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  • American Geophysical Union  (232,389)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2022-02-10
    Description: Muography represents a recent and innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. However, when dealing with frequently erupting open-vent volcanoes such as Stromboli, any result should take into con- sideration the structural and morphology changes caused by the eruptive activity. This may cause either summit collapses by magma withdrawal, or morphology growth by the accumulations of a fallout from the explosive activity, or more often a combination of both. In this chapter, we present an integration of various techniques, comprising muography and digital elevation model reconstruction, together with GBInSAR ground deformation and volcano seismicity, to reconstruct the geometry of the shallow magma supply system of the volcano and its changes in time. We show how muography can display the interior of the volcano as well as its outer growth, being sensitive to all volume changes that occurred between the framed surface and the detector. This was discovered in Stromboli by comparing digital topography in the interval between 2010 and 2012, when the rapid growth of the volcano summit by the accumulation of ballistic products in the area between the crater zone and the muon detec- tor occurred. This deposit, together with the filling in of the graben-like depression, formed during the 2007 eruption, by fallout during the persistent explosive activity, contributed to generating a remarkable anomaly in the summit area of the volcano visualized by muography. In addition, the shallow feeding system of the volcano was surveyed by GBInSAR and seismicity, which allowed us to reconstruct its path up to a depth of a few hundred meters.
    Description: Published
    Description: 75-91
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Keywords: Stromboli volcano ; Shallow supply system ; Muography of active volcanoes
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book chapter
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  • 2
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  EPIC3Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, American Geophysical Union, 37(2), pp. e2020PA003953, ISSN: 2572-4517
    Publication Date: 2022-02-15
    Description: Cenozoic climate changes have been linked to tectonic activity and variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we present Miocene and Pliocene sensitivity experiments performed with the climate model COSMOS. The experiments contain changes with respect to paleogeography, ocean gateway configuration, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as well as a range of vertical mixing coefficients in the ocean. For the Mid-Miocene, we show that the impact of ocean mixing on surface temperature is comparable to the effect of the possible range in reconstructed CO2 concentrations. In combination with stronger vertical mixing, relatively moderate CO2-concentrations of 450 ppmv enable global mean surface, deep-water and meridional temperature characteristics representative of Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) reconstructions. The Miocene climate shows a reduced meridional temperature gradient and reduced seasonality. In the case of enhanced mixing, surface and deep ocean temperatures show significant warming of up to 5-10°C and an Arctic temperature anomaly of more than 12°C. In the Pliocene simulations, the impact of vertical mixing and CO2 is less important for the deep ocean, which we interpret as a different sensitivity dependence on the background state and mixed layer dynamics. We find a significant reduction in surface albedo and effective emissivity for either a high level of atmospheric CO2 or increased vertical mixing. Our mixing sensitivity experiments provide a warm deep ocean via ocean heat uptake. We propose that the mixing hypothesis can be tested by reconstructions of the thermocline and seasonal paleoclimate data indicating a lower seasonality relative to today.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Zhou, P., Stockli, D. F., Ireland, T., Murray, R. W., & Clift, P. D. Zircon U-Pb age constraints on NW Himalayan exhumation from the Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 23(1), (2022): e2021GC010158, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GC010158.
    Description: The Indus Fan, located in the Arabian Sea, contains the bulk of the sediment eroded from the Western Himalaya and Karakoram. Scientific drilling in the Laxmi Basin by the International Ocean Discovery Program recovered a discontinuous erosional record for the Indus River drainage dating back to at least 9.8 Ma, and with a single sample from 15.6 Ma. We dated detrital zircon grains by U-Pb geochronology to reconstruct how erosion patterns changed through time. Long-term increases in detrital zircon U-Pb components of 750–1,200 and 1,500–2,300 Ma record increasing preferential erosion of the Himalaya relative to the Karakoram between 8.3–7.0 and 5.9–5.7 Ma. The average contribution of Karakoram-derived sediment to the Indus Fan fell from 70% of the total at 8.3–7.0 Ma to 35% between 5.9 and 5.7 Ma. An increase in the contribution of 1,500–2,300 Ma zircons starting between 2.5 and 1.6 Ma indicates significant unroofing of the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) by that time. The trend in zircon age spectra is consistent with bulk sediment Nd isotope data. The initial change in spatial erosion patterns at 7.0–5.9 Ma occurred during a time of drying climate in the foreland. The increase in ILH erosion postdated the onset of dry-wet glacial-interglacial cycles suggesting some role for climate control. However, erosion driven by rising topography in response to formation of the ILH thrust duplex, especially during the Pliocene, also played an important role, while the influence of the Nanga Parbat Massif to the total sediment flux was modest.
    Description: This work was partially funded by a grant from the USSSP, as well as additional funding from the Charles T. McCord Chair in petroleum geology at LSU, and the Chevron (Gulf) Centennial professorship and the UTChron Laboratory at the University of Texas.
    Keywords: erosion ; zircon ; monsoon ; Himalaya ; provenance
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: © The Author(s), [year]. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Barreyre, T., Parnell‐Turner, R., Wu, J., & Fornari, D. Tracking crustal permeability and hydrothermal response during seafloor eruptions at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50’N. Geophysical Research Letters, 49(3), (2022): e2021GL095459, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021gl095459.
    Description: Permeability controls energy and matter fluxes in deep-sea hydrothermal systems fueling a 'deep biosphere' of microorganisms. Here, we indirectly measure changes in sub-seafloor crustal permeability, based on the tidal response of high-temperature hydrothermal vents at the East Pacific Rise 9°50’N preceding the last phase of volcanic eruptions during 2005–2006. Ten months before the last phase of the eruptions, permeability decreased, first rapidly, and then steadily as the stress built up, until hydrothermal flow stopped altogether ∼2 weeks prior to the January 2006 eruption phase. This trend was interrupted by abrupt permeability increases, attributable to dike injection during last phase of the eruptions, which released crustal stress, allowing hydrothermal flow to resume. These observations and models suggest that abrupt changes in crustal permeability caused by magmatic intrusion and volcanic eruption can control first-order hydrothermal circulation processes. This methodology has the potential to aid eruption forecasting along the global mid-ocean ridge network.
    Description: This research is funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) grants to D. J. Fornari and T. Barreyre (OCE-1949485), and to R. Parnell-Turner (OCE-1948936). T. Barreyre was supported by the University of Bergen, Norway.
    Keywords: hydrothermalism ; volcanic eruption ; permeability ; ocean tides ; vent temperature
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Long, M. D., Wagner, L. S., King, S. D., Evans, R. L., Mazza, S. E., Byrnes, J. S., Johnson, E. A., Kirby, E., Bezada, M. J., Gazel, E., Miller, S. R., Aragon, J. C., & Liu, S. Evaluating models for lithospheric loss and intraplate volcanism beneath the Central Appalachian Mountains. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 126(10), (2021): e2021JB022571, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022571.
    Description: The eastern margin of North America has been shaped by a series of tectonic events including the Paleozoic Appalachian Orogeny and the breakup of Pangea during the Mesozoic. For the past ∼200 Ma, eastern North America has been a passive continental margin; however, there is evidence in the Central Appalachian Mountains for post-rifting modification of lithospheric structure. This evidence includes two co-located pulses of magmatism that post-date the rifting event (at 152 and 47 Ma) along with low seismic velocities, high seismic attenuation, and high electrical conductivity in the upper mantle. Here, we synthesize and evaluate constraints on the lithospheric evolution of the Central Appalachian Mountains. These include tomographic imaging of seismic velocities, seismic and electrical conductivity imaging along the Mid-Atlantic Geophysical Integrative Collaboration array, gravity and heat flow measurements, geochemical and petrological examination of Jurassic and Eocene magmatic rocks, and estimates of erosion rates from geomorphological data. We discuss and evaluate a set of possible mechanisms for lithospheric loss and intraplate volcanism beneath the region. Taken together, recent observations provide compelling evidence for lithospheric loss beneath the Central Appalachians; while they cannot uniquely identify the processes associated with this loss, they narrow the range of plausible models, with important implications for our understanding of intraplate volcanism and the evolution of continental lithosphere. Our preferred models invoke a combination of (perhaps episodic) lithospheric loss via Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and subsequent small-scale mantle flow in combination with shear-driven upwelling that maintains the region of thin lithosphere and causes partial melting in the asthenosphere.
    Description: The authors acknowledge support from the U.S. National Science Foundation EarthScope and GeoPRISMS programs via grants EAR-1460257 (R. L. Evans), EAR-1249412 (E. Gazel), EAR-1249438 (E. A. Johnson), EAR-1250988 (S. D. King), EAR-1251538 (E. Kirby), and EAR-1251515 (M. D. Long). The collection and dissemination of most of the geophysical data and models discussed in this study were facilitated by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). The facilities of the IRIS Consortium are supported by the United States National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement EAR-1261681.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 126(10),(2021): e2021JB022050, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022050.
    Description: On-fault earthquake magnitude distributions are calculated for northern Caribbean faults using estimates of fault slip and regional seismicity parameters. Integer programming, a combinatorial optimization method, is used to determine the optimal spatial arrangement of earthquakes sampled from a truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution that minimizes the global misfit in slip rates on a complex fault system. Slip rates and their uncertainty on major faults are derived from a previously published GPS block model for the region, with fault traces determined from offshore geophysical mapping and previously published onshore studies. The optimal spatial arrangement of the sampled earthquakes is compared with the 500-year history of earthquake observations. Rupture segmentation of the subduction interface along the Hispaniola-Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) fault and seismic coupling on the PRT fault appear to exert the primary control over this spatial arrangement. Introducing a rupture barrier for the Hispaniola-PRT fault northwest of Mona Passage, based on geophysical and seismicity observations, and assigning a low slip rate of 2 mm/yr on the PRT fault are most consistent with historical earthquakes in the region. The addition of low slip-rate secondary faults as well as segmentation of the Hispaniola and Septentrional strike-slip fault improves the consistency with historical seismicity. An important observation from the modeling is that varying the slip rate on the PRT fault and different segmentation scenarios result in significant changes to the optimal magnitude distribution on faults farther away. In general, optimal on-fault magnitude distributions are more complex and inter-dependent than is typically assumed in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis.
    Description: Funding for this study is from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program.
    Description: 2022-04-11
    Keywords: northern Caribbean ; rupture forecast ; combinatorial optimization ; integer programming
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Bo, T., Ralston, D. K., Kranenburg, W. M., Geyer, W. R., & Traykovski, P. High and variable drag in a sinuous estuary with intermittent stratification. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(10), (2021): e2021JC017327, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017327
    Description: In field observations from a sinuous estuary, the drag coefficient C based on the momentum balance was in the range of 5-20 X10-3, much greater than expected from bottom friction alone. C also varied at tidal and seasonal timescales. CD was greater during flood tides than ebbs, most notably during spring tides. The ebb tide CD was negatively correlated with river discharge, while the flood tide CD showed no dependence on discharge. The large values of CD are explained by form drag from flow separation at sharp channel bends. Greater water depths during flood tides corresponded with increased values of CD, consistent with the expected depth dependence for flow separation, as flow separation becomes stronger in deeper water. Additionally, the strength of the adverse pressure gradient downstream of the bend apex, which is indicative of flow separation, correlated with CD during flood tides. While CD generally increased with water depth, CD decreased for the highest water levels that corresponded with overbank flow. The decrease in CD may be due to the inhibition of flow separation with flow over the vegetated marsh. The dependence of CD during ebbs on discharge corresponds with the inhibition of flow separation by a favoring baroclinic pressure gradient that is locally generated at the bend apex due to curvature-induced secondary circulation. This effect increases with stratification, which increases with discharge. Additional factors may contribute to the high drag, including secondary circulation, multiple scales of bedforms, and shallow shoals, but the observations suggest that flow separation is the primary source.
    Description: The research leading to these results was funded by NSF awards OCE-1634480, OCE-1634481, and OCE-2123002.
    Description: 2022-03-29
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Durkin, C. A., Buesseler, K. O., Cetinic, I., Estapa, M. L., Kelly, R. P., & Omand, M. A visual tour of carbon export by sinking particles. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35(10), (2021): e2021GB006985, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB006985.
