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  • American Geophysical Union  (225,276)
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  • 1
    Journal cover
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    Wiley | American Geophysical Union
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Wiley , American Geophysical Union
    Electronic ISSN: 2471-1403
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
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  • 2
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present. , ed. by Sundquist, E. T. and Broecker, W. S. Geophysical Monograph, 32 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 504-529.
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: The stratigraphic record from both deep‐sea and shallow‐water depositional environments indicates that during late Aptian through Cenomanian time (1) global climates were considerably warmer than at present; (2) latitudinal gradients of atmospheric and oceanic temperatures were considerably less than at present; (3) rates of accumulation of organic matter of both marine and terrestrial origin were as high as or higher than during any other interval in the Mesozoic or Cenozoic; (4) the rate and volume of accumulation of CaCO3 in the deep sea were reduced in response to a marked shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth; (5) seafloor spreading rates were somewhat more rapid than at any other time in the Cretaceous or Cenozoic; (6) off‐ridge volcanism was intense and widespread, particularly in the ancestral Pacific Ocean basin; and (7) sea level was relatively high, forming widespread areas of shallow shelf seas. A marked increase in the rate of CO2 outgassing due to volcanic activity between about 110 and 70 m.y. ago may have resulted in a buildup of atmospheric CO2. A significant fraction of this atmospheric CO2 may have been reduced by an increase in the production and burial of terrestrial organic carbon. Some excess CO2 may have been consumed by marine algal photosynthesis, but marine productivity apparently was low during the Aptian‐Albian relative to terrestrial productivity. Terrestrial productivity also may have been stimulated by increased rainfall that resulted from a warm global climate and increased marine transgression as well as by the higher CO2.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 8 (1). pp. 7-21.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Measurements of opal preservation in deep sea sediment cores have been presented in three ways: the opal concentration as a fraction of total dry weight (%opaltot), the opal concentration normalized to calcite‐free dry weight (%opalcalcite‐free), and me opal accumulation rate (opal MAR). It is tempting to interpret changes in these indices as indicators of rates of biological production in past oceans. Based on theoretical constraints, we argue that in typical tropical and subtropical sediments, both %Opalcalcite‐free and opal MAR reflect a significant artifact of dilution by other phases. Thus the band of high %Opalcalcite‐free in the equatorial Pacific appears to be caused in large part by the high %Calcite in that region, rather than by high opal productivity. The best candidate for a reliable paleoproductivity proxy appears to be %Opaltot. Unfortunately, present‐day %Opaltot data from tropical and subtropical regions show little or no systematic trend with the rain rate of opal. Pore water silica concentration data reveal that the apparent pore water opal solubility is not constant but correlates regionally with the rain rate of opal to the seafloor. A model that treats opal as a single homogeneous phase with a single well‐defined solubility product predicts a strong dependence of opal concentration on rain rate (in stark contrast to the data), and a constant asymptotic pore water Si. Two models representing opal as multiple heterogeneous phases with different solubilities are able to reproduce the observed asymptotic pore water Si/rain rate relationship, but not the lack of rain rate trend in the opal concentration data. Only by assuming a systematic trend in the quality of opal (i.e., the solubility) as a function of opal production, can we reproduce the observed pattern of opal preservation. The implication of this study is that changes in opal preservation in the geologic record cannot simply be interpreted in terms of changes in surface ocean productivity until our understanding of opal diagenesis can be improved.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 14 (2). pp. 97-102.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: A method for rapid determination of high‐precision Sr/Ca ratios in scleractinian corals is presented. Using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, samples are corrected for instrument drift using a reference solution, similar to the approach used for analysis of stable isotopes using gas‐source mass spectrometry. Further correction for variation of the Sr/Ca ratio with Ca concentration is accomplished using internal standards. The precision, once all corrections have been made, is better than 0.1% (relative standard deviation, 1σ) for samples of similar Ca concentration and better than 0.2% for samples with variable Ca concentrations. This method increases the sample throughput by approximately a factor of 20 relative to thermal ionization mass spectrometry and significantly reduces instrument and per sample costs. Comparison of Sr/Ca data for a coral from the Galapagos Islands with an instrumental temperature record shows excellent agreement and demonstrates the potential for application of this technique to samples of modern and fossil scleractinian corals and other marine carbonates, including foraminifera.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-08-03
    Description: The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth’s past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG’s consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG’s complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: • the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and • the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-26
    Description: Submarine permafrost degradation has been invoked as a cause for recent observations of methane emissions from the seabed to the water column and atmosphere of the East Siberian shelf. Sediment drilled 52 m down from the sea ice in Buor Khaya Bay, central Laptev Sea revealed unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost. Methane concentrations in the overlying unfrozen sediment were low (mean 20 µM) but higher in the underlying ice-bonded submarine permafrost (mean 380 µM). In contrast, sulfate concentrations were substantially higher in the unfrozen sediment (mean 2.5 mM) than in the underlying submarine permafrost (mean 0.1 mM). Using deduced permafrost degradation rates, we calculate potential mean methane efflux from degrading permafrost of 120 mg m−2 yr−1 at this site. However, a drop of methane concentrations from 190 µM to 19 µM and a concomitant increase of methane δ13C from −63‰ to −35‰ directly above the ice-bonded permafrost suggest that methane is effectively oxidized within the overlying unfrozen sediment before it reaches the water column. High rates of methane ebullition into the water column observed elsewhere are thus unlikely to have ice-bonded permafrost as their source.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-01-08
    Description: The last transition from full glacial to current interglacial conditions was accompanied by distinct short-term climate fluctuations caused by changes in the global ocean circulation system. Most palaeoceanographic studies focus on the documentation of the behaviour of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the last deglaciation in response to freshwater forcing events. In this respect, the role of Arctic sea ice remained relatively unconsidered - primarily because of the difficulty of its reconstruction. Here we present new proxy data on late glacial (including the Last Glacial Maximum; LGM) and deglacial sea ice variability in the Arctic Ocean and its main gateway - the Fram Strait - and how these changes in sea ice coverage contributed to AMOC perturbations observed during Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas. Recurrent short-term advances and retreats of sea ice in Fram Strait, prior and during the LGM, are in line with a variable (or intermittent) North Atlantic heat flow along the eastern corridor of the Nordic Seas. Possibly in direct response to the initial freshwater discharge from melting continental ice-sheets, a permanent sea ice cover established only at about 19 ka BP (i.e. post-LGM) and lasted until 17.6 ka BP, when an abrupt break-up of this thick ice cover and a sudden discharge of huge amounts of sea ice and icebergs through Fram Strait coincided with the weakening of the AMOC during Heinrich Event 1. Similarly, another sea ice maximum at about 12.8 ka BP is associated with the slowdown of the AMOC during the Younger Dryas. The new data sets clearly highlight the important role of Arctic sea ice for the re-organisation of the oceanographic setting in the North Atlantic during the last deglaciation. Further studies and sensitivity experiments to identify crucial driving (and feedback) mechanisms within the High Latitude ice-ocean-atmosphere system will contribute the understanding of rapid climate changes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-01-08
    Description: Since the Pliocene, global climate history is distinguished by the transition into a colder world, dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations which have also changed in their duration and intensity. Potential drivers for these events include falling atmospheric CO2, progressive sub-glacial erosion, tectonic uplift, and associated feedbacks. At present, isolating climate as the driver of evolving continental ice volume since the Pliocene is hindered by the limited long term data sets which directly link climate changes to evidence for ice-sheet advance/retreat, erosion, and tectonic evolution over million year timescales. IODP Expedition 341 drilled a cross-margin transect in the Gulf of Alaska from ice-proximal sites on the continental shelf to distal sites in the deep Pacific. This study focuses on the distal site (Site U1417, c.4190 m water depth) which contains variable biogenic and terrigenous contributions, and evidence for deposition through pelagic, mass movement and glacial processes. Our aim is to investigate links between north-east Pacific paleoceanography and the history of the north-west Cordilleran ice sheet, neither of which are fully understood given limited data pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. We reconstruct SSTs during the mid-Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene Transition (PPT) and mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) using the UK37’ index. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute and relative abundances of plankton biomarkers (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates), carbon/nitrogen ratios, stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and diatom assemblages. Links between these climatic events and the north-west Cordilleran ice-sheet advance/retreat history are initially made using shipboard stratigraphy; emerging data sets on ice-rafting from members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party will refine these relationships.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-01-08
    Description: The Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) constitutes a fundamental shift in Earth's climate system from a 41 ka to a 100 ka periodicity in glacial oscillations. The exact timing and mechanism(s) that caused this change from a low- to high-amplitude glacial variability are still under debate and only recently Pena & Goldstein (2014) suggested that a disruption of the thermohaline circulation at about 900 ka BP and a subsequent change in ocean circulation might have acted as a trigger for the onset of 100 ka glacial-interglacial cycles. Most studies targeting the MPT are based on Atlantic sediment records whereas only few data sets are available from the North Pacific (see e.g. Clark et al., 2006 and McClymont et al., 2013 for reviews). IODP Expedition 341 distal deep-water site U1417 in the Gulf of Alaska (subpolar NE Pacific) now provided a continuous sediment record for reconstructing Miocene to Late Pleistocene changes in the sea surface conditions and how these relate to orbital and millennial scale climate variability. Here we present organic geochemical biomarker data covering the 1.5 Ma to 0.1 Ma time interval with special focus on the MPT. Alkenone, sterol, n-alkane and C25 highly branched isoprenoid data are used to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, primary productivity and terrigenous organic matter input (via sea ice, icebergs, meltwater discharge or aeolian transport). In addition, the diatom concentration and the species composition of the diatom assemblage deliver information on changes in palaeoproductivity and nutrient (silicate) availability. A major change in the environmental setting between 1.2 and 0.8 Ma is recorded by the biomarkers. This shift seems to be associated with a significant cooling of the surface waters in the Gulf of Alaska. Matching this shift, a significant change in the main components of the diatom community occurred between 1.2 and 0.8 Ma. References Clark, P.U., Archer, D., Pollard, D., Blum, J.D., Rial, J.A., Brovkin, V., Mix, A.C., Pisias, N.G., Roy, M., 2006. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, (23–24), 3150-3184. McClymont, E.L., Sosdian, S.M., Rosell-Melé, A., Rosenthal, Y., 2013. Earth-Science Reviews, 123, 173-193. Pena, L.D. and Goldstein, S.L., 2014. Science, 345, 318-322.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-01-08
