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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Author Posting. © American Chemical Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Chemical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Kivenson, V., Lemkau, K. L., Pizarro, O., Yoerger, D. R., Kaiser, C., Nelson, R. K., Carmichael, C., Paul, B. G., Reddy, C. M., & Valentine, D. L. (2019). Ocean Dumping of Containerized DDT Waste Was a Sloppy Process. Environmental Science and Technology (2019), doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b05859.
    Description: Industrial-scale dumping of organic waste to the deep ocean was once common practice, leaving a legacy of chemical pollution for which a paucity of information exists. Using a nested approach with autonomous and remotely operated underwater vehicles, a dumpsite offshore California was surveyed and sampled. Discarded waste containers littered the site and structured the suboxic benthic environment. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was reportedly dumped in the area, and sediment analysis revealed substantial variability in concentrations of p,p-DDT and its analogs, with a peak concentration of 257 μg g–1, ∼40 times greater than the highest level of surface sediment contamination at the nearby DDT Superfund site. The occurrence of a conspicuous hydrocarbon mixture suggests that multiple petroleum distillates, potentially used in DDT manufacture, contributed to the waste stream. Application of a two end-member mixing model with DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls enabled source differentiation between shelf discharge versus containerized waste. Ocean dumping was found to be the major source of DDT to more than 3000 km2 of the region’s deep seafloor. These results reveal that ocean dumping of containerized DDT waste was inherently sloppy, with the contents readily breaching containment and leading to regional scale contamination of the deep benthos.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship for V.K. under Grant No. 1650114. Expeditions AT-18-11 and AT-26-06 were funded by the NSF (OCE-0961725 and OCE-1046144). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. We thank the captain and crew of the RV Atlantis, the pilots and crew of the ROV Jason, the crew of the AUV Sentry, the scientific party of the AT-18-11 and AT-26-06 expeditions, Justin Tran for assistance with the preparation of multibeam data, M. Indira Venkatesan for a helpful discussion of the NOAA datasets, and Nathan Dodder for advice on the procedure for compound identification.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-01-02
    Description: The vast amount of plastic waste emitted into the environment and the increasing concern of potential harm to wildlife has made microplastic and nanoplastic pollution a growing environmental concern. Plastic pollution has the potential to cause both physical and chemical harm to wildlife directly or via sorption, concentration, and transfer of other environmental contaminants to the wildlife that ingest plastic. Small particles of plastic pollution, termed microplastics (〉100 nm and 〈5 mm) or nanoplastics (〈100 nm), can form through fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic. These small particles are especially concerning because of their high specific surface area for sorption of contaminants as well as their potential to translocate in the bodies of organisms. These same small particles are challenging to separate and identify in environmental samples because their size makes handling and observation difficult. As a result, our understanding of the environmental prevalence of nanoplastics and microplastics is limited. Generally, the smaller the size of the plastic particle, the more difficult it is to separate from environmental samples. Currently employed passive density and size separation techniques to isolate plastics from environmental samples are not well suited to separate microplastics and nanoplastics. Passive flotation is hindered by the low buoyancy of small particles as well as the difficulty of handling small particles on the surface of flotation media. Here we suggest exploring alternative techniques borrowed from other fields of research to improve separation of the smallest plastic particles. These techniques include adapting active density separation (centrifugation) from cell biology and taking advantage of surface-interaction-based separations from analytical chemistry. Furthermore, plastic pollution is often challenging to quantify in complex matrices such as biological tissues and wastewater. Biological and wastewater samples are important matrices that represent key points in the fate and sources of plastic pollution, respectively. In both kinds of samples, protocols need to be optimized to increase throughput, reduce contamination potential, and avoid destruction of plastics during sample processing. To this end, we recommend adapting digestion protocols to match the expected composition of the nonplastic material as well as taking measures to reduce and account for contamination. Once separated, plastics in an environmental sample should ideally be characterized both visually and chemically. With existing techniques, microplastics and nanoplastics are difficult to characterize or even detect. Their low mass and small size provide limited signal for visual, vibrational spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analyses. Each of these techniques involves trade-offs in throughput, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. To accurately identify and completely quantify microplastics and nanoplastics in environmental samples, multiple analytical techniques applied in tandem are likely to be required.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-01-02
    Description: Euphorkanlide A (1), a highly modified ingenane diterpenoid with a C24 appendage forming an additional hexahydroisobenzofuran-fused 19-membered macrocyclic bis-lactone ring system was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia kansuensis. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and quantum-chemical calculations. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicities against a panel of cancer cell lines (IC50s 〈 5 μM). Mechanistic study revealed that 1 could induce the generation of ROS, leading to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in drug-resistant cancer cell line HCT-15/5-FU.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Noninvasive diagnostic by imaging combined with a contrast agent (CA) is by now the most used technique to get insight into human bodies. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used technologies providing complementary results. Nowadays, it seems clear that bimodal CAs could be an emerging approach to increase the patient compliance, accessing different imaging modalities with a single CA injection. Owing to versatile designs, targeting properties, and high payload capacity, nanocarriers are considered as a viable solution to reach this goal. In this study, we investigated efficient superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-loaded iodinated nano-emulsions (NEs) as dual modal injectable CAs for X-ray imaging and MRI. The strength of this new CA lies not only in its dual modal contrasting properties and biocompatibility, but also in the simplicity of the nanoparticulate assembling: iodinated oily core was synthesized by the triiodo-benzene group grafting on vitamin E (41.7% of iodine) via esterification, and SPIONs were produced by thermal decomposition during 2, 4, and 6 h to generate SPIONs with different morphologies and magnetic properties. SPIONs with most anisotropic shape and characterized by the highest r2/r1 ratio once encapsulated into iodinated NE were used for animal experimentation. The in vivo investigation showed an excellent contrast modification because of the presence of the selected NEs, for both imaging techniques explored, that is, MRI and X-ray imaging. This work provides the description and in vivo application of a simple and efficient nanoparticulate system capable of enhancing contrast for both preclinical imaging modalities, MRI, and computed tomography.
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  • 5
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Environmental Science & Technology, 53 (9). pp. 5151-5158.