    Description: To better quantify the ocean's biological carbon pump, we resolved the diversity of sinking particles that transport carbon into the ocean's interior, their contribution to carbon export, and their attenuation with depth. Sinking particles collected in sediment trap gel layers from four distinct ocean ecosystems were imaged, measured, and classified. The size and identity of particles was used to model their contribution to particulate organic carbon (POC) flux. Measured POC fluxes were reasonably predicted by particle images. Nine particle types were identified, and most of the compositional variability was driven by the relative contribution of aggregates, long cylindrical fecal pellets, and salp fecal pellets. While particle composition varied across locations and seasons, the entire range of compositions was measured at a single well-observed location in the subarctic North Pacific over one month, across 500 m of depth. The magnitude of POC flux was not consistently associated with a dominant particle class, but particle classes did influence flux attenuation. Long fecal pellets attenuated most rapidly with depth whereas certain other classes attenuated little or not at all with depth. Small particles (〈100 μm) consistently contributed ∼5% to total POC flux in samples with higher magnitude fluxes. The relative importance of these small particle classes (spherical mini pellets, short oval fecal pellets, and dense detritus) increased in low flux environments (up to 46% of total POC flux). Imaging approaches that resolve large variations in particle composition across ocean basins, depth, and time will help to better parameterize biological carbon pump models.
    Description: This work was supported by an NSF EAGER award to C. A. Durkin (OCE-1703664), M. L. Estapa (OCE-1703422), and M. Omand (OCE-1703336), and also by the NASA EXPORTS program (80NSSC17K0662), a NASA New Investigator award to M. L. Estapa (NNX14AM01G), the Rhode Island Endeavor Program (RIEP), NASA's PACE mission, and the Schmidt Ocean Institute.
    Keywords: biological carbon pump ; sediment traps ; fecal pellets ; aggregates ; particles ; salp
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 35(10), (2021): e2021GB007058, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007058.
    Description: Continental shelves are important sources of iron (Fe) in the land-dominated Arctic Ocean. To understand the export of Fe from the Arctic to Baffin Bay (BB) and the North Atlantic, we studied the alteration of the Fe signature in waters transiting the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). During its transit through the CAA, inflowing Arctic Waters from the Canada Basin become enriched in Fe as result of strong sediment resuspension and enhanced sediment-water interactions (non-reductive dissolution). These high Fe waters are exported to BB, where approximately 10.7 kt of Fe are delivered yearly from Lancaster Sound. Furthermore, if the two remaining main CAA pathways (Jones Sound and Nares Strait) are included, this shelf environment would be a dominant source term of Fe (dFe + pFe: 26–90 kt y−1) to Baffin Bay. The conservative Fe flux estimate (26 kt y−1) is 1.7–38 times greater than atmospheric inputs, and may be crucial in supporting primary production and nitrogen fixation in BB and beyond.
    Description: This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Grant NSERC-CCAR), the Northern Scientific Training Program, and by the University of British Columbia through a Four Year Fellowship to B. Rogalla.
    Description: 2022-03-20
    Keywords: iron distributions ; sediment resuspension ; iron export ; trace metal biogeochemistry ; Canadian Arctic Ocean ; GEOTRACES
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Horner, T. J., Little, S. H., Conway, T. M., Farmer, J. R., Hertzberg, J. E., Janssen, D. J., Lough, A. J. M., McKay, J. L., Tessin, A., Galer, S. J. G., Jaccard, S. L., Lacan, F., Paytan, A., Wuttig, K., & GEOTRACES–PAGES Biological Productivity Working Group Members (2021). Bioactive trace metals and their isotopes as paleoproductivity proxies: an assessment using GEOTRACES-era data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35(11), e2020GB006814. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006814.
    Description: Phytoplankton productivity and export sequester climatically significant quantities of atmospheric carbon dioxide as particulate organic carbon through a suite of processes termed the biological pump. Constraining how the biological pump operated in the past is important for understanding past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and Earth's climate history. However, reconstructing the history of the biological pump requires proxies. Due to their intimate association with biological processes, several bioactive trace metals and their isotopes are potential proxies for past phytoplankton productivity, including iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, molybdenum, barium, nickel, chromium, and silver. Here, we review the oceanic distributions, driving processes, and depositional archives for these nine metals and their isotopes based on GEOTRACES-era datasets. We offer an assessment of the overall maturity of each isotope system to serve as a proxy for diagnosing aspects of past ocean productivity and identify priorities for future research. This assessment reveals that cadmium, barium, nickel, and chromium isotopes offer the most promise as tracers of paleoproductivity, whereas iron, zinc, copper, and molybdenum do not. Too little is known about silver to make a confident determination. Intriguingly, the trace metals that are least sensitive to productivity may be used to track other aspects of ocean chemistry, such as nutrient sources, particle scavenging, organic complexation, and ocean redox state. These complementary sensitivities suggest new opportunities for combining perspectives from multiple proxies that will ultimately enable painting a more complete picture of marine paleoproductivity, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate history.
    Description: T. J. Horner acknowledges support from NSF; S. H. Little from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/P018181/1); T. M. Conway from the University of South Florida; and, J. R. Farmer from the Max Planck Society, the Tuttle Fund of the Department of Geosciences of Princeton University, the Grand Challenges Program of the Princeton Environmental Institute, and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment of Princeton University.
    Keywords: biological pump ; marine chemistry ; biogeochemical cycles ; micronutrients ; phytoplankton ; paleoceanography
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 49, (2022): e2021GL096180, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021gl096180.
    Description: In the subtropical gyres, phytoplankton rely on eddies for transporting nutrients from depth to the euphotic zone. But, what controls the rate of nutrient supply for new production? We show that vertical nutrient flux both depends on the vertical motion within the eddying flow and varies nonlinearly with the phytoplankton growth rate. Flux is maximized when the growth rate matches the inverse of the decorrelation timescale for vertical motion. Using a three-dimensional ocean model and a linear nutrient uptake model, we find that phytoplankton productivity is maximized for a growth rate of 1/3 day−1, which corresponds to the timescale of submesoscale dynamics. Variability in the frequency of vertical motion across different physical features of the flow favors phytoplankton production with different growth rates. Such a growth-transport feedback can generate diversity in the phytoplankton community structure at submesoscales and higher net productivity in the presence of community diversity.
    Description: MAF and AM were funded by N00014-16-1-3130 (ONR) and MAF was also supported by the Martin Fellowship, MIT.
    Description: 2022-07-20
    Keywords: vertical velocity ; nutrient supply ; phytoplankton growth ; diversity ; new production
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Goodkin, N. F., Samanta, D., Bolton, A., Ong, M. R., Hoang, P. K., Vo, S. T., Karnauskas, K. B., & Hughen, K. A. Natural and anthropogenic forcing of multi-decadal to centennial scale variability of sea surface temperature in the South China Sea. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 36(10), (2021): e2021PA004233, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021PA004233.
    Description: Four hundred years of reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from a coral located off the coast of Vietnam show significant multi-decadal to centennial-scale variability in wet and dry seasons. Wet and dry season SST co-vary significantly at multi-decadal timescales, and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) explains the majority of variability in both seasons. A newly reconstructed wet season IPO index was compared to other IPO reconstructions, showing significant long-term agreement with varying amplitude of negative IPO signals based on geographic location. Dry season SST also correlates to sea level pressure anomalies and the East Asian Winter Monsoon, although with an inverse relationship from established interannual behavior, as previously seen with an ocean circulation proxy from the same coral. Centennial-scale variability in wet and dry season SST shows 300 years of near simultaneous changes, with an abrupt decoupling of the records around 1900, after which the dry season continues a long-term cooling trend while the wet season remains almost constant. Climate model simulations indicate greenhouse gases as the largest contributor to the decoupling of the wet and dry season SSTs and demonstrate increased heat advection to the western South China Sea in the wet season, potentially disrupting the covariance in seasonal SST.
    Description: This research was supported by a Singapore National Research Fellowship to N.F. Goodkin (NRFF-2012-03) as administered by the Earth Observatory of Singapore and by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 2 award to N.F. Goodkin, K.A. Hughen, and K.B. Karnauskas (MOE-2016-T2-1-016). D. Samanta was partially supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Tier 3 award (MOE2019-T3-1-004).
    Keywords: IPO ; coral ; monsoon ; SST
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(10), (2021): e2021JC017537, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017537.
    Description: Mixed-layer dynamics exert a first order control on nutrient and light availability for phytoplankton. In this study, we examine the influence of mixed-layer dynamics on net community production (NCP) in the Southern Ocean on intra-seasonal, seasonal, interannual, and decadal timescales, using biogeochemical Argo floats and satellite-derived NCP estimates during the period from 1997 to 2020. On intraseasonal timescales, the shoaling of the mixed layer is more likely to enhance NCP in austral spring and winter, suggesting an alleviation of light limitation. As expected, NCP generally increases with light availability on seasonal timescales. On interannual timescales, NCP is correlated with mixed layer depth (MLD) and mixed-layer-averaged photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in austral spring and winter, especially in regions with deeper mixed layers. Though recent studies have argued that winter MLD controls the subsequent growing season's iron and light availability, the limited number of Argo float observations contemporaneous with our satellite observations do not show a significant correlation between NCP and the previous-winter's MLD on interannual timescales. Over the 1997–2020 period, we observe regional trends in NCP (e.g., increasing around S. America), but no trend for the entire Southern Ocean. Overall, our results show that the dependence of NCP on MLD is a complex function of timescales.
    Description: Work was supported by NSF OPP-1043339 to N.Cassar and NASA NNX13AC94G to M. S. Lozier. Z. Li was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship (Grant No. NNX13AN85H) and the Postdoctoral Scholarship Program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Description: 2022-03-21
    Keywords: mixed layer depth ; net community production ; Southern Ocean
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(10),(2021): e2021JC017375.,https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017375.
    Description: The Deep Water Horizon oil spill dramatically impacted the Gulf of Mexico from the seafloor to the surface. While dispersion of contaminants at the surface has been extensively studied, little is known about deep water dispersion properties. This study describes the results of the Deep Water Dispersion Experiment (DWDE), which consisted of the release of surface drifters and acoustically tracked RAFOS floats drifting at 300 and 1,500 dbar in the Gulf of Mexico. We show that surface diffusivity is elevated and decreases with depth: on average, diffusivity at 1,500 dbar is 5 times smaller than at the surface, suggesting that the dispersion of contaminants at depth is a significantly slower process than at the surface. This study also examines the turbulent regimes driving the dispersion, although conflicting evidences and large uncertainties do not allow definitive conclusions. At all depths, while the growth of dispersion and kurtosis with time supports the possibility of an exponential regime at very short time scales, indicating that early dispersion is nonlocal, finite size Lyapunov exponents support the hypothesis of local dispersion, suggesting that eddies of size comparable to the initial separation (6 km), may dominate the early dispersion. At longer time scales, the quadratic growth of dispersion is indicative of a ballistic regime, where a mean shear flow would be the dominating process. Examination of the along- and across-bathymetry components of float velocities supports the idea that boundary currents could be the source for this shear dispersion.
    Description: This research has been funded by the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology - Mexican Ministry of Energy - Hydrocarbon Fund, project 201441. This is a contribution of the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium (CIGoM).
    Description: 2022-03-18
    Keywords: Lagrangian experiment ; turbulence ; RAFOS ; relative dispersion ; Gulf of Mexico ; Deep Water Dispersion
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 49, (2022): e2021GL096530, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021gl096530.
    Description: Water-mass transports in the vast and seemingly quiescent abyssal ocean, basically along topographically-guided pathways, play a pivotal role in the Earth's climate. The pulse of abyssal circulations can be taken with observations at topographic choke points. The Yap-Mariana Junction (YMJ) is the exclusive choke point through which the Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) enters the Philippine Sea. Here, we quantify the LCDW transport and its variability based on mooring observations at the YMJ and the Mariana Trench (MT). The LCDW flows northward toward the Philippine Sea as an intensified current on the western side of the YMJ, with maximum mean velocity reaching 7.6 cm/s. The mean LCDW transports through the MT and the YMJ are 2.2 ± 1.0 Sv and 2.1 ± 0.4 Sv, respectively. Reversal flow at autumn in both the YMJ and MT is captured, indicating seasonal variability of the abyssal flow.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 91858203, 91958205, 42076027, 41676011), the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant no. 2018YFC0309800), the Global Change and Air–Sea Interaction Project (Grant no. GASI-IPOVAI-01-03, GASI-IPOVAI-01-02).
    Description: 2022-07-28
    Keywords: abyssal circulation ; Yap-Mariana Junction ; lower circumpolar deep water
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Reyes-Macaya, D., Hoogakker, B., Martinez-Mendez, G., Llanillo, P. J., Grasse, P., Mohtadi, M., Mix, A., Leng, M. J., Struck, U., McCorkle, D. C., Troncoso, M., Gayo, E. M., Lange, C. B., Farias, L., Carhuapoma, W., Graco, M., Cornejo-D’Ottone, M., De Pol Holz, R., Fernandez, C., Narvaez, D., Vargas, C. A., García-Araya, F., Hebbeln, D. Isotopic characterization of water masses in the Southeast Pacific Region: paleoceanographic implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127(1), (2022): e2021JC017525, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017525.