    Description: Reconstructing the timing and nature of past changes in aquatic productivity in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) can shed light on the primary processes driving biogeochemical cycling over geologic timescales. Here, we present sedimentologic, physical property, stable isotope, and biogenic opal concentration data from IODP Expedition 341 Sites U1417 and U1419 and identify intervals where diatom ooze lithofacies and geochemical evidence for increased algal productivity are prevalent during the Pleistocene. Sites U1417 and U1419 are located in the center and the margin of the Fe-limited GoA, respectively, and they offer the potential to characterize past changes in biogeochemical cycling during different Pleistocene time intervals. Site U1419 cores were collected from a small slope basin at the edge of the continental shelf. Sediment cores reveal two prominent ~6-m-thick intervals of diatomaceous ooze. Between these intervals are numerous 20-cm-thick sections of biogenic-rich sediment, interbedded with gray mud that commonly contains lonestones. Based on preliminary age models, the two diatom ooze intervals likely correspond to the Holocene and MIS 3, while the intervening interbedded glacigenic and biogenic sediment can broadly be ascribed to MIS 2. Diatomaceous ooze and diatom-rich sediments are generally characterized by lower magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, bulk density, and higher b* color reflectance. Initial C & N concentration and stable isotopic data show elevated concentrations and more positive stable isotope values during the Holocene and MIS 3, which approximate the isotopic signature of modern phytoplankton measured in the GoA. Within the glacial period, the biogenic-rich intervals are also characterized by more positive C and N isotopic values. When combined with the shipboard physical property data, the stable isotopic results are indicative of millennial-scale variations in productivity and/or changes in glacial ice extent in the GoA during the last glacial period. We will discuss these results in the context of an improved isotope stratigraphy and ongoing work examining multiple interglacial productivity variations at Site U1417.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Ice-rich permafrost that formed in glacial periods of the Quaternary is highly vulnerable to thaw under ongoing climate warming and anthropogenic disturbance. The mega thaw slump near the village of Batagay (Yakutia, Russia) is an outstanding example of permafrost degradation and demonstrates that thermo-erosion processes may occur in unexpected locations, develop very rapidly in particular after disturbances, and leave behind deep rutted badlands. Retrogressive thaw slumps are particularly frequent along riverbanks and coastlines of regions where buried glacier ice or ice-rich glacial till have been mapped. In East Siberia, syngenetic Late Pleistocene Ice Complex (Yedoma) permafrost deposits accumulate volumetric ground ice contents of up to 80-90% % and extend tens of meters below the ground surface. Beyond the Yedoma main distributional range in the coastal lowlands of the Laptev and East Siberian seas, these deposits are also found on slopes of the Verkhoyan Mountain Range and in valleys of surrounding foothills, providing favorable preconditions for rapid thaw development. The Batagay mega slump exposes a profile of 30m thick Yedoma deposits underlain by ice saturated alluvial sand of around 60 m thickness and another very ice-rich layer at the base. We present data from a multi-sensor remote sensing time series investigation of the mega slump in order to assess the planimetric and volumetric dimensions and its decadal and interannual expansion rates. For ortho-rectification purposes and for volumetric analyses, we photogrammetrically derived highly detailed digital elevation models. The height difference between the headwall and the slump outflow is 145 m along a distance of 2300 m, while the maximum slump width is 840 m. Our analysis does not show any signs of stabilization after several decades (since 1980s) of slump growth, with the headwall retreating with observed rates of generally 〉10 m and more recently up to 30m per year. Reconstruction of a paleo-surface revealed that the slump has carved into the rolling topography to a depth of up to 73 m. The current size of the slump is 〉69 ha, while it had thawed 〉25 × 106 m³ of ice-rich permafrost through 2016. The majority of sediment released from the slump episodically dams up the Batagay River, forming a large temporary lake which then empties catastrophically.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2017-11-12
    Description: We collected Arctic Ocean water column samples for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) analysis on three separate cruises in the summer and fall of 2015, covering a ~10,000 km transect from the Bering Sea to Baffin Bay. This provided a three-dimensional view of CH4 and N2O distributions across contrasting hydrographic environments, from the oligotrophic waters of the deep Canada Basin and Baffin Bay, to the productive shelves of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Percent saturation relative to atmospheric equilibrium ranged from 30-800% for CH4 and 75-145% for N2O, with the highest concentrations of both gases occurring in the northern Chukchi Sea. Nitrogen cycling in the shelf sediments of the Bering and Chukchi Seas likely constituted the major source of N2O to the water column, and the resulting high N2O concentrations were transported across the Arctic Ocean in eastward-flowing water masses. Methane concentrations were more spatially heterogeneous, reflecting a variety of localized inputs, including likely sources from sedimentary methanogenesis and sea ice processes. Unlike N2O, CH4 was rapidly consumed through microbial oxidation in the water column, as shown by the 13C enrichment of CH4 with decreasing concentrations. For both CH4 and N2O, sea-air fluxes were close to neutral, indicating that our sampling region was neither a major source nor sink of these gases. Our results provide insight into the factors controlling the distribution of CH4 and N2O in the North American Arctic Ocean, and an important baseline data set against which future changes can be assessed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Gradually decaying Arctic sea ice changes the boundary conditions at the surface, separating ocean and atmosphere. In recent years, substantial reductions in sea ice during winter have been observed in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean, which forms the gateway for warm water inflow from the midlatitudes. In this study, we used routine output from the Mercator Ocean global operational system (MOGOS) to assess the efficiency of winter thermohaline convection transporting heat from deep layers to the ocean surface along the Atlantic origin water (AW) pathway, between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in the Nansen Basin. Positive temperature extremes in the AW layer in midwinter promote favorable prerequisite conditions for deep‐reaching thermohaline convection, with explicit signs captured by the MOGOS. Balance equations with several assumptions for the compact region around the position (81.30°N, 31°E) of the long‐term (2004–2010) mooring demonstrated that winter heat loss at the ocean surface is mainly compensated by convective heat flux from the AW layer. Heat and salt fluxes, associated with horizontal advection, are compatible with convective fluxes, while contribution of ice formation/melt is substantially smaller. Conclusion about the dominant role of vertical convection in shaping thermohaline structure and reducing sea ice in winter is supported by correlation analysis of the MOGOS output and mooring‐based measurements. Unfavorable background conditions (thick and consolidated sea ice in combination with specific directions of ice drift) may significantly alter convection development, as demonstrated for two sequential years with substantially different external forcing.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-09-11
    Description: While nascent oceanic lithosphere at slow to fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MOR) is relatively well studied, much less is known about the lithospheric structure and properties at ultraslow MORs. Here we present microearthquake data from a 1 year ocean bottom seismometer deployment at the amagmatic, oblique supersegment of the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. A refraction seismic experiment was performed to constrain upper lithosphere P-velocities and results were used to construct a 1D velocity model for earthquake location. Earthquake foci were located individually and subsequently relocated relative to each other to sharpen the image of seismically active structures. Frequent earthquake activity extends to 31 km beneath the seafloor, indicating an exceptionally thick brittle lithosphere and an undulating brittle-ductile transition that implies significant variations in the along-axis thermal structure of the lithosphere. We observe a strong relation between petrology, microseismicity distribution, and topography along the ridge axis: Peridotite-dominated areas associate with deepest hypocenters, vast volumes of lithosphere that deforms aseismically as a consequence of alteration, and the deepest axial rift valley. Areas of basalt exposure correspond to shallower hypocenters, shallower and more rugged axial seafloor. Focal mechanisms deviate from pure extension and are spatially variable. Earthquakes form an undulating band of background seismicity and do not delineate discrete detachment faults as common on slow spreading ridges. Instead, the seismicity band sharply terminates to the south, immediately beneath the rift boundary. Considering the deep alteration, large steep boundary faults might be present but are entirely aseismic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2017-06-14
    Description: Nearshore habitats are in constant dynamic change. They need regular assessment and appropriate monitoring of areas of special interest. To accomplish this, hydroacoustic seabed characterization tools are applied to allow for cost-effective and efficient mapping of the seafloor. In this context single beam echosounders (SBES) systems provide a comprehensive view by analyzing the hardness and roughness characteristics of the seafloor. Interpolation between transect lines becomes necessary when gapless maps are needed. This study presents a simple method to process and visualize data recorded with RoxAnn (Sonavision, Edinburgh, UK) and similar SBES. Both, hardness and roughness data are merged to one combined parameter that receives a color code (RGB) according to the acoustic properties of the seafloor. This color information is then interpolated to obtain an area-wide map that provides unclassified and thus unbiased seabed information. The RGB color data can subsequently be used for classification and modeling purposes. Four surveys are shown from a morphologically complex nearshore area west of the island of Helgoland (SE North Sea). The area has complex textural and dynamic characteristics reaching from outcropping bedrock via sandy to muddy areas with mostly gradual transitions. RoxAnn data allow to discriminate all seafloor types that were suggested by ground-truth information (seafloor samples, video). The area appears to be fluctuating within certain limits. Sediment import (sand and fluid mud) paths can be reconstructed. Manually, six RoxAnn zones (RZ) were identified and left without hard boundaries to better match the seafloor types of the study site. The k-means fuzzy cluster analysis employed yields best results with 3 classes. We show that interpretations on the basis of largely non-classified, color-coded and interpolated data provide the best gain of information in the highest possible resolution. Classification with hard boundaries is necessary for stakeholders but may cause reduction of information important to science. It becomes apparent that the type of classification addressing stakeholder issues is not always compatible with scientific objectives.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The unique feature of permafrost in the Arctic is the presence of a large amount of ice below the earth surface. Thermal degradation and subsequent permafrost destabilization causes thaw subsidence and thermokarst development. Because these processes are difficult to detect due to the lack of timely and accurate elevation datasets they have received not much attention, despite their potentially global significance through the permafrost carbon feedback. Thanks to remote sensing pioneering works in Alaska and Siberia, widespread thaw subsidence has been documented and is increasingly perceived as a potentially widespread permafrost landscape response to contemporary climate change. Clearly, however, detailed local inventories are required to calibrate regional long and short-term assessments for measuring surface deformation due to permafrost thaw. The objective of our study is to analyze time series of repeat terrestrial, air-, and space borne laser scanning (rLiDAR) for quantification of land surface lowering due to permafrost thaw, which is poorly resolved in terms of recent landscape development in the Arctic. Our work aims at finding commonalities and differences of change or no change on ground-ice-rich primary surfaces that are preserved as uplands, which cover 15 to 20% of the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Our approach focuses on quantifying modern thaw subsidence and thermokarst rates with high spatial resolution data over several decades as well as high temporal resolution data of inter-annual intervals. Multi-annual measurements of rLiDAR over Arctic Alaska have been made by aircraft in 2016 and in 2015+2017 through on-site surveys during field expeditions. These in situ data serve as a basis for large scale surface change assessments using time series of photogrammetrically derived elevation data from very high resolution historical aerial photographs and modern satellite imagery. The synergistic data fusion approach enhances permafrost degradation monitoring and better resolves surface deformation associated with thaw subsidence. The novel datasets also provide insights into previously unrecognized patterns of rapid permafrost thaw and related interconnections.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-06
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 19
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 19 (PA4009).