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Microplastics (MPs) in aquatic organisms are raising increasing concerns regarding their potential damage to ecosystems. To date, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques have been widely used for detection of MPs in aquatic organisms, which requires complex protocols of tissue digestion and MP separation and are time- and reagentconsuming. This novel approach directly separates, identifies, and characterizes MPs from the hyperspectral image (HSI) of the intestinal tract content in combination with a support vector machine classification model, instead of using the real digestion/separation protocols. The procedures of HSI acquisition ( 1 min) and data analysis (5 min) can be completed within 6 min plus the sample preparation and drying time (30 min) where necessary. This method achieved a promising efficiency (recall 〉98.80%, precision 〉96.22%) for identifying five types of MPs (particles 〉0.2 mm). Moreover, the method was also demonstrated to be effective on field fish from three marine fish species, revealing satisfying detection accuracy (particles 〉0.2 mm) comparable to Raman analysis. The present technique omits the digestion protocol (reagent free), thereby significantly reducing reagent consumption, saving time, and providing a rapid and efficient method for MP analysis.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Latest knowledge on the reactivity of charged nanoparticulate complexants toward aqueous metal ions is discussed in mechanistic detail. We present a rigorous generic description of electrostatic and chemical contributions to metal ion binding by nanoparticulate complexants, and their dependence on particle size, particle type (i.e., reactive sites distributed within the particle body or confined to the surface), ionic strength of the aqueous medium, and the nature of the metal ion. For the example case of soft environmental particles such as fulvic and humic acids, practical strategies are delineated for determining intraparticulate metal ion speciation, and for evaluating intrinsic chemical binding affinities and heterogeneity. The results are compared with those obtained by popular codes for equilibrium speciation modeling (namely NICA-Donnan and WHAM). Physicochemical analysis of the discrepancies generated by these codes reveals the a priori hypotheses adopted therein and the inappropriateness of some of their key parameters. The significance of the characteristic time scales governing the formation and dissociation rates of metal−nanoparticle complexes in defining the relaxation properties and the complete equilibration of the metal− nanoparticulate complex dispersion is described. The dynamic features of nanoparticulate complexes are also discussed in the context of predictions of the labilities and bioavailabilities of the metal species.
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  • 7
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Environmental Science & Technology, 53 (12). pp. 7068-7074.
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Microplastics are ubiquitous across ecosystems, yet the exposure risk to humans is unresolved. Focusing on the American diet, we evaluated the number of microplastic particles in commonly consumed foods in relation to their recommended daily intake. The potential for microplastic inhalation and how the source of drinking water may affect microplastic consumption were also explored. Our analysis used 402 data points from 26 studies, which represents over 3600 processed samples. Evaluating approximately 15% of Americans’ caloric intake, we estimate that annual microplastics consumption ranges from 39000 to 52000 particles depending on age and sex. These estimates increase to 74000 and 121000 when inhalation is considered. Additionally, individuals who meet their recommended water intake through only bottled sources may be ingesting an additional 90000 microplastics annually, compared to 4000 microplastics for those who consume only tap water. These estimates are subject to large amounts of variation; however, given methodological and data limitations, these values are likely underestimates.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-06-04
    Description: Recent studies pointed to a high ice nucleating activity (INA) in the Arctic sea surface microlayer (SML). However, related chemical information is still sparse. In the present study, INA and free glucose concentrations were quantified in Arctic SML and bulk water samples from the marginal ice zone, the ice-free ocean, melt ponds, and open waters within the ice pack. T50 (defining INA) ranged from −17.4 to −26.8 °C. Glucose concentrations varied from 0.6 to 51 μg/L with highest values in the SML from the marginal ice zone and melt ponds (median 16.3 and 13.5 μg/L) and lower values in the SML from the ice pack and the ice-free ocean (median 3.9 and 4.0 μg/L). Enrichment factors between the SML and the bulk ranged from 0.4 to 17. A positive correlation was observed between free glucose concentration and INA in Arctic water samples (T50(°C) = (−25.6 ± 0.6) + (0.15 ± 0.04)·Glucose(μg/L), RP = 0.66, n = 74). Clustering water samples based on phytoplankton pigment composition resulted in robust but different correlations within the four clusters (RP between 0.67 and 0.96), indicating a strong link to phytoplankton-related processes. Since glucose did not show significant INA itself, free glucose may serve as a potential tracer for INA in Arctic water samples.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-06-15
    Description: Three monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), tabernabovines A–C (1–3), were isolated from Tabernaemontana bovina. They were elucidated by spectroscopic data and computational calculations. Unlike precursors of MIAs, strictosidine and alstrostine A, alkaloid 1 consists of tryptamine and secologanin in a 2:1 ratio. Alkaloid 2 is a cage compound, and 3 possesses a bridged ring. Tabernabovine A exhibited inhibitory activity against NO production with IC50 44.1 μM compared to l-NMMA with IC50 of 48.6 μM.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-23
    Description: The morphology and growth kinetics of ice single crystals in aqueous solutions of type III antifreeze protein (AFP-III) have been studied in detail over a range of AFP-III concentrations and supercoolings. In pure water, the shape of ice crystals changes from the circular disklike to planar dendritic with increasing supercooling. In AFP-III solutions, ice crystals in the form of faceted plates, irregular dendrites with polygonized tips, and needles appear with increasing supercooling and AFP-III concentration. The growth rate of ice crystals in the crystallographic a direction is 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in the c direction. AFP-III molecules cause the stoppage of the growth of the prismatic and basal faces at low supercoolings. When supercooling exceeds the critical value, AFP-III favors the acceleration of the growth in both a and c directions. The observed behavior of AFP-III is explained in terms of the Cabrera-Vermilyea pinning model and the specificity of the dissipation of latent heat from the growing crystals with different shapes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Author Posting. © American Chemical Society, 2018. This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License. The definitive version was published in Environmental Science and Technology Letters 5 (2018): 226–231, doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00084.
    Description: Chemical dispersants are one of many tools used to mitigate the overall environmental impact of oil spills. In principle, dispersants break up floating oil into small droplets that disperse into the water column where they are subject to multiple fate and transport processes. The effectiveness of dispersants typically decreases as oil weathers in the environment. This decrease in effectiveness is often attributed to evaporation and emulsification, with the contribution of photochemical weathering assumed to be negligible. Here, we aim to test this assumption using Macondo well oil released during the Deepwater Horizon spill as a case study. Our results indicate that the effects of photochemical weathering on Deepwater Horizon oil properties and dispersant effectiveness can greatly outweigh the effects of evaporative weathering. The decrease in dispersant effectiveness after light exposure was principally driven by the decreased solubility of photo-oxidized crude oil residues in the solvent system that comprises COREXIT EC9500A. Kinetic modeling combined with geospatial analysis demonstrated that a considerable fraction of aerial applications targeting Deepwater Horizon surface oil had low dispersant effectiveness. Collectively, the results of this study challenge the paradigm that photochemical weathering has a negligible impact on the effectiveness of oil spill response and provide critical insights into the “window of opportunity” to apply chemical dispersants in response to oil spills in sunlit waters.