    Description: In this study, we used stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O), deuterium (δD), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in combination with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrient concentrations to characterize the coastal (71°–78°W) and an oceanic (82°–98°W) water masses (SAAW—Subantarctic Surface Water; STW—Subtropical Water; ESSW—Equatorial Subsurface water; AAIW—Antarctic Intermediate Water; PDW—Pacific Deep Water) of the Southeast Pacific (SEP). The results show that δ18O and δD can be used to differentiate between SAAW-STW, SAAW-ESSW, and ESSW-AAIW. δ13CDIC signatures can be used to differentiate between STW-ESSW (oceanic section), SAAW-ESSW, ESSW-AAIW, and AAIW-PDW. Compared with the oceanic section, our new coastal section highlights differences in both the chemistry and geometry of water masses above 1,000 m. Previous paleoceanographic studies using marine sediments from the SEP continental margin used the present-day hydrological oceanic transect to compare against, as the coastal section was not sufficiently characterized. We suggest that our new results of the coastal section should be used for past characterizations of the SEP water masses that are usually based on continental margin sediment samples.
    Description: R/V Sonne cruises (SO102, SO211 ad SO245) were financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research projects #03G0102A, #03G0211A and #03G0245A. SO261 cruise was funded by the HADES-ERC Advanced Grant (“Benthic diagenesis and microbiology of hadal trenches” Grant agreement No. 669947) awarded to R. N. Glud (SDU, Denmark). SO245 cruise recived contributions from the Max Planck Society (Germany), the German State of Lower Saxony, the National Environmental Research Council of Great Britain and the Science Foundation of Ireland. R/V Meteor cruise M93 was financed by the Sonderforschungsbereich 754 “Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean” (www.sfb754.de), which is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. “Expedición TAITAO” was financed by the grant “Concurso Nacional de Asignación de Tiempo de Buque ASG-61 Cabo de Hornos” AUB180003, FONDECyT grants 11161091 (DN), 1180954 (CF), and the COPAS Sur-Austral Center (CONICYT PIA APOYO CCTE AFB170006). Sampling at Time-Series station 18 off Concepción during 2015 was funded by several FONDECYT/ANID grants from researchers at the Department of Oceanography and Research Line 5 of COPAS Sur-Austral (UdeC). ANID—Chile National Competition for ship time (AUB 150006/12806) financed the expedition LowpHOX organized by the Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO). The expedition Crio1218 was financed by the PPR 137 titled “Proyecto de Estudio Integrado del Afloramiento Costero Frente a Perú" and sponsored by IMARPE-Perú. Additional funding was provided by the ANID—Millennium Science Initiative Program—NCN19_153 (Millennium Nucleus UPWELL), ANID/FONDAP (CR)2 15110009 (LF and EMG), FONDECYT Grant 1210171 (CAV), ANID/FONDAP IDEAL 15150003 (CBL), and the Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO, ICN12_019). Dharma A. Reyes-Macaya was supported by Becas Chile (17342817-0), DAAD (57144001) and FARGO project (FAte of ocean oxygenation in a waRminG wOrld, UKRI).
    Keywords: oxygen and deuterium stable isotopes in seawater ; carbon stable isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon ; Southeast Pacific ; water mass distribution ; paleoceanography proxies
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Brinkmann, I., Ni, S., Schweizer, M., Oldham, V. E., Quintana Krupinski, N. B., Medjoubi, K., Somogyi, A., Whitehouse, M. J., Hansel, C. M., Barras, C., Bernhard, J. M., & Filipsson, H. L. Foraminiferal Mn/Ca as bottom-water hypoxia proxy: an assessment of Nonionella stella in the Santa Barbara Basin, USA. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 36(11), (2021): e2020PA004167, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020PA004167.
    Description: Hypoxia is of increasing concern in marine areas, calling for a better understanding of mechanisms leading to decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations ([O2]). Much can be learned about the processes and implications of deoxygenation for marine ecosystems using proxy records from low-oxygen sites, provided proxies, such as the manganese (Mn) to calcium (Ca) ratio in benthic foraminiferal calcite, are available and well calibrated. Here we report a modern geochemical data set from three hypoxic sites within the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), USA, where we study the response of Mn/Caforam in the benthic foraminifer Nonionella stella to variations in sedimentary redox conditions (Mn, Fe) and bottom-water dissolved [O2]. We combine molecular species identification by small subunit rDNA sequencing with morphological characterization and assign the SBB N. stella used here to a new phylotype (T6). Synchrotron-based scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) show low Mn incorporation (partition coefficient DMn 〈 0.05) and limited proxy sensitivity of N. stella, at least within the range of dissolved [O2] (2.7–9.6 μmol/l) and Mnpore-water gradients (2.12–21.59 μmol/l). Notably, even though intra- and interspecimen Mn/Ca variability (33% and 58%, respectively) was only partially controlled by the environment, Mn/Caforam significantly correlated with both pore-water Mn and bottom-water [O2]. However, the prevalent suboxic bottom-water conditions and limited dissolved [O2] range complicate the interpretation of trace-elemental trends. Additional work involving other oxygenation proxies and samples from a wider oxygen gradient should be pursued to further develop foraminiferal Mn/Ca as an indicator for hypoxic conditions.
    Description: We acknowledge funding from the Swedish Research Council VR (grant numbers 2017-04190 and 2017-00671), the Crafoord Foundation, and the Royal Physiographic Society in Lund, Sweden. Shiptime provided by US NSF IOS 1557430. We acknowledge SOLEIL for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities and the beamline NANOSCOPIUM (proposal number 20181115). The synchrotron-based experiments were supported by CALIPSOplus under the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020 (grant agreement 730872). The SIMS analyses were jointly supported by the Swedish Museum of Natural History and Swedish Research Council. This is NordSIMS contribution No. 694. J. M. Bernhard and C. M. Hansel also acknowledge funding from the US National Science Foundation (IOS 1557430).
    Keywords: benthic foraminifera ; deoxygenation ; micro-analytical techniques ; Mn/Ca ; proxy calibration
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hines, S. K. V., Bolge, L., Goldstein, S. L., Charles, C. D., Hall, I. R., & Hemming, S. R. Little change in ice age water mass structure from Cape Basin benthic neodymium and carbon isotopes. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 36(11), (2021): e2021PA004281, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021PA004281.
    Description: A common conception of the deep ocean during ice age episodes is that the upper circulation cell in the Atlantic was shoaled at the Last Glacial Maximum compared to today, and that this configuration facilitated enhanced carbon storage in the deep ocean, contributing to glacial CO2 draw-down. Here, we test this notion in the far South Atlantic, investigating changes in glacial circulation structure using paired neodymium and benthic carbon isotope measurements from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1479, at 2,615 m water depth in the Cape Basin. We infer changes in circulation structure across the last glacial cycle by aligning our site with other existing carbon and neodymium isotope records from the Cape Basin, examining vertical isotope gradients, while determining the relative timing of inferred circulation changes at different depths. We find that Site U1479 had the most negative neodymium isotopic composition across the last glacial cycle among the analyzed sites, indicating that this depth was most strongly influenced by North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in both interglacial and glacial intervals. This observation precludes a hypothesized dramatic shoaling of NADW above ∼2,000 m. Our evidence, however, indicates greater stratification between mid-depth and abyssal sites throughout the last glacial cycle, conditions that developed in Marine Isotope Stage 5. These conditions still may have contributed to glacial carbon storage in the deep ocean, despite little change in the mid-depth ocean structure.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grant OCE-1831415 (S. K. V. Hines, S. L. Goldstein., S. R. Hemming.).
    Description: 2022-04-25
    Keywords: Ocean circulation ; Neodymium isotopes ; Carbon isotopes
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 48(22), (2021): e2021GL094396, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094396.
    Description: Newly available mooring observations from the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) show an abrupt decline in Iceland Scotland Overflow (ISOW) salinity from 2017 to 2018 summer. Previous declines in ISOW salinity of similar magnitude have largely been attributed to changes in convectively formed deep waters in the Nordic Seas on decadal time scales. We show that this rapid decline in salinity was driven by entrainment of a major upper ocean salinity anomaly in the Iceland Basin. This is shown by tracking the propagation of the upper ocean anomaly into ISOW using a combination of mooring and Argo observations, surface drifter trajectories, and numerical model results. A 2-year total transit time from the upper ocean into the ISOW layer was found. The results show that entrainment allows for rapid modification of ISOW, and consequently the lower limb of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, on subdecadal timescales.
    Description: Financial support for this research was provided by the US National Science Foundation under grants OCE-1259398 and OCE-1756231. S. Zou is supported by the US National Science Foundation Grants OCE-1756361.
    Description: 2022-05-15
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(11), (2021): e2021JC017526, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017526.
    Description: The traditional understanding of the regional circulation in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas is that the Korean Coastal Current flows southward, following the isobaths of 20–50 m. However, an unusual tongue-shaped structure of cold water is observed in satellite SST data in January 2017, indicating a possible offshore spread of cold coastal water into the middle Southern Yellow Sea (SYS). Additional observations, including in situ hydrographic data as well as direct current measurement, also suggest this cross-shelf transport of the Korean Coastal Water in January 2017. Our analysis shows that this flow breaks through the isobaths at ∼37°N, moves southward between 50–75 m, and eventually veers anti-cyclonically at ∼35°N to join the western slope of the SYS. This circulation pattern is further supported by heat budget analysis. Diagnosis of potential vorticity (PV) reveals that the elevated negative PV anomaly imposed by surface wind stress favors this unusual cross-shelf transport. The change of wind pattern, although under a deceasing wind speed condition, plays an important role. This work provides an alternative view of the wintertime circulation pattern and motivates future studies of the variability of the coastal currents over interannual and longer time scales in the SYS.
    Description: his study was supported by the Shandong Provincial Key Research and Development Program (2019JZZY020713, 2019GHY112057), the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFC1401406, 2016YFA0600900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (42076010, 42130403), National Fund Committee-Shandong joint fund (U1706215), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2020042010), and Ocean University of China-Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Cooperative Research Initiative (24887).
    Description: 2022-05-01
    Keywords: offshore diversion of coastal water ; Korean coastal water (KCW) ; wind-induced potential vorticity (PV) ; subtle change in wind direction ; bathymetric amplification of wind variation ; sandwiched cold tongue
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hudak, M. R., Bindeman, I. N., Loewen, M. W., & Giachetti, T. Syn-eruptive hydration of volcanic ash records pyroclast-water interaction in explosive eruptions. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(23), (2021): e2021GL094141, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094141.
    Description: Magma-water interaction can dramatically influence the explosivity of volcanic eruptions. However, syn- and post-eruptive diffusion of external (non-magmatic) water into volcanic glass remains poorly constrained and may bias interpretation of water in juvenile products. Hydrogen isotopes in ash from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, record syn-eruptive hydration by vaporized glacial meltwater. Both ash aggregation and hydration occurred in the wettest regions of the plume, which resulted in the removal and deposition of the most hydrated ash in proximal areas 〈50 km from the vent. Diffusion models show that the high temperatures of pyroclast-water interactions (〉400°C) are more important than the cooling rate in facilitating hydration. These observations suggest that syn-eruptive glass hydration occurred where meltwater was entrained at high temperature, in the plume margins near the vent. Ash in the drier plume interior remained insulated from entrained meltwater until it cooled sufficiently to avoid significant hydration.
    Description: This work was supported by a Geological Society of America Bruce L. "Biff" Reed Scholarship Award and NSF Grant EAR 1822977.
    Description: 2022-05-15
    Keywords: volcanic plumes ; volcanic ash ; glass hydration ; phreatomagmatic ; hydrogen isotopes ; H2O diffusion
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 48(20), (2021): e2021GL094693, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094693.
    Description: Pacific Summer Water (PSW) plays a critical role in the ecosystem of the western Arctic Ocean, impacting sea-ice melt and providing freshwater to the basin. Most of the water exits the Chukchi Sea shelf through Barrow Canyon, but the manner in which this occurs and the ultimate fate of the water remain uncertain. Using an extensive collection of historical hydrographic and velocity data, we demonstrate how the PSW outflow depends on different wind conditions, dictating whether the warm water progresses eastward or westward away from the canyon. The current carrying the water westward along the continental slope splits into different branches, influenced by the strength and extent of the Beaufort Gyre, while the eastward penetration of PSW along the shelfbreak is limited. Our results provide the first broad-scale view of how PSW is transferred from the shelf to the basin, highlighting the role of winds, boundary currents, and eddy exchange.
    Description: Funding for the project was provided by National Science Foundation grant OPP-1733564 and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration grant NA14OAR4320158 (P. Lin, R. S. Pickart, J. Li), and Trond Mohn Foundation Grant BFS2016REK01 (K. Vage).
