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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Description: As one of the most abundant and ubiquitous representatives of marine and brackish coastal macrophytobenthos communities, the genus Ulva is not only an important primary producer but also of ecological and morphogenetic interest to many scientists. Ulva mutabilis became an important model organism to study morphogenesis and mutualistic interactions of macroalgae and microorganisms. Here, we report that our collections of Ulva compressa Linnaeus (1753) from Germany are conspecific with the type strains of the model organism U. mutabilis Føyn (1958), which were originally collected at Olhão on the south coast of Portugal and have from that time on been maintained in culture as gametophytic and parthenogenetic lab strains. Different approaches were used to test conspecificity: (i) comparisons of vegetative and reproductive features of cultured material of U. mutabilis and German U. compressa demonstrated a shared morphological pattern; (ii) gametes of U. compressa and U. mutabilis successfully mated and developed into fertile sporophytic first‐generation offspring; (iii) molecular phylogenetics and species delimitation analyses based on the Generalized Mixed Yule‐Coalescent method showed that U. mutabilis isolates (sl‐G[mt+]) and (wt‐G[mt‐]) and U. compressa belong to a unique Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit. According to these findings, there is sufficient evidence that U. mutabilis and U. compressa should be regarded as conspecific.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-15
    Description: Genetic data have great potential for improving fisheries management by identifying the fundamental management units—that is, the biological populations—and their mixing. However, so far, the number of practical cases of marine fisheries management using genetics has been limited. Here, we used Atlantic cod in the Baltic Sea to demonstrate the applicability of genetics to a complex management scenario involving mixing of two genetically divergent populations. Specifically, we addressed several assumptions used in the current assessment of the two populations. Through analysis of 483 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the Atlantic cod genome, we confirmed that a model of mechanical mixing, rather than hybridization and introgression, best explained the pattern of genetic differentiation. Thus, the fishery is best monitored as a mixed-stock fishery. Next, we developed a targeted panel of 39 SNPs with high statistical power for identifying population of origin and analyzed more than 2,000 tissue samples collected between 2011 and 2015 as well as 260 otoliths collected in 2003/2004. These data provided high spatial resolution and allowed us to investigate geographical trends in mixing, to compare patterns for different life stages and to investigate temporal trends in mixing. We found similar geographical trends for the two time points represented by tissue and otolith samples and that a recently implemented geographical management separation of the two populations provided a relatively close match to their distributions. In contrast to the current assumption, we found that patterns of mixing differed between juveniles and adults, a signal likely linked to the different reproductive dynamics of the two populations. Collectively, our data confirm that genetics is an operational tool for complex fisheries management applications. We recommend focussing on developing population assessment models and fisheries management frameworks to capitalize fully on the additional information offered by genetically assisted fisheries monitoring.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: Peat plateaus and palsas are characteristic morphologies of sporadic permafrost, and the transition from permafrost to permafrost‐free ground typically occurs on spatial scales of meters. They are particularly vulnerable to climate change and are currently degrading in Fennoscandia. Here we present a spatially distributed data set of ground surface temperatures for two peat plateau sites in northern Norway for the year 2015–2016. Based on these data and thermal modeling, we investigate how the snow depth and water balance modulate the climate signal in the ground. We find that mean annual ground surface temperatures are centered around 2 to 2.5 °C for stable permafrost locations and 3.5 to 4.5 °C for permafrost‐free locations. The surface freezing degree days are characterized by a noticeable threshold around 200 °C.day, with most permafrost‐free locations ranging below this value and most stable permafrost ones above it. Freezing degree day values are well correlated to the March snow cover, although some variability is observed and attributed to the ground moisture level. Indeed, a zero curtain effect is observed on temperature time series for saturated soils during winter, while drained peat plateaus show early freezing surface temperatures. Complementarily, modeling experiments allow identifying a drainage effect that can modify 1‐m ground temperatures by up to 2 °C between drained and water accumulating simulations for the same snow cover. This effect can set favorable or unfavorable conditions for permafrost stability under the same climate forcing.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Genetic divergence among populations arises through natural selection or drift and is counteracted by connectivity and gene flow. In sympatric populations, isolating mechanisms are thus needed to limit the homogenizing effects of gene flow to allow for adaptation and speciation. Chromosomal inversions act as an important mechanism maintaining isolating barriers, yet their role in sympatric populations and divergence with gene flow is not entirely understood. Here, we revisit the question of whether inversions play a role in the divergence of connected populations of the marine fish Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), by exploring a unique data set combining whole-genome sequencing data and behavioural data obtained with acoustic telemetry. Within a confined fjord environment, we find three genetically differentiated Atlantic cod types belonging to the oceanic North Sea population, the western Baltic population and a local fjord-type cod. Continuous behavioural tracking over 4 year revealed temporally stable sympatry of these types within the fjord. Despite overall weak genetic differentiation consistent with high levels of gene flow, we detected significant frequency shifts of three previously identified inversions, indicating an adaptive barrier to gene flow. In addition, behavioural data indicated that North Sea cod and individuals homozygous for the LG12 inversion had lower fitness in the fjord environment. However, North Sea and fjord-type cod also occupy different depths, possibly contributing to prezygotic reproductive isolation and representing a behavioural barrier to gene flow. Our results provide the first insights into a complex interplay of genomic and behavioural isolating barriers in Atlantic cod and establish a new model system towards an understanding of the role of genomic structural variants in adaptation and diversification.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Reconstruction of early Cenozoic deep‐water circulation is one of the keys to modelling Earth's greenhouse‐to‐icehouse surface evolution, but it has long been hampered by the paucity of information from the central South Pacific. To help overcome this knowledge gap, we present new micropalaeontological data from dredged carbonates (R/V Sonne Expedition SO193) at several eastern volcanic salients of the Manihiki Plateau. Interestingly, despite appreciable longitudinal separations among the dredged sites, ages indicated by the foraminiferal assemblages are consistently around the Middle Eocene [including mixed Turonian (Late Cretaceous)/Eocene at a single site], suggesting widespread post‐Eocene cessation of the pelagic sedimentation. By integrating with independent seismic and chronostratigraphic data (Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 33) for large‐scale erosion of top‐Eocene–Oligocene sedimentary units on the eastern Manihiki Plateau, our results can be viewed as novel physical evidence for the intensification of central South Pacific deep‐water circulation since the Eocene/Oligocene climatic transition.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-25
    Description: We characterize the differences in the upward planetary‐scale wave propagation during observed weak polar vortex (WPV) events between heavy‐ and light‐sea‐ice years in the Barents‐Kara Sea based on a composite analysis for the period of 1979–2015. Upward wave propagation during WPV events in heavy‐ice years is dominated by the wavenumber 1 component. In contrast, WPV events occurring in light‐ice years are characterized by stronger wavenumber 2 propagation, which is caused by the tropospheric wavenumber 2 response to sea‐ice reduction in the Barents‐Kara Sea. The above observed features are supported by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model experiment. Thus, under present climate conditions, Arctic sea‐ice loss is a possible factor modulating the wave propagation during the WPV events. We also find that the WPV events in light‐ice years have stronger stratosphere‐troposphere coupling, followed by colder midlatitude surface conditions particularly over Eurasia.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-29
    Description: Sedimentary architecture and morphogenetic evolution of a polar bay-mouth gravel-spit system are revealed based on topographic mapping, sedimentological data, radiocarbon dating and ground-penetrating radar investigations. Data document variable rates of spit progradation in reaction to atmospheric warming synchronous to the termination of the last glacial re-advance (LGR, 0.45–0.25 ka BP), the southern hemisphere equivalent of the Little Ice Age cooling period. Results show an interruption of spit progradation that coincides with the proposed onset of accelerated isostatic rebound in reaction to glacier retreat. Spit growth resumed in the late 19th century after the rate of isostatic rebound decreased, and continues until today. The direction of modern spit progradation, however, is rotated northwards compared with the growth axis of the early post-LGR spit. This is interpreted to reflect the shift and strengthening in the regional wind field during the last century. A new concept for the interplay of polar gravel-spit progradation and glacio-isostatic adjustment is presented, allowing for the prediction of future coastal evolution in comparable polar settings.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 8
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    In:  Drug Development Research, 80 (1). pp. 24-27.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Description: Natural products and derivatives thereof are of considerable importance in the discovery of new pharmaceuticals, for example, for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammation diseases, and infection diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. The great biodiversity of marine microorganisms is reflected in their huge chemical diversity, which provides a rich source of biologically active compounds. An increasing interest in marine microorganisms as promising producers of new compounds with potential medical applications has raised increasing interest in the sustainable exploration of marine microbial resources for the discovery of new antibiotics, which is highlighted. The bottlenecks in the development of drugs using the large marine natural product pipeline are also discussed.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Environmental enrichment aims for a deliberate increase in structural complexity in otherwise plain rearing units, helping to reduce aberrant traits and promote welfare of fish kept in captivity. Before putting enrichment protocols into practice, however, practitioners like hatchery managers need clear guidelines on enrichment measures and on the substrates used. In the present study, we used rainbow trout as a model species for salmonid rearing and investigated the use of a single layer of three different gravel types, i.e., small (4–8 mm), medium (8–16 mm) and large (16–32 mm), for environmental enrichment during egg incubation, endogenous and first feeding of rainbow trout and compared this to a barren control. From the egg stage onwards, we determined mortality, fungal prevalence as well as growth of larvae and fingerlings. We found that gravel size significantly affected mortality and fungal prevalence with the smallest gravel size and the control showing the lowest incidents. Growth of larvae and fingerlings was not affected by gravel, both when compared between gravel types and to the barren control. When using gravel for environmental enrichment in salmonid hatcheries, a small gravel size should be used. Small gravel provides the fish with a more natural environment without compromising practical feasibility of enrichment in hatcheries, still allowing for easy visual inspection and manual control of the reared fish.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-05-13
    Description: Thawing of subsea permafrost can impact offshore infrastructure, affect coastal erosion, and release permafrost organic matter. Thawing is usually modeled as the result of heat transfer, although salt diffusion may play an important role in marine settings. To better quantify nearshore subsea permafrost thawing, we applied the CryoGRID2 heat diffusion model and coupled it to a salt diffusion model. We simulated coastline retreat and subsea permafrost evolution as it develops through successive stages of a thawing sequence at the Bykovsky Peninsula, Siberia. Sensitivity analyses for seawater salinity were performed to compare the results for the Bykovsky Peninsula with those of typical Arctic seawater. For the Bykovsky Peninsula, the modeled ice‐bearing permafrost table (IBPT) for ice‐rich sand and an erosion rate of 0.25 m/year was 16.7 m below the seabed 350 m offshore. The model outputs were compared to the IBPT depth estimated from coastline retreat and electrical resistivity surveys perpendicular to and crossing the shoreline of the Bykovsky Peninsula. The interpreted geoelectric data suggest that the IBPT dipped to 15–20 m below the seabed at 350 m offshore. Both results suggest that cold saline water forms beneath grounded ice and floating sea ice in shallow water, causing cryotic benthic temperatures. The freezing point depression produced by salt diffusion can delay or prevent ice formation in the sediment and enhance the IBPT degradation rate. Therefore, salt diffusion may facilitate the release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere and considerably affect the design of offshore and coastal infrastructure in subsea permafrost areas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: Due to strong mean state‐biases most coupled models are unable to simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. Here, we use the Kiel Climate Model to assess the impact of bias reduction on the seasonal prediction of equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST). We compare a standard experiment (STD) with an experiment that employs surface heat flux correction to reduce the SST bias (FLX) and, in addition, apply a correction for initial errors in SST. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated in partially coupled mode, and seasonal hindcasts are initialized at the beginning of February, May, August and November for 1981–2012. Surface heat flux correction generally improves hindcast skill. Hindcasts initialized in February have the least skill, even though the model bias is not particularly strong at that time of year. In contrast, hindcasts initialized in May achieve the highest skill. We argue this is because of the emergence of a closed Bjerknes feedback loop in boreal summer in FLX that is a feature of observations but is missing in STD.