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: We present a numerical eigenmode analysis of an intermediate El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) model which is driven by present-day observed background conditions as well as by simulated background conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) about 21,000 years ago. The background conditions are obtained from two LGM simulations which were performed with the National Center for Atmospheric Research climate system model (CSM1.4) and an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (ECBilt-CLIO). Our analysis clearly shows that the leading present-day unstable recharge-discharge mode changes its stability as well as its frequency during LGM conditions. Simulated LGM background conditions were favorable to support large-amplitude self-sustained interannual ENSO variations in the tropical Pacific. Our analysis indicates that off-equatorial climate conditions as well as a shoaling of the thermocline play a crucial role in amplifying the LGM ENSO mode.
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  • 20
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Earth's Deep Water Cycle. , ed. by Jacobsen, S. D. and Lee, S. F. M. v. d. Geophysical Monograph Series, 168 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 163-276. ISBN 978-0-87590-433-7
    Publication Date: 2017-05-16
    Description: The "standard model" for the genesis of the oceans is that they are exhalations from Earth's deep interior continually rinsed through surface rocks by the global hydrologic cycle. No general consensus exists, however, on the water distribution within the deeper mantle of the Earth. Recently Dixon et a/. [2002] estimated water concentrations for some of the major mantle components and concluded that the most primitive (FOZO) are significantly wetter than the recycling associated EM or HIMU mantle components and the even drier depleted mantle source that melts to form MORB. These findings are in striking agreement with the results of numerical modeling of the global water cycle that are presented here. We find that the Dixon et a/. [2002] results are consistent with a global water cycle model in which the oceans have formed by efficient outgassing of the mantle. Present-day depleted mantle will contain a small volume fraction of more primitive wet mantle in addition to drier recycling related enriched components. This scenario is consistent with the observation that hotspots with a FOZO-component in their source will make wetter basalts than hotspots whose mantle sources contain a larger fraction of EM and HIMU components.
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 21
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 21 (PA3008).
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Multiproxy geologic records of δ18O and Mg/Ca in fossil foraminifera from sediments under the Eastern Pacific Warm Pool (EPWP) region west of Central America document variations in upper ocean temperature, pycnocline strength, and salinity (i.e., net precipitation) over the past 30 kyr. Although evident in the paleotemperature record, there is no glacial-interglacial difference in paleosalinity, suggesting that tropical hydrologic changes do not respond passively to high-latitude ice sheets and oceans. Millennial variations in paleosalinity with amplitudes as high as ∼4 practical salinity units occur with a dominant period of ∼3–5 ky during the glacial/deglacial interval and ∼1.0–1.5 ky during the Holocene. The amplitude of the EPWP paleosalinity changes greatly exceeds that of published Caribbean and western tropical Pacific paleosalinity records. EPWP paleosalinity changes correspond to millennial-scale climate changes in the surface and deep Atlantic and the high northern latitudes, with generally higher (lower) paleosalinity during cold (warm) events. In addition to Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) dynamics, which play an important role in tropical hydrologic variability, changes in Atlantic-Pacific moisture transport, which is closely linked to ITCZ dynamics, may also contribute to hydrologic variations in the EPWP. Calculations of interbasin salinity average and interbasin salinity contrast between the EPWP and the Caribbean help differentiate long-term changes in mean ITCZ position and Atlantic-Pacific moisture transport, respectively.
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  • 22
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 5 (5). pp. 811-821.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Profiles of the 230Th concentration in Mn crusts from the central Pacific Ocean measured at extremely high depth resolution reveal that the growth rates of Mn crusts are influenced by climate. Based on a “constant flux model” the sections of maximum 230Th concentration correspond to periods of slow growth during glacial stages. Fast growth occurred during interglacial stages 1, 5, and 7, probably due to a larger supply of Mn oxides from the water column. High-resolution profiles of 230Th and 10Be in sediment cores from high biological productivity areas display radioisotope maxima in the interglacial stages and minima during glacial periods, the ratio of the fluxes of 10Be/230Th being ≥4. The only exceptions are observed at 135 and 270 kyr B.P., where the ratio of the fluxes is as low as 0.1 to 0.3. We presume that this “230Th anomaly” reflects short periods of time at the end of glacials when precipitation of MnO2 occurred. This hypothesis is confirmed by peaks of Mn observed in sediment cores mainly at the transitions from glacial to interglacial stages. The standing crops of Mn in these layers suggest release of Mn2+ from the sediments during glacial stages and buildup of Mn in the water column to concentrations of up to 10 µmol/L.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Strontium and neodymium radiogenic isotope ratios in early to middle Eocene fossil fish debris (ichthyoliths) from Lomonosov Ridge (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302) help constrain water mass compositions in the Eocene Arctic Ocean between ∼55 and ∼45 Ma. The inferred paleodepositional setting was a shallow, offshore marine to marginal marine environment with limited connections to surrounding ocean basins. The new data demonstrate that sources of Nd and Sr in fish debris were distinct from each other, consistent with a salinity-stratified water column above Lomonosov Ridge in the Eocene. The 87Sr/86Sr values of ichthyoliths (0.7079–0.7087) are more radiogenic than Eocene seawater, requiring brackish to fresh water conditions in the environment where fish metabolized Sr. The 87Sr/86Sr variations probably record changes in the overall balance of river Sr flux to the Eocene Arctic Ocean between ∼55 and ∼45 Ma and are used here to reconstruct surface water salinity values. The ɛNd values of ichthyoliths vary between −5.7 and −7.8, compatible with periodic (or intermittent) supply of Nd to Eocene Arctic intermediate water (AIW) from adjacent seas. Although the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were the most likely sources of Eocene AIW Nd, input from the Tethys Sea (via the Turgay Strait in early Eocene time) and the North Pacific Ocean (via a proto-Bering Strait) also contributed.
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  • 24
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 96 (6). pp. 893-895.
    Publication Date: 2017-01-06
    Description: The purpose of this special section in Paleoceanography is to present interdisciplinary approaches for contributing to the reconstruction of ocean circulation and its response to climate changes. A high-priority objective for understanding the causes and mechanisms of climate change is the monitoring of past ocean circulation and oceanic heat and nutrient transport. Lehman and Keigwin [1992] have shown that cooling, for example, during the younger Dryas event, may have culminated in a cessation of the oceans conveyor circulation. The cooling in the North Atlantic was apparently the result of reduced northward heat transport in the upper water masses of the North Atlantic conveyor belt. In contrast, intervals with a strong surface and deepwater circulation were marked by a high northward heat transport. For the understanding of the causes and the timing of such rapid,highfrequency events, marine records of high deposition ratecores are needed. These cores should provide evidence for changes in abyssal circulation and heat transport, as well as arecord of surface and deepwater characteristics. The sediment drifts of the North Atlantic and in other ocean basins are one of the major targets for the recovery of sediments with high deposition rates (〉10 cm/kyr) and for reconstructing the role of both intermediate and deepwater production in the conveyor belt, that is drawing low-latitude heat northward. We stress the need for international programs targeting high deposition rate areas on sediment drifts and sediment waves in order to understand (1) the evolution of the conveyor belt and (2) its dynamics and variability. The North Atlantic, where sediment drifts are concentrated, will provide ideal study areas with time resolutions comparable to those of ice core records but with records linked directly to the record of changing bottom water flow. Therefore one can address the changes in circulation, heat and carbon budget on high and ultrahigh resolution records.
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  • 25
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Interactions between macro- and microorganisms in marine sediments. , ed. by Kristensen, E., Haese, R. R. and Kostka, J. E. Coastal and estuarine studies, 60 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 251-266.
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
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  • 26
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 19 (PA1003).