    Description: This work was supported, in part, by National Science Foundation Grant OCE-1333148, Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Grants 015, SA 16-30, the DEEP-C consortium, and the Clark Family Foundation, Inc. EPA funding was provided to R.N.C. from the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 13
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Energy & Fuels, 32 (8). pp. 8167-8174.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-31
    Description: Methane recovery from artificial hydrate-bearing sandstones by simulated flue gas swapping was tested using a core flooding experimental setup. Seven groups of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of hydrate saturation as well as the initial porosity and permeability of sandstones on methane production and carbon dioxide capture. The results show that the CH4 recovery efficiency and the amount of CO2 captured increase with the increase of hydrate saturation at the same initial porosity and permeability of sandstone. The highest CH4 recovery obtained is 51.6% and 99.4% of CO2 in simulated flue gas is sequestered in the hydrate phase after swapping at 9.2 MPa and 277.15 K. Hydrate saturation was 82.5% and the initial porosity and permeability of sandstone are 25.1% and 49 mD, respectively. With the increase of initial porosity and permeability of sandstone, the CH4 recovery efficiency and the amount of CO2 captured increase when other conditions (the hydrate saturation and reaction time) are similar. For investigating the CH4-flue gas swapping mechanism, a micro-differential scanning calorimetry was used to test the heat changes in the whole reaction. No noticeable endothermic or exothermic phenomenon was detected in the CH4-flue gas swapping, which indicates that CH4 hydrate would form mixed hydrates directly instead of going through a dissociation and reformation process. Based on the observed experimental results, a CH4-flue gas swapping mechanism is proposed and the reaction process is found to be essentially controlled by mass transfer.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Experiment was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope during 2011 and 2012. The primary goals of the program were to (1) determine the feasibility of gas injection into hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and (2) observe reservoir response upon subsequent flowback in order to assess the potential for C02 exchange for CH4 in naturally occurring gas hydrate reservoirs. Initial modeling determined that no feasible means of injection of pure C02 was likely, given the presence of free water in the reservoir. Laboratory and numerical modeling studies indicated that the injection of a mixture of C02 and N2 offered the best potential for gas injection and exchange. The test featured the following primary operational phases: (1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of C02, N2, and chemical tracers; (2) flowback conducted at downhole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4 hydrate; and ( 3) an extended ( 30-days) flowback at pressures near, and then below, the stability threshold of native CH4 hydrate. The test findings indicate that the formation of a range of mixed-gas hydrates resulted in a net exchange of C02 for CH4 in the reservoir, although the complexity of the subsurface environment renders the nature, extent, and efficiency of the exchange reaction uncertain. The next steps in the evaluation of exchange technology should feature multiple well applications; however, such field test programs will require extensive preparatory experimental and numerical modeling studies and will likely be a secondary priority to further field testing of production through depressurization. Additional insights gained from the field program include the following: (1) gas hydrate destabilization is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for uncontrolled destabilization; (2) gas hydrate test wells must be carefully designed to enable rapid remediation of wellbore blockages that will occur during any cessation in operations; (3) sand production during hydrate production likely can be managed through standard engineering controls; and ( 4) reservoir heat exchange during depressurization was more favorable than expected-mitigating concerns for near-wellbore freezing and enabling consideration of more aggressive pressure reduction.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2017-11-20
    Description: Marine methane hydrate in sands has huge potential as an unconventional gas resource; however, no field test of their production potential had been conducted. Here, we report the world’s first offshore methane hydrate production test conducted at the eastern Nankai Trough and show key findings toward future commercial production. Geological analysis indicates that hydrate saturation reaches 80% and permeability in the presence of hydrate ranges from 0.01 to 10 mdarcies. Permeable (1–10 mdarcies) highly hydrate-saturated layers enable depressurization-induced gas production of approximately 20,000 Sm3/D with water of 200 m3/D. Numerical analysis reveals that the dissociation zone expands laterally 25 m at the front after 6 days. Gas rate is expected to increase with time, owing to the expansion of the dissociation zone. It is found that permeable highly hydrate-saturated layers increase the gas–water ratio of the production fluid. The identification of such layers is critically important to increase the energy efficiency and the technical feasibility of depressurization-induced gas production from hydrate reservoirs.
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  • 16
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 82 (1). pp. 269-275.
    Publication Date: 2020-01-02
    Description: A synthesis of the 12,12′-azo-analogue of ritterazine N from hecogenin is reported. Ring contraction of two 6/5 bicyclic ring systems, one trans-fused and another spiro, to 5/5 spiro ring systems is accomplished with excellent stereochemical control. Key transformations include an abnormal Baeyer–Villiger oxidation, a Norrish type I cleavage, an intramolecular dipolar [3 + 2] cycloaddition, and an intramolecular oxymecuration. Failing to uncover the β-OH ketone from the isoxazoline ring, we end up with a synthesis of a cyclic analogue of ritterazine N.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-07-27
    Description: In the colloidal synthesis of iron sulfides, a series of dialkyl disulfides, alkyl thiols, and dialkyl disulfides (allyl, benzyl, tert-butyl, and phenyl) were employed as sulfur sources. Their reactivity was found to tune the phase between pyrite (FeS2), greigite (Fe3S4), and pyrrhotite (Fe7S8). DFT was used to show that sulfur-rich phases were favored when the C–S bond strength was low in the organosulfurs, yet temperature dependent studies and other observations indicated the reasons for phase selectivity were more nuanced; the different precursors decomposed through different reaction mechanisms, some involving the oleylamine solvent. The formation of pyrite from diallyl disulfide was carefully studied as it was the only precursor to yield FeS2. Raman spectroscopy indicated that FeS2 forms directly without an FeS intermediate, unlike most synthetic procedures to pyrite. Diallyl disulfide releases persulfide (S–S)2– due to the lower C–S bond strength relative to the S–S bond strength, as well as facile decomposition in the presence of amines through SN2′ mechanisms at elevated temperatures.
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  • 18
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Accounts of Chemical Research, 49 (9). pp. 1957-1968.
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: The first total synthesis and structure revision of (−)-11β-hydroxycurvularin (1b), a macrolide possessing a β-hydroxyketone moiety, were accomplished. The β-hydroxyketone moiety in this natural product was introduced by cleavage of the N–O bond in an isoxazoline ring that was formed diastereoselectively in a 1,5-remote stereocontrolled fashion by employing intramolecular nitrile oxide cycloaddition
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  • 20
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Accounts of chemical research, 49 (9). pp. 1946-1956.
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (NWT) resulted in the injection of plutonium (Pu) into the atmosphere and subsequent global deposition. We present a new method for continuous semiquantitative measurement of 239Pu in ice cores, which was used to develop annual records of fallout from NWT in ten ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The 239Pu was measured directly using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer, thereby reducing analysis time and increasing depth-resolution with respect to previous methods. To validate this method, we compared our one year averaged results to published 239Pu records and other records of NWT. The 239Pu profiles from the Arctic ice cores reflected global trends in NWT and were in agreement with discrete Pu profiles from lower latitude ice cores. The 239Pu measurements in the Antarctic ice cores tracked low latitude NWT, consistent with previously published discrete records from Antarctica. Advantages of the continuous 239Pu measurement method are (1) reduced sample preparation and analysis time; (2) no requirement for additional ice samples for NWT fallout determinations; (3) measurements are exactly coregistered with all other chemical, elemental, isotopic, and gas measurements from the continuous analytical system; and (4) the long half-life means the 239Pu record is stable through time.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-11-01
    Description: © American Chemical Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Chemical Society; copying and redistribution for non-commercial research and education purposes only. The definitive version was published in ACS Nano 10 (2016): 6-37, doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b07826.
    Description: The microbiome presents great opportunities for understanding and improving the world around us and elucidating the interactions that compose it. The microbiome also poses tremendous challenges for mapping and manipulating the entangled networks of interactions among myriad diverse organisms. Here, we describe the opportunities, technical needs, and potential approaches to address these challenges, based on recent and upcoming advances in measurement and control at the nanoscale and beyond. These technical needs will provide the basis for advancing the largely descriptive studies of the microbiome to the theoretical and mechanistic understandings that will underpin the discipline of microbiome engineering. We anticipate that the new tools and methods developed will also be more broadly useful in environmental monitoring, medicine, forensics, and other areas.