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: Aim: Numerous regions worldwide are highly impacted by anthropogenic activities and globalization, with climate change and species introductions being among the greatest stressors to biodiversity and ecosystems. A main donor region of non‐indigenous species (NIS) for numerous European water bodies, as well as in the North American Great Lakes is the Ponto‐Caspian region (i.e., Black, Azov and Caspian Seas), with some of those species having significant impact on local communities and ecosystem functioning. Location: Northern European, Ponto‐Caspian and North American regions. Methods: To determine environmental tolerance of native species and related NIS under current and future global warming scenarios of the Baltic Sea, we conducted common garden experiments to test temperature tolerance of three euryhaline gammarid species: one Baltic (Gammarus oceanicus), one Ponto‐Caspian (Pontogammarus maeoticus) and one North American species (Gammarus tigrinus) in two different salinities. Results: Our results determined that mortality of P. maeoticus in all temperature treatments (i.e., increased, control, and decreased) at the end of both experiments (i.e., conducted in salinities of 10 and 16 g/kg) was lower when compared to mortality of G. oceanicus and (c) G. tigrinus. The highest mortality was observed for G. oceanicus, reaching 100% in both experiments in the increased temperature treatment. Main conclusions: Due to the high environmental tolerance of the Ponto‐Caspian species tested in this study, as well as the fact that Ponto‐Caspian species evolved in environmentally variable habitats and currently inhabit warmer waters than species from North America and Northern Europe, we suggest that species from the Ponto‐Caspian region may benefit from global warming when invading new areas. Those new invasions may, in the best case scenario, increase biodiversity of the Baltic Sea. However, if notorious invaders arrive, they may have a significant impact on local communities and ecosystem functioning.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Description: Increasing global energy demands have led to the ongoing intensification of hydrocarbon extraction from marine areas. Hydrocarbon extractive activities pose threats to native marine biodiversity, such as noise, light, and chemical pollution, physical changes to the sea floor, invasive species, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we assessed at a global scale the spatial overlap between offshore hydrocarbon activities and marine biodiversity (〉25,000 species, nine major ecosystems, and marine protected areas), and quantify the changes over time. We discovered that two-thirds of global offshore hydrocarbon activities occur in areas within the top 10% for species richness, range rarity, and proportional range rarity values globally. Thus, while hydrocarbon activities are undertaken in less than one percent of the ocean's area, they overlap with approximately 85% of all assessed species. Of conservation concern, 4% of species with the largest proportion of their range overlapping hydrocarbon activities are range restricted, potentially increasing their vulnerability to localized threats such as oil spills. While hydrocarbon activities have extended to greater depths since the mid-1990s, we found that the largest overlap is with coastal ecosystems, particularly estuaries, saltmarshes and mangroves. Furthermore, in most countries where offshore hydrocarbon exploration licensing blocks have been delineated, they do not overlap with marine protected areas (MPAs). Although this is positive in principle, many countries have far more licensing block areas than protected areas, and in some instances, MPA coverage is minimal. These findings suggest the need for marine spatial prioritization to help limit future spatial overlap between marine conservation priorities and hydrocarbon activities. Such prioritization can be informed by the spatial and quantitative baseline information provided here. In increasingly shared seascapes, prioritizing management actions that set both conservation and development targets could help minimize further declines of biodiversity and environmental changes at a global scale.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-06-16
    Description: Satellite‐derived data suggest an increase in annual primary production following the loss of summer sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The scarcity of field data to corroborate this enhanced algal production incited a collaborative project combining six annual cycles of sequential sediment trap measurements obtained over a 17‐year period in the Eurasian Arctic Ocean. Here we present microalgal fluxes measured at ~200 m to reflect the bulk of algal carbon production. Ice algae contributed to a large proportion of the microalgal carbon export before complete ice melt and possible detection of their production by satellites. In the northern Laptev Sea, annual microalgal carbon fluxes were lower during the 2007 minimum ice extent than in 2006. In 2012, early snowmelt led to early microalgal carbon flux in the Nansen Basin. Hence, a change in the timing of snowmelt and ice algae release may affect productivity and export over the Arctic basins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-06-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-06-23
    Description: Age control and paleoceanographic evidence of marine sediment records might be challenged if authors solely build their stratigraphy on visual correlation to apparently well‐dated records from the same ocean basin, using, for example, highly resolved X‐ray fluorescence‐based element‐count records and correlation tools such as AnalySeries. While per se perfectly reasonable, this approach bears the risk of missing stratigraphic gaps in the sedimentary record and thus might result in imprecise and/or flawed interpretations. Here we present a unique series of 14 planktic 14C ages from a 7‐cm section of East Pacific Rise core PS75/059‐2. The ages suggest a 14‐ky‐long period of low‐to‐zero deposition during Last Glacial Maximum, mainly marked by continuous redistribution of winnowed foraminifers, probably the result of enhanced bottom currents, moreover, by some bioturbational mixing. On the basis of this data we demonstrate the impact of the hiatus on a South Pacific transect of apparent benthic ventilation ages (ΔΔ14C values) and their meaning for estimates of CO2 stored in Last Glacial Maximum Pacific deep waters.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-07-04
    Description: Rationale Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient in plants and its isotope variations are used to gain insights into plant metabolism, which is important for crop plant cultivation. B isotope variations were used to trace intraplant fractionation mechanisms in response to the B concentration in the irrigation water spanning the range from B depletion to toxic levels. Methods A fully validated analytical procedure based on MC‐ICP‐MS, sample decomposition and B matrix separation was applied to study B isotope fractionation. The validation was accomplished by establishing a complete uncertainty budget and by applying reference materials, yielding expanded measurement uncertainties of 0.8 ‰ for pure boric acid solutions and ≤ 1.5 ‰ for processed samples. With this validated procedure SI traceable B isotope amount ratios were determined in plant reference materials for the first time. Results The B isotope compositions of irrigation water and bell pepper samples suggest passive diffusion of the heavy 11B isotope into the roots during low to high B concentrations while uptake of the light 10B isotope was promoted during B depletion, probably by active processes. A systematic enrichment of the heavy 11B isotope in higher located plant parts was observed (average Δ11Bleaf‐roots = 20.3 ± 2.8 ‰ (1 SD)), possibly by a facilitated transport of the heavy 11B to growing meristems by B transporters. Conclusions B isotopes can be used to identify plant metabolism in response to the B concentration in the irrigation water and during intraplant B transfer. The large B isotope fractionation within the plants demonstrates the importance of biological B cycling for the global B cycle.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-07-09
    Description: Parasites are one of the strongest selective agents in nature. They select for hosts that evolve counter‐adaptive strategies to cope with infection. Helminth parasites are special because they can modulate their hosts’ immune responses. This phenomenon is important in epidemiological contexts, where coinfections may be affected. How different types of hosts and helminths interact with each other is insufficiently investigated. We used the three‐spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) – Schistocephalus solidus model to study mechanisms and temporal components of helminth immune modulation. Sticklebacks from two contrasting populations with either high resistance (HR) or low resistance (LR) against S. solidus, were individually exposed to S. solidus strains with characteristically high growth (HG) or low growth (LG) in G. aculeatus. We determined the susceptibility to another parasite, the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, and the expression of 23 key immune genes at three time points after S. solidus infection. D. pseudospathaceum infection rates and the gene expression responses depended on host and S. solidus type and changed over time. Whereas the effect of S. solidus type was not significant after three weeks, T regulatory responses and complement components were upregulated at later time points if hosts were infected with HG S. solidus. HR hosts showed a well orchestrated immune response, which was absent in LR hosts. Our results emphasize the role of regulatory T cells and the timing of specific immune responses during helminth infections. This study elucidates the importance to consider different coevolutionary trajectories and ecologies when studying host‐parasite interactions.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is underlain by a series of low‐lying subglacial sedimentary basins. The extent, geology, and basal topography of these sedimentary basins are important boundary conditions governing the dynamics of the overlying ice sheet. This is particularly pertinent for basins close to the grounding line wherein the EAIS is grounded below sea level and therefore potentially vulnerable to rapid retreat. Here we analyze newly acquired airborne geophysical data over the Pensacola‐Pole Basin (PPB), a previously unexplored sector of the EAIS. Using a combination of gravity and magnetic and ice‐penetrating radar data, we present the first detailed subglacial sedimentary basin model for the PPB. Radar data reveal that the PPB is defined by a topographic depression situated ~500 m below sea level. Gravity and magnetic depth‐to‐source modeling indicate that the southern part of the basin is underlain by a sedimentary succession 2–3 km thick. This is interpreted as an equivalent of the Beacon Supergroup and associated Ferrar dolerites that are exposed along the margin of East Antarctica. However, we find that similar rocks appear to be largely absent from the northern part of the basin, close to the present‐day grounding line. In addition, the eastern margin of the basin is characterized by a major geological boundary and a system of overdeepened subglacial troughs. We suggest that these characteristics of the basin may reflect the behavior of past ice sheets and/or exert an influence on the present‐day dynamics of the overlying EAIS.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Here we evaluate five atmospheric reanalyses in an Arctic gateway during late summer. The reanalyses include ERA5, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, CFSv2 and MERRA-2. We use observations from 50 radiosondes launched in the Fram Strait around 79-80˚N, between 25 August – 11 September 2017. Crucially, data from 27 radiosondes were not transmitted to the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), and therefore not assimilated into any reanalysis. In most reanalyses, the magnitude of wind speed and humidity errors are similar for profiles with and without data assimilation. In cases without data assimilation, correlation coefficients (R) exceed 0.88 for temperature, wind speed and specific humidity, in all reanalyses. Overall, the newly released ERA5 has higher correlation coefficients than any other reanalyses as well as smaller biases and root mean square errors, for all three variables. The largest improvements identified in ERA5 are in its representation of the wind field, and temperature profiles over warm water.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 23
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    Wiley
    In:  Geophysical Prospecting, 67 (6). pp. 1557-1570.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: Although narrow‐azimuth towed‐streamer data provides good image quality for structural interpretation, it is generally accepted that for wide‐azimuth marine surveys seabed receivers deliver superior seismic reflection measurements and seismically derived reservoir attributes. However, seabed surveys are not widely used due to the higher acquisition costs when compared to streamer acquisition. In recent years, there have been significant engineering efforts to automate receiver deployment and retrieval in order to minimize the cost differential and conduct cost‐efficient seabed receiver seismic surveys. These engineering efforts include industrially engineered nodes, nodes‐on‐a‐rope deployment schemes and even robotic nodes, which swim to and from the deployment location. This move to automation is inevitable, leading to robotization of seismic data acquisition for exploration and development activities in the oil and gas industry. We are developing a robotic‐based technology, which utilizes autonomous underwater vehicles as seismic sensors without the need of using a remotely operated vehicle for deployment and retrieval. In this paper, we describe the autonomous underwater vehicle evolution throughout the project years from initial heavy and bulky nodes to fully autonomous light and flexible underwater receivers. Results obtained from two field pilot tests using different generations of autonomous underwater vehicles indicate that the seismic coupling, and navigation based on underwater acoustics are very reliable and robust.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: A marine seismic method based on continuous source and receiver wavefields has been developed. The method requires continuous recording of the seismic data. The source that may consist of multiple source elements can emit signals continuously while moving. The ideal source wavefield to be used with this method should be as white as possible both in a temporal and a spatial sense to avoid deep notches in the spectrum enabling a stable multi‐dimensional deconvolution. White noise has such properties. However, equipment that can generate white noise does not exist. In order to generate a continuous source wavefield that is approaching the properties of white noise using existing equipment onboard marine seismic vessels, individual air‐guns can be triggered with short randomized time intervals in a near‐continuous fashion. The main potential benefits with the method are to reduce the environmental impact of marine seismic surveys and to improve acquisition efficiency. The peak sound pressure levels are significantly reduced by triggering one air‐gun at a time compared to conventional marine seismic sources. Sound exposure levels are also reduced in most directions. Since the method is based on continuous recording of seismic data and the air‐guns are triggered based on time and not based on position, there are less vessel speed limitations compared to conventional marine seismic data acquisition. Also, because the source wavefield is spread out in time, the wavefields emitted from source elements in different cross‐line positions can be designed such that the emitted wavefield is spatially white in this direction. This means that source elements in multiple cross‐line positions can be operated simultaneously, potentially improving the cross‐line sampling and/or the acquisition efficiency.