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: A marine sediment core from the leeward margin of Great Bahama Bank (GBB) was subjected to a multiproxy study. The aragonite dominated core MD992201 comprises the past 7230 years in a decadal time resolution and shows sedimentation rates of up to 13.8 m/kyr. Aragonite mass accumulation rates, age differences between planktonic foraminifera and aragonite sediments, and temperature distribution are used to deduce changes in aragonite production rates and paleocurrent strengths. Aragonite precipitation rates on GBB are controlled by exchange of carbonate ions and CO2 loss due to temperature-salinity conditions and biological activity, and these are dependent on the current strength. Paleocurrent strengths on GBB show high current velocities during the periods 6000–5100 years BP, 3500–2700 years BP, and 1600–700 years BP; lower current speeds existed during the time intervals 5100–3500 years BP, 2700–1600 years BP, and 700–100 years BP. Bahamian surface currents are directly linked to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation, and thus periods with high (low) current speeds are proposed to be phases of strong (weak) atmospheric circulation.
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  • 27
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Natural gas hydrates: occurrence, distribution, and detection. , ed. by Paull, C. Geophysical Monograph Series, 124 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 87-99.
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Diagenetic processes are known to modify sedimentary records, but they can also reveal important paleoenvironmental changes. Here we investigate variations in sedimentary iron diagenesis and depositional environments for the last 35 ka by analyzing the rock magnetic and geochemical properties of two sediment cores collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (California). In organic-rich sediments, early diagenesis often leads to partial dissolution of detrital iron oxides and stepwise formation of authigenic pyrite (FeS2). The pyritization process takes place following several geochemical pathways, sometimes involving intermediate iron sulfide species such as greigite (Fe3S4). Sedimentary conditions in the basin appear to have recurrently favored preservation of greigite (identified by its magnetic properties) and inhibited its complete transformation into pyrite. The Holocene interval contains a series of centimeter-thick greigite-bearing layers that are associated with large flood deposits, which are known in the basin as ‘‘gray layers.’’ We propose that greigite preservation was enabled in these sediments by their relative enrichment in reactive iron over organic matter and/or hydrogen sulfide (because of their high ratio of terrigenous over organic material), which limited pyritization reactions. Within the glacial deposits, formation and preservation of meter-thick greigite layers occurred in terrigenous-rich and organic-poor sedimentary layers and is proposed to result from a similar diagenetic process to that in the Holocene greigite-bearing layers (dominance of reactive iron over organic matter and/or HS�). The terrigenous enrichments in the glacial greigite-bearing layers are probably related to climatic or sea level changes because they occur at times of massive iceberg releases in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich events.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: The intratest variation in the chemical composition of Globorotalia scitula and G. inflata recovered from a sediment trap sample collected at 3000 m in the North Atlantic in early spring has been investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry and electron microprobe. Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Ba/Ca vary by up to a factor of 10 through the test walls. Water column properties, including temperature and salinity, are well documented at the trap site, and the observed variations are too large to be explained by vertical migration of the foraminifera. However, changes in calcite precipitation rate, crystal structure, or the chemical composition of the internal calcification reservoir also cannot, by themselves, fully account for the pattern of intratest variability. Nevertheless, the average Mg/Ca for each chamber generally produces a Mg/Ca temperature that matches that measured in the water column. The exception is small, morphologically distinct G. inflata tests that have anomalously high Mg/Ca.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: Biogenic particle fluxes from highly productive surface waters, boundary scavenging, and hydrothermal activity are the main factors influencing the deposition of radionuclides in the area of the Galapagos microplate, eastern Equatorial Pacific. In order to evaluate the importance of these three processes throughout the last 100 kyr, concentrations of the radionuclides 10Be, 230Th, and 231Pa, and of Mn and Fe were measured at high resolution in sediment samples from two gravity cores KLH 068 and KLH 093. High biological productivity in the surface waters overlying the investigated area has led to 10Be and 231Pa fluxes exceeding production during at least the last 30 kyr and probably the last 100 kyr. However, during periods of high productivity at the up welling centers off Peru and extension of the equatorial high-productivity zone, a relative loss of 10Be and 231Pa may have occurred in these sediment cores because of boundary scavenging. The effects of hydrothermal activity were investigated by comparing the 230Thex concentrations to the Mn/Fe ratios and by comparing the fluxes of 230Th and 10Be which exceed production. The results suggest an enhanced hydrothermal influence during isotope stages 4 and 5 and to a lesser extent during isotope stage 1 in core KLH 093. During isotope stages 2 and 3, the hydrothermal supply of Mn was deposited elsewhere, probably because of changes in current regime or deep water oxygenation. A strong increase of the Mn/Fe ratio at the beginning of climatic stage 1 which is not accompanied by an increase of the 230Thex concentration is interpreted to be an effect of Mn remobilization and reprecipitation in the sediment.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: Biogenic particle fluxes from highly productive surface waters, boundary scavenging, and hydrothermal activity are the main factors influencing the deposition of radionuclides in the area of the Galapagos microplate, eastern Equatorial Pacific. In order to evaluate the importance of these three processes throughout the last 100 kyr, concentrations of the radionuclides 10Be, 230Th, and 231Pa, and of Mn and Fe were measured at high resolution in sediment samples from two gravity cores KLH 068 and KLH 093. High biological productivity in the surface waters overlying the investigated area has led to 10Be and 231Pa fluxes exceeding production during at least the last 30 kyr and probably the last 100 kyr. However, during periods of high productivity at the up welling centers off Peru and extension of the equatorial high-productivity zone, a relative loss of 10Be and 231Pa may have occurred in these sediment cores because of boundary scavenging. The effects of hydrothermal activity were investigated by comparing the 230Thex concentrations to the Mn/Fe ratios and by comparing the fluxes of 230Th and 10Be which exceed production. The results suggest an enhanced hydrothermal influence during isotope stages 4 and 5 and to a lesser extent during isotope stage 1 in core KLH 093. During isotope stages 2 and 3, the hydrothermal supply of Mn was deposited elsewhere, probably because of changes in current regime or deep water oxygenation. A strong increase of the Mn/Fe ratio at the beginning of climatic stage 1 which is not accompanied by an increase of the 230Thex concentration is interpreted to be an effect of Mn remobilization and reprecipitation in the sediment.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: A multiparameter-based interpretation of sediment records from the northeast Atlantic and the western Nordic seas suggests that during the last 500,000 years only in marine isotopes stage (MIS) 11, 5e, and 1 were there somewhat comparable interglacial boundary conditions in both regions, i.e., strongly reduced occurrence of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD) and high carbonate bioproductivity. Although the northeast Atlantic experienced such conditions during all peak interglaciations, with the exception of MIS 7, planktic foraminiferal δ18O from this region would still indicate that significantly colder sea surface temperatures (SST) prevailed during MIS 11 than during MIS 9, 5e, and 1. This assumption is corroborated by a continuous input of IRD into the western Nordic seas during MIS 11, implying a much steeper SST gradient between the polar and subpolar region and an overall reduced thermohaline activity in the polar latitudes. The iceberg proxy also reveals that maximum IRD discharge always happened during the final phase of glaciation and into early deglaciation (terminations). As these IRD records from the two regions are characterized by a high time coherency, it is concluded that short-term variability is a persistent feature of the glacial climate system.
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  • 33
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Indian Ocean biogeochemical processes and ecological variability. , ed. by Wiggert, J. D., Hood, R. R., Naqvi, S. W. A., Brink, K. H. and Smith, S. L. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 205-216.
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: The intensity of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production has been one of the most important parameters controlling the global thermohaline ocean circulation system and climate. Here we present a new approach to reconstruct the overall strength of NADW export from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr applying the deep water Nd and Pb isotope composition as recorded by ferromanganese crusts and nodules. We present the first long-term Nd and Pb isotope time series for deep Southern Ocean water masses, which are compared with previously published time series for NADW from the NW Atlantic Ocean. These data suggest a continuous and strong export of NADW, or a precursor of it, into the Southern Ocean between 14 and 3 Ma. An increasing difference in Nd and Pb isotope compositions between the NW Atlantic and the Southern Ocean over the past 3 Myr gives evidence for a progressive overall reduction of NADW export since the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). The Nd isotope data allow us to assess at least semiquantitatively that the amount of this reduction has been in the range between 14 and 37% depending on location.
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  • 35
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  , ed. by Rona, P. A., Devey, C., Dyment, J. and Murton, B. Geophysical Monograph Series, 188 . American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 440 pp. ISBN 978-0-87390-478-8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-13
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  • 36
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges. , ed. by Rona, P. A. and Devey, C. W. Geophysical Monograph Series, 188 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 133-152. ISBN 978-0-87390-478-8
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the equator is a key region for many aspects of spreading axis studies, from biogeography to ridge-hotspot interaction. Despite this, the ridge axis had, until 2004, seen little systematic study. Repeated trips to the area since then have mapped and explored some 900 km of ridge length, from 2° to 14°S. The result is complete bathymetric and side-scan coverage of the axial region and the discovery and characterization of the first hydrothermal vents south of the equator. Such multisegment detailed and interdisciplinary coverage allows us to formulate a general model for the interplay between volcanism, tectonics, and hydrothermalism on a slow spreading ridge. The model defines three basic types of ridge morphology with specific hydrothermal characteristics: (a) a deep, tectonically dominated rift valley where hydrothermalism is seldom associated with volcanism and much more likely confined to long-lived bounding faults; (b) a shallower, segment-center bulge where a combination of repeated magmatic activity and tectonism results in repeated, possibly temporally overlapping periods of hydrothermal activity on the ridge axis; and (c) a very shallow axis beneath which temperatures in all but the uppermost crust are so high that deformation is ductile, inhibiting the formation of high-porosity deep fractures and severely depressing hydrothermal circulation. This model is used together with satellitederived predicted bathymetry to provide forecasts of the best places to look for hydrothermal sites in the remaining unexplored regions of the South Atlantic.