    Description: 2022-04-01
    Keywords: Pacific Summer Water ; Arctic ; Beaufort Gyre ; Chukchi Slope Current ; Beaufort Shelfbreak Jet ; Barrow Canyon
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Dzwonkowski, B., Fournier, S., Lockridge, G., Coogan, J., Liu, Z., & Park, K. Cascading weather events amplify the coastal thermal conditions prior to the shelf transit of Hurricane Sally (2020). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(12), (2021): e2021JC017957, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017957.
    Description: Changes in tropical cyclone intensity prior to landfall represent a significant risk to human life and coastal infrastructure. Such changes can be influenced by shelf water temperatures through their role in mediating heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. However, the evolution of shelf sea surface temperature during a storm is dependent on the initial thermal conditions of the water column, information that is often unavailable. Here, observational data from multiple monitoring stations and satellite sensors were used to identify the sequence of events that led to the development of storm-favorable thermal conditions in the Mississippi Bight prior to the transit of Hurricane Sally (2020), a storm that rapidly intensified over the shelf. The annual peak in depth-average temperature of 〉29°C that occurred prior to the arrival of Hurricane Sally was the result of two distinct warming periods caused by a cascade of weather events. The event sequence transitioned the system from below average to above average thermal conditions over a 25-day period. The transition was initiated with the passage of Hurricane Marco (2020), which mixed the upper water column, transferring heat downward and minimizing the cold bottom water reserved over the shelf. The subsequent reheating of the upper ocean by surface heat flux from the atmosphere, followed by downwelling winds, effectively elevated shelf-wide thermal conditions for the subsequent storm, Hurricane Sally. The coupling of climatological downwelling winds and warm sea surface temperature suggest regions with such characteristics are at an elevated risk for storm intensification over the shelf.
    Description: his paper is a result of research funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's RESTORE Science Program under awards NA17NOS4510101 and NA19NOS4510194 to the University of South Alabama and Dauphin Island Sea Lab and by the NASA Physical Oceanography program under award 80NSSC21K0553 and WBS 281945.02.25.04.67 to the University of South Alabama and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A portion of this work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. We thank the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Ocean Ecology Laboratory, Ocean Biology Processing Group for the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra ocean color data; 2014 Reprocessing. NASA OB.DAAC, Greenbelt, MD, USA. 10.5067/AQUA/MODIS/MODIS_OC.2014.0.
    Keywords: tropical cyclones ; coastal ocean ; cascading events ; temperature ; downwelling ; Hurricane Sally
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12),(2021): e2021JC017549, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017549.
    Description: Rivers deliver freshwater and entrained terrestrial materials into the coastal ocean from adjacent continental landmasses. In the coastal Arctic, a large fraction of terrestrially sourced dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) is delivered by snowpack meltwaters of the spring freshet, when many coastal ocean regions remain covered by landfast ice. Here we report on an array of moored sensors and telemetering ice buoys deployed in advance of the 2018 spring freshet in Stefansson Sound near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. This instrumented array monitored temporal and spatial variations in hydrographic properties before and during the freshet, as well as optical properties that serve as proxies for DOC and POC contained in the freshet plumes. The temporal evolution of these optical signals occurred in five stages, each associated with characteristic water column structural and kinematic characteristics. Spatial differences among fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and optical backscatter (OBS) signals across the ice buoy array, evident later during the freshet, allowed identification of plume waters sourced from the Kuparuk, Sagavanirktok, and Shaviovik drainage basins.
    Description: This work was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems program (NNX17AI72G). This is contribution #11 from the Scholarly Union of Bio-Physical Arctic Researchers.
    Description: 2022-05-25
    Keywords: arctic ; estuarine ; carbon ; optics ; rivers ; sea ice
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hawco, N. J., Barone, B., Church, M. J., Babcock-Adams, L., Repeta, D. J., Wear, E. K., Foreman, R. K., Bjorkman, K. M., Bent, S., Van Mooy, B. A. S., Sheyn, U., DeLong, E. F., Acker, M., Kelly, R. L., Nelson, A., Ranieri, J., Clemente, T. M., Karl, D. M., & John, S. G. Iron depletion in the deep chlorophyll maximum: mesoscale eddies as natural iron fertilization experiments. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35(12), (2021): e2021GB007112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007112.
    Description: In stratified oligotrophic waters, phytoplankton communities forming the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) are isolated from atmospheric iron sources above and remineralized iron sources below. Reduced supply leads to a minimum in dissolved iron (dFe) near 100 m, but it is unclear if iron limits growth at the DCM. Here, we propose that natural iron addition events occur regularly with the passage of mesoscale eddies, which alter the supply of dFe and other nutrients relative to the availability of light, and can be used to test for iron limitation at the DCM. This framework is applied to two eddies sampled in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Observations in an anticyclonic eddy center indicated downwelling of iron-rich surface waters, leading to increased dFe at the DCM but no increase in productivity. In contrast, uplift of isopycnals within a cyclonic eddy center increased supply of both nitrate and dFe to the DCM, and led to dominance of picoeukaryotic phytoplankton. Iron addition experiments did not increase productivity in either eddy, but significant enhancement of leucine incorporation in the light was observed in the cyclonic eddy, a potential indicator of iron stress among Prochlorococcus. Rapid cycling of siderophores and low dFe:nitrate uptake ratios also indicate that a portion of the microbial community was stressed by low iron. However, near-complete nitrate drawdown in this eddy, which represents an extreme case in nutrient supply compared to nearby Hawaii Ocean Time-series observations, suggests that recycling of dFe in oligotrophic ecosystems is sufficient to avoid iron limitation in the DCM under typical conditions.
    Description: The expedition and analyses were supported by the Simons Foundation SCOPE Grant 329108 to S. G. John, M. J. Church, D. J. Repeta, B. Van Mooy, E. F. DeLong, and D. M. Karl. N. J. Hawco was supported by a Simons Foundation Marine Microbial Ecology and Evolution postdoctoral fellowship (602538) and Simons Foundation grant 823167.
    Keywords: chlorophyll ; photosynthesis ; iron limitation ; oligotrophic ; Prochlorococcus ; eddies
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12),(2021): e2021JC017884, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017884.
    Description: The Southern Ocean, an important region for the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), features strong surface currents due to substantial mesoscale meanders and eddies. These features interact with the wind and modify the momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. Although such interactions are known to reduce momentum transfer, their impact on air-sea carbon exchange remains unclear. Using a 1/20° physical-biogeochemical coupled ocean model, we examined the impact of the current-wind interaction on the surface carbon concentration and the air-sea carbon exchange in the Southern Ocean. The current-wind interaction decreased winter partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at the ocean surface mainly south of the northern subantarctic front. It also reduced pCO2 in summer, indicating enhanced uptake, but not to the same extent as the winter loss. Consequently, the net outgassing of CO2 was found to be reduced by approximately 17% when including current-wind interaction. These changes stem from the combined effect of vertical mixing and Ekman divergence. A budget analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) revealed that a weakening of vertical mixing by current-wind interaction reduces the carbon supply from below, and particularly so in winter. The weaker wind stress additionally lowers the subsurface DIC concentration in summer, which can affect the vertical diffusive flux of carbon in winter. Our study suggests that ignoring current-wind interactions in the Southern Ocean can overestimate winter CO2 outgassing.
    Description: The Southern Ocean, an important region for the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), features strong surface currents due to substantial mesoscale meanders and eddies. These features interact with the wind and modify the momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. Although such interactions are known to reduce momentum transfer, their impact on air-sea carbon exchange remains unclear. Using a 1/20° physical-biogeochemical coupled ocean model, we examined the impact of the current-wind interaction on the surface carbon concentration and the air-sea carbon exchange in the Southern Ocean. The current-wind interaction decreased winter partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at the ocean surface mainly south of the northern subantarctic front. It also reduced pCO2 in summer, indicating enhanced uptake, but not to the same extent as the winter loss. Consequently, the net outgassing of CO2 was found to be reduced by approximately 17% when including current-wind interaction. These changes stem from the combined effect of vertical mixing and Ekman divergence. A budget analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) revealed that a weakening of vertical mixing by current-wind interaction reduces the carbon supply from below, and particularly so in winter. The weaker wind stress additionally lowers the subsurface DIC concentration in summer, which can affect the vertical diffusive flux of carbon in winter. Our study suggests that ignoring current-wind interactions in the Southern Ocean can overestimate winter CO2 outgassing.
    Description: 2022-05-15
    Keywords: Southern Ocean ; Current-Wind interaction ; CO2 flux ; Air-Sea interaction ; Biogeochemistry ; DIC
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Shinoda, T., Pei, S., Wang, W., Fu, J. X., Lien, R.-C., Seo, H., & Soloviev, A. Climate Process Team: improvement of ocean component of NOAA Climate Forecast System relevant to Madden-Julian Oscillation simulations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(12), (2021): e2021MS002658, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021MS002658.
    Description: Given the increasing attention in forecasting weather and climate on the subseasonal time scale in recent years, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced to support Climate Process Teams (CPTs) which aim to improve the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) prediction by NOAA’s global forecasting models. Our team supported by this CPT program focuses primarily on the improvement of upper ocean mixing parameterization and air-sea fluxes in the NOAA Climate Forecast System (CFS). Major improvement includes the increase of the vertical resolution in the upper ocean and the implementation of General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) in CFS. In addition to existing mixing schemes in GOTM, a newly developed scheme based on observations in the tropical ocean, with further modifications, has been included. A better performance of ocean component is demonstrated through one-dimensional ocean model and ocean general circulation model simulations validated by the comparison with in-situ observations. These include a large sea surface temperature (SST) diurnal cycle during the MJO suppressed phase, intraseasonal SST variations associated with the MJO, ocean response to atmospheric cold pools, and deep cycle turbulence. Impact of the high-vertical resolution of ocean component on CFS simulation of MJO-associated ocean temperature variations is evident. Also, the magnitude of SST changes caused by high-resolution ocean component is sufficient to influence the skill of MJO prediction by CFS.
    Description: This research was supported by NOAA Grant NA15OAR431074. Computing resources were provided partly by the HPC systems at the Texas A&M University (College Station and Corpus Christi) and the Climate Simulation Laboratory at NCAR's Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, sponsored by the National Science Foundation. TS and SP are supported by DOD Grant W911NF-20-1-0309. TS is also supported by NSF Grant OCE-1658218 and NOAA Grant NA17OAR4310256.
    Keywords: Climate Process Team ; NOAA Climate Forecast System ; Madden-Julian Oscillation ; DYNAMO field campaign ; ocean mixing process
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-05-29
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12), (2021): e2021JC017621, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017621.
    Description: Wind-driven coastal upwelling is an important process that transports nutrients from the deep ocean to the surface, fueling biological productivity. To better understand what affects the upward transport of nutrients (and many other properties such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and carbon), it is necessary to know the depth of source waters (i.e., “source depth”) or the density of source waters (“source density”). Here, we focus on the upwelling driven by offshore Ekman transport and present a scaling relation for the source depth and density by considering a balance between the wind-driven upwelling and eddy-driven restratification processes. The scaling suggests that the source depth varies as (τ/N)1/2, while the source density goes as (τ1/2N3/2), where τ is the wind stress and N is the stratification. We test these relations using numerical simulations of an idealized coastal upwelling front with varying constant wind forcing and initial stratification, and we find good agreement between the theory and numerical experiments. This work highlights the importance of considering stratification in wind-driven upwelling dynamics, especially when thinking about how nutrient transport and primary production of coastal upwelling regions might change with increased ocean warming and stratification.
    Description: This work was funded by the ONR grant N00014-17-1-2390, and J. He was supported by the NASA FINESST award 80NSSC19K1350.
    Description: 2022-05-29
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-06-06
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Piecuch, C. G., Coats, S., Dangendorf, S., Landerer, F. W., Reager, J. T., Thompson, P. R., & Wahl, T. High-tide floods and storm surges during atmospheric rivers on the US West Coast. Geophysical Research Letters, 49(2), (2022): e2021GL096820, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL096820.
    Description: Atmospheric rivers (ARs) cause inland hydrological impacts related to precipitation. However, little is known about coastal hazards associated with these events. We elucidate high-tide floods (HTFs) and storm surges during ARs on the US West Coast during 1980–2016. HTFs and ARs cooccur more often than expected from chance. Between 10% and 63% of HTFs coincide with ARs on average, depending on location. However, interannual-to-decadal variations in HTFs are due more to tides and mean sea-level changes than storminess variability. Only 2–15% of ARs coincide with HTFs, suggesting that ARs typically must cooccur with high tides or mean sea levels to cause HTFs. Storm surges during ARs reflect local wind, pressure, and precipitation forcing: meridional wind and barometric pressure are primary drivers, but precipitation makes secondary contributions. This study highlights the relevance of ARs to coastal impacts, clarifies the drivers of storm surge during ARs, and identifies future research directions.