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  • 25
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    Wiley
    In:  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1436 (1). pp. 54-69.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: Regional climate modeling bridges the gap between the coarse resolution of current global climate models and the regional-to-local scales, where the impacts of climate change are of primary interest. Here, we present a review of the added value of the regional climate modeling approach within the scope of paleoclimate research and discuss the current major challenges and perspectives. Two time periods serve as an example: the Holocene, including the Last Millennium, and the Last Glacial Maximum. Reviewing the existing literature reveals the benefits of regional paleo climate modeling, particularly over areas with complex terrain. However, this depends largely on the variable of interest, as the added value of regional modeling arises from a more realistic representation of physical processes and climate feedbacks compared to global climate models, and this affects different climate variables in various ways. In particular, hydrological processes have been shown to be better represented in regional models, and they can deliver more realistic meteorological data to drive ice sheet and glacier modeling. Thus, regional climate models provide a clear benefit to answer fundamental paleoclimate research questions and may be key to advance a meaningful joint interpretation of climate model and proxy data.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-07-15
    Description: Sea ice dynamics determine the drift and deformation of sea ice. Nonlinear physics, usually expressed in a viscous‐plastic rheology, makes the sea ice momentum equations notoriously difficult to solve. At increasing sea ice model resolution the nonlinearities become stronger as linear kinematic features (leads) appear in the solutions. Even the standard elastic‐viscous‐plastic (EVP) solver for sea ice dynamics, which was introduced for computational efficiency, becomes computationally very expensive, when accurate solutions are required, because the numerical stability requires very short, and hence more, subcycling time steps at high resolution. Simple modifications to the EVP solver have been shown to remove the influence of the number of subcycles on the numerical stability. At low resolution appropriate solutions can be obtained with only partial convergence based on a significantly reduced number of subcycles as long as the numerical procedure is kept stable. This previous result is extended to high resolution where linear kinematic features start to appear. The computational cost can be strongly reduced in Arctic Ocean simulations with a grid spacing of 4.5 km by using modified and adaptive EVP versions because fewer subcycles are required to simulate sea ice fields with the same characteristics as with the standard EVP.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-07-15
    Description: Quaternary East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) evolution has long been attributed to high‐latitude Northern Hemisphere climate change. However, it cannot explain the distinct relationships of the EAWM in the northern and southern East Asian marginal sea in paleoclimatic records. Here we present an EAWM record of the northern East China Sea over the past 300 ka and a transient climate simulation with the Kiel Climate Model through the Holocene. Both proxy record and simulation suggest anticorrelated long‐term EAWM evolution between the northern East China Sea and the South China Sea. We suggest that this spatial discrepancy of EAWM can be interpreted as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)‐like controlling, which generates cyclonic/anticyclonic wind anomalies in the northern/southern East Asian marginal sea. This research explains much of the controversy in nonorbital scale variability of Quaternary EAWM records in the East Asian marginal sea and supports a potent role of tropical forcing in East Asian winter climate change.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-07-15
    Description: It is fundamentally important for many animal ecologists to quantify the costs of animal activities, although it is not straightforward to do so. The recording of triaxial acceleration by animal-attached devices has been proposed as a way forward for this, with the specific suggestion that dynamic body acceleration (DBA) be used as a proxy for movement-based power. Dynamic body acceleration has now been validated frequently, both in the laboratory and in the field, although the literature still shows that some aspects of DBA theory and practice are misunderstood. Here, we examine the theory behind DBA and employ modelling approaches to assess factors that affect the link between DBA and energy expenditure, from the deployment of the tag, through to the calibration of DBA with energy use in laboratory and field settings. Using data from a range of species and movement modes, we illustrate that vectorial and additive DBA metrics are proportional to each other. Either can be used as a proxy for energy and summed to estimate total energy expended over a given period, or divided by time to give a proxy for movement-related metabolic power. Nonetheless, we highlight how the ability of DBA to predict metabolic rate declines as the contribution of non-movement-related factors, such as heat production, increases. Overall, DBA seems to be a substantive proxy for movement-based power but consideration of other movement-related metrics, such as the static body acceleration and the rate of change of body pitch and roll, may enable researchers to refine movement-based metabolic costs, particularly in animals where movement is not characterized by marked changes in body acceleration.
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  • 29
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    Unknown
    Royal Meteorological Society | Wiley
    In:  Atmospheric Science Letters, 20 (5). e900.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: Recent studies using reanalysis data and complex models suggest that the Tropics influence midlatitude blocking. Here, the influence of tropical precipitation anomalies is investigated further using a dry dynamical model driven by specified diabatic heating anomalies. The model uses a quasi‐realistic setup based on idealized orography and an idealized representation of the land‐ocean thermal contrast. Results concerning the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Madden‐Julian Oscillation are mostly consistent with previous studies and emphasize the importance of tropical dynamics for driving the variability of blocking at midlatitudes. It is also shown that a common bias in models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), namely, excessive tropical precipitation, leads to an underestimation of midlatitude blocking in our model, also a common bias in the CMIP5 models. The strongest blocking anomalies associated with the tropical precipitation bias are found over Europe, where the underestimation of blocking in CMIP5 models is also particularly strong.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Description: We use observations from novel biogeochemical profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling program to estimate annual net community production (ANCP; associated with carbon export) from the seasonal drawdown of mesopelagic oxygen and surface nitrate in the Southern Ocean. Our estimates agree with previous observations in showing an increase in ANCP in the vicinity of the polar front (∼3 mol C m−2 y−1), compared to lower rates in the subtropical zone (≤ 1 mol C m−2 y−1) and the seasonal ice zone (〈2 mol C m−2 y−1). Paradoxically, the increase in ANCP south of the subtropical front is associated with elevated surface nitrate and silicate concentrations, but decreasing surface iron. We hypothesize that iron limitation promotes silicification in diatoms, which is evidenced by the low silicate to nitrate ratio of surface waters around the Antarctic polar front. High diatom silicification increases the ballasting effect of particulate organic carbon and overall ANCP in this region. A model-based assessment of our methods shows a good agreement between ANCP estimates based on oxygen and nitrate drawdown and the modeled downward organic carbon flux at 100 m. This agreement supports the presumption that net biological consumption is the dominant process affecting the drawdown of these chemical tracers and that, given sufficient data, ANCP can be inferred from observations of oxygen and/or nitrate drawdown in the Southern Ocean.
    Keywords: Course of study: MSc Biological Oceanography
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: Recent surveys of marine microbial diversity have identified a previously unrecognized lineage of diplonemid protists as being among the most diverse heterotrophic eukaryotes in global oceans. Despite their monophyly (and assumed importance), they lack a formal taxonomic description, and are informally known as deep-sea pelagic diplonemids (DSPDs) or marine diplonemids. Recently, we documented morphology and molecular sequences from several DSPDs, one of which is particularly widespread and abundant in environmental sequence data. To simplify the communication of future work on this important group, here we formally propose to erect the family Eupelagonemidae to encompass this clade, as well as a formal genus and species description for the apparently most abundant phylotype, Eupelagonema oceanica, for which morphological information and single-cell amplified genome data are currently available. © 2018 International Society of Protistologists
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  • 32
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    Unknown
    Wiley | AGU
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124 (4). pp. 2374-2403.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-09
    Description: The Bjerknes feedback is the dominant positive feedback in the equatorial ocean basins. To examine the seasonality, symmetry, and stationarity of the Pacific and Atlantic Bjerknes feedbacks we decompose them into three feedback elements that relate thermocline depth, sea surface temperature (SST), and western basin wind stress variability to each other. We partition feedback elements into composites associated with positive or negative anomalies. Using robust regression, we diagnose the strength of each composite. For the recent period 1993‐2012, composites of the Pacific Bjerknes feedback elements agree well with previous work. Positive composites are generally stronger than negative composites, and all feedback elements are weakest in late boreal spring. In the Atlantic, differences between positive and negative composites are less consistent across feedback elements. Specifically, wind variability seems to play a less important role in shaping atmosphere‐ocean coupling in the Atlantic when compared to the Pacific. However, a clear seasonality emerges: Feedback elements are generally strong in boreal summer and, for the negative composites, again in boreal winter. The Atlantic Bjerknes feedback is dominated by subsurface‐surface coupling. Applying our analysis to overlapping 25‐year periods for 1958‐2009 shows that the strengths of feedback elements in both ocean basins vary on decadal time scales. While the overall asymmetry of the Pacific Bjerknes feedback is robust, the strength and symmetry of Atlantic feedback elements vary considerably between decades. Our results indicate that the Atlantic Bjerknes feedback is non‐stationary on decadal time scales.