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  • 37
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 13 (2). pp. 193-204.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Stable oxygen and-carbon isotope and sedimentological-paleontological investigations supported by accelerator mass spectrometry (14)C datings were carried out on cores from north of 85 degrees N in the eastern central Arctic Ocean. Significant changes in accumulation rates, provenance of ice-rafted debris (IRD), and planktic productivity over the past 80,000 years are documented. During peak glacials, i.e., oxygen isotope stages 4 and 2, the Arctic Ocean was covered by sea ice with decreased seasonal variation, limiting planktic productivity and bulk sedimentation rates. In early stage 3 and during Termination I, major deglaciations of the circum-Arctic regions caused lowered salinities and poor oxygenation of central Arctic surface waters. A meltwater spike and an associated IRD peak dated to similar to 14-12 (14)C ka can be traced over the southern Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. This event was associated with the early and rapid deglaciation of the marine-based Barents Sea Ice Sheet. A separate Termination Ib meltwater event is most conspicuous in the central Arctic and is associated with characteristic dolomitic carbonate IRD. This lithology suggests an origin of glacial ice from northern Canada and northern Greenland where lower Paleozoic platform carbonates crop extensively out.
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  • 38
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2: Natural variations archean to present; Proceedings of the Chapman Conference on Natural Variations in Carbon Dioxide and the Carbon Cycle, Tarpon Springs, FL, January 9-13, 1984. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 303-317.
    Publication Date: 2015-08-03
    Description: A 340,000-year record of benthic and planktonic oxygen and carbon isotope measurements from an equatorial Pacific deep-sea core are analyzed. The data provide estimates of both global ice volume and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over this period. The frequencies characteristic of changes in the earth-sun orbital geometry dominate all the records. Examination of phase relationships shows that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration leads ice volume over the orbital bandwidth, and is forced by orbital changes through a mechanism, at present not fully understood, with a short response time. Changes in atmospheric CO2 are not primarily caused by glacial-interglacial sea level changes, which had been hypothesized to affect atmospheric CO2 through the effect on ocean chemistry of changing sedimentation on the continental shelves. Instead, variations in atmospheric CO2 should be regarded as part of the forcing of ice volume changes.
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  • 39
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 1-9. ISBN 0-87590-296-0
    Publication Date: 2015-09-09
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  • 40
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 105-107. ISBN 0-87590-296-0
    Publication Date: 2015-09-09
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  • 41
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts—Past and Future Changes of Meridional Overturning. Geophysical Monograph Series, 173 . American Geophysical Union, USA, pp. 75-89. ISBN 9780875904382
    Publication Date: 2019-04-29
    Description: Dense Nordic waters enter the North Atlantic through passages in the Greenland-Scotland Ridge at a mean rate of 6 Sv. Subsequent entrainment of ambient water into the sinking plumes downstream of the sills approximately double this flux. Decade-long observations show these fluxes to be stable with no discernible trends. Hydraulic control of the overflows and the buffering effect of the Nordic basins effectively filter out short-term variability of dense water production associated with white noise North Atlantic Oscillation forcing. Simulations with directly forced and coupled atmosphere-ocean models show, under present climate conditions, overflow variability on multi-decadal time scales but no longterm trends.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Near-surface sediments from the equatorial east Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea exhibit pronounced shear strength maxima in profiles from the peak Holocene and Pleistocene. These semi-indurated layers start to occur at 8–102 cm below the sediment surface and can be explained neither by the modal composition nor by the effective overburden pressure of the sediments. However, scanning electron microscope and microprobe data exhibit micritic crusts and crystal carpets, which are clearly restricted to (undisturbed) samples from indurated layers and form a manifest explanation for their origin. The minerals precipitated comprise calcite, aragonite, and in samples more proximal to the African continent SiO2 needles, and needles of as yet unidentified K-Mg-Fe-Al silicates, crusts of which dominate the indurated layers in the Norwegian Sea. By their stratigraphic position in deep-sea sediments the carbonate-based shear strength maxima are tentatively ascribed to dissolved adjacent pteropod layers from the early Holocene and hence to short-lived no-analogue events of early diagenesis. Possibly, they have been controlled by a reduced organic carbon flux, leading to increased aragonite preservation in the deep sea.
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  • 43
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 14 (2). pp. 143-150.
    Publication Date: 2015-07-17
    Description: Observations of the temporal and spatial distribution of N2O in solution are not yet sufficient to permit quantitative assessment of the role of the ocean in the budget of atmospheric N2O. Consideration of the global nitrogen cycle suggests that the land should be the primary source of N2O. The gas is removed in the atmosphere by photolysis and by reaction with O(1D), and there may be additional sinks in the ocean.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: The cause of massive blooms of Ethmodiscus rex laminated diatom mats (LDMs) in the eastern Philippine Sea (EPS) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) remains uncertain. In order to better understand the mechanism of formation of E. rex LDMs from the perspective of dissolved silicon (DSi) utilization, we determined the silicon isotopic composition of single E. rex diatom frustules (δ30SiE. rex) from two sediment cores in the Parece Vela Basin of the EPS. In the study cores, δ30SiE. rex varies from −1.23‰ to −0.83‰ (average −1.04‰), a range that is atypical of marine diatom δ30Si and that corresponds to the lower limit of reported diatom δ30Si values of any age. A binary mixing model (upwelled silicon versus eolian silicon) accounting for silicon isotopic fractionation during DSi uptake by diatoms was constructed. The binary mixing model demonstrates that E. rex dominantly utilized DSi from eolian sources (i.e., Asian dust) with only minor contributions from upwelled seawater sources (i.e., advected from Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, or North Pacific Intermediate Water). E. rex utilized only ~24% of available DSi, indicating that surface waters of the EPS were eutrophic with respect to silicon during the LGM. Our results suggest that giant diatoms did not always use a buoyancy strategy to obtain nutrients from the deep nutrient pool, thus revising previously proposed models for the formation of E. rex LDMs.
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  • 45
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Dynamics of Passive Margins. , ed. by Scrutton, R. A. Geodynamics series, 6 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 59-71.
    Publication Date: 2016-04-11
    Description: Sedimentation rates (corrected for compaction) from along the passive continental margin of Africa between the Equatorial Fracture Zone and Somalia are used to compare the rates of subsidence of the continental crust since early Mesozoic time. Three distinctive subsidence histories can be identified which correspond with basinal areas that have different structural styles: rifted (west coast), sheared (Equatorial and Agulhas fracture zones) and sunk (zones of vertical tectonics in eastern Africa). A comparison of subsidence rates with other tensional margins (NE USA and the North Sea) and a consideration of the plate tectonic history of the African margins leads to the proposal of a geo and thermodynamic model that takes cognizance of the worldwide mid-Cretaceous rheological discontinuity between taphrogenic and epeirogenic basin formation recognized by Kent, and the more generally accepted, purely plate tectonic driven model of margin subsidence. The new suggestion involves a lower Mesozoic worldwide rise in the geothermal gradient in the lithosphere which produces metamorphism of the base of the continental crust and initiates taphrogenesis along lineaments throughout Gondwanaland. A lowering of the geothermal gradient in the lower Cretaceous produces a switch to epeirogenic subsidence, driven solely by sediment loading and thermal contraction, by Aptian/Albian times. The thermal event facilitated continental separation, and sea floor spreading commenced locally at various times along the active taphrogenic belts. Local thermal and tectonic aberrations associated with this phenomenon over print onto the worldwide pattern of marginal basin subsidence. A further rise in the geothermal gradient may have been responsible for renewed taphrogenesis in eastern Africa in Tertiary times.
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  • 46
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 4 (1). pp. 87-140.
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: A global synthesis of Miocene benthic foraminiferal carbon and oxygen isotopic and faunal abundance data indicates that Miocene thermohaline circulation evolved through three regimes corresponding approximately to early, middle, and late Miocene times. There is evidence for major qualitative differences between the circulation of the modern ocean and the Miocene ocean prior to 11 Ma. The 13C/12C ratios of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides are interpreted in terms of water mass aging, i.e., the progressive depletion of dissolved O2 and lowering of δ13C values as the result of oxidation of organic matter as water flows further from its sources at the surface of the oceans. Both isotopic and faunal data indicate that the early Miocene regime, from 22 to 15 Ma, was the most different from today's. During that interval intermediate and deep waters of both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans aged in a northward direction, and the intermediate waters of the Indian, the South Atlantic and the South Pacific oceans were consistently the youngest in the global ocean. We speculate that early Miocene global thermohaline circulation may have been strongly influenced by the influx of warm saline water, Tethyan Indian Saline Water, from the Tethys into the northern Indian Ocean. The isotopic and faunal data suggest that flow from the Tethyan region into the Indian Ocean diminished or terminated at about 14 Ma. Isotopic and faunal data give no evidence for North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation prior to about 14.5 Ma (with the exception of a brief episode in the early Miocene). From 14.5 to 11 Ma NADW formation was weak, and circumpolar and Antarctic water flooded the deep South Atlantic and South Pacific as the Antarctic ice cap grew. From about 10 Ma to the end of the Miocene, thermohaline circulation resembled the modern circulation in many ways. In latest Miocene time (6 to 5 Ma) circulation patterns were very similar to today's except that NADW formation was greatly diminished. The distribution pattern of siliceous oozes in Miocene sediments is consistent with our proposed reconstruction of thermohaline circulation. Major changes which occurred in circulation during the middle Miocene were probably related to the closing of the Tethys and may have contributed to rapid middle Miocene growth of the Antarctic ice cap.