    Description: This work was supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sea Level Change Team awards 80NSSC20K1241 and 80NM0018D0004 (to C. G. P.). The contribution from F. W. L. and J. T. R. represents research carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004).
    Keywords: atmospheric rivers ; high-tide flooding ; storm surge ; coastal impacts ; coastal hazards ; sea level
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-06-06
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 49(2), (2022): e2021GL096216, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL096216.
    Description: Ocean-to-ice heat flux (OHF) is important in regulating the variability of sea ice mass balance. Using surface drifting buoy observations, we show that during winter in the Arctic Ocean's Beaufort Gyre region, OHF increased from 0.76 ± 0.05 W/m2 over 2006–2012 to 1.63 ± 0.08 W/m2 over 2013–2018. We find that this is a result of thinner and less-compact sea ice that promotes enhanced winter ice growth, stronger ocean vertical convection, and subsurface heat entrainment. In contrast, Ekman upwelling declined over the study period, suggesting it had a secondary contribution to OHF changes. The enhanced ice growth creates a cooler, saltier, and deeper ocean surface mixed layer. In addition, the enhanced vertical temperature gradient near the mixed layer base in later years favors stronger entrainment of subsurface heat. OHF and its increase during 2006–2018 were not geographically uniform, with hot spots found in an upwelling region where ice was most seasonally variable.
    Description: This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFA0605901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41941012; 42076225; 41776192; 41976219; 41706211). S. C. was supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Early Career Scientist Fund and the Lenfest Fund for Early Career Scientists. J. Z. was supported by U.S. NSF Grants PLR-1603259, PLR-1602985, and NNA-1927785. M. S. was supported by U.S. ONR Grant N00014-17-1-2545, NSF Grants PLR 1603266 and OPP-1751363 and NOAA Grants NA15OAR4320063AM170 and NA20OAR4320271.
    Keywords: ocean-to-ice heat flux ; entrainment heat flux ; Ekman pumping ; Beaufort Gyre ; sea ice retreat ; ice leads
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-06-06
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 49(2), (2022): e2021GL096863, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL096863.
    Description: The Patagonian slab window has been proposed to enhance the solid Earth response to ice mass load changes in the overlying Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields (NPI and SPI, respectively). Here, we present the first regional seismic velocity model covering the entire north-south extent of the slab window. A slow velocity anomaly in the uppermost mantle indicates warm mantle temperature, low viscosity, and possibly partial melt. Low velocities just below the Moho suggest that the lithospheric mantle has been thermally eroded over the youngest part of the slab window. The slowest part of the anomaly is north of 49°S, implying that the NPI and the northern SPI overlie lower viscosity mantle than the southern SPI. This comprehensive seismic mapping of the slab window provides key evidence supporting the previously hypothesized connection between post-Little Ice Age anthropogenic ice mass loss and rapid geodetically observed glacial isostatic uplift (≥4 cm/yr).
    Description: The facilities of the IRIS Consortium are supported by the National Science Foundation’s SAGE Award under Cooperative Support Agreement EAR-1851048. The GUANACO project is funded by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1714154 to WUSTL and EAR-1714662 to SMU, and Erik R. Ivins was supported by NASA under grant NNH19ZDA001N-GRACEFO.
    Description: 2022-07-18
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-06-06
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Zippel, S. F., Farrar, J. T., Zappa, C. J., & Plueddemann, A. J. Parsing the kinetic energy budget of the ocean surface mixed layer. Geophysical Research Letters, 49(2), (2022): 2021GL095920, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095920.
    Description: The total rate of work done on the ocean by the wind is of considerable interest for understanding global energy balances, as the energy from the wind drives ocean currents, grows surface waves, and forces vertical mixing. A large but unknown fraction of this atmospheric energy is dissipated by turbulence in the upper ocean. The focus of this work is twofold. First, we describe a framework for evaluating the vertically integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation using measurable quantities from a surface mooring, showing the connection to the atmospheric, mean oceanic, and wave energy. Second, we use this framework to evaluate turbulent energetics in the mixed layer using 10 months of mooring data. This evaluation is made possible by recent advances in estimating TKE dissipation rates from long-enduring moorings. We find that surface fluxes are balanced by TKE dissipation rates in the mixed layer to within a factor of two.
    Description: This work was funded by NSF Award No. 2023 020, and by NASA as part of the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS), supporting field work for SPURS-1 (NASA Grant No. NNX11AE84G), and for analysis (NASA Grant No. 80NSSC18K1494), and as part of SASSIE (NASA Grant No. 80NSSC21K0832). This work was also funded by NSF through Grant Award Nos. 1756 839, 2049546, and by ONR through Grant N000141712880 (MISO-BoB).
    Keywords: air/sea interaction ; turbulence ; mixed layer ; wind work ; boundary layer ; waves
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-06-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 37(1), (2022): e020PA004137, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020PA004137.
    Description: Reconstructions of aeolian dust flux to West African margin sediments can be used to explore changing atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate over North Africa on millennial to orbital timescales. Here, we extend West African margin dust flux records back to 37 ka in a transect of sites from 19° to 27°N, and back to 67 ka at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 658C, in order to explore the interplay of orbital and high-latitude forcings on North African climate and make quantitative estimates of dust flux during the core of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The ODP 658C record shows a Green Sahara interval from 60 to 50 ka during a time of high Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, with dust fluxes similar to levels during the early Holocene African Humid Period, and an abrupt peak in flux during Heinrich event 5a (H5a). Dust fluxes increase from 50 to 35 ka while the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere cools, with peaks in dust flux associated with North Atlantic cool events. From 35 ka through the LGM dust deposition decreases in all cores, and little response is observed to low-latitude insolation changes. Dust fluxes at sites from 21° to 27°N were near late Holocene levels during the LGM time slice, suggesting a more muted LGM response than observed from mid-latitude dust sources. Records along the northwest African margin suggest important differences in wind responses during different stadials, with maximum dust flux anomalies centered south of 20°N during H1 and north of 20°N during the Younger Dryas.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF #OCE-1103262 to L. Bradtmiller, NSF #OCE-1030784 to D. McGee, P. deMenocal, and G. Winckler, and by internal grants from Macalester College and MIT.
    Description: 2022-06-07
    Keywords: North Africa ; dust flux ; aeolian dust ; Green Sahara ; stadials
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 127(1), (2022): e2021JC017424, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017424.
    Description: By compiling boreal summer (June to October) CO2 measurements from 1989 to 2019 on the Bering and eastern Chukchi Sea shelves, we find that the study areas act as a CO2 sink except when impacted by river runoff and wind-driven upwelling. The CO2 system in this area is seasonally dominated by the biological pump especially in the northern Bering Sea and near Hanna Shoal, while wind-driven upwelling of CO2-rich bottom water can cause episodic outgassing. Seasonal surface ΔfCO2 (oceanic fCO2 – air fCO2) is dominantly driven by temperature only during periods of weak CO2 outgassing in shallow nearshore areas. However, after comparing the mean summer ΔfCO2 during the periods of 1989–2013 and 2014–2019, we suggest that temperature does drive long-term, multi-decadal patterns in ΔfCO2. In the northern Chukchi Sea, rapid warming concurrent with reduced seasonal sea-ice persistence caused the regional summer CO2 sink to decrease. By contrast, increasing primary productivity caused the regional summer CO2 sink on the Bering Sea shelf to increase over time. While additional time series are needed to confirm the seasonal and annual trajectory of CO2 changes and ocean acidification in these dynamic and spatially complex ecosystems, this study provides a meaningful mechanistic analysis of recent changes in inorganic carbonate chemistry. As high-resolution time series of inorganic carbonate parameters lengthen and short-term variations are better constrained in the coming decades, we will have stronger confidence in assessing the mechanisms contributing to long-term changes in the source/sink status of regional sub-Arctic seas.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the funding agencies that supported this analysis, including the New Sustained Observations for Arctic Research project and the DBO-NCIS project (NA14OAR4320158, NA19OAR4320074) from the NOAA Arctic Research Program.
    Description: 2022-06-17
    Keywords: Pacific Arctic region ; sea-air CO2 flux ; ocean acidification ; climate change ; sea-ice loss ; surface ocean CO2 Atlas
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12), (2021): e2021JC017860, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017860.
    Description: An appropriate proxy could help to better understand dissolved oxygen variations in the past, helping to predict potential outcomes of future environmental changes. In the Changjiang Estuary (China), the foraminifer Cribrononion subincertum (C. subincertum) shows a distinct population maximum in the topmost sediment, an indication of an epifaunal species. Therefore, the geochemical composition of C. subincertum tests could record changes in the region’s bottom water chemistry. Our results showed that Mn/Ca ratios in tests of living (Rose-Bengal stained) C. subincertum analyzed by LA-ICP-MS were responsive to variations of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations, with average foraminiferal Mn/Ca ratios three times higher during low-oxygen period than in winter. In the uppermost centimeters of sediment, wider ranges of foraminiferal Mn/Ca occurred in summer compared to winter ranges. Our results imply that this epifaunal benthic foraminiferal species could serve as a useful benthic monitor with the Mn/Ca ratios representing a reliable proxy of hypoxia in the past.
    Description: This study was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Grants 41876075, 42130410, and 41620104001), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (201841007, 201962003, and 201961012). JMB acknowledges the Investment in Science Fund at WHOI, which supported her participation in this project.
    Description: 2022-06-17
    Keywords: epifaunal benthic foraminifera ; Mn/Ca ratio ; coastal hypoxia ; proxy ; LA-ICP-MS
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chan, D., Rigden, A., Proctor, J., Chan, P. W., & Huybers, P. Differences in radiative forcing, not sensitivity, explain differences in summertime land temperature variance change between CMIP5 and CMIP6. Earth’s Future, 10(2), (2022): e2021EF002402, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021EF002402.
    Description: How summertime temperature variability will change with warming has important implications for climate adaptation and mitigation. CMIP5 simulations indicate a compound risk of extreme hot temperatures in western Europe from both warming and increasing temperature variance. CMIP6 simulations, however, indicate only a moderate increase in temperature variance that does not covary with warming. To explore this intergenerational discrepancy in CMIP results, we decompose changes in monthly temperature variance into those arising from changes in sensitivity to forcing and changes in forcing variance. Across models, sensitivity increases with local warming in both CMIP5 and CMIP6 at an average rate of 5.7 ([3.7, 7.9]; 95% c.i.) × 10−3°C per W m−2 per °C warming. We use a simple model of moist surface energetics to explain increased sensitivity as a consequence of greater atmospheric demand (∼70%) and drier soil (∼40%) that is partially offset by the Planck feedback (∼−10%). Conversely, forcing variance is stable in CMIP5 but decreases with warming in CMIP6 at an average rate of −21 ([−28, −15]; 95% c.i.) W2 m−4 per °C warming. We examine scaling relationships with mean cloud fraction and find that mean forcing variance decreases with decreasing cloud fraction at twice the rate in CMIP6 than CMIP5. The stability of CMIP6 temperature variance is, thus, a consequence of offsetting changes in sensitivity and forcing variance. Further work to determine which models and generations of CMIP simulations better represent changes in cloud radiative forcing is important for assessing risks associated with increased temperature variance.
    Description: This study was supported by the Harvard Global Institute and NSF (Award 1903657). D. Chan was also supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Weston Howland Jr. Postdoctoral Fellowship.
    Keywords: continental temperature variability ; extreme events ; soil moisture ; radiative forcing ; evapotranspiration ; CMIP
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    Publication Date: 2022-06-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Fan, S., Cross, A. J., Prior, D. J., Goldsby, D. L., Hager, T. F., Negrini, M., & Qi, C. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) development governs strain weakening in ice: insights from high-temperature deformation experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 126(12), (2021): e2021JB023173, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023173.
    Description: Strain weakening leads to the formation of high-strain shear zones and strongly influences terrestrial ice discharge. In glacial flow models, strain weakening is assumed to arise from the alignment of weak basal planes—the development of a crystallographic preferred orientation, CPO—during flow. However, in experiments, ice strain weakening also coincides with grain size reduction, which has been invoked as a weakening mechanism in other minerals. To interrogate the relative contributions of CPO development and grain size reduction toward ice strain weakening, we deformed initially isotropic polycrystalline ice samples to progressively higher strains between −4 and −30°C. Microstructural measurements were subsequently combined with flow laws to separately model the mechanical response expected to arise from CPO development and grain size reduction. Magnitudes of strain weakening predicted by the constitutive flow laws were then compared with the experimental measurements. Flow laws that only consider grain size do not predict weakening with strain despite grain size reduction. In contrast, flow laws solely considering CPO effects can reproduce the measured strain weakening. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that strain weakening in ice is dominated by CPO development, at least under high temperature (Th ≥ 0.9) and high stress (〉1 MPa), like those in our experiments. We speculate that at high homologous temperatures (Th ≥ 0.9), CPO development will also govern the strain weakening behavior of other viscously anisotropic minerals, like olivine and quartz. Overall, we emphasize that geodynamic and glaciological models should incorporate CPOs to account for strain weakening, especially at high homologous temperatures.