    Description: This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant #N000141410051 (P.S.W., G.C.L.W., and T.Y.), the Genomic Science Program of the U.S. DOE-OBER,
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-09-13
    Description: © The American Chemical Society, 2016. This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License. The definitive version was published in Analytical Chemistry 88 (2016): 7154–7162, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01260.
    Description: Discovery and identification of molecular biomarkers in large LC/MS data sets requires significant automation without loss of accuracy in the compound screening and annotation process. Here, we describe a lipidomics workflow and open-source software package for high-throughput annotation and putative identification of lipid, oxidized lipid, and oxylipin biomarkers in high-mass-accuracy HPLC-MS data. Lipid and oxylipin biomarker screening through adduct hierarchy sequences, or LOBSTAHS, uses orthogonal screening criteria based on adduct ion formation patterns and other properties to identify thousands of compounds while providing the user with a confidence score for each assignment. Assignments are made from one of two customizable databases; the default databases contain 14 068 unique entries. To demonstrate the software’s functionality, we screened more than 340 000 mass spectral features from an experiment in which hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative stress in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. LOBSTAHS putatively identified 1969 unique parent compounds in 21 869 features that survived the multistage screening process. While P. tricornutum maintained more than 92% of its core lipidome under oxidative stress, patterns in biomarker distribution and abundance indicated remodeling was both subtle and pervasive. Treatment with 150 μM H2O2 promoted statistically significant carbon-chain elongation across lipid classes, with the strongest elongation accompanying oxidation in moieties of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid typically localized to the chloroplast. Oxidative stress also induced a pronounced reallocation of lipidome peak area to triacylglycerols. LOBSTAHS can be used with environmental or experimental data from a variety of systems and is freely available at https://github.com/vanmooylipidomics/LOBSTAHS.
    Description: This research was supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF3301 to B.A.S.V.M. This research was also funded in part by a grant to B.A.S.V.M. from the Simons Foundation and is a contribution of the Simons Collaboration on Ocean Processes and Ecology (SCOPE). J.R.C. acknowledges support from a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STAR Graduate Fellowship (Fellowship Assistance Agreement No. FP-91744301-0).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-07-27
    Description: © American Chemical Society, 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the AuthorsChoice License. The definitive version was published in Environmental Science & Technology 50 (2016): 7397–7408, doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b04617.
    Description: With the expansion of offshore petroleum extraction, validated models are needed to simulate the behaviors of petroleum compounds released in deep (〉100 m) waters. We present a thermodynamic model of the densities, viscosities, and gas–liquid−water partitioning of petroleum mixtures with varying pressure, temperature, and composition based on the Peng–Robinson equation-of-state and the modified Henry’s law (Krychevsky−Kasarnovsky equation). The model is applied to Macondo reservoir fluid released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, represented with 279–280 pseudocomponents, including 131–132 individual compounds. We define 〉n-C8 pseudocomponents based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) measurements, which enable the modeling of aqueous partitioning for n-C8 to n-C26 fractions not quantified individually. Thermodynamic model predictions are tested against available laboratory data on petroleum liquid densities, gas/liquid volume fractions, and liquid viscosities. We find that the emitted petroleum mixture was ∼29–44% gas and ∼56–71% liquid, after cooling to local conditions near the broken Macondo riser stub (∼153 atm and 4.3 °C). High pressure conditions dramatically favor the aqueous dissolution of C1−C4 hydrocarbons and also influence the buoyancies of bubbles and droplets. Additionally, the simulated densities of emitted petroleum fluids affect previous estimates of the volumetric flow rate of dead oil from the emission source.
    Description: This research was made possible by grants from the NSF (OCE- 0960841, OCE-1043976, and EAR-0950600) and the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) to the C-IMAGE and DEEP-C consortia.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: This paper proposes improved guidelines for dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolation by solid phase extraction (SPE) with a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (PPL) sorbent, which has become an established method for the isolation of DOM from natural waters, because of its ease of application and appreciable carbon recovery. Suwannee River water was selected to systematically study the effects of critical SPE variables such as loading mass, concentration, flow rate, and up-scaling on the extraction selectivity of the PPL sorbent. High-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectroscopy were performed to interpret the DOM chemical space of eluates, as well as permeates and-wash liquids with molecular resolution. Up to 89% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) recovery was obtained with a DOC/PPL mass ratio of 1:800 at a DOC concentration of 20 mg/L. With the 0 application of larger loading volumes, low proportions of highly oxygenated compounds were retained on the PPL sorbent. The effects of the flow rate on the extraction selectivity of the sorbent were marginal. Up-scaling had a limited effect on the extraction selectivity with the exception of increased self-esterification with a methanol solvent, resulting in methyl ester groups. Furthermore, the SPE/PPL extract exhibited highly authentic characteristics in comparison with original water and reverse osmosis samples. These findings will be useful for reproducibly isolating DOM with representative molecular compositions from various sources and concentrations and minimizing potential inconsistencies among interlaboratory comparative studies.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The low temperatures of polar regions and high-altitude environments, especially icy habitats, present challenges for many microorganisms. Their ability to live under subfreezing conditions implies the production of compounds conferring cryotolerance. Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a γ-proteobacterium isolated from subzero Arctic marine sediments, provides a model for the study of life in cold environments. We report here the identification and detailed molecular primary and secondary structures of capsular polysaccharide from C. psychrerythraea 34H cells. The polymer was isolated in the water layer when cells were extracted by phenol/water and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy together with chemical analysis. Molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations were also performed. The polysaccharide consists of a tetrasaccharidic repeating unit containing two amino sugars and two uronic acids bearing threonine as substituent. The structural features of this unique polysaccharide resemble those present in antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins. These results suggest a possible correlation between the capsule structure and the ability of C. psychrerythraea to colonize subfreezing marine environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its biological conversion in marine sediments, largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), is a crucial part of the global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the role of iron oxides as an oxidant for AOM. Here we provide the first field evidence for iron-dependent AOM in brackish coastal surface sediments and show that methane produced in Bothnian Sea sediments is oxidized in distinct zones of iron- and sulfate-dependent AOM. At our study site, anthropogenic eutrophication over recent decades has led to an upward migration of the sulfate/methane transition zone in the sediment. Abundant iron oxides and high dissolved ferrous iron indicate iron reduction in the methanogenic sediments below the newly established sulfate/methane transition. Laboratory incubation studies of these sediments strongly suggest that the in situ microbial community is capable of linking methane oxidation to iron oxide reduction. Eutrophication of coastal environments may therefore create geochemical conditions favorable for iron-mediated AOM and thus increase the relevance of iron-dependent methane oxidation in the future. Besides its role in mitigating methane emissions, iron-dependent AOM strongly impacts sedimentary iron cycling and related biogeochemical processes through the reduction of large quantities of iron oxides.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-04-23
    Description: Implantable endovascular devices such as bare metal, drug eluting, and bioresorbable stents have transformed interventional care by providing continuous structural and mechanical support to many peripheral, neural, and coronary arteries affected by blockage. Although effective in achieving immediate restoration of blood flow, the long-term re-endothelialization and inflammation induced by mechanical stents are difficult to diagnose or treat. Here we present nanomaterial designs and integration strategies for the bioresorbable electronic stent with drug-infused functionalized nanoparticles to enable flow sensing, temperature monitoring, data storage, wireless power/data transmission, inflammation suppression, localized drug delivery, and hyperthermia therapy. In vivo and ex vivo animal experiments as well as in vitro cell studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized potential for bioresorbable electronic implants coupled with bioinert therapeutic nanoparticles in the endovascular system.