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 2 (6). pp. 543-559.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-05
    Description: A suit of sediment cores close to and south of the Strait of Gibraltar (12°-36°N, 500–2800 m water depth) were analyzed for stable isotopes in epibenthic foraminifers Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Planulina ariminensis. During peak glacial times, the data exhibit higher δ13C values of up to 1.6‰ at intermediate depths near the Strait of Gibraltar (36°N). The values decrease to the south as evidenced by our data, but also to the north as revealed by data of intermediate depth cores north of 38°N (in Duplessy et al. [1987]). Thus, the distribution pattern of δ13C provides crucial evidence for an increased influence of nutrient depleted Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) on the glacial northeast Atlantic hydrography. During oxygen isotope Terminations I and II, the meridional carbon isotope gradient indicates a significantly decreased but still active MOW. As deduced from the δ18O fluctuations, the temperatures of the MOW in the Atlantic were lower during glacial times by as much as 5°C. During glacial times and during Termination I the maximum δ13C values of the MOW correlate with minimum values of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and vice versa. This inverse response to climatic change of the carbon isotope signals of both water masses indicates, that the supply of saline MOW to the north Atlantic may be less important for the formation of NADW than previously assumed.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-09-02
    Description: Benthic δ18O data from 95 core sites are used to infer possible temperature-salinity (T-S) fields of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A constraint of stable density stratification yields logically consistent scenarios for both T and S. The solutions are not unique but are useful as a thinking tool. To better constrain the inferences drawn from the spatial distribution of benthic δ18O, we must reduce scatter in the δ18O data with more high-quality measurements in high sedimentation rate cores. Also, we must intercalibrate mass spectrometers at different isotope laboratories more accurately, to insure our isotope data are compatible.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-09-02
    Description: [1] Using 150 core top samples, we developed a conservative but fairly robust new measure to reconstruct past changes in (maximum) seasonal sea ice distribution in the northern North Atlantic, hitherto a major unknown. The proxy is based on Similarity Maximum Modern-Analog Technique (SIMMAX) estimates of threshold temperatures near the sea surface (SST). Today, almost 100% of all sites with SST 〉2.5°C during summer, 〉0.4° for winters 1978–1987, and 〉0.75°C for Little Ice Age winters lie seaward of the sea ice margin. When applied to 〉60 sediment records of the Last Glacial Maximum, this proxy shows that peak glacial sea ice was far more restricted than in the “classic” CLIMAP Project Members [1981] reconstruction. During glacial summer, sea ice only covered the Arctic Ocean and western Fram Strait. The northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas were largely ice-free and thus formed a high-latitude moisture source for the continued buildup of continental ice sheets. In contrast, sea ice spread far south across the Iceland Faeroe Ridge during glacial winter, with an inferred patch of sea ice also in the central east Atlantic, near the center of the Azores High. A broad ice-free channel extended from 50° to 60°N, forming an ideal site for large-scale convection of glacial upper North Atlantic Deep Water. The extreme seasonality in glacial sea ice formation and melt in the Nordic Seas implies a major consumption of the regional energy income.
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 6 (5). pp. 593-608.
    Publication Date: 2016-06-16
    Description: Radiocarbon ages on CaCO3 from deep-sea cores offer constraints on the nature of the CaCO3 dissolution process. The idea is that the toll taken by dissolution on grains within the core top bioturbation zone should be in proportion to their time of residence in this zone. If so, dissolution would shift the mass distribution in favor of younger grains, thereby reducing the mean radiocarbon age for the grain ensemble. We have searched in vain for evidence supporting the existence of such an age reduction. Instead, we find that for water depths of more than 4 km in the tropical Pacific the radiocarbon age increases with the extent of dissolution. We can find no satisfactory steady state explanation and are forced to conclude that this increase must be the result of chemical erosion. The idea is that during the Holocene the rate of dissolution of CaCO3 has exceeded the rain rate of CaCO3. In this circumstance, bioturbation exhumes CaCO3 from the underlying glacial sediment and mixes it with CaCO3 raining from the sea surface.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: Radiocarbon ages for benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the late glacial sections of two Atlantic and two Pacific cores are reported. The differences for benthic-planktonic pairs suggest that the radiocarbon age for deep Atlantic water was somewhat larger than today's (i.e., 600±250, as opposed to 400 years) and that the radiocarbon age for deep Pacific water was also slightly larger than today's (2100±400, as opposed to 1600, years). Our results suggest that during glacial time, the deep Pacific was, as it is today, significantly depleted in radiocarbon relative to the deep Atlantic. As many questions remain unanswered regarding the reliability of this approach, these conclusions must be considered to be preliminary.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-07-08
    Description: Variations in carbonate flux and dissolution, which occurred in the equatorial Atlantic during the last 24,000 years, have been estimated by a new approach that allows the point-by-point determination of paleofluxes to the seafloor. An unprecedented time resolution can thus be obtained which allows sequencing of the relatively rapid events occurring during deglaciation. The method is based on observations that the flux of unsupported 230Th into deep-sea sediments is nearly independent of the total mass flux and is close to the production rate. Thus excess 230Th activity in sediments can be used as a reference against which fluxes of other sedimentary components can be estimated. The study was conducted at two sites (Ceará Rise; western equatorial Atlantic, and Sierra Leone Rise; eastern equatorial Atlantic) in cores raised from three different depths at each site. From measurements of 230Th and CaCO3, changes in carbonate flux with time and depth were obtained. A rapid increase in carbonate production, starting at the onset of deglaciation, was found in both areas. This event may have important implications for the postglacial increase in atmospheric CO2 by increasing the global carbonate carbon to organic carbon rain ratio and decreasing the alkalinity of surface waters (and possibly the North Atlantic Deep Water). Increased carbonate dissolution occurred in the two regions during deglaciation, followed by a minimum during mid-Holocene and renewed intensification of dissolution in late Holocene. During the last 16,000 years, carbonate dissolution was consistently more pronounced in the western than in the eastern basin, reflecting the influence of Antarctic Bottom Water in the west. This trend was reversed during stage 2, possibly due to the accumulation of metabolic CO2 below the level of the Romanche Fracture Zone in the eastern basin.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: A benthic isotope record has been measured for core SO75-26KL from the upper Portuguese margin (1099 m water depth) to monitor the response of thermohaline overturn in the North Atlantic during Heinrich events. Evaluating benthic δ18O in TS diagrams in conjunction with equilibrium δc fractionation implies that advection of Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) to the upper Portuguese margin was significantly reduced during the last glacial (〈 15% compared to 30% today). The benthic isotope record along core SO75-26KL therefore primarily monitors variability of glacial North Atlantic conveyor circulation. The 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry ages of 13.54±.07 and 20.46±.12 ka for two ice-rafted detritus (IRD) layers in the upper core section and an interpolated age of 36.1 ka for a third IRD layer deeper in the core are in the range of published 14C ages for Heinrich events H1, H2, and H4. Marked depletion of benthic δ13C by 0.7–1.1‰ during the Heinrich events suggests reduced thermohaline overturn in the North Atlantic during these events. Close similarity between meltwater patterns (inferred from planktonic δ18O) at Site 609 and ventilation patterns (inferred from benthic δ13C) in core SO75-26KL implies coupling between thermohaline overturn and surface forcing, as is also suggested by ocean circulation models. Benthic δ13C starts to decrease 1.5–2.5 kyr before Heinrich events Hl and H4, fully increased values are reached 1.5–3 kyr after the events, indicating a successive slowdown of thermohaline circulation well before the events and resumption of the conveyor's full strength well after the events. Benthic δ13C changes in the course of the Heinrich events show subtle maxima and minima suggesting oscillatory behavior of thermohaline circulation, a distinct feature of thermohaline instability in numerical models. Inferrred gradual spin-up of thermohaline circulation after Hl and H4 is in contrast to abrupt wanning in the North Atlantic region that is indicated by sudden increases in Greenland ice core δ18O and in marine faunal records from the northern North Atlantic. From this we infer that thermohaline circulation can explain only in part the rapid climatic oscillations seen in glacial sections of the Greenland ice core record.
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO: Natural Variations Archean to Present. , ed. by Sundquist, E. T. and Broecker, W. S. Geophysical Monograph, 32 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp. 469-486.