    Description: This work was supported by a NASA fund (grant no. NNX15AM69G) to David L. Goldsby and two Marsden Funds of the Royal Society of New Zealand (grant nos. UOO1116, UOO052) to David J. Prior. Sheng Fan was supported by the University of Otago doctoral scholarship, the Antarctica New Zealand doctoral scholarship, a research grant from New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment through the Antarctic Science Platform (ANTA1801) (grant no. ASP-023-03), and a New Zealand Antarctic Research Institute (NZARI) Early Career Researcher Seed Grant (grant no. NZARI 2020-1-5).
    Keywords: high-temperature deformation ; ice ; strain weakening ; grain size ; crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) ; electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2022-06-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 126(12), (2021): e2021JB022201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022201.
    Description: Sparse wide-angle seismic profiling supported by coincident reflection imaging has been instrumental for advancing our knowledge about rifted margins. Nevertheless, features of critical importance for understanding rifting processes have been poorly resolved. We derive a high-resolution velocity model by applying full waveform inversion to the dense OETR-2009 wide-angle seismic profile crossing the northeastern Nova Scotian margin. We then create a coincident reflection image by prestack depth migrating the multichannel seismic data. This allows for the first detailed interpretation of the structures related to the final stages of continental breakup and incipient oceanic accretion at the Eastern North America Margin. Our interpretation includes a hyperextended continental domain overlying partially serpentinized mantle, followed by a 10-km-wide domain consisting of a continental block surrounded by layered and bright reflectors indicative of magmatic extrusions. A major fault, representing the continent-ocean boundary, marks a sharp seaward transition to a 16-km-wide domain characterized by smoother basement with chaotic reflectors, where no continental materials are present and a 3-km-thick embryonic oceanic crust overlying partially serpentinized mantle is created by the breakup magmatism. Further seaward, thin oceanic crust overlies the serpentinized mantle suggesting magma-poor oceanic spreading with variable magma supply as determined from variable basement topography, 2–4 km thick volcanic layer, and magnetic anomalies. Our results demonstrate that magmatism played an important role in the lithospheric breakup of the area crossed by the OETR-2009 profile. Considering that the northeastern Nova Scotian margin has been classified as amagmatic, large margin-parallel variations in magma supply likely characterize a single rift segment.
    Description: H. Jian was supported by the Ocean Frontier Institute International Postdoctoral Fellowship at Dalhousie University and NSF grant OCE-2001012.
    Keywords: rifted continental margin ; magma-poor rifting ; breakup magmatism ; Nova Scotian margin
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-06-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Wu, J., Parnell‐Turner, R., Fornari, D., Kurras, G., Berrios‐Rivera, N., Barreyre, T., & McDermott, J. Extent and volume of lava flows erupted at 9°50’N, East Pacific Rise in 2005–2006 from autonomous underwater vehicle surveys. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 23, (2022): e2021GC010213, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021gc010213.
    Description: Seafloor volcanic eruptions are difficult to directly observe due to lengthy eruption cycles and the remote location of mid-ocean ridges. Volcanic eruptions in 2005–2006 at 9°50′N on the East Pacific Rise have been well documented, but the lava volume and flow extent remain uncertain because of the limited near-bottom bathymetric data. We present near-bottom data collected during 19 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Sentry dives at 9°50′N in 2018, 2019, and 2021. The resulting 1 m-resolution bathymetric grid and 20 cm-resolution sidescan sonar images cover 115 km2, and span the entire area of the 2005–2006 eruptions, including an 8 km2 pre-eruption survey collected with AUV ABE in 2001. Pre- and post-eruption surveys, combined with sidescan sonar images and seismo-acoustic impulsive events recorded during the eruptions, are used to quantify the lava flow extent and to estimate changes in seafloor depth caused by lava emplacement. During the 2005–2006 eruptions, lava flowed up to ∼3 km away from the axial summit trough, covering an area of ∼20.8 km2; ∼50% larger than previously thought. Where pre- and post-eruption surveys overlap, individual flow lobes can be resolved, confirming that lava thickness varies from ∼1 to 10 m, and increases with distance from eruptive fissures. The resulting lava volume estimate indicates that ∼57% of the melt extracted from the axial melt lens probably remained in the subsurface as dikes. These observations provide insights into recharge cycles in the subsurface magma system, and are a baseline for studying future eruptions at the 9°50′N area.
    Description: This project is supported by National Science Foundation grants OCE-1834797, OCE-1949485, OCE-194893, OCE-1949938, and by Scripps Institution of Oceanography's David DeLaCour Endowment Fund.
    Keywords: submarine volcanism ; mid-ocean ridges ; autonomous underwater vehicle ; eruption cycles ; seafloor mapping
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-06-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 127(1), (2022): e2021JC017927, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017927.
    Description: Observations and high-resolution numerical modeling are used to investigate the dynamical processes related to the initiation of an advective Marine Heatwave in the Middle Atlantic Bight of the Northwest Atlantic continental shelf. Both the observations and the model identify two significant cross-shelf intrusions in November 2016 and January 2017, with the latter inducing large-magnitude water mass anomalies across the shelf. Model prognostic fields reveal the importance of the combination of cyclonic eddies or ringlets and upwelling-favorable winds in producing the large-distance cross-shelf penetration and temperature/salinity anomalies. The cyclonic eddies in close proximity to the shelfbreak set up local along-isobath pressure gradients and provide favorable conditions for the intensification of the shelfbreak front, both processes driving cross-isobath intrusions of warm, salty offshore water onto the outer continental shelf. Subsequently, strong and persistent upwelling-favorable winds drive a rapid, bottom intensified cross-shelf penetration in January 2017 composed of the anomalous water mass off the shelfbreak. The along-shelf settings including realistic representation of bathymetric features are essential in the characteristics of the cross-shelf penetration. The results highlight the importance of smaller scale cyclonic eddies and the intricacy of the interplay between multiple processes to drive significant cross-shelf events.
    Description: This work was supported by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Independent Research and Development (IR&D) award and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Program Office (CPO) Climate Variability and Predictability (CVP) program under grant NA20OAR4310398. Numerical modeling work was conducted at WHOI High-Performance Computing cluster Poseidon with startup support to Ke Chen.
    Description: 2022-06-08
    Keywords: drivers of Marine heatwave ; warm core rings and cyclonic eddies ; shelfbreak front and frontogenesis ; pressure gradient setup ; wind-driven upwelling and bottom intrusion ; cross-shelf exchange
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-06-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Semper, S., Våge, K., Pickart, R., Jónsson, S., & Valdimarsson, H. Evolution and transformation of the North Icelandic Irminger Current along the North Iceland Shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127(3), (2022): e2021JC017700, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021jc017700.
    Description: The North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC) flowing northward through Denmark Strait is the main source of salt and heat to the north Iceland shelf. We quantify its along-stream evolution using the first high-resolution hydrographic/velocity survey north of Iceland that spans the entire shelf along with historical hydrographic measurements as well as data from satellites and surface drifters. The NIIC generally follows the shelf break. Portions of the flow recirculate near Denmark Strait and the Kolbeinsey Ridge. The current's volume transport diminishes northeast of Iceland before it merges with the Atlantic Water inflow east of Iceland. The hydrographic properties of the current are modified along its entire pathway, predominantly because of lateral mixing with cold, fresh offshore waters rather than air-sea interaction. Progressing eastward, the NIIC cools and freshens by approximately 0.3°C and 0.02–0.03 g kg−1 per 100 km, respectively, in both summer and winter. Dense-water formation on the shelf is limited, occurring only sporadically in the historical record. The hydrographic properties of this locally formed water match the lighter portion of the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ), which emerges northeast of Iceland and transports dense water toward Denmark Strait. In the region northeast of Iceland, the NIIC is prone to baroclinic instability. Enhanced eddy kinetic energy over the steep slope there suggests a dynamical link between eddies shed by the NIIC and the formation of the NIJ as previously hypothesized. Thus, while the NIIC rarely supplies the NIJ directly, it may be dynamically important for the overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas.
    Description: This research was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 101022251 (S. Semper), the Trond Mohn Foundation Grant BFS2016REK01 (S. Semper and K. Våge), and the U.S. National Science Foundation Grants OCE-1558742 and OCE-1259618 (R. S. Pickart).
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2022-06-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Baranes, H., Woodruff, J., Geyer, W., Yellen, B., Richardson, J. & Griswold, F. Sources, mechanisms, and timescales of sediment delivery to a New England salt marsh. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 127, (2022): e2021JF006478, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021jf006478.
    Description: he availability and delivery of an external clastic sediment source is a key factor in determining salt marsh resilience to future sea level rise. However, information on sources, mechanisms, and timescales of sediment delivery are lacking, particularly for wave-protected mesotidal estuaries. Here we show that marine sediment mobilized and delivered during coastal storms is a primary source to the North and South Rivers, a mesotidal bar-built estuary in a small river system impacted by frequent, moderate-intensity storms that is typical to New England (United States). On the marsh platform, deposition rates, clastic content, and dilution of fluvially-sourced contaminated sediment by marine material all increase down-estuary toward the inlet, consistent with a predominantly marine-derived sediment source. Marsh clastic deposition rates are also highest in the storm season. We observe that periods of elevated turbidity in channels and over the marsh are concurrent with storm surge and high wave activity offshore, rather than with high river discharge. Flood tide turbidity also exceeds ebb tide turbidity during storm events. Timescales of storm-driven marine sediment delivery range from 2.5 days to 2 weeks, depending on location within the estuary; therefore the phasing of storm surge and waves with the spring-neap cycle determines how effectively post-event suspended sediment is delivered to the marsh platform. This study reveals that sediment supply and the associated resilience of New England mesotidal salt marshes involves the interplay of coastal and estuarine processes, underscoring the importance of looking both up- and downstream to identify key drivers of environmental change.
    Description: The project described in this publication was in part supported by Grant or Cooperative Agreement No. G20AC00071 from the U.S. Geological Survey and a Department of Interior Northeast Climate Adaptation Science Center graduate fellowship awarded to H.E.B (G12AC00001).
    Keywords: salt marsh ; sediment ; estuary ; tides ; Massachusetts
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2022-06-13
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12), (2021): e2021JC017989, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017989.
    Description: Gulf Stream warm-core rings (WCRs) impinging onto the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf edge can induce substantial water exchange between the shelf and slope seas. Combining satellite imagery and idealized ocean models, this study investigates the long-neglected influence of submarine canyons on the WCR impingement process. Satellite images show onshore intrusion of the WCR water concentrated near the MAB shelf-break canyons, indicating canyon-induced enhancement of cross-shelf exchange. Model simulations of the ring-canyon interaction qualitatively reproduce the observed pattern and show greatly enhanced vertical motions and cross-shelf transport in a canyon. The ring-induced transient flow in a canyon resolved by the model is consistent with the three-dimensional canyon circulation driven by ambient along-slope steady flows as depicted in the literature. Cross-isobath flows occur over both canyon slopes with a strong upwelling onshore flow over the slope upstream to the coastal-trapped wave propagation (the upwave slope) and a weak downwelling offshore flow over the downwave slope. To conserve potential vorticity, a subsurface-intensified cyclonic eddy is formed inside the canyon, which interacts with the sloping bottom and enhances the upwelling onshore flow over the upwave slope. The upwelled deep ring water is transported either back offshore by the ring-edge current on the upwave side of the canyon or across the canyon onto the downwave shelf forming a localized bulge pattern. While the former is an ephemeral onshore transport process, the latter represents a more sustained onshore transport of the ring water, both of which have major implication for ecosystem dynamics at the shelf edge.
    Description: XL was supported by the China Scholarship Council; ZR was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1402000). This work was also support by the WHOI-OUC Collaborative Initiative Program.
    Description: 2022-06-13
    Keywords: warm-core ring ; submarine canyon ; topographic influence ; cross-shelf exchange ; upwelling ; eddy
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-06-13
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 48(24), (2021): e2021GL095615, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095615.
    Description: The North Atlantic deep water (NADW), according to the classic ocean circulation theory, moves southward as a deep western boundary current (DWBC) even though it may veer into interior and then rejoin DWBC when encountering regional circulation features, such as eddy-driven recirculation. In potential vorticity dynamics, the eastern side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) may provide a similar topographic support as the continental slope off the western boundary for a southward transport of NADW. In this article, we quantify the mean meridional NADW transports on both sides of the MAR using a data-assimilated product and find that the flow in the eastern basin contributes about 38 ± 14% of the net southward transport of NADW from 50° to 35°N. Our study points to the importance of observing NADW transport variations on the eastern side of the MAR in order to monitor the transport strength of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
    Description: iayan Yang is supported by the WHOI-OUC Collaborative Initiative, the W. V. A. Clark Chair for Excellence in Oceanography from WHOI, and National Science Foundation. Sijia Zou acknowledges the support from the Physical Oceanography Program of the United States National Science Foundation Grants OCE-1756361. Yujia Zhai is supported by China Scholarship Council as a 2-yr guest student to visit WHOI. Yujia Zhai and Xiuquan Wan are supported by major project (41776009) of National Natural Science Foundation of China. Data from the RAPID MOC monitoring project are funded by the Natural Environment Research Council and are freely available from www.rapid.ac.uk/rapidmoc. Collection of MOVE data was funded by NOAA Research, and carried out by principal investigators Uwe Send and Matthias Lankhorst. MOVE data are made freely available through the international OceanSITES program.
    Description: 2022-06-13
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2022-06-13
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Forsyth, J., Gawarkiewicz, G., & Andres, M. The impact of Warm Core Rings on Middle Atlantic Bight shelf temperature and shelf break velocity. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127, (2022): e2021JC017759, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021jc017759.
    Description: Warm Core Rings (WCRs) are known to disrupt the shelf flow as well as drive strong heat transport onto the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf. We examine 27 rings sampled by the container ship Oleander, 16 rings which have in-situ velocity data and 11 rings identified from satellite sea surface height but with in-situ temperature data, to study the variability in rings' impact on shelf break velocities and on the temperature of the adjacent shelf. WCRs that have higher rotational velocities and are closer to the shelf are found to exert greater influence on the along-shelf velocities, with the fastest and closest rings reversing the direction of flow at the shelf break. As rings approach the study site, the Shelfbreak Jet is faster than when the rings are about to exit the study site, likely due to first steepening then flattening of the isopycnals at the Shelfbreak Front. Rings also have lasting impacts on the shelf temperature: rings with faster rotational velocities cool the shelf and rings with slower rotational velocities warm the shelf. The evolution of temperature on the shelf as a ring passes is strongly tied to the season. During warmer seasons, when temperature stratification on the shelf is strong, a ring cools the shelf; during periods of weak thermal stratification, rings tend to warm the shelf. Rings which cool the shelf are additionally associated with increased upwelling as they pass the study site.
    Description: J. Forsyth and M. Andres were supported by OCE-1924041. J. Forsyth and G. Gawarkiewicz were supported by ONR N00014-19-1-2646. G. Gawarkiewicz was also supported by NSF under grant OCE-1851261.
    Keywords: Warm Core Rings ; Middle Atlantic Bight ; CMV Oleander ; Shelfbreak processes
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-06-14
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Liao, F., Liang, X., Li, Y., & Spall, M. Hidden upwelling systems associated with major western boundary currents. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 127, (2022): e2021JC017649, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021jc017649.
    Description: Western boundary currents (WBCs) play an essential role in regulating global climate. In contrast to their widely examined horizontal motions, less attention has been paid to vertical motions associated with WBCs. Here, we examine vertical motions associated with the major WBCs by analyzing vertical velocity from five ocean synthesis products and one eddy-resolving ocean simulation. These data reveal robust and intense subsurface upwelling systems, which are primarily along isopycnal surfaces, in five major subtropical WBC systems. These upwelling systems are part of basin-scale overturning circulations and are likely driven by meridional pressure gradients along the western boundary. Globally, the WBC upwelling contributes significantly to the vertical transport of water mass and ocean properties and is an essential yet overlooked branch of the global ocean circulation. In addition, the WBC upwelling intersects the oceanic euphotic and mixed layers, and thus likely plays an important role in ocean biological and chemical processes by transporting nutrients, carbon and other tracers vertically inside the ocean. This study calls for more research into the dynamics of the WBC upwelling and their role in the ocean and climate systems.
    Description: X. Liang is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grants OCE-2021274, OCE-2122507, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation through Grant FG-2019-12536. M. Spall is supported through the National Science Foundation Grants OCE-1947290 and OCE-2122633.
    Keywords: western boundary current ; upwelling ; overturning circulation ; ocean vertical transport ; ocean synthesis products ; ocean vertical velocity
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2022-06-21
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chandanpurkar, H. A., Lee, T., Wang, X., Zhang, H., Fournier, S., Fenty, I., Fukumori, I., Menemenlis, D., Piecuch, C. G., Reager, J. T., Wang, O., & Worden, J. Influence of nonseasonal river discharge on sea surface salinity and height. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 14(2), (2022): e2021MS002715, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021MS002715.
    Description: River discharge influences ocean dynamics and biogeochemistry. Due to the lack of a systematic, up-to-date global measurement network for river discharge, global ocean models typically use seasonal discharge climatology as forcing. This compromises the simulated nonseasonal variation (the deviation from seasonal climatology) of the ocean near river plumes and undermines their usefulness for interdisciplinary research. Recently, a reanalysis-based daily varying global discharge data set was developed, providing the first opportunity to quantify nonseasonal discharge effects on global ocean models. Here we use this data set to force a global ocean model for the 1992–2017 period. We contrast this experiment with another experiment (with identical atmospheric forcings) forced by seasonal climatology from the same discharge data set to isolate nonseasonal discharge effects, focusing on sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface height (SSH). Near major river mouths, nonseasonal discharge causes standard deviations in SSS (SSH) of 1.3–3 practical salinity unit (1–2.7 cm). The inclusion of nonseasonal discharge results in notable improvement of model SSS against satellite SSS near most of the tropical-to-midlatitude river mouths and minor improvement of model SSH against satellite or in-situ SSH near some of the river mouths. SSH changes associated with nonseasonal discharge can be explained by salinity effects on halosteric height and estimated accurately through the associated SSS changes. A recent theory predicting river discharge impact on SSH is found to perform reasonably well overall but underestimates the impact on SSH around the global ocean and has limited skill when applied to rivers near the equator and in the Arctic Ocean.
    Description: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004) with support from the Physical Oceanography (PO) and Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Programs. High-end computing resources for the numerical simulation were provided by the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division at the Ames Research Center.
    Keywords: river discharge ; sea surface salinity ; sea surface height
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2022-06-28
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 127(1), (2022): e2021JC017715, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017715.
    Description: The Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) hosts a large and productive marine ecosystem supported by high phytoplankton concentrations. Enhanced surface chlorophyll concentrations at the MAB shelf-break front have been detected in synoptic measurements, yet this feature is not present in seasonal means. To understand why, we assess the conditions associated with enhanced surface chlorophyll at the shelf break. We employ in-situ and remote sensing data, and a 2-dimensional model to show that Ekman restratification driven by upfront winds drives ephemerally enhanced chlorophyll concentrations at the shelf-break front in spring. Using 8-day composite satellite-measured surface chlorophyll concentration data from 2003–2020, we constructed a daily running mean (DRM) climatology of the cross-shelf chlorophyll distribution for the northern MAB region. While the frontal enhancement of chlorophyll is apparent in the DRM climatology, it is not captured in the seasonal climatology due to its short duration of less than a week. In-situ measurements of the frontal chlorophyll enhancement reveal that chlorophyll is highest in spring when the shelf-break front slumps offshore from its steep wintertime position causing restratification in the upper part of the water column. Several restratification mechanisms are possible, but the first day of enhanced chlorophyll at the shelf break corresponds to increasing upfront winds, suggesting that the frontal restratification is driven by offshore Ekman transport of the shelf water over the denser slope water. The 2-dimensional model shows that upfront winds can indeed drive Ekman restratification and alleviate light limitation of phytoplankton growth at the shelf-break front.
    Description: This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (OCE-1657803, OCE-1657855, and OCE-1655686) and the Dalio Explorer Fund. Support for H. Oliver was provided by the WHOI Postdoctoral Scholar program.
    Description: 2022-06-28
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2022-07-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 36(1), (2022): e2021GB007113, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007113.
    Description: Stordalen Mire is a peatland in the discontinuous permafrost zone in arctic Sweden that exhibits a habitat gradient from permafrost palsa, to Sphagnum bog underlain by permafrost, to Eriophorum-dominated fully thawed fen. We used three independent approaches to evaluate the annual, multi-decadal, and millennial apparent carbon accumulation rates (aCAR) across this gradient: seven years of direct semi-continuous measurement of CO2 and CH4 exchange, and 21 core profiles for 210Pb and 14C peat dating. Year-round chamber measurements indicated net carbon balance of −13 ± 8, −49 ± 15, and −91 ± 43 g C m−2 y−1 for the years 2012–2018 in palsa, bog, and fen, respectively. Methane emission offset 2%, 7%, and 17% of the CO2 uptake rate across this gradient. Recent aCAR indicates higher C accumulation rates in surface peats in the palsa and bog compared to current CO2 fluxes, but these assessments are more similar in the fen. aCAR increased from low millennial-scale levels (17–29 g C m−2 y−1) to moderate aCAR of the past century (72–81 g C m−2 y−1) to higher recent aCAR of 90–147 g C m−2 y−1. Recent permafrost collapse, greater inundation and vegetation response has made the landscape a stronger CO2 sink, but this CO2 sink is increasingly offset by rising CH4 emissions, dominated by modern carbon as determined by 14C. The higher CH4 emissions result in higher net CO2-equivalent emissions, indicating that radiative forcing of this mire and similar permafrost ecosystems will exert a warming influence on future climate.
    Description: We would like to acknowledge the following funding in support of this project: Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet, VR) grants (NT 2007-4547 and NT 2013-5562 to P. Crill), U.S. Department of Energy grants (DE-SC0004632 and DE-SC0010580 to V. Rich and S. Saleska), and U.S. National Science Foundation MacroSystems Biology grant (NSF EF #1241037, PI Varner). This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research under the Genomic Science program. We also acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation for the EMERGE Biology Integration Institute, NSF Award #2022070.