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  • 29
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 2 (4). pp. 84-88.
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: Viruses play important roles in microbial ecology and some infectious diseases, but relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources, transformation, and fate of viruses in the atmosphere. We have measured total airborne concentrations of virus-like and bacterium-like particles (VLPs between 0.02 and 0.5 μm in size and BLPs between 0.5 and 5 μm) in nine locations: a classroom, a daycare center, a dining facility, a health center, three houses, an office, and outdoors. Indoor concentrations of both VLPs and BLPs were ∼105 particles m–3, and the virus:bacteria ratio was 0.9 ± 0.1 (mean ± standard deviation across different locations). There were no significant differences in concentration between different indoor environments. VLP and BLP concentrations in outdoor air were 2.6 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than in indoor air. At the single outdoor site, the virus:bacteria ratio was 1.4.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-07-20
    Description: The guest-exchange method (or replacement) for methane production from gas hydrates has recently received attention because it can be used for both carbon dioxide sequestration and methane production. The structure of gas hydrates is maintained as a structure I (sI) hydrate while methane molecules are exchanged with carbon dioxide. In this study, CH4 + CO2 mixed gas hydrates were examined under terahertz light at various temperatures to simulate CH4–CO2 exchange reactions. Each gas hydrate composition examined was a representative composition at each step of the exchange reaction. The molecular composition was also accurately analyzed by gas chromatography. Refractive indices calculated by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) of gas hydrate samples were correlated to the guest composition, and this novel method was proven to be used to quantify the extent of replacement via optical constant. Furthermore, changes in the water framework from the sI hydrate to ice using THz-TDS were investigated with an increasing temperature. Overall, this study reveals the process of guest exchange and phase transition from a gas hydrate to ice via the optical properties in the terahertz region, and it offers a powerful tool in gas hydrate production.
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  • 31
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Energy & Fuels, 29 (9). pp. 5681-5691.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-31
    Description: The shrinking-core model of the formation of gas hydrates from ice spheres with well-defined geometry gives experimental access to the gas permeation in bulk hydrates which is relevant to their use as energy storage materials, their exploitation from natural resources, as well as to their role in flow assurance. Here we report on a new approach to model CO2 clathration experiments in the temperature range from 230 to 272 K. We develop a comprehensive description of the gas permeation based on the diffusion along the network of polyhedral cages, some of them being empty. Following earlier molecular dynamics simulation results, the jump from a cage to one of its empty neighbors is assumed to proceed via a “hole-in-cage-wall” mechanism involving water vacancies in cage walls. The rate-limiting process in the investigated temperature range can be explained by the creation of water-vacancy-interstitial pairs. The gas diffusion leads to a time-dependent cage filling which decreases across the hydrate layer with the distance from the particle surface. The model allows a prediction of the time needed for a complete conversion of ice spheres into clathrate as well as the time needed for a full equilibration of the cage fillings. The findings essentially support our earlier results obtained in the framework of a purely phenomenological permeation model in terms of the overall transformation kinetics, yet it provides for the first time insight into the cage equilibration processes. The diffusion of CO2 molecules through bulk hydrate is found to be about three to four times faster in comparison with the CH4 case.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-09-16
    Description: Electrolytes can thermodynamically inhibit clathrate hydrate formation by lowering the activity of water in the surrounding liquid phase, causing the hydrates to form at lower temperatures and higher pressures compared to their formation in pure water. However, it has been reported that some thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs), when doped at low concentrations, could enhance the rate of gas hydrate formation. We here report a systematic study of model natural gas (a mixture of 90% methane and 10% propane) hydrate formation in strong monovalent salt solutions in a broad range of concentrations, using a high pressure automated lag time apparatus (HP-ALTA). HP-ALTA can apply a large number (〉100) of cooling ramps to a sample and construct probability distributions of gas hydrate formation for each sample. The probabilistic interpretation of data enables us to mitigate the stochastic variation inherent in the nucleation probability distributions and facilitates meaningful comparison among different samples. The electrolytes used in this work are lithium chloride (LiCl), lithium bromide (LiBr), lithium iodide (LiI), sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr), sodium iodide (NaI), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium bromide (KBr), and potassium iodide (KI). We found that (1) some salts may act as kinetic hydrate promoters at low concentrations; (2) the width of the probability distributions (stochasticity) of natural gas hydrate formation in these salt solutions was significantly narrower than that in pure water. To gain further insight, we extended the study of the solutions of the same nine salts to the formation of ice and model tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate for comparison.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of micro-plastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of six weeks showed no distinct effects of continu¬ous micro-plastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 µm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that micro¬plastics, as administered in the experi¬ments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Chemical Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Chemical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Environmental Science and Technology 38 (2014): 4732–4738, doi:10.1021/es4053076.
    Description: We present an extensive survey of floating plastic debris in the eastern North and South Pacific Oceans from more than 2500 plankton net tows conducted between 2001 and 2012. From these data we defined an accumulation zone (25 to 41°N, 130 to 180°W) in the North Pacific subtropical gyre that closely corresponds to centers of accumulation resulting from the convergence of ocean surface currents predicted by several oceanographic numerical models. Maximum plastic concentrations from individual surface net tows exceeded 106 pieces km–2, with concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the predicted center of accumulation. Outside the North Pacific subtropical gyre the median plastic concentration was 0 pieces km–2. We were unable to detect a robust temporal trend in the data set, perhaps because of confounded spatial and temporal variability. Large spatiotemporal variability in plastic concentration causes order of magnitude differences in summary statistics calculated over short time periods or in limited geographic areas. Utilizing all available plankton net data collected in the eastern Pacific Ocean (17.4°S to 61.0°N; 85.0 to 180.0°W) since 1999, we estimated a minimum of 21 290 t of floating microplastic.