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  • 33
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    AGU | Wiley
    In:  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33 (7). pp. 891-903.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: The export of organic carbon from the surface ocean forms the basis of the biological carbon pump, an important planetary carbon flux. Typically, only a small fraction of primary productivity (PP) is exported (quantified as the export efficiency: export/PP). Here we assemble a global data synthesis to reveal that very high export efficiency occasionally occurs. These events drive an apparent inverse relationship between PP and export efficiency, which is opposite to that typically used in empirical or mechanistic models. At the global scale, we find that low PP, high export efficiency regimes tend to occur when macrozooplankton and bacterial abundance are low. This implies that a decoupling between PP and upper ocean remineralization processes can result in a large fraction of PP being exported, likely as intact cells or phytoplankton-based aggregates. As the proportion of PP being exported declines, macrozooplankton and bacterial abundances rise. High export efficiency, high PP regimes also occur infrequently, possibly associated with nonbiologically mediated export of particles. A similar analysis at a biome scale reveals that the factors affecting export efficiency may be different at regional and global scales. Our results imply that the whole ecosystem structure, rather than just the phytoplankton community, is important in setting export efficiency. Further, the existence of low PP, high export efficiency regimes imply that biogeochemical models that parameterize export efficiency as increasing with PP may underestimate export flux during decoupled periods, such as at the start of the spring bloom.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: We examine the intra‐arc crustal seismicity of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ). Our aim is to resolve inter‐seismic deformation in an active magmatic arc dominated by both margin‐parallel (Liquiñe‐Ofqui fault system, (LOFS)) and Andean transverse faults (ATF). Crustal seismicity provides information about the schizosphere tectonic state, delineating the geometry and kinematics of high strain domains driven by oblique‐subduction. Here, we present local seismicity based on 16‐months data collected from 34 seismometers monitoring a ~200 km long section of the Southern Volcanic Zone, including the Lonquimay and Villarrica volcanoes. We located 356 crustal events with magnitudes between Mw 0.6 and Mw 3.6. Local seismicity occurs at depths down to 40 km in the forearc and consistently shallower than 12 km beneath the volcanic chain, suggesting a convex shape of the crustal seismogenic layer bottom. Focal mechanisms indicate strike‐slip faulting consistent with ENE‐WSW shortening in line with the long‐term deformation history revealed by structural geology studies. However, we find regional to local‐scale variations in the shortening axes orientation as revealed by the nature and spatial distribution of microseismicity, within three distinctive latitudinal domains. In the northernmost domain, seismicity is consistent with splay faulting at the northern termination of the LOFS; in the central domain, seismicity distributes along ENE‐ and WNW‐striking discrete faults, spatially associated with, hitherto seismic ATF. The southernmost domain, in turn, is characterized by activity focused along a N15°E striking master branch of the LOFS. These observations indicate a complex strain compartmentalization pattern within the intra‐arc crust, where variable strike‐slip faulting dominates over dip‐slip movements.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: The importance of macrobenthos in benthic‐pelagic coupling and early diagenesis of organic carbon (OC) has long been recognized but has not been quantified at a regional scale. By using the southern North Sea as an exemplary area we present a modelling attempt to quantify the budget of total organic carbon (TOC) reworked by macrobenthos in seafloor surface sediments. Vertical profiles in sediments collected in the field indicate a significant but nonlinear correlation between TOC and macrobenthic biomass. A mechanistic model is used to resolve the bi‐directional interaction between TOC and macrobenthos. A novelty of this model is that bioturbation is resolved dynamically depending on variations in local food resource and macrobenthic biomass. The model is coupled to 3D hydrodynamic‐biogeochemical simulations to hindcast the mutual dependence between sedimentary TOC and macrobenthos from 1948 to 2015. Agreement with field data reveals a satisfactory model performance. Our simulations show that the preservation of TOC in the North Sea sediments is not only determined by pelagic conditions (hydrodynamic regime and primary production) but also by the vertical distribution of TOC, bioturbation intensity, and the vertical positioning of macrobenthos. Macrobenthos annually ingest 20%–35% and in addition vertically diffuse 11%–22% of the total budget of TOC in the upper‐most 30 cm sediments in the southern North Sea. This result indicates a central role of benthic animals in modulating the OC cycling at the sediment‐water interface of continental margins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-08-12
    Description: The Swan Islands Transform Fault (SITF) marks the southern boundary of the Cayman Trough and the ocean–continent transition of the North American–Caribbean Plate boundary offshore Honduras. The CAYSEIS experiment acquired a 180-km-long seismic refraction and gravity profile across this transform margin, ∼70 km to the west of the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre (MCSC). This profile shows the crustal structure across a transform fault system that juxtaposes Mesozoic-age continental crust to the south against the ∼10-Myr-old ultraslow spread oceanic crust to the north. Ocean-bottom seismographs were deployed along-profile, and inverse and forward traveltime modelling, supported by gravity analysis, reveals ∼23-km-thick continental crust that has been thinned over a distance of ∼70 km to ∼10 km-thick at the SITF, juxtaposed against ∼4-km-thick oceanic crust. This thinning is primarily accommodated within the lower crust. Since Moho reflections are not widely observed, the 7.0 km s−1 velocity contour is used to define the Moho along-profile. The apparent lack of reflections to the north of the SITF suggests that the Moho is more likely a transition zone between crust and mantle. Where the profile traverses bathymetric highs in the off-axis oceanic crust, higher P-wave velocity is observed at shallow crustal depths. S-wave arrival modelling also reveals elevated velocities at shallow depths, except for crust adjacent to the SITF that would have occupied the inside corner high of the ridge-transform intersection when on axis. We use a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.9 to mark where lithologies of the lower crust and uppermost mantle may be exhumed, and also to locate the upper-to-lower crustal transition, identify relict oceanic core complexes and regions of magmatically formed crust. An elevated Vp/Vs ratio suggests not only that serpentinized peridotite may be exposed at the seafloor in places, but also that seawater has been able to flow deep into the crust and upper mantle over 20–30-km-wide regions which may explain the lack of a distinct Moho. The SITF has higher velocities at shallower depths than observed in the oceanic crust to the north and, at the seabed, it is a relatively wide feature. However, the velocity–depth model subseabed suggests a fault zone no wider than ∼5–10 km, that is mirrored by a narrow seabed depression ∼7500 m deep. Gravity modelling shows that the SITF is also underlain, at 〉2 km subseabed, by a ∼20-km-wide region of density 〉3000 kg m−3 that may reflect a broad region of metamorphism. The residual mantle Bouguer anomaly across the survey region, when compared with the bathymetry, suggests that the transform may also have a component of left-lateral trans-tensional displacement that accounts for its apparently broad seabed appearance, and that the focus of magma supply may currently be displaced to the north of the MCSC segment centre. Our results suggest that Swan Islands margin development caused thinning of the adjacent continental crust, and that the adjacent oceanic crust formed in a cool ridge setting, either as a result of reduced mantle upwelling and/or due to fracture enhanced fluid flow.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: This study assesses the response on ice dynamics of Petermann Glacier, a major outlet glacier in northern Greenland, to the 2012 and a possible future calving event. So far Petermann Glacier has been believed to be dynamically stable as another large calving event in 2010 had no significant impact on flow velocity or grounding line retreat. By analyzing a time series of remotely sensed surface velocities, we find an average acceleration of 10% between winter 2011/2012 and winter 2016/2017. This increase in surface velocity is not linear but can be separated into two parts, starting in 2012 and 2016 respectively. By conducting modeling experiments, we show that the first speedup can be directly connected to the 2012 calving event, while the second speedup is not captured. However, on recent remote sensing imagery newly developing fractures are clearly visible ∼12 km upstream from the terminus, propagating from the eastern fjord wall to the center of the ice tongue, indicating a possible future calving event. By including these fracture zones as a new terminus position in the modeling domain, we are able to reproduce the second speedup, suggesting that surface velocities remain on the 2016/2017 level after the anticipated calving event. This indicates that, from a dynamical point of view, the terminus region has already detached from the main ice tongue.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-08-21
    Description: 1. Epimicrobial communities on seaweed surfaces usually contain not only potentially pathogenic but also potentially beneficial micro‐organisms. Capacity of terrestrial plants for chemically mediated recruitment, that is, “gardening” of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere was recently demonstrated. Empirical evidence directly linking such chemical “gardening” with the beneficial role of gardened microbes in terrestrial plants is rare and largely missing for aquatic macrophytes. 2. Here, we demonstrate that our model invasive seaweed holobiont Agarophyton vermiculophyllum possesses beneficial microbiota on its surface that provide protection from bacterial pathogens. Metabolites from the algal holobiont’s surface reduced settlement of opportunistic pathogens but attracted protective epibacterial settlement. 3. We tested 58 different bacterial species (isolated from the surface of A. vermiculophyllum) individually in tip bleaching assays. Kordia algicida was identified as a “significant pathogen” inducing a bleaching disease. In addition, nine other species significantly reduced the risk of algal bleaching and were thus “significantly protective”. Additionally, two “potential pathogens” and 10 “potential protectors” were identified. When 19 significant and potential protectors and 3 significant and potential pathogens were tested together, the protective strains fully prevented bleaching, suggesting that a component of A. vermiculophyllum’s epimicrobiome provides an associational defence against pathogens. Chemically mediated selective recruitment of microbes was demonstrated in bioassays, where A. vermiculophyllum surface metabolites attracted the settlement of protective strains, but reduced settlement of pathogens. 4. Synthesis. The capacity of an aquatic macrophyte to chemically “garden” protective micro‐organisms to the benefit of strengthened disease resistance is demonstrated for the first time. Such a role of surface chemistry in “gardening” of microbes as found in the current study could also be applicable to other host plant—microbe interactions. Our results may open new avenues towards manipulation of the surface microbiome of seaweeds via chemical “gardening,” enhancing sustainable production of healthy seaweeds.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-09-02
    Description: Although geographical patterns of species' sensitivity to environmental changes are defined by interacting multiple stressors, little is known about compensatory processes shaping regional differences in organismal vulnerability. Here, we examine large-scale spatial variations in biomineralization under heterogeneous environmental gradients of temperature, salinity and food availability across a 30° latitudinal range (3,334 km), to test whether plasticity in calcareous shell production and composition, from juveniles to large adults, mediates geographical patterns of resilience to climate change in critical foundation species, the mussels Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus. We find shell calcification decreased towards high latitude, with mussels producing thinner shells with a higher organic content in polar than temperate regions. Salinity was the best predictor of within-region differences in mussel shell deposition, mineral and organic composition. In polar, subpolar, and Baltic low-salinity environments, mussels produced thin shells with a thicker external organic layer (periostracum), and an increased proportion of calcite (prismatic layer, as opposed to aragonite) and organic matrix, providing potentially higher resistance against dissolution in more corrosive waters. Conversely, in temperate, higher salinity regimes, thicker, more calcified shells with a higher aragonite (nacreous layer) proportion were deposited, which suggests enhanced protection under increased predation pressure. Interacting effects of salinity and food availability on mussel shell composition predict the deposition of a thicker periostracum and organic-enriched prismatic layer under forecasted future environmental conditions, suggesting a capacity for increased protection of high-latitude populations from ocean acidification. These findings support biomineralization plasticity as a potentially advantageous compensatory mechanism conferring Mytilus species a protective capacity for quantitative and qualitative trade-offs in shell deposition as a response to regional alterations of abiotic and biotic conditions in future environments. Our work illustrates that compensatory mechanisms, driving plastic responses to the spatial structure of multiple stressors, can define geographical patterns of unanticipated species resilience to global environmental change.