    Description: 2022-07-03
    Keywords: peat ; carbon cycling ; permafrost ; Carbon-14 ; Lead-210 ; climate change
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  • 50
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  EPIC3Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, American Geophysical Union, 36(7), ISSN: 2572-4517
    Publication Date: 2021-09-20
    Description: Marine sedimentary records are a key archive when reconstructing past climate; however, mixing at the seabed (bioturbation) can strongly influence climate records, especially when sedimentation rates are low. By commingling the climate signal from different time periods, bioturbation both smooths climate records, by damping fast climate variations, and creates noise when measurements are made on samples containing small numbers of individual proxy carriers, such as foraminifera. Bioturbation also influences radiocarbon-based age-depth models, as sample ages may not represent the true ages of the sediment layers from which they were picked. While these effects were first described several decades ago, the advent of ultra-small-sample $^{14}$C dating now allows samples containing very small numbers of foraminifera to be measured, thus enabling us to directly measure the age-heterogeneity of sediment for the first time. Here, we use radiocarbon dates measured on replicated samples of 3-30 foraminifera to estimate age-heterogeneity for five marine sediment cores with sedimentation rates ranging from 2-30 cm kyr$^{-1}$. From their age-heterogeneities and sedimentation rates we infer mixing depths of 10-20 cm for our core sites. Our results show that when accounting for age-heterogeneity, the true error of radiocarbon dating can be several times larger than the reported measurement. We present estimates of this uncertainty as a function of sedimentation rate and the number of individuals per radiocarbon date. A better understanding of this uncertainty will help us to optimise radiocarbon measurements, construct age models with appropriate uncertainties and better interpret marine paleo records.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Vegetation biomass is a globally important climate-relevant terrestrial carbon pool. Landsat, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 satellite missions provide a landscape-level opportunity to upscale tundra vegetation communities and biomass in high latitude terrestrial environments. We assessed the applicability of landscape-level remote sensing for the low Arctic Lena Delta region in Northern Yakutia, Siberia, Russia. The Lena Delta is the largest delta in the Arctic and is located North of the treeline and the 10 °C July isotherm at 72° Northern Latitude in the Laptev Sea region. During the LENA2018 expedition, we set up plots for plant projective cover and Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and sampled shrubs for shrub-ring analyses. AGB is providing the magnitude of the carbon flux, whereas stand age is irreplaceable to provide the cycle rate. AGB data and shrub age data clearly show a separation between i) low disturbance landscape types with dominant AGB moss contribution, but always low vascular plant AGB (〈0.5 kg m-2) characterised by old shrubs of several decades of stand age versus ii) a much higher vascular plant AGB contribution (〉 0.5 kg m-2) with only young shrubs in high disturbance regimes. The low disturbance regimes are represented on the Holocene and Pleistocene delta terraces in form of azonal polygonal tundra complexes and softly dissected valleys with zonal tussock tundra. In contrast, the high disturbance regimes are sites of thermo-erosion such as along thermo-erosional valleys and on floodplains. We upscaled AGB and above ground carbon pool ages using a Sentinel-2 satellite acquisition from early August 2018. We classified via classification training using Elementary Sampling Units that are the 30 m x 30 m vegetation field plots. We then used the land cover classes and grouped them according to their settings either in high disturbance or low disturbance regimes with each associated AGB value ranges and shrub age regimes. We also evaluated circum-Arctic harmonized ESA GlobPermafrost land cover and vegetation height remote sensing products covering subarctic to Arctic land cover types for the central Lena Delta. The products are freely available and published in the PANGAEA data repository under https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.897916 and https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.897045. ESA GlobPermafrost land cover and vegetation height remote sensing products and our Sentinel-2 derived AGB product for the central Lena Delta shows realistic spatial patterns of landcover classes and biomass distribution at landscape level. However, in all products, the high biomass patches of high shrubs in the tundra landscape could not spatially be resolved as they are confined to patchy and linear distribution, not representing large enough areas suitable for upscaling. We found that high disturbance regimes with linked high and rapid AGB fluxes are distributed mainly on the floodplains and as patches along thermoerosioal features, e.g. valleys. Whereas the low disturbance landscapes on Yedoma upland tundra and Holocene terraces occur with larger area coverage representing decades slower and in magnitude smaller AGB fluxes.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-12-23
    Description: Methane emissions from northern high latitude wetlands constitute a major uncertainty in the atmospheric methane (CH4) budget during the Holocene. To reconstruct northern wetland methane emissions, we used an empirical model based on syntheses of observations of peat initiation from more than 3600 radiocarbon-dated basal peat ages, plant-macrofossil-derived peatland type from more than 250 peat cores from sites across the northern high latitudes, and observed CH4 emissions averaged from modern-day wetland types in order to explore the effects of wetland expansion and changes in wetland type. Peatland basal ages and plant macrofossil records showed the widespread formation of fens in major northern wetland complexes before 8000 BP. After 8000 BP, new fen formation continued, but widespread peatland succession (to bogs) and permafrost aggradation also occurred. Reconstructed CH4 emissions from peatlands increased rapidly between 10,600 BP and 6900 BP due to fen formation and expansion, then stabilized after 5000 BP at 42 ± 25 Tg CH4 y-1, as high methane-emitting fens transitioned to lower methane-emitting bogs and permafrost peatlands. Permafrost formation in northern peatlands after 1000 BP decreased CH4 emissions by 20% to 34 ± 21 Tg y-1 by the present day. Warming temperatures, changes in peatland hydrology, and permafrost thaw will likely change the magnitude of northern peatland emissions in the future.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-12-26
    Description: Infrastructure and anthropogenic impacts are expanding across the Arctic. A consistent record of human impact is required in order to quantify the changes and to assess climate change impacts on the communities. We derived a first panarctic satellite-based record of expanding infrastructure and anthropogenic impacts along all permafrost affected coasts (100 km buffer) within the H2020 project Nunataryuk based on Sentinel-1/2 satellite imagery. C-band synthetic aperture radar and multi-spectral information is combined through a machine learning framework. Depending on region, we identified up to 50% more information (human presence) than in OpenStreetMap. The combination with satellite records on vegetation change (specifically NDVI from Landsat since 2000) allowed quantification of recent expansion of infrastructure. Most of the expanded human presence occurred in Russia related predominantly to oil/gas industry. The majority of areas with human presence will be subject to thaw by mid-21st century based on ground temperature trends derived from the ESA CCI+ Permafrost time series (1997-2019). Of specific concern in this context are also settlements located directly at permafrost affected coasts. An efficient erosion rate monitoring scheme needs to be developed and combined with settlement records in order to assess the risk for local communities and infrastructure. Relevant progress in the framework of the ESA EO4PAC project will be discussed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 54
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  EPIC3AGU Fall Meeting 2021, Online, 2021-12-13-2021-12-17American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2021-12-26
    Description: Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTS) are typical landforms indicating processes of rapid thawing and degrading permafrost. Their abundance is increasing in many regions and quantifying their dynamics is of high importance for assessing geomorphic, hydrologic, and biogeochemical impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Here we present a deep-learning (DL) based semantic segmentation framework to detect RTS, using high-resolution multi-spectral PlanetScope, topographic (ArcticDEM elevation and slope), and medium-resolution multi-temporal Landsat Trend data. We created a highly automated processing pipeline, which is designed to allow reproducible results and to be flexible for multiple input data types. The processing workflow is based on the pytorch deep-learning framework and includes a variety of different segmentation architectures (UNet, UNet++, DeepLabV3), backbones and includes common data transformation techniques such as augmentation or normalization. We tested (training, validation) our DL based model in six different regions of 100 to 300 km² size across Canada, and Siberia. We performed a regional cross-validation (5 regions training, 1 region validation) to test the spatial robustness and transferability of the algorithm. Furthermore, we tested different architectures, backbones and loss-functions to identify the best performing and most robust parameter sets. For training the models we created a database of manually digitized and validated RTS polygons. The resulting model performance varied strongly between different regions with maximum Intersection over Union (IoU) scores between 0.15 and 0.58. The strong regional variation emphasizes the need for sufficiently large training data, which is representative of the diversity of RTS types. However, the creation of good training data proved to be challenging due to the fuzzy definition and delineation of RTS. We are further continuing to improve the usability and the functionality to add further datasets and classes. We will show first results from the upscaling beyond small test areas towards large spatial clusters of extensive RTS presence e.g. Peel Plateau in NW Canada.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-12-26
    Description: With the Earth’s climate rapidly warming, the Arctic represents one of the most vulnerable regions to environmental change. These northern high latitude regions experience intensified fire seasons and especially tundra fires are projected to become more frequent and severe. Fires in permafrost regions have extensive impacts, including the initiation of thermokarst (rapid thaw of ice-rich ground), as they combust the upper organic soil layers which provide insulation to the permafrost below. Rapid permafrost thaw is, thus, often observable in fire scars in the first years post-disturbance. In polygonal ice-wedge landscapes, this becomes most prevalent through melting ice wedges and degrading troughs. The further these ice wedges degrade, the more troughs will likely connect and build an extensive hydrological network with changing patterns and degrees of connectivity that influences hydrology and runoff. While subsiding troughs over melting ice wedges may host new ponds, an increasing connectivity may also subsequently lead to more drainage of ponds, which in turn can limit further thaw and help stabilize the landscape. To quantify the changes in such dynamic landscapes over large regions, highly automated methods are needed that allow extracting information on the geomorphic state and changes over time of ice-wedge trough networks from remote sensing data. We developed a computer vision algorithm to automatically derive ice-wedge polygonal networks and the current microtopography of the degrading troughs from very high resolution, airborne laserscanning-based digital terrain models. We represent the networks as graphs (a concept from the computer sciences to describe complex networks) and apply methods from graph theory to describe and quantify hydrological network characteristics of the changing landscape. In fire scars, we especially observe rapidly growing networks and fast micromorphological change in those degrading troughs. In our study, we provide a space-for-time substitution comparing fire scars throughout the Alaskan tundra of up to 70 years since the fire disturbance, to show how this type of disturbed landscape evolves over time.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 56
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    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  EPIC3AGU Fall Meeting 2021, Online, 2021-12-13-2021-12-17American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2021-12-26
    Description: Using our custom visualization tool for multitemporal Landsat satellite imagery we discovered, to our knowledge, an undocumented mega-landslide in far-east Siberia, which occurred in summer 2017 (https://bit.ly/2WYRLM1; 61.55°N; 170.01°E). To create and visualize this unique dataset, we processed temporal trends of multispectral indices of 〉100,000 Landsat images for a period from 2000-2019 using the freely available Google Earth Engine cloud processing platform (https://ingmarnitze.users.earthengine.app/view/hotspottcvisapp). The megaslide has a size of 3.66 km² and using the ArcticDEM data we estimate a volume movement of ~20 Mm³. With this size and volume, the landslide is among the largest globally known in recent decades. The landslide is accompanied by a smaller one (0.31 km², 1 Mm³) about 600 m further east, which already occurred in summer 2015. The large landslide caused the formation of several small lakes by blocking two valleys with debris and within newly formed crevasses near the hilltop, which are still persisting as of August 2021. As this event occurred in a remote valley far from any settlement, no visible damage to infrastructure or human livelihoods was detected. The remoteness has likely led to being not detected, like many similar, albeit a lot smaller, erosion features in the Arctic permafrost region. In this presentation we will show the main properties of the landslide, potential trigger mechanisms in the traditional sense. As this region is located along the fringes of permafrost presence we will discuss its potential connection to the rapidly warming climate in the high latitudes. Further, we will discuss how such a large event remained undetected for several years. We discuss and highlight the value of our landscape change visualization tool based on Landsat trend analysis (see Nitze et al., AGU 2020), which helped us to identify this extreme event. With more and more available data sources, this tool in addition to automated image analysis (e.g. deep-learning) or seismic analysis will help to uncover the hidden processes and dynamics of the Earth’s surface.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  EPIC3AGU Fall Meeting 2021, Online, 2021-12-13-2021-12-17American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2021-12-26
    Description: Several decades of research have provided insight into patterns of and controls on thermokarst initiation and expansion, yet studies tend to focus on individual types of thermokarst (i.e., thaw lake formation and subsequent drainage) in particular regions. Today, we are left with uneven knowledge about abrupt permafrost thaw both conceptually and regionally. The goal of this presentation is to summarize recent advancements in monitoring thermokarst and its impact on soil, vegetation, and water while also framing a call to action for the next decade of research. Over the next decade, permafrost researchers must align their efforts on several fronts to not only increase our knowledge about changing permafrost but to align this knowledge with key community and policy needs. To support climate change planning and adaptation, northern communities need future thaw vulnerability mapped at scales relevant to their needs, which will require a suite of downscaled and new mapping and remote sensing products. Thermokarst predisposition maps based on circumpolar datasets greatly overestimate the area vulnerable to thermokarst, which can lead to poor planning and climate anxiety. In some situations, existing mapping products may be useful for downscaling with more detailed input data. In other situations, entirely new approaches may be required to support local action. A second key need for community relevant research is the ability to detect and monitor early warning indicators of thermokarst. Such information is needed to support scenario planning and to help mitigate the risks to social, cultural, and physical infrastructure created by permafrost change. We are evaluating the potential for using changes in vegetation, wetting/drying and topography as early warning indicators of thermokarst, all of which can be remotely sensed. Finally, integrating fine-scale disturbances such as thermokarst into large scale models remains a key challenge but critical for supporting sound climate policy. While a diversity of permafrost modeling approaches is necessary, we outline guiding principles that will help enhance model comparisons, assimilation of simulated data across spatiotemporal scales, and the ability for policy decisions to be rapidly informed by emerging science on permafrost change.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 58
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    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  EPIC3American Geophysical Union Conference 2021, Hybrid Online and in New Orleans, 2021-12-13-2021-12-17AGU 2021, American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2022-02-15
    Description: As air temperatures rise and sea ice cover declines in the Arctic, permafrost coastal cliffs thaw more rapidly and wave energy rises. Thus, as the open water season continues to lengthen, climate change triggers a large part of the Arctic shoreline to become increasingly vulnerable to erosion. Arctic erosion supplies nutrient-laden and carbon-rich sediment into nearshore ecosystems. A retreating coastline also has consequences for residential, cultural, and industrial infrastructure. Despite its importance, erosion is currently neglected in global climate models, and existing physics-based numerical models of Arctic shoreline erosion are too complex and regionally-focused to be applied on a pan-Arctic scale. Here, we apply our simplified numerical erosion model, ArcticBeach v1.0, to the entire Arctic coastline. ArcticBeach v1.0 has previously been shown to simulate retreat rates at two sites that differ substantially in their main mechanisms of retreat (sub-aerial erosion/thaw slumping versus notch/block erosion). The model uses heat and sediment volume balances in order to predict horizontal cliff retreat and vertical erosion of a fronting beach. It contains an erosion module that uses empirical equations to estimate cross-shore sediment transport, coupled to a storm surge module forced by wind. We present Arctic maps of regional variation in trends in 2-meter air temperature, sea ice concentration, and wind speed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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