    Description: This work was supported by Sea Education Association, NFWF-NOAA Marine Debris Program (Nos. 2009-0062-002, NA10OAR4320148, Amend. 71), and NSF (Nos. OCE-0087528, OCE-1155379, OCE-1260403, OCE-1352422).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-04-23
    Description: The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold-silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-07-31
    Description: Numerical tools are essential for the prediction and evaluation of conventional hydrocarbon reservoir performance. Gas hydrates represent a vast natural resource with a significant energy potential. The numerical codes/tools describing processes involved during the dissociation (induced by several methods) for gas production from hydrates are powerful, but they need validation by comparison to empirical data to instill con fidence in their predictions. In this study, we successfully reproduce experimental data of hydrate dissociation using the TOUGH+HYDRATE (T+H) code. Methane(CH4)hydrate growth and dissociation in partially water- and gas-saturated Bentheim sandstone were spatially resolved using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which allows the in situ monitoring of saturation and phase transitions. All the CH4 that had been initially converted to gas hydrate was recovered during depressurization. The physical system was reproduced numerically, usingboth a simplified 2D model and a 3D grid involving complex Voronoi elements. We modeled dissociation using both the equilibrium and the kinetic reaction options in T+H, and we used a range of kinetic parameters for sensitivity analysis and curve fitting. We successfully reproduced the experimental results, which confirmed the empirical data that demonstrated that heattransport was the limiting factor during dissociation. Dissociation was more sensitive to kinetic parameters than anticipated, which indicates that kinetic limitations may be important in short-term core studies and a necessity in such simulations. This is the first time T+H has been used to predict empirical nonmonotonic dissociation behavior, where hydrate dissociation and reformation occurred as parallel events.
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  • 37
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Analytical Chemistry, 85 (6). pp. 3271-3279.
    Publication Date: 2014-06-17
    Description: New indicators for optical CO2 sensors are synthesized in two steps from the commercially available diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP) pigments Irgazin Ruby and Irgazin Scarlet. After introduction of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfonamide groups via a simple two-step synthesis, the pigments are rendered highly soluble in organic solvents and in polymers and show pH-dependent absorption and emission spectra. The new indicators have molar absorption coefficients in a 20 000–50 000 M–1 cm–1 range, possess quantum yields close to unity, and feature good photostability. The indicators along with a quaternary ammonium base are embedded into ethyl cellulose to give optical carbon dioxide sensors. The absorption and emission spectra of the deprotonated form are bathochromically shifted by more than 100 nm compared to the neutral form (λmax absorption 496–550 nm; λmax emission 564–587 nm). This enables colorimetric read-out and self-referenced ratiometric fluorescence intensity measurements. Importantly, the dynamic range of the sensors based on the new indicators is significantly different (0–10 kPa and 1–100 kPa CO2) that enables a broad variety of applications. New DPP dyes are conveniently prepared from commercially available pigments and represent a new class of colorimetric and fluorescent pH indicators for optical carbon dioxide sensors.
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  • 38
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 245 . 173-GEOC.
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
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  • 39
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  In: Physical Methods in Food Analysis. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 105-125. ISBN 9780841228856
    Publication Date: 2016-08-30
    Description: Consumer preference for natural food ingredients has increased in recent decades, and the natural food colorant market has grown to over one billion dollars annually. A variety of red, orange, and yellow natural colorants are approved and in use, but there still exists a lack of available blue and purple natural colorant options. The occurrence of blue colored compounds in the natural world is relatively rare. The isolation, identification, and characterization of natural blue and purple pigments obtained from underexplored natural sources such as from obscure terrestrial organisms and marine microorganisms will be discussed.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
    Description: Two new natural products, 3 and 4, and their predecessor 7-isocyanoisoneoamphilecta-1(14),15-diene (2), of the rare isoneoamphilectane class of marine diterpenes, along with the known amphilectane diterpenes 6–8, were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the marine sponge Svenzea flava collected at Great Inagua Island, Bahamas. The molecular structures of compounds 3 and 4 were established by spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR, IR, UV, HRMS) methods and confirmed by a series of chemical correlation studies. In a first ever case study of the assignment of the absolute configuration of a molecule based on the isoneoamphilectane carbon skeleton, the absolute configuration of compound 5 was established as 3S,4R,7S,8S,11R,12S,13R by application of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). In vitro anti-TB screenings revealed that metabolites 2–4 and, in particular, semisynthetic analogue 5, are strong growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: Chemicals targeting the liver stage (LS) of the malaria parasite are useful for causal prophylaxis of malaria. In this study, four lichen metabolites, evernic acid (1); vulpic acid (2), psoromic acid (3), and, (+)-usnic acid (4), were evaluated against LS parasites of Plasmodium berghei. Inhibition Of P. falciparum blood Stage (BS) parasites was also assessed to determine stage specificity. Compound 4 displayed the highest LS activity and stage specificity (LS IC50 value 2.3 mu M, BS IC50 value 47.3 mu M). The compounds 1 - 3 inhibited one Or more enzymes (Pf FabI, PfFabG, and pfFabZ), from the Plasmodial fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a potential drug. target for LS activity. To determine species specificity and to clarify the mechanism of reported antibacterial effects, 1-4 were also evaluated against FabI homologues and Whole cells of various pathogens -(S. aureus, E. coli M. tuberculosis). Molecular modeling studies suggest that lichen acids act indirectly via binding to allosteric sites on the protein surface of the FAS-II enzymes. Potential. toxicity, of compounds was assessed in human hepatocyte and cancer cells (in vitro) as well as in a zebrafish model (in vivo):. This study indicates the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of lichen metabolites as antibacterial and antiplasmodial agents.
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  • 42
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 243 . 536-ENVR.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Chemical Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Chemical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Environmental Science and Technology 45 (2011): 9931–9935, doi:10.1021/es202816c.
    Description: The impacts on the ocean of releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants remain unclear. However, information has been made public regarding the concentrations of radioactive isotopes of iodine and cesium in ocean water near the discharge point. These data allow us to draw some basic conclusions about the relative levels of radionuclides released which can be compared to prior ocean studies and be used to address dose consequences as discussed by Garnier-Laplace et al. in this journal.(1) The data show peak ocean discharges in early April, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. Interestingly, the concentrations through the end of July remain higher than expected implying continued releases from the reactors or other contaminated sources, such as groundwater or coastal sediments. By July, levels of 137Cs are still more than 10 000 times higher than levels measured in 2010 in the coastal waters off Japan. Although some radionuclides are significantly elevated, dose calculations suggest minimal impact on marine biota or humans due to direct exposure in surrounding ocean waters, though considerations for biological uptake and consumption of seafood are discussed and further study is warranted.
    Description: Funding for this work to KOB is from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation as well as the Chemical Oceanography Program of the US National Science Foundation.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: In this study, we investigated if industrial high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles, a model microplastic free of additives, ranging 〉 0− 80 μm are ingested and taken up into the cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. The effects of exposure (up to 96 h) and plastic ingestion were observed at the cellular and subcellular level. Microplastic uptake into the gills and digestive gland was analyzed by a new method using polarized light microscopy. Mussel health status was investigated incorporating histological assessment and cytochemical biomarkers of toxic effects and early warning. In addition to being drawn into the gills, HDPE particles were taken up into the stomach and transported into the digestive gland where they accumulated in the lysosomal system after 3 h of exposure. Our results show notable histological changes upon uptake and a strong inflammatory response demonstrated by the formation of granulocytomas after 6 h and lysosomal membrane destabilization, which significantly increased with longer exposure times. We provide proof of principle that microplastics are taken up into cells and cause significant effects on the tissue and cellular level, which can be assessed with standard cytochemical biomarkers and polarized light microscopy for microplastic tracking in tissue.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
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  • 46
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Analytical Chemistry, 83 (16). pp. 6395-6400.