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  • 40
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    Unknown
    American Society of Limnology and Oceanography | Wiley
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods .
    Publication Date: 2019-09-02
    Description: High‐quality seawater total alkalinity (AT) measurements are essential for reliable ocean carbon and acidification observations. Well‐established manual multipoint potentiometric titration methods already fulfill these requirements. The next step in the improvement of these observations is the increase of the spatial and temporal measuring resolution with minimal personnel and instrumental effort. For this, a rapid, automated underway analyzer meeting the same high requirements as the traditional method is necessary. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive characterization of the flow‐through analyzer CONTROS HydroFIA® TA (Kongsberg Maritime Contros GmbH, Kiel, Germany) for automated seawater AT measurements in the laboratory and in field with overall more than 5000 measurements. Under laboratory conditions, the analyzer featured a precision of ± 1.5 μmol kg−1 and an accuracy of ± 1.0 μmol kg−1, combined in an uncertainty of 1.6 – 2.0 μmol kg−1. High precision (± 1.1 μmol kg−1) and accuracy (−0.3 ± 2.8 μmol kg−1), and low uncertainty (2.0 – 2.5 μmol kg−1) were also achieved during field trials of 4 and 6 weeks duration. Although a linear drift appears to be the typical behavior of the system, this can be corrected for by regular reference measurements giving consistent measurement results. Another advantage of regular reference measurements is the early detection of any kind of malfunction due to its direct impact on the measurement performance. Based on the present study, recommendations for automated long‐term deployments are provided in order to gain optimal performance characteristics, aiming at the requirements for AT measurements.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-09-10
    Description: Microalgae are capable of acclimating to dynamic light environments, as they have developed mechanisms to optimize light harvesting and photosynthetic electron transport. When absorption of light exceeds photosynthetic capacity, various physiological protective mechanisms prevent damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophyll pigments provide one of the most important photoprotective mechanisms to dissipate the excess light energy and prevent photoinhibition. In this study, we coupled a mechanistic model for phytoplankton photoinhibition with the global biogeochemical model Regulated Ecosystem Model version 2. The assumption that photoinhibition is small in phytoplankton communities acclimated to ambient light allowed us to predict the photoprotective needs of phytoplankton. When comparing the predicted photoprotective needs to observations of pigment content determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography, our results showed that photoprotective response seems to be mediated in most parts of the ocean by a variable ratio of xanthophyll pigments to chlorophyll. The variability in the ratio appeared to be mainly driven by changes in phytoplankton community composition. Exceptions appeared at high latitudes where other energy dissipating mechanisms seem to play a role in photoprotection and both taxonomic changes and physiological acclimation determine community pigment signature. Understanding the variability of community pigment signature is crucial for modeling the coupling of light absorption to carbon fixation in the ocean. Insights about how much of this variability is attributable to changes in community composition may allow us to improve the match between remotely sensed optical data and the underlying phytoplankton community.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Description: Coupled subseasonal forecast systems with dynamical sea ice have the potential of providing important predictive information in polar regions. Here, we evaluate the ability of operational ensemble prediction systems to predict the location of the sea ice edge in Antarctica. Compared to the Arctic, Antarctica shows on average a 30% lower skill, with only one system remaining more skillful than aclimatological benchmark up to ∼30 days ahead. Skill tends to be highest in the west Antarctic sectorduring the early freezing season. Most of the systems tend to overestimate the sea ice edge extent and fail to capture the onset of the melting season. All the forecast systems exhibit large initial errors. We conclude that subseasonal sea ice redictions could provide marginal support for decision-making only in selected seasons and regions of the Southern Ocean. However, major progress is possible through investments in model development, forecast initialization and calibration.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Description: The South-East Madagascar Bloom occurs in an oligotrophic region of the southwest Indian Ocean. Phase locked to austral summer, this sporadic feature exhibits substantial temporal and spatial variability. Several studies, with different hypotheses, have focused on the initiation mechanism triggering the bloom, but none has been as yet clearly substantiated. With 19 years of ocean color data set available as well as in situ measurements (Argo profiles), the time is ripe to review this feature. The bloom is characterized in a novel manner, and a new bloom index is suggested, yielding 11 bloom years, including 3 major bloom years (1999, 2006, and 2008). Spatially, the bloom varies from a mean structure (22–32°S; 50–70°E) both zonally and meridionally. A colocation analysis of Argo profiles and chlorophyll-a data revealed a bloom occurrence in a shallow-stratified layer, with low-salinity water in the surface layers. Additionally, a quantitative assessment of the previous hypotheses is performed and bloom occurrence is found to coincide with La Niña events and reduced upwelling intensity south of Madagascar. A stronger South-East Madagascar Current during La Niña may support a detachment of the current from the coasts, dampening the upwelling south of Madagascar, and feeding low-salinity waters into the Madagascar Basin, hence increasing stratification. Along with abundance of light, these provide the right conditions for a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial phytoplankton bloom onset
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Description: Increasing sea surface temperatures (SST) and blooms of lipid‐poor, filamentous cyanobacteria can change mesozooplankton metabolism and foraging strategies in marine systems. Lipid shortage and imbalanced diet may challenge the build‐up of energy pools of lipids and proteins, and access to essential fatty acids (FAs) and amino acids (AAs) by copepods. The impact of cyanobacterial blooms on individual energy pools was assessed for key species temperate Temora longicornis and boreal Pseudo‐/Paracalanus spp. that dominated field mesozooplankton communities isolated by sea‐sonal stratification in the central Baltic Sea during the hot and the cold summer. We looked at (a) total lipid and protein levels, (b) FA trophic markers and AA composition, and (c) compound‐specific stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in bulk mesozooplankton and in a subset of parameters in particulate organic matter. Despite lipid‐poor cyanobacterial blooms, the key species were largely able to cover both energy pools, yet a tendency of lipid reduction was observed in surface animals. Omni‐ and car‐nivory feeding modes, FA trophic makers, and δ13C patterns in essential compounds emphasized that cyanobacterial FAs and AAs have been incorporated into meso‐zooplankton mainly via feeding on mixo‐ and heterotrophic (dino‐) flagellates and detrital complexes during summer. Foraging for essential highly unsaturated FAs from (dino‐) flagellates may have caused night migration of Pseudo‐/Paracalanus spp. from the deep subhalocline waters into the upper waters. Only in the hot summer (SST〉19.0°C) was T. longicornis submerged in the colder subthermocline water (~4°C). Thus, the continuous warming trend and simultaneous feeding can eventually lead to competition on the preferred diet by key copepod species below the thermocline in stratified systems. A comparison of δ13C patterns of essential AAs in surface meso‐zooplankton across sub‐basins of low and high cyanobacterial biomasses revealed the potential of δ13C‐AA isoscapes for studies of commercial fish feeding trails across the Baltic Sea food webs.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-09-19
    Description: We conduct the seismic signal analysis on vintage and recently collected multichannel seismic reflection profiles from the Ionian Basin to characterize the deep basin Messinian evaporites. These evaporites were deposited in deep and marginal Mediterranean sedimentary basins as a consequence of the “salinity crisis” between 5.97 and 5.33 Ma, a basin‐wide oceanographic and ecological crisis whose origin remains poorly understood. The seismic markers of the Messinian evaporites in the deep Mediterranean basins can be divided in two end‐members, one of which is the typical “trilogy” of gypsum and clastics (Lower Unit – LU), halite (Mobile Unit – MU) and upper anhydrite and marl layers (Upper Unit – UU) traced in the Western Mediterranean Basins. The other end‐member is a single MU unit subdivided in seven sub‐units by clastic interlayers located in the Levant Basin. The causes of these different seismic expressions of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) appear to be related to a morphological separation between the two basins by the structural regional sill of the Sicily Channel. With the aid of velocity analyses and seismic imaging via prestack migration in time and depth domains, we define for the first time the seismic signature of the Messinian evaporites in the deep Ionian Basin, which differs from the known end‐members. In addition, we identify different evaporitic depositional settings suggesting a laterally discontinuous deposition. With the information gathered we quantify the volume of evaporitic deposits in the deep Ionian Basin as 500,000 km3 ± 10%. This figure allows us to speculate that the total volume of salts in the Mediterranean basin is larger than commonly assumed. Different depositional units in the Ionian Basin suggest that during the MSC it was separated from the Western Mediterranean by physical thresholds, from the Po Plain/Northern Adriatic Basin, and the Levant Basin, likely reflecting different hydrological and climatic conditions. Finally, the evidence of erosional surfaces and V‐shaped valleys at the top of the MSC unit, together with sharp evaporites pinch out on evaporite‐free pre‐Messinian structural highs, suggest an extreme Messinian Stage 3 base level draw down in the Ionian Basin. Such evidence should be carefully evaluated in the light of Messinian and post‐Messinian vertical crustal movements in the area. The results of this study demonstrates the importance of extracting from seismic data the Messinian paleotopography, the paleomorphology and the detailed stratal architecture in the in order to advance in the understanding of the deep basins Messinian depositional environments. Highlights First description of a new type of deepwater Messinian salt giant in the Ionian Sea. First quantification of the Messinian salt volume in the Ionian Sea. New seismic evidence of erosional surfces and Lago Mare deposits in the deep Ionian Basin. Further evidence of sea level lowering during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Evidence for a different, physically separated deepwater Messinian salt basins in the Mediterranean.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: In the course of the ongoing global intensification and diversification of human pressures, the study of variation patterns of biological traits along environmental gradients can provide relevant information on the performance of species under shifting conditions. The pronounced salinity gradient, co‐occurrence of multiple stressors, and accelerated rates of change make the Baltic Sea and its transition to North Sea a suitable region for this type of study. Focusing on the bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus, one of the main foundation species on hard‐bottoms of the Baltic Sea, we analyzed the phenotypic variation among populations occurring along 2,000 km of coasts subjected to salinities from 4 to 〉30 and a variety of other stressors. Morphological and biochemical traits, including palatability for grazers, were recorded at 20 stations along the Baltic Sea and four stations in the North Sea. We evaluated in a common modeling framework the relative contribution of multiple environmental drivers to the observed trait patterns. Salinity was the main and, in some cases, the only environmental driver of the geographic trait variation in F. vesiculosus. The decrease in salinity from North Sea to Baltic Sea stations was accompanied by a decline in thallus size, photosynthetic pigments, and energy storage compounds, and affected the interaction of the alga with herbivores and epibiota. For some traits, drivers that vary locally such as wave exposure, light availability or nutrient enrichment were also important. The strong genetic population structure in this macroalgae might play a role in the generation and maintenance of phenotypic patterns across geographic scales. In light of our results, the desalination process projected for the Baltic Sea could have detrimental impacts on F. vesiculosus in areas close to its tolerance limit, affecting ecosystem functions such as habitat formation, primary production, and food supply.