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: Stable isotopes in benthic foraminifera from Pacific sediments are used to assess hypotheses of systematic shifts in the depth distribution of oceanic nutrients and carbon during the ice ages. The carbon isotope differences between ∼1400 and ∼3200 m depth in the eastern Pacific are consistently greater in glacial than interglacial maxima over the last ∼370 kyr. This phenomenon of “bottom heavy” glacial nutrient distributions, which Boyle proposed as a cause of Pleistocene CO2 change, occurs primarily in the 1/100 and 1/41 kyr−1 “Milankovitch” orbital frequency bands but appears to lack a coherent 1/23 kyr−1 band related to orbital precession. Averaged over oxygen-isotope stages, glacial δ13C gradients from ∼1400 to ∼3200 m depth are 0.1‰ greater than interglacial gradients. The range of extreme shifts is somewhat larger, 0.2 to 0.5‰. In both cases, these changes in Pacific δ13C distributions are much smaller than observed in shorter records from the North Atlantic. This may be too small to be a dominant cause of atmospheric pCO2 change, unless current models underestimate the sensitivity of pCO2 to nutrient redistributions. This dampening of Pacific relative to Atlantic δ13C depth gradient favors a North Atlantic origin of the phenomenon, although local variations of Pacific intermediate water masses can not be excluded at present.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: Benthic (Uvigerina spp., Cibicidoides spp., Gyroidinoides spp.) and planktonic (N. pachyderma sinistral, G. bulloides) stable isotope records from three core sites in the central Gulf of Alaska are used to infer mixed-layer and deepwater properties of the late glacial Subarctic Pacific. Glacial-interglacial amplitudes of the planktonic δ18O records are 1.1–1.3‰, less than half the amplitude observed at core sites at similar latitudes in the North Atlantic; these data imply that a strong, negative δw anomaly existed in the glacial Subarctic mixed layer during the summer, which points to a much stronger low-salinity anomaly than exists today. If true, the upper water column in the North Pacific would have been statically more stable than today, thus suppressing convection even more efficiently. This scenario is further supported by vertical (i.e., planktic versus benthic) δ18O and δ13C gradients of 〉1‰, which suggest that a thermohaline link between Pacific deep waters and the Subarctic Pacific mixed layer did not exist during the late glacial. Epibenthic δ13C in the Subarctic Pacific is more negative than at tropical-subtropical Pacific sites but similar to that recorded at Southern Ocean sites, suggesting ventilation of the deep central Pacific from mid-latitude sources, e.g., from the Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk. Still, convection to intermediate depths could have occurred in the Subarctic during the winter months when heat loss to the atmosphere, sea ice formation, and wind-driven upwelling of saline deep waters would have been most intense. This would be beyond the grasp of our planktonic records which only document mixed-layer temperature-salinity fields extant during the warmer seasons. Also we do not have benthic isotope records from true intermediate water depths of the Subarctic Pacific.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: New records of stable silicon isotope signatures (δ30Si) together with concentrations of biogenic opal and organic carbon from the central (9° S) and northern (5° S) Peruvian margin reveal changes in diatom productivity and nutrient utilization during the past 20,000 years. The findings are based on a new approach using the difference between the δ30Si signatures of small (11-32μm) and large (〉150μm) diatom fractions (Δ30Sicoscino-bSi) in combination with the variance in diatom assemblages for reconstruction of past upwelling intensity. Combination of our records with two previously published records from the southern upwelling area off Peru (12-15° S) shows a general decoupling of the environmental conditions at the central and southern shelf mainly caused by a northward shift of the main upwelling cell from its modern position (12-15° S) towards 9° S during Termination 1. At this time only moderate upwelling intensity and productivity levels prevailed between 9° S and 12° S interpreted by a more northerly position of Southern Westerly Winds and the South Pacific Subtropical High. Furthermore, a marked decrease in productivity at 12-15° S during Heinrich Stadial 1 coincided with enhanced biogenic opal production in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific, which was induced by a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence zone and enhanced northeasterly trade winds. Modern conditions were only established at the onset of the Holocene. Past changes in preformed δ30Si signatures of subsurface waters reaching the Peruvian Upwelling System did not significantly affect the preserved δ30Si signatures.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: The Multitracers Experiment studied a transect of water column, sediment trap, and sediment data taken across the California Current to develop quantitative methods for hindcasting paleoproductivity. The experiment used three sediment trap moorings located 120 km, 270 km, and 630 km from shore at the Oregon/California border in North America. We report here about the sedimentation and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and CaCO3. In order to observe how the integrated CaCO3 and Corg burial across the transect has changed since the last glacial maximum, we have correlated core from the three sites using time scales constrained by both radiocarbon and oxygen isotopes. By comparing surface sediments to a two-and-a-half year sediment trap record, we have also defined the modern preservation rates for many of the labile sedimentary materials. Our analysis of the Corg data indicates that significant amounts (20–40%) of the total Corg being buried today in surface sediments is terrestrial. At the last glacial maximum, the terrestrial Corg fraction within 300 km of the coast was about twice as large. Such large fluxes of terrestrial Corg obscure the marine Corg record, which can be interpreted as productivity. When we corrected for the terrestrial organic matter, we found that the mass accumulation rate of marine Corg roughly doubled from the glacial maximum to the present. Because preservation rates of organic carbon are high in the high sedimentation rate cores, corrections for degradation are straightforward and we can be confident that organic carbon rain rate (new productivity) also doubled. As confirmation, the highest burial fluxes of other biogenic components (opal and Ba) also occur in the Holocene. Productivity off Oregon has thus increased dramatically since the last glacial maximum. CaCO3 fluxes also changed radically through the deglaciation; however, they are linked not to CaCO3 production but rather to changes in deepwater carbonate chemistry between 18 Ka and now.
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  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 10 (1). pp. 213-249.
    Publication Date: 2017-01-13
    Description: This review is intended to cover the principal developments that have occurred within the last six years in the paleomagnetic study of marine sediments. Recent work utilizing the reflecting-light microscope indicates that detrital high-temperature Fe-Ti oxides are probably responsible for most of the magnetic remanence in marine sediments. These minerals possess a spectrum of coercivities that makes it necessary to use alternating-field—demagnetization techniques to isolate stable components. It is possible to use the standard magnetic stratigraphy for the last 4 m.y. of earth history derived from terrestrial lavas. Using the ages of the magnetic boundaries from this time scale it is possible by extrapolation and interpolation to better determine the ages of the major events. The ages of these events in increasing age are Jaramillo, 0.87 to 0.92 m.y.; Olduvai, 1.71 to 1.86 m.y.; Kaena, 2.82 to 2.90 m.y.; Mammoth, 3.0 to 3.085 m.y.; Cochiti, 3.72 to 3.82 m.y.; Nunivak, 3.97 to 4.14 m.y.; ‘c’ event of the Gilbert series, 4.33 to 4.65 m.y. Through the use of long cores from the central Pacific and through correlation using fossil datums, it has been possible to extend the magnetic stratigraphy back to the upper middle Miocene to magnetic epoch 5. It is concluded that very short magnetic events are probably short-term excursions of the field and not true magnetic events. It is shown that the field of the earth averages to an axial-dipole field within a period of 27,000 years and that the field over the last two million years has acted as a geocentric axial dipole. The evidence shows that when reversals of the dipole occur, the values of the reversed inclination are not significantly different from the normal values. The use of magnetic stratigraphy in marine geology has opened up a new era in study of sedimentary processes and evolution of marine organisms.
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  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  In: Inside the Subduction Factory. , ed. by Eiler, J. Geophysical Monograph, 138 . American Geophysical Union, Boulder, pp. 153-174.
    Publication Date: 2017-03-01
    Description: Most Central American volcanoes occur in an impressive volcanic front that trends parallel to the strike of the subducting Cocos Plate. The volcanic front is a chain, made of right-stepping, linear segments, 100 to 300 Km in length. Volcanoes cluster into centers, whose spacing is random but averages about 27 Km. These closely spaced, easily accessible volcanic centers allow mapping of geochemical variations along the volcanic front. Abundant back-arc volcanoes in southeast Guatemala and central Honduras allow two cross-arc transects. Several element and isotope ratios (e.g. BalLa, Uffh, B/La, IOBe/9Be, 87Sr/86Sr) that are thought to signal subducted marine sediments or altered MORB consistently define a chevron pattern along the arc, with its maximum in Nicaragua. BalLa, a particularly sensitive signal, is 130 at the maximum in Nicaragua but decreases out on the limbs to 40 in Guatemala and 20 in Costa Rica, which is just above the nominal mantle value of 15. This high amplitude regional variation, roughly symmetrical about Nicaragua, contrasts with the near constancy, or small gradient, in several plate tectonic parameters such as convergence rate, age of the subducting Cocos Plate, and thickness and type of subducted sediment. The large geochemical changes over relatively short distances make Central America an important margin for seeking the tectonic causes of geochemical variations; the regional variation has both a high amplitude and structure, including flat areas and gradients. The geochemical database continues to improve and is already adequate to compare to tectonic models with length scales of 100 Km or longer.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Digital hydrographic data combined with satellite thermal infrared and visible band remote sensing provide a synoptic climatological view of the shallow planktonic environment. This paper uses wind, hydrographic, and ocean remote sensing data to examine southwest monsoon controls on the foraminiferal faunal composition of Recent seafloor sediments of the northwestern Arabian Sea. Ekman pumping resulting in open-ocean upwelling and coastal upwelling create two distinctly different mixed layer plankton environments in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon. Open-sea upwelling to the northwest of the mean July position of the Findlater Jet axis yields a mixed layer environment with temperatures of less than 25°C to about 26.5°C, phytoplankton pigment concentrations between 1.5 and 5.0 mg/m³, and mixed layer depths less than 50 m. Convergence in the Ekman layer in the central Arabian Sea drives the formation of a mixed layer that is greater than 50 m thick, warmer than about 26.5°C, and has phytoplankton pigment concentrations generally below 2.0 mg/m³. Coastal upwelling creates an extremely eutrophic plankton environment that persists over and immediately adjacent to the Omani shelf and undergoes significant offshore transport only within topographically induced coastal squirts. The foraminiferal faunal composition of upper Pleistocene deep-sea sediments of the northwestern Arabian Sea are mainly controlled by vertical nutrient fluxes caused by Ekman pumping, not coastal upwelling. Transfer functions for late Pleistocene mixed layer depth, temperature, and chlorophyll have been obtained through factor analysis and nonlinear multiple regression between late summer mixed layer environment and Recent sediment faunal observations.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Understanding intermediate water circulation across the last deglacial is critical in assessing the role of oceanic heat transport associated with Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation variability across abrupt climate events. However, the links between intermediate water circulation and abrupt climate events such as the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich Event 1 (H1) are still poorly constrained. Here, we reconstruct changes in Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) circulation in the subtropical North Atlantic over the past 25 kyr by measuring authigenic neodymium isotope ratios in sediments from two sites in the Florida Straits. Our authigenic Nd isotope records suggest that there was little to no penetration of AAIW into the subtropical North Atlantic during the YD and H1. Variations in the northward penetration of AAIW into the Florida Straits documented in our authigenic Nd isotope record are synchronous with multiple climatic archives, including the Greenland ice core δ18O record, the Cariaco Basin atmosphere Δ14C reconstruction, the Bermuda Rise sedimentary Pa/Th record, and nutrient and stable isotope data from the tropical North Atlantic. The synchroneity of our Nd records with multiple climatic archives suggests a tight connection between AAIW variability and high‐latitude North Atlantic climate change.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-09-12
    Description: Much uncertainty exists about the state of the oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the tropical Pacific over the last glacial cycle. Studies have been hampered by the fact that sediment cores suitable for study were concentrated in the western and eastern parts of the tropical Pacific, with little information from the central tropical Pacific. Here we present information from a suite of sediment cores collected from the Line Islands Ridge in the central tropical Pacific, which show sedimentation rates and stratigraphies suitable for paleoceanographic investigations. Based on the radiocarbon and oxygen isotope measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, we construct preliminary age models for selected cores and show that the gradient in the oxygen isotope ratio of G. ruber between the equator and 8°N is enhanced during glacial stages relative to interglacial stages. This stronger gradient could reflect enhanced equatorial cooling (perhaps reflecting a stronger Walker circulation) or an enhanced salinity gradient (perhaps reflecting increased rainfall in the central tropical Pacific).
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: High‐resolution records of opal, carbonate, and terrigenous fluxes have been obtained from a high‐sedimentation rate core (MD84‐527: 43°50′S; 51°19;′E; 3269 m) by normalization to 230Th. This method estimates paleofluxes to the seafloor on a point‐by‐point basis and distinguishes changes in sediment accumulation due to variations in vertical rain rates from those due to changes in syndepositional sediment redistribution by bottom currents. We also measured sediment δ15N to evaluate the changes in nitrate utilization in the overlying surface waters associated with paleoflux variations. Our results show that opal accumulation rates on the seafloor during the Holocene and stage 3, based on 14C dating, were respectively tenfold and fivefold higher than the vertical rain rates, At this particular location, changes in opal accumulation on the seafloor appear to be mainly controlled by sediment redistribution by bottom currents rather than variations in opal fluxes from the overlying water column. Correction for syndepositional sediment redistribution and the improved time resolution that can be achieved by normalization to 230Th disclose important variations in opal rain rates. We found relatively high but variable opal paleoflux during stage 3, with two maxima centered at 36 and 30 kyr B.P., low opal paleoflux during stage 2 and deglaciation and a pronounced maximum during the early Holocene, We interpret this record as reflecting variations in opal production rates associated with climate‐induced latitudinal migration of the southern ocean frontal system. Sediments deposited during periods of high opal paleoflux also have high authigenic U concentrations, suggesting more reducing conditions in the sediment, and high Pa‐231/Th‐230 ratios, suggesting increased scavenging from the water column. Sediment δ15N is circa 1.5 per mil higher during isotopic stage 2 and deglaciation. The low opal rain rates recorded during that period appear to have been associated with increased nitrate depletion. This suggests that opal paleofluxes do not simply reflect latitudinal migration of the frontal system but also changes in the structure of the upper water column. Increased stratification during isotopic stage 2 and deglaciation could have been produced by a meltwater lid, leading to lower nitrate supply rates to surface waters.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Variations in carbonate flux and dissolution, which occurred in the equatorial Atlantic during the last 24,000 years, have been estimated by a new approach that allows the point‐by‐point determination of paleofluxes to the seafloor. An unprecedented time resolution can thus be obtained which allows sequencing of the relatively rapid events occurring during deglaciation. The method is based on observations that the flux of unsupported 230Th into deep‐sea sediments is nearly independent of the total mass flux and is close to the production rate. Thus excess 230Th activity in sediments can be used as a reference against which fluxes of other sedimentary components can be estimated. The study was conducted at two sites (Ceará Rise; western equatorial Atlantic, and Sierra Leone Rise; eastern equatorial Atlantic) in cores raised from three different depths at each site. From measurements of 230Th and CaCO3, changes in carbonate flux with time and depth were obtained. A rapid increase in carbonate production, starting at the onset of deglaciation, was found in both areas. This event may have important implications for the postglacial increase in atmospheric CO2 by increasing the global carbonate carbon to organic carbon rain ratio and decreasing the alkalinity of surface waters (and possibly the North Atlantic Deep Water). Increased carbonate dissolution occurred in the two regions during deglaciation, followed by a minimum during mid‐Holocene and renewed intensification of dissolution in late Holocene. During the last 16,000 years, carbonate dissolution was consistently more pronounced in the western than in the eastern basin, reflecting the influence of Antarctic Bottom Water in the west. This trend was reversed during stage 2, possibly due to the accumulation of metabolic CO2 below the level of the Romanche Fracture Zone in the eastern basin.
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  • 66
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 14 (2). pp. 97-102.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: A method for rapid determination of high‐precision Sr/Ca ratios in scleractinian corals is presented. Using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, samples are corrected for instrument drift using a reference solution, similar to the approach used for analysis of stable isotopes using gas‐source mass spectrometry. Further correction for variation of the Sr/Ca ratio with Ca concentration is accomplished using internal standards. The precision, once all corrections have been made, is better than 0.1% (relative standard deviation, 1σ) for samples of similar Ca concentration and better than 0.2% for samples with variable Ca concentrations. This method increases the sample throughput by approximately a factor of 20 relative to thermal ionization mass spectrometry and significantly reduces instrument and per sample costs. Comparison of Sr/Ca data for a coral from the Galapagos Islands with an instrumental temperature record shows excellent agreement and demonstrates the potential for application of this technique to samples of modern and fossil scleractinian corals and other marine carbonates, including foraminifera.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Description: Sedimentological, isotopic and magnetostratigraphic investigations of Ocean Drilling Program and Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 642, 643, 644 and 610 document the oceanographic and climatic evolution of the Norwegian Sea and the northeastern Atlantic over the last 2.8 m.y.. The results show that a major expansion of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet to the coastal areas took place at about 2.56 Ma. Relatively severe glacials appeared until about 2 Ma. The period 2.6 ‐ 1.2 Ma experienced in general cold surface water conditions with only a weak influx of temperate Atlantic water as compared with late Quaternary interglacials. The Norwegian Sea was a sink of deep water through this period but deepwater ventilation was reduced and calcite dissolution was high compared with the Holocene. Deep water formed by other mechanisms than it does today. Between 2 and 1.2 Ma the glaciations in Scandinavia were small. A transition toward larger glacials took place during the period 1.2 to 0.6 Ma, corresponding to warmer interglacials and reduced calcite dissolution. Only during the last 0.6 m.y. has the oceanographic and climatic system of the Norwegian Sea varied in the manner described in previous studies of the late Quaternary. A strong thermal gradient was present between the Norwegian Sea and the northeastern Atlantic during the Matuyama (2.5–0.7 Ma). This is interpreted as a sign of a more zonal and less meridional climatic system over the region compared with the present situation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-12-23
    Description: Tabular ground ice bodies are widely spread on Eurasian and North American Arctic plains. Exposed tabular ground ice in coastal bluffs favors the activation of thermal abrasion and thermal denudation, which in turn causes increasing coastal destruction rates. Thermo-denudation under conditions of ground ice exposures includes thawing of ice and frozen sediments along retreating headwalls of retrogressive thaw slumps and their constant enlargement. Thermo-cirques and thermo-terraces are two basic landform types that either feature channelized or broad open outlets, depending on the initial ice body outcrop by the denudation processes inland or in the retreating coastal bluffs. We study key-sites on Kolguev Island (Barents Sea) and on Yugorsky Peninsula (Kara Sea), continuing and extending earlier research efforts on coastal dynamics in the region. New data on thermo-denudation and thermo-abrasion rates for these key-sites have been obtained using a set of multi-temporal satellite images of high and very-high spatial resolution covering the period from 2002 to 2016. For orthorectification purposes of imagery collected prior to TanDEM-X acquisitions, we used an edited version of the 12 m TanDEM-X DEM. Along erosive coastline segments the former relief situation was reconstructed through extrapolation of coastal bluff edge elevation values and restoration of the coastal plain relief towards the sea. On the western coast of Kolguev Island, average coastal bluff retreat rates between 2002 and 2012 varied from 1.7 to 2.4 m/year, while averaged rates of thermo-cirques headwalls retreat were 2.6 m/year. Maximum rates at some sections increased up to 14.5-15.1 m/year in the recent past. High rates of thermo-denudation increase were not only observed on western Kolguev Island, but also on the Yugorsky Peninsula, were rates raised up to 13 m/year in recent years. Activation of thermo-denudation is also noted in other parts of Kara Sea coasts and were generally correlated with changing environmental factors, particularly expressed in an increase on the thaw index during recent years.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 69
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  J. Geophys. Res., Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 11995-12013, pp. 2340, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1992
    Keywords: Stress ; Fault plane solution, focal mechanism ; 16 ; (Structural ; Geology) ; 18 ; (Geophysics, ; Solid ; Earth) ; JGR ; California ; tectonophysics ; crust ; Indonesia ; structural ; geology ; neotectonics ; faults ; displacements ; active ; faults ; Pacific ; Coast ; Western ; U.S. ; United ; States ; San ; Andreas ; Fault ; Far ; East ; Asia ; Sumatra ; strike-slip ; faults ; borehole ; breakouts ; earthquakes ; focal ; mechanism ; plate ; tectonics
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  • 70
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1991 - 1994. Contributions in Dynamics of the Solid Earth and Other Planets, ed. by R. A. Pielke, Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, vol. C 560, 183 pp., no. PL-TR-91-2097, pp. 371-377, (ISBN 3-933346-037)
    Publication Date: 1995
    Keywords: Crustal deformation (cf. Earthquake precursor: deformation or strain) ; Geodesy ; Very Long Baseline Interferometry ; Satellite Laser Ranging ; Global Positioning System ; Plate tectonics ; Review article
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  • 71
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1991 - 1994. Contributions in Dynamics of the Solid Earth and Other Planets, ed. by R. A. Pielke, Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, vol. C 560, 183 pp., no. AFGL-TR-88-0314, pp. 413-418, (ISBN 3-933346-037)
    Publication Date: 1995
    Keywords: Plate tectonics ; evolution ; GeodesyY ; Review article
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  • 72
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1991 - 1994. Contributions in Dynamics of the Solid Earth and Other Planets, ed. by R. A. Pielke, Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, vol. C 560, 183 pp., no. 70, pp. 263-267, (ISBN 3-933346-037)
    Publication Date: 1995
    Keywords: Volcanology ; Earthquake hazard ; Seismology ; Review article
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  • 73
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    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Washington, 107 pp., American Geophysical Union, vol. IUGG Volume 18, no. 85, pp. 799-804, (ISBN 3-540-23219-2)
    Publication Date: 1994
    Keywords: Non-linear effects ; FractureT ; Chaotic behaviour ; SOC ; criticality ; Textbook of geophysics ; Dynamic ; Earthquake precursor: prediction research