    Publication Date: 2016-04-25
    Description: Titanium (Ti) is present as a trace element in seawater at extremely low concentrations (5-350 pM, where 1 pM = 10(-12) mol L(-1)) throughout the water column. Presently, little is known about the marine biogeochemistry of Ti and there is a distinct lack of oceanic measurements of Ti, because of the combined difficulties of trace-metal clean sampling for an element at such low levels and the lack of a suitable shipboard method of analysis. Here, a new cathodic stripping voltammetry procedure is presented for the rapid determination of Ti at pM concentrations in seawater that is capable of being used directly at sea. This method utilizes the catalytic enhancement of the reduction of the complex formed between Cupferron (N-nitrosophenylhydroxylamine) and Ti(IV). While Cupferron itself acts as both a complexing agent and an oxidizing agent, it was found that the optimal sensitivity was with bromate as an auxiliary oxidant. An advantage of this method is that it is useable over the pH range of 5.5-8. Under the conditions employed in this work, detection limits ranged from 5 pM to 12 pM. This new catalytic method is significantly more sensitive than existing methods and has been extensively tested at sea in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
    Description: Calculations of the size and density of atmospheric aerosols are complicated by the fact that they can exist at concentrations highly supersaturated with respect to dissolved salts and supercooled with respect to ice. Densities and apparent molar volumes of solutes in aqueous solutions containing the solutes H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, Na2SO4, NaNO3, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl have been critically evaluated and represented using fitted equations from 0 to 50 °C or greater and from infinite dilution to concentrations saturated or supersaturated with respect to the dissolved salts. Using extrapolated densities of high-temperature solutions and melts, the relationship between density and concentration is extended to the hypothetical pure liquid solutes. Above a given reference concentration of a few mol kg−1, it is observed that density increases almost linearly with decreasing temperature, and comparisons with available data below 0 °C suggest that the fitted equations for density can be extrapolated to very low temperatures. As concentration is decreased below the reference concentration, the variation of density with temperature tends to that of water (which decreases as temperature is reduced below 3.98 °C). In this region below the reference concentration, and below 0 °C, densities are calculated using extrapolated apparent molar volumes which are constrained to agree at the reference concentrations with an equation for the directly fitted density. Calculated volume properties agree well with available data at low temperatures, for both concentrated and dilute solutions. Comparisons are made with literature data for temperatures of maximum density. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution are consistent, on a single ion basis, to better than ±0.1 cm3 mol−1 from 0 to 50 °C. Volume properties of aqueous NaHSO4, NaOH, and NH3 have also been evaluated, at 25 °C only. In part 2 of this work (ref 1) an ion interaction (Pitzer) model has been used to calculate apparent molar volumes of H2SO4 in 0−3 mol kg−1 aqueous solutions of the pure acid and to represent directly the effect of the HSO4− ↔ H+ + SO42− reaction. The results are incorporated into the treatment of aqueous H2SO4 density described here. Densities and apparent molar volumes from −20 to 50 °C, and from 0 to 100 wt % of solute, are tabulated for the electrolytes listed in the title and have also been incorporated into the extended aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM, http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/aim.php) together with densities of the solid salts and hydrates.
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  • 48
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 115 (46). pp. 13324-13331.
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
    Description: Microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used for in situ investigations of the CO2-hydrocarbon exchange process in gas hydrates and its driving forces. The study comprises the exposure of simple structure I CH4 hydrate and mixed structure II CH4–C2H6 and CH4–C3H8 hydrates to gaseous CO2 as well as the reverse reaction, i.e., the conversion of CO2-rich structure I hydrate into structure II mixed hydrate. In the case of CH4–C3H8 hydrates, a conversion in the presence of gaseous CO2 from a supposedly more stable structure II hydrate to a less stable structure I CO2-rich hydrate was observed. PXRD data show that the reverse process requires longer initiation times, and structural changes seem to be less complete. Generally, the exchange process can be described as a decomposition and reformation process, in terms of a rearrangement of molecules, and is primarily induced by the chemical potential gradient between hydrate phase and the provided gas phase. The results show furthermore the dependency of the conversion rate on the surface area of the hydrate phase, the thermodynamic stability of the original and resulting hydrate phase, as well as the mobility of guest molecules and formation kinetics of the resulting hydrate phase.
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  • 49
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133 (15). pp. 5913-5920.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: The conversion of alkylboranes to the corresponding alkanes is classically per-formed via protonolysis of alkylboranes. This simple reaction requires the use of severe reaction conditions, that is, treatment with a carboxylic acid at high temperature (〉150 °C). We report here a mild radical procedure for the transformation of organoboranes to alkanes. 4-tert-Butylcatechol, a well-established radical inhibitor and antioxidant, is acting as a source of hydrogen atoms. An efficient chain reaction is observed due to the exceptional reactivity of phenoxyl radicals toward alkylboranes. The reaction has been applied to a wide range of organoboron derivatives such as B-alkylcatecholboranes, trialkylboranes, pinacolboronates, and alkylboronic acids. Furthermore, the so far elusive rate constants for the hydrogen transfer between secondary alkyl radical and catechol derivatives have been experimentally determined. Interestingly, they are less than 1 order of magnitude slower than that of tin hydride at 80 °C, making catechols particularly attractive for a wide range of transformations involving C−C bond formation.
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  • 50
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59 (13). pp. 6829-6836.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-27
    Description: Macroalgae have for centuries been consumed whole among the East Asian populations of China, Korea, and Japan. Due to the environment in which they grow, macroalgae produce unique and interesting biologically active compounds. Protein can account for up to 47% of the dry weight of macroalgae depending on species and time of cultivation and harvest. Peptides derived from marcoalgae are proven to have hypotensive effects in the human circulatory system. Hypertension is one of the major, yet controllable, risk factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the main cause of death in Europe, accounting for over 4.3 million deaths each year. In the United States it affects one in three individuals. Hypotensive peptides derived from marine and other sources have already been incorporated into functional foods such as beverages and soups. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential of heart health peptides from macroalgae and to discuss the feasibility of expanding the variety of foods these peptides may be used in.