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The northern part of the South China Sea is characterized by widespread occurrence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) indicating the presence of marine gas hydrate. Because the area covers both a tectonically inactive passive margin and the termination of a subduction zone, the influence of tectonism on the dynamics of gas hydrate systems can be studied in this region. Geophysical data show that there are multiple thrust faults on the active margin while much fewer and smaller faults exist in the passive margin. This tectonic difference matches with a difference in the geophysical characteristics of the gas hydrate systems. High hydrate saturation derived from ocean bottom seismometer data and controlled source electromagnetic data and conspicuous high‐amplitude reflections in P‐Cable 3D seismic data above the BSR are found in the anticlinal ridges of the active margin. In contrast all geophysical evidence for the passive margin points to normal to low hydrate saturations. Geochemical analyses of gas samples collected at seep sites on the active margin show methane with heavy δ13C isotope composition, while gas collected at the passive margin shows light carbon isotope composition. Thus, we interpret the passive margin as a typical gas hydrate province fuelled by biogenic production of methane and the active margin gas hydrate system as a system that is fuelled not only by biogenic gas production but also by additional advection of thermogenic methane from the subduction system.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Benguela Upwelling system (BUS) is the most productive of all eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems and it hosts a well‐developed oxygen minimum zone. As such, the BUS is a potential hotspot for production of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas derived from microbially‐driven decay of sinking organic matter. Yet, the extent at which near‐surface waters emit N2O to the atmosphere in the BUS is highly uncertain. Here we present the first high‐resolution surface measurements of N2O across the northern part of the BUS (nBUS). We found strong gradients with a three‐fold increase in N2O concentrations near the coast as compared with open ocean waters. Our observations show enhanced sea‐to‐air fluxes of N2O (up to 1.67 nmol m−2 s−1) in association with local upwelling cells. Based on our data we suggest that the nBUS can account for 13% of the total coastal upwelling source of N2O to the atmosphere.
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  • 50
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    AGU | Wiley
    In:  Geophysical Research Letters, 46 (4). pp. 2158-2166.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH), a short-lived intermediate in the nitrogen cycle, is a potential precursor of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in the ocean. However, measurements of NH 2 OH in the ocean are sparse. Here we present a data set of depth profiles of NH 2 OH from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean and the eastern tropical South Pacific and compare it to N 2 O, nitrate, and nitrite profiles under varying oxygen conditions. The presence of NH 2 OH in surface waters points toward surface nitrification in the upper 100 m. Overall, we found a ratio of 1:3 between NH 2 OH and N 2 O in open ocean areas when oxygen concentrations were 〉50 μmol/L. In the equatorial Atlantic Ocean and the open ocean eastern tropical South Pacific, where nitrification is the dominant N 2 O production pathway, stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that N 2 O, NH 2 OH, and nitrate concentrations were highly correlated, suggesting that NH 2 OH is a potential indicator for nitrification.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: In order to understand the effect of global change on marine fishes, it is imperative to quantify the effects on fundamental parameters such as survival and growth. Larval survival and recruitment of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were found to be heavily impaired by end-of-century levels of ocean acidification. Here, we analysed larval growth among 35–36 days old surviving larvae, along with organ development and ossification of the skeleton. We combined CO2treatments (ambient: 503 µatm, elevated: 1,179 µatm) with food availability in order to evaluate the effect of energy limitation in addition to the ocean acidification stressor. As expected, larval size (as a proxy for growth) and skeletogenesis were positively affected by high food availability. We found significant interactions between acidification and food availability. Larvae fed ad libitum showed little difference in growth and skeletogenesis due to the CO2 treatment. Larvae under energy limitation were significantly larger and had further developed skeletal structures in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to the ambient CO2 treatment. However, the elevated CO2 group revealed impairments in critically important organs, such as the liver, and had comparatively smaller functional gills indicating a mismatch between size and function. It is therefore likely that individual larvae that had survived acidification treatments will suffer from impairments later during ontogeny. Our study highlights important allocation trade-off between growth and organ development, which is critically important to interpret acidification effects on early life stages of fish.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Swan Islands Transform Fault (SITF) marks the southern boundary of the Cayman Trough and the ocean–continent transition of the North American–Caribbean Plate boundary offshore Honduras. The CAYSEIS experiment acquired a 180-km-long seismic refraction and gravity profile across this transform margin, ∼70 km to the west of the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre (MCSC). This profile shows the crustal structure across a transform fault system that juxtaposes Mesozoic-age continental crust to the south against the ∼10-Myr-old ultraslow spread oceanic crust to the north. Ocean-bottom seismographs were deployed along-profile, and inverse and forward traveltime modelling, supported by gravity analysis, reveals ∼23-km-thick continental crust that has been thinned over a distance of ∼70 km to ∼10 km-thick at the SITF, juxtaposed against ∼4-km-thick oceanic crust. This thinning is primarily accommodated within the lower crust. Since Moho reflections are not widely observed, the 7.0 km s−1 velocity contour is used to define the Moho along-profile. The apparent lack of reflections to the north of the SITF suggests that the Moho is more likely a transition zone between crust and mantle. Where the profile traverses bathymetric highs in the off-axis oceanic crust, higher P-wave velocity is observed at shallow crustal depths. S-wave arrival modelling also reveals elevated velocities at shallow depths, except for crust adjacent to the SITF that would have occupied the inside corner high of the ridge-transform intersection when on axis. We use a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.9 to mark where lithologies of the lower crust and uppermost mantle may be exhumed, and also to locate the upper-to-lower crustal transition, identify relict oceanic core complexes and regions of magmatically formed crust. An elevated Vp/Vs ratio suggests not only that serpentinized peridotite may be exposed at the seafloor in places, but also that seawater has been able to flow deep into the crust and upper mantle over 20–30-km-wide regions which may explain the lack of a distinct Moho. The SITF has higher velocities at shallower depths than observed in the oceanic crust to the north and, at the seabed, it is a relatively wide feature. However, the velocity–depth model subseabed suggests a fault zone no wider than ∼5–10 km, that is mirrored by a narrow seabed depression ∼7500 m deep. Gravity modelling shows that the SITF is also underlain, at 〉2 km subseabed, by a ∼20-km-wide region of density 〉3000 kg m−3 that may reflect a broad region of metamorphism. The residual mantle Bouguer anomaly across the survey region, when compared with the bathymetry, suggests that the transform may also have a component of left-lateral trans-tensional displacement that accounts for its apparently broad seabed appearance, and that the focus of magma supply may currently be displaced to the north of the MCSC segment centre. Our results suggest that Swan Islands margin development caused thinning of the adjacent continental crust, and that the adjacent oceanic crust formed in a cool ridge setting, either as a result of reduced mantle upwelling and/or due to fracture enhanced fluid flow.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The physiological processes driving the rapid rates of calcification in larval bivalves are poorly understood. Here, we use a calcification substrate-limited approach (low dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) and mRNA sequencing to identify proteins involved in bicarbonate acquisition during shell formation. As a secondary approach, we examined expression of ion transport and shell matrix proteins (SMPs) over the course of larval development and shell formation. We reared four families of Mytilus edulis under ambient (ca. 1865 µmol/kg) and low CT (ca. 941 µmol/kg) conditions and compared expression patterns at six developmental time points. Larvae reared under low CT exhibited a developmental delay, and a small subset of contigs was differentially regulated between ambient and low CT conditions. Of particular note was the identification of one contig encoding an anion transporter (SLC26) which was strongly upregulated (2.3–2.9 fold) under low CT conditions. By analyzing gene expression profiles over the course of larval development, we are able to isolate sequences encoding ion transport and SMPs to enhance our understanding of cellular pathways underlying larval calcification processes. In particular, we observe the differential expression of contigs encoding SLC4 family members (sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, anion exchangers), calcium-transporting ATPases, sodium/calcium exchangers, and SMPs such as nacrein, tyrosinase, and transcripts related to chitin production. With a range of candidate genes, this work identifies ion transport pathways in bivalve larvae and by applying comparative genomics to investigate temporal expression patterns, provides a foundation for further studies to functionally characterize the proteins involved in larval calcification.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Marine sediments host large amounts of methane (CH4), which is a potent greenhouse gas. Quantitative estimates for methane release from marine sediments are scarce, and a poorly constrained temporal variability leads to large uncertainties in methane emission scenarios. Here, we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetric, geochemical and sedimentological data to (I) map and describe pockmarks in the Witch Ground Basin (central North Sea), (II) characterize associated sedimentological and fluid migration structures, and (III) analyze the related methane release. More than 1500 pockmarks of two distinct morphological classes spread over an area of 225 km2. The two classes form independently from another and are corresponding to at least two different sources of fluids. Class 1 pockmarks are large in size (〉 6 m deep, 〉 250 m long, and 〉 75 m wide), show active venting, and are located above vertical fluid conduits that hydraulically connect the seafloor with deep methane sources. Class 2 pockmarks, which comprise 99.5 % of all pockmarks, are smaller (0.9‐3.1 m deep, 26‐140 m long, and 14‐57 m wide) and are limited to the soft, fine‐grained sediments of the Witch Ground Formation and possibly sourced by compaction‐related dewatering. Buried pockmarks within the Witch Ground Formation document distinct phases of pockmark formation, likely triggered by external forces related to environmental changes after deglaciation. Thus, greenhouse gas emissions from pockmark fields cannot be based on pockmark numbers and present‐day fluxes but require an analysis of the pockmark forming processes through geological time.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Marine species tend to have extensive distributions, which are commonly attributed to the dispersal potential provided by planktonic larvae and the rarity of absolute barriers to dispersal in the ocean. Under this paradigm, the occurrence of marine microendemism without geographic isolation in species with planktonic larvae poses a dilemma. The recently described Maya hamlet (Hypoplectrus maya, Serranidae) is exactly such a case, being endemic to a 50-km segment of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). We use whole-genome analysis to infer the demographic history of the Maya hamlet and contrast it with the sympatric and pan-Caribbean black (H. nigricans), barred (H. puella) and butter (H. unicolor) hamlets, as well as the allopatric but phenotypically similar blue hamlet (H. gemma). We show that H. maya is indeed a distinct evolutionary lineage, with genomic signatures of inbreeding and a unique demographic history of continuous decrease in effective population size since it diverged from congeners just ~3,000 generations ago. We suggest that this case of microendemism may be driven by the combination of a narrow ecological niche and restrictive oceanographic conditions in the southern MBRS, which is consistent with the occurrence of an unusually high number of marine microendemics in this region. The restricted distribution of the Maya hamlet, its decline in both census and effective population sizes, and the degradation of its habitat place it at risk of extinction. We conclude that the evolution of marine microendemism can be a fast and dynamic process, with extinction possibly occurring before speciation is complete.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Gravitational sinking of photosynthetically fixed particulate organic carbon (POC) constitutes a key component of the biological carbon pump. The fraction of POC leaving the surface ocean depends on POC sinking velocity (SV) and remineralization rate (Cremin), both of which depend on plankton community structure. However, the key drivers in plankton communities controlling SV and Cremin are poorly constrained. In fall 2014, we conducted a 6 weeks mesocosm experiment in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean to study the influence of plankton community structure on SV and Cremin. Oligotrophic conditions prevailed for the first 3 weeks, until nutrient‐rich deep water injected into all mesocosms stimulated diatom blooms. SV declined steadily over the course of the experiment due to decreasing CaCO3 ballast and – according to an optical proxy proposed herein – due to increasing aggregate porosity mostly during an aggregation event after the diatom bloom. Furthermore, SV was positively correlated with the contribution of picophytoplankton to the total phytoplankton biomass. Cremin was highest during a Synechococcus bloom under oligotrophic conditions and in some mesocosms during the diatom bloom after the deep‐water addition while it was particularly low during harmful algal blooms. The temporal changes were considerably larger in Cremin (max. 15‐fold) than in SV (max. 3‐fold). Accordingly, estimated POC transfer efficiency to 1000 m was mainly dependent on how the plankton community structure affected Cremin. Our approach revealed key players and interactions in the plankton food web influencing POC export efficiency thereby improving our mechanistic understanding of the biological carbon pump. Key points Sinking velocity was higher during oligotrophy than during blooms which is linked to ballast, porosity, and phytoplankton size structure Remineralization was highly variable but tended to be higher during Synechococcus or diatom blooms and lower during harmful algal blooms Plankton community structure had a considerably larger influence on particle remineralization rate than on sinking velocity
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Large reservoirs of methane present in Arctic marine sediments are susceptible to rapid warming, promoting increasing methane emissions. Gas bubbles in the water column can be detected, and flow rates can be quantified using hydroacoustic survey methods, making it possible to monitor spatiotemporal variability. We present methane (CH4) bubble flow rates derived from hydroacoustic data sets acquired during 11 research expeditions to the western Svalbard continental margin (2008-2014). Three seepage areas emit in total 725-1,125 t CH4/year, and bubble fluxes are up to 2 kg.m(-2).year (-1). Bubble fluxes vary between different surveys, but no clear trend can be identified. Flux variability analyses suggest that two areas are geologically interconnected, displaying alternating flow changes. Spatial migration of bubble seepage was observed to follow seasonal changes in the theoretical landward limit of the hydrate stability zone, suggesting that formation/dissociation of shallow hydrates, modulated by bottom water temperatures, influences seafloor bubble release. Plain Language Summary It has been speculated that the release of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from the seafloor in some Arctic Ocean regions is triggered by warming seawater. Emissions of gas bubbles from the seafloor can be detected by ship-mounted sonars. In 2008, a methane seepage area west of Svalbard was hydroacoustically detected for the first time. This seepage was hypothesized to be caused by dissociation of hydrates (ice-like crystals consisting of methane and water) due to ocean warming. We present an analysis of sonar data from 11 surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014. This study is the first comparison of methane seepage-related hydroacoustic data over such a long period. The hydroacoustic mapping and quantification method allowed us to assess the locations and intensity of gas bubble release, and how these parameters change over time, providing necessary data for numerical flux and climate models. No trend of increasing gas flow was identified. However, we observed seasonal variations potentially controlled by seasonal formation and dissociation of shallow hydrates. The hydrate formation/dissociation process is likely controlled by changes of bottom water temperatures. Alternating gas emissions between two neighboring areas indicate the existence of fluid pathway networks within the sediments.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-09-26
    Description: In the Northern Patagonian gulfs of Argentina (Golfo Nuevo and Golfo San José), blooms of toxigenic microalgae and the detection of their associated phycotoxins are recurrent phenomena. The present study evaluated the transfer of phycotoxins from toxigenic microalgae to mesozooplankton in Golfo Nuevo and Golfo San José throughout an annual cycle (December 2014–2015 and January 2015–2016, respectively). In addition, solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers were deployed for the first time in these gulfs, to estimate the occurrence of phycotoxins in the seawater between the phytoplankton samplings. Domoic acid was present throughout the annual cycle in SPATT samplers, whereas no paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were detected. Ten toxigenic species were identified: Alexandrium catenella, Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis tripos, Dinophysis caudata, Prorocentrum lima, Pseudo-nitzschia australis, Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. Lipophilic and hydrophilic toxins were detected in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton from both gulfs. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were the toxigenic species most frequent in these gulfs. Consequently, domoic acid was the phycotoxin most abundantly detected and transferred to upper trophic levels. Spirolides were detected in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton for the first time in the study area. Likewise, dinophysistoxins were found in mesozooplankton from both gulfs, and this is the first report of the presence of these phycotoxins in zooplankton from the Argentine Sea. The dominance of calanoid copepods indicates that they were the primary vector of phycotoxins in the pelagic trophic web.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-09-25
    Description: We study the structure and tectonics of the collision zone between the Nazca Ridge (NR) and the Peruvian margin constrained by seismic, gravimetric, bathymetric, and natural seismological data. The NR was formed in an on-ridge setting, and it is characterized by a smooth and broad shallow seafloor (swell) with an estimated buoyancy flux of ~7 Mg/s. The seismic results show that the NR hosts an oceanic lower crust 10–14 km thick with velocities of 7.2–7.5 km/s suggesting intrusion of magmatic material from the hot spot plume to the oceanic plate. Our results show evidence for subduction erosion in the frontal part of the margin likely enhanced by the collision of the NR. The ridge-trench collision zone correlates with the presence of a prominent normal scarp, a narrow continental slope, and (uplifted) shelf. In contrast, adjacent of the collision zone, the slope does not present a topographic scarp and the continental slope and shelf become wider and deeper. Geophysical and geodetic evidence indicate that the collision zone is characterized by low seismic coupling at the plate interface. This is consistent with vigorous subduction erosion enhanced by the subducting NR causing abrasion and increase of fluid pore pressure at the interplate contact. Furthermore, the NR has behaved as a barrier for rupture propagation of megathrust earthquakes (e.g., 1746 Mw 8.6 and 1942 Mw 8.1 events). In contrast, for moderate earthquakes (e.g., 1996 Mw 7.7 and 2011 Mw 6.9 events), the NR has behaved as a seismic asperity nucleating at depths 〉20 km.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-09-25
    Description: Investigation of active faults is crucial for the seismic hazard assessment and, in the case of volcanic belts, it provides a deeper understanding of the interactions between volcanism and tectonic faulting. In this study, we report the results of the first paleoseismological and tephrochronological investigation undertaken on Holocene faulting in Kamchatka's volcanic belts. The studied trenches and additional excavations are located along the axial fault zone of the Eastern Volcanic Front, where the earlier dated tephra layers provide a robust age control of the faulting events. Electron microprobe analysis of glass from 22 tephra samples permitted correlations among the disparate tephra profiles for constructing a summary tephra sequence. The latter, together with published geochronological data, allowed the construction of a Bayesian age model. Detailed examination of the tephra layers deformed by faulting allowed us to reconstruct and date six faulting events with the offsets of 1 to 20 cm indicating paleoearthquakes with magnitudes of Mw 〈 5.4. Holocene crustal seismicity of the Eastern Volcanic Front manifests temporal clustering rather than a uniform flux of events. However, no correlation between dated seismic events and the largest Holocene eruptions of proximal volcanoes was observed.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ground-breaking measurements from the ocean observatories initiative Irminger Sea surface mooring (60°N, 39°30′W) are presented that provide the first in situ characterization of multiwinter surface heat exchange at a high latitude North Atlantic site. They reveal strong variability (December 2014 net heat loss nearly 50% greater than December 2015) due primarily to variations in frequency of intense short timescale (1–3 days) forcing. Combining the observations with the new high resolution European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis 5 (ERA5) atmospheric reanalysis, the main source of multiwinter variability is shown to be changes in the frequency of Greenland tip jets (present on 15 days in December 2014 and 3 days in December 2015) that can result in hourly mean heat loss exceeding 800 W/m2. Furthermore, a new picture for atmospheric mode influence on Irminger Sea heat loss is developed whereby strongly positive North Atlantic Oscillation conditions favor increased losses only when not outweighed by the East Atlantic Pattern.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The dense AlpArray network allows studying seismic wave propagation with high spatial resolution. Here we introduce an array approach to measure arrival angles of teleseismic Rayleigh waves. The approach combines the advantages of phase correlation as in the two-station method with array beamforming to obtain the phase-velocity vector. 20 earthquakes from the first two years of the AlpArray project are selected, and spatial patterns of arrival-angle deviations across the AlpArray are shown in maps, depending on period and earthquake location. The cause of these intriguing spatial patterns is discussed. A simple wave-propagation modelling example using an isolated anomaly and a Gaussian beam solution suggests that much of the complexity can be explained as a result of wave interference after passing a structural anomaly along the wave paths. This indicates that arrival-angle information constitutes useful additional information on the Earth structure, beyond what is currently used in inversions.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Global biogeochemical ocean models rely on many parameters, which govern the interaction between individual components, and their response to the physical environment. They are often assessed/calibrated against quasi-synoptic data sets of dissolved inorganic tracers. However, a good fit to one observation might not necessarily imply a good match to another. We investigate whether two different metrics—the root-mean-square error to nutrients and oxygen and a metric measuring the overlap between simulated and observed oxygen minimum zones (OMZs)—help to constrain a global biogeochemical model in different aspects of performance. Three global model optimizations are carried out. Two single-objective optimizations target the root-mean-square metric and a sum of both metrics, respectively. We then present and explore multiobjective optimization, which results in a set of compromise solutions. Our results suggest that optimal parameters for denitrification and nitrogen fixation differ when applying different metrics. Optimization against observed OMZs leads to parameters that enhance fixed nitrogen cycling; this causes too low nitrate concentrations and a too high global pelagic denitrification rate. Optimization against nutrient and oxygen concentrations leads to different parameters and a lower global fixed nitrogen turnover; this results in a worse fit to OMZs. Multiobjective optimization resolves this antagonistic effect and provides an ensemble of parameter sets, which help to address different research questions. We finally discuss how systematic model calibration can help to improve models used for projecting climate change and its effect on fisheries and climate gas emissions.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-10-02
    Description: Determination of Mg/Ca in foraminifer shells as a proxy of seawater temperature is of particular interest in paleoclimate reconstruction. Here we show that femtosecond–200 nm–laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry is a suitable technique to precisely and accurately determine Mg/Ca in the micrometer-sized calcareous chambers of foraminifers. At low fluence (0.3–0.6 J/cm 2 ) the double-charged 44 Ca ++ and the single-charged 25 Mg + ions are measured nearly simultaneously. Integrated single-shot measurements using a pulse repetition rate of 1 Hz enable precise analyses at a depth resolution of about 50–100 nm/pulse corresponding to an ablated material of 0.3–0.6 ng calcite/pulse for a spot size of 55 μm. High-resolution analyses can be performed until a depth of 10–20 μm and thus particularly suitable for thin-shelled foraminifers. Reproducibility (relative standard deviation) is about 5% as approved by homogeneous reference materials. Calibration is performed with the microanalytical synthetic reference material MACS-3. Magnesium and Ca data of different carbonate and silicate reference materials agree within uncertainties with reference values. The procedure has been successfully applied for detailed analyses of single chambers and shell-depth profiles of live individuals and empty planktic and benthic foraminifer tests from different ocean basins.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-10-02
    Description: Determination of Mg/Ca in foraminifer shells as a proxy of seawater temperature is of particular interest in paleoclimate reconstruction. Here we show that femtosecond–200 nm–laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry is a suitable technique to precisely and accurately determine Mg/Ca in the micrometer‐sized calcareous chambers of foraminifers. At low fluence (0.3–0.6 J/cm2) the double‐charged 44Ca++ and the single‐charged 25Mg+ ions are measured nearly simultaneously. Integrated single‐shot measurements using a pulse repetition rate of 1 Hz enable precise analyses at a depth resolution of about 50–100 nm/pulse corresponding to an ablated material of 0.3–0.6 ng calcite/pulse for a spot size of 55 μm. High‐resolution analyses can be performed until a depth of 10–20 μm and thus particularly suitable for thin‐shelled foraminifers. Reproducibility (relative standard deviation) is about 5% as approved by homogeneous reference materials. Calibration is performed with the microanalytical synthetic reference material MACS‐3. Magnesium and Ca data of different carbonate and silicate reference materials agree within uncertainties with reference values. The procedure has been successfully applied for detailed analyses of single chambers and shell‐depth profiles of live individuals and empty planktic and benthic foraminifer tests from different ocean basins. Plain Language Summary The ratio of magnesium and calcium (Mg/Ca) of the calcareous shells of singled‐celled marine microorganisms called foraminifers is used for temperature reconstruction of the past ocean and climate. We have been using very short laser pulses of 10−13 s to sample small amounts of calcite and Mg/Ca from very thin layers to analyze temperature at high accuracy and precision. Using low energy densities of 0.3–0.6 J/cm2, Mg/Ca has been determined by mass spectrometry by applying a new single‐shot analysis. Reproducibility of the analyses is about 5% as approved by homogeneous reference materials. The procedure has been successfully applied for detailed analyses of single chambers and shell‐depth profiles of live individuals and empty planktic and benthic foraminifer shells from different ocean basins. The new method allows analyses of fossil shells to determine physiological processes and temperatures of ocean waters dating back several millions of years.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-10-02
    Description: In the South Atlantic, a reorganization of the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge began before anomaly C34n (83.6 Ma) and ended before anomaly C30n (66.4 Ma), complicating tectonics of Rio Grande Rise and older Walvis Ridge (WR), which formed together at the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge. This reorganization is poorly understood because magnetic anomalies C30n‐C34n are poorly defined near WR. We interpreted these anomalies along westernWRto improve knowledge of Rio Grande Rise‐WRtectonic development. Anomaly trends indicate that Valdivia Bank has an E‐W age progression, perpendicular to that predicted by hot spot models. Anomaly spacing and width is irregular and anomalous near WR, implying a series of ridge jumps and possibly a microplate between anomalies C34n and C32n. Eastward ridge jumps transferred microplate lithosphere to the South American plate. This study shows that Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Rio Grande Rise‐WRlarge igneous provinces was more complex than previously understood.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 67
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    AGU | Wiley
    In:  Geophysical Research Letters, 46 (5). pp. 2715-2725.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: The mechanisms controlling the variability of oxygen levels in the ocean are poorly quantified. We focus here on the impact of wind synoptic variability associated with tropical convective regions and extra‐tropical storms. Removing the wind higher frequencies of variability (2 days – 1 month) in an atmosphere reanalysis used to force an ocean model decreases wind stress by up to 20% in the tropics and 50% in the mid‐latitudes, weakening wind‐driven ocean circulation by 20%. Oxygen levels decrease by up to 10 mmol.m‐3 in tropical oceans and 30 mmol.m‐3 in subtropical gyres mainly due to changes in advective processes. While a large part of the tropical oxygen anomaly has local origins, changes in oxygen levels in the subtropical gyres modulate tropical oxygen distribution. Our study suggests that the “storminess” of the ocean is an important parameter that could determine the future evolution of poorly oxygenated regions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-10-07
    Description: The Red Sea is a deep marine basin often considered as small‐scale version of the global ocean. Hydrographic observations and ocean‐atmosphere modeling indicate Red Sea deep water was episodically renewed by wintertime open‐ocean deep convections during 1982–2001, suggesting a renewal time on the order of a decade. However, the long‐term pacing of Red Sea deep water renewals is largely uncertain. We use an annually resolved coral oxygen isotope record of winter surface water conditions to show that the late twentieth century deep water renewals were probably unusual in the context of the preceding ~100 years. More frequent major events are detected during the late Little Ice Age, particularly during the early nineteenth century characterized by large tropical volcanic eruptions. We conclude that Red Sea deep water renewal time is on the order of a decade up to a century, depending on the mean climatic conditions and large‐scale interannual climate forcing.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-10-07
    Description: The last interglacial (LIG; Marine Isotope Substage 5e, ~127–117 ka) experienced globally warmer than modern temperatures; however, profound differences in regional climate occurred that are relevant to the assessment of future climate change scenarios. Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and hydrology are intrinsic to the spatiotemporal evolution of past and future climate. We present eight monthly resolved coral Sr/Ca and δ18O records (130–118 ka) to reconstruct mean western tropical Atlantic SST and seawater δ18O changes during the LIG. Cooler and fresher than modern surface waters are indicated for the middle of the LIG at ~126 ka. This was followed by a rapid transition to modern‐like SSTs and salinities that characterized the remaining part of the LIG. Our results, which account for differences found among corals, proxies, and SST calibration uncertainties, agree with western tropical Atlantic sediment records. Together, they suggest that an oceanic regime existed that differed from today.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 70
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    AGU | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11 (8). pp. 2745-2767.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-07
    Description: Mesoscale dynamics of the Agulhas Current system determine the exchange between the Indian and Atlantic oceans, thereby influencing the global overturning circulation. Using a series of ocean model experiments compared to observations, we show that the representation of mesoscale eddies in the Agulhas ring path improves with increasing resolution of submesoscale flows. Simulated submesoscale dynamics are validated with time‐mean horizontal‐wavenumber spectra from satellite sea surface temperature measurements and mesoscale dynamics with spectra from sea surface height. While the Agulhas ring path in a nonsubmesoscale‐resolving (1/20)° configuration is associated with too less power spectral densities on all scales and too steep spectral slopes, the representation of the mesoscale dynamics improves when the diffusion and the dissipation of the model are reduced and some small‐scale features are resolved. Realistic power spectral densities over all scales are achieved when additionally the horizontal resolution is increased to (1/60)° and a larger portion of the submesoscale spectrum is resolved. Results of an eddy detection algorithm applied to the model outputs as well as to a gridded sea surface height satellite product show that in particular strong cyclones are much better represented when submesoscale flows are resolved by the model. The validation of the submesoscale dynamics with sea surface temperature spectra provides guidance for the choice of advection schemes and explicit diffusion and dissipation as well as for further subgrid‐scale parameterizations. For the Agulhas ring path, the use of upstream biased advection schemes without explicit diffusion and dissipation is found to be associated with realistically simulated submesoscales.
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  • 71
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    Wiley
    In:  Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 33 (20). pp. 1553-1564.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-09
    Description: Rationale: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric trace gas regulating Earth's climate, and is a key intermediate of many nitrogen cycling processes in aquatic ecosystems. Laser-based technology for N2O concentration and isotopic/isotopomeric analyses has potential advantages, which include high analytical specificity, low sample size requirement and reduced cost. Methods: An autosampler with a purge-and-trap module is coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer to achieve automated and high-throughput measurements of N2O concentrations, N2O isotope ratios (δ15Nbulk and δ18O values) and position-specific isotopomer ratios (δ15Nα and δ15Nβ values). The system provides accuracy and precision similar to those for measurements made by traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) techniques. Results: The sample sizes required were 0.01–1.1 nmol-N2O. Measur