a continuous signal by "sample and hold'' random sampling. It is seen that an undistorted spectrum is obtained only if the mean sampling frequency is more than an order of magnitude greater than the highest frequency in the original signal. The cases of signal-independent and signal-dependent sampling probabilities are investigated. We show how to obtain a good estimate for the spectrum of the unsampled signal and determine the limitations of this form of processing.
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    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1141-1152 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Calorimetric, thermomechanical, and rheological properties of undercooled liquid Pd40Ni40P20 were determined within a wide temperature range above the glass transition. The concept of the limiting fictive temperature was applied to the entire set of measurements to compare the different properties adequately. It was found that an equilibrium state of a sample that is defined by its calorimetric glass temperature corresponds to a similar equilibrium state for the specific volume and for the shear viscosity as well. The Kauzmann temperature as one of the most important material characteristics concerning the glass transition could be determined with high accuracy leading to the evaluation of the free volume persistent in the samples. Viscosity values of the liquid extending over a range of about nine orders in magnitude could be described best by the free volume theory evaluated by Cohen and Grest, provided that experimentally obtained parameters were used for the calculations. The comparison between nonequilibrium measurements at isochronous heating and model calculations in the framework of bimolecular reaction kinetics shows that good agreement can be achieved using thermodynamic parameters that have been obtained from equilibrium measurements. However, systematic deviations indicate also the limitations of the model that are related to the intrinsic dynamic heterogeneity of the vitreous state. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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