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  • 51
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59 (18). pp. 9916-9921.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-27
    Description: A total of 19 naturally occurring bromophenols, with six new and 13 known structures, were isolated and identified from the methanolic extract of the marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides. The new compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods as 3,4-dibromo-5-((methylsulfonyl)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol (1), 3,4-dibromo-5-((2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol (2), 5-(aminomethyl)-3,4-dibromobenzene-1,2-diol (3), 2-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (4), 2-methoxy-3-bromo-5-hydroxymethylphenol (5), and (E)-4-(2-bromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (6). Each compound was evaluated for free radical scavenging activity against DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-dipicrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt] radicals. Most of them exhibited potent activities stronger than or comparable to the positive controls butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid. The results from this study suggest that R. confervoides is an excellent source of natural antioxidants, and inclusion of these antioxidant-rich algal components would likely help prevent the oxidative deterioration of food.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: The chemical composition of the Caribbean sponge Pandaros acanthifolium was reinvestigated and led to the isolation of 12 new steroidal glycosides, namely, pandarosides E-J (1-6) and their methyl esters (7-12). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR and HRESIMS data. Like the previously isolated pandarosides A-D (13-16), the new compounds 1-12 share an unusual oxidized D-ring and a cis C/D ring junction. The absolute configurations of the aglycones were assigned by interpretation of CD spectra, whereas the absolute configurations of the monosaccharide units were determined by chiral GC analyses of the acid methanolysates. The majority of the metabolites showed in vitro activity against three or four parasitic protozoa. Particularly active were the compounds 3 (pandaroside G) and its methyl ester (9), which potently inhibited the growth of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50) values 0.78 and 0.038 mu M, respectively) and Leishmania donovani (IC(50)'s 1.3 and 0.051 mu M, respectively).
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  • 53
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49 (11). pp. 5231-5245.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-29
    Description: Methane hydrate, a potential future energy resource, is known to occur naturally in vast quantities beneath the ocean floor and in permafrost regions. It is important to evaluate how much methane is recoverable from these hydrate reserves. This article introduces the theoretical background of HydrateResSim, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) methane production simulator for hydrate-containing reservoirs, originally developed for NETL by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It describes the mathematical model that governs the dissociation of methane hydrate by depressurization or thermal stimulation of the system, including the transport of multiple temperature-dependent components in multiple phases through a porous medium. The model equations are obtained by incorporating the multiphase Darcy’s law for gas and liquid into both the mass component balances and the energy conservation equations. Two submodels in HydrateResSim for hydrate dissociation are also considered: a kinetic model and a pure thermodynamic model. Contrary to more traditional reservoir simulations, the set of model unknowns or primary variables in HydrateResSim changes throughout the simulation as a result of the formation or dissociation of ice and hydrate phases during the simulation. The primary variable switch method (PVSM) is used to effectively track these phase changes. The equations are solved by utilizing the implicit time finite-difference method on the grid system, which can properly describe phase appearance or disappearance as well as the boundary conditions. The Newton-Raphson method is used to solve the linear equations after discretization and setup of the Jacobian matrix. We report here the application of HydrateResSim to a three-component, four-phase flow system in order to predict the methane produced from a laboratory-scale reservoir. The first results of HydrateResSim code in a peer-reviewed publication are presented in this article. The numerical solution was verified against the state-of-the art simulator TOUGH+Hydrate. The model was then used to compare twodissociation theories: kinetic and pure equilibrium. Generally, the kinetic model revealed a lower dissociation rate than the equilibrium model. The hydrate dissociation patterns differed significantly when the thermal boundary condition was shifted from adiabatic to constant-temperature. The surface area factor was found to have an important effect on the rate of hydrate dissociation for the kinetic model. The deviation between the kinetic and equilibrium models was found to increase with decreasing surface area factor.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Microbial mats collected at cold methane seeps in the Black Sea carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to carbon dioxide using sulfate as the electron acceptor. These mats, which predominantly consist of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea of the ANME-1 and ANME-2 type, contain large amounts of proteins very similar to methyl-coenzyme M reductase from methanogenic archaea. Mass spectrometry of mat samples revealed the presence of two nickel-containing cofactors in comparable amounts, one with the same mass as coenzyme F430 from methanogens (m/z = 905) and one with a mass that is 46 Da higher (m/z = 951). The two cofactors were isolated and purified, and their constitution and absolute configuration were determined. The cofactor with m/z = 905 was proven to be identical to coenzyme F430 from methanogens. For the m/z = 951 species, high resolution ICP-MS pointed to F430 + CH2S as the molecular formula, and LA-ICP-SF MS finally confirmed the presence of one sulfur atom per nickel. Esterification gave two stereoisomeric pentamethyl esters with m/z = 1021, which could be purified by reverse phase HPLC and were subjected to comprehensive NMR analysis, allowing determination of their constitution and configuration as (172S)−172-methylthio-F430 pentamethyl ester and (172R)−172-methylthio-F430 pentamethyl ester. The corresponding diastereoisomeric pentaacids could also be separated by HPLC and were correlated to the esters via mild hydrolysis of the latter. Equilibration of the pentaacids under acid catalysis showed that the (172S) isomer is the naturally occurring albeit thermodynamically less stable one. The more stable (172R) isomer (80% at equilibrium) is an isolation artifact generated under the acidic conditions necessary for the isolation of the cofactors from the calcium carbonate-encrusted mats.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Significant changes have occurred in the anthropogenic emissions of many compounds related to the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols within the past 20 years and many of their atmospheric abundances have responded dramatically. Additionally, there are a number of related natural compounds with underdetermined source or sink budgets. A new instrument, Medusa, was developed to make the high frequency in situ measurements required for the determination of the atmospheric lifetimes and emissions of these compounds. This automated system measures a wide range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds involved in ozone depletion and/or climate forcing, from the very volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs, e.g., CF4 and CF3CF3) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, e.g., CH3CF3) to the higher-boiling point solvents (such as CH3CCl3 and CCl2CCl2) and CHBr3. A network of Medusa systems worldwide provides 12 in situ ambient air measurements per day of more than 38 compounds of part per trillion mole fractions and precisions up to 0.1% RSD at the five remote field stations operated by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). This custom system couples gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MSD) with a novel scheme for cryogen-free low-temperature preconcentration (−165 °C) of analytes from 2 L samples in a two-trap process using HayeSep D adsorbent.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: Anthecularin (1), a minor sesquiterpene lactone with a novel ring system was isolated from Greek Anthemis auriculata (Asteraceae). Its structure was elucidated by means of NMR, HRMS, and X-ray crystallography. Anthecularin showed antitrypanosomal (IC50 = 10.1 μg/mL) and antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 23.3 μg/mL) and inhibited two key enzymes of the plasmodial type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, PfFabI and PfFabG (IC50 values = 14 and 28.3 μg/mL, respectively). A probable biogenesis of 1 is also proposed and discussed.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: The water-soluble part of the methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Scrophularia crypthophila, through chromatographic methods, yielded three new resin glycosides, crypthophilic acids A−C (1−3). Compounds 1−3 are tetraglycosides of (+)-3S,12S-dihydroxypalmitic acid. The structures of these and 10 known compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means. All natural resin glycosides known so far have been obtained from Convolvulaceae plants; this is the first report of such glycosides from another, taxonomically unrelated family (Scrophulariaceae).
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  • 59
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Proteome Research, 6 (2). pp. 540-545.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-20
    Description: Metabolomics offers great potential for understanding the metabolic consequences of exposure to chemicals and other stressors in the environment. Biological systems encompass humans exposed to chemicals in the environment as well as the diverse organisms inhabiting an ecosystem and exposed to environmental contaminants. An overall goal of environmental metabolomics is to understand what is metabolomically “normal” or adaptive and what constitutes a threat to human health and the environment.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Red Pompeian paintings, very famous for their deep intensity, are currently suffering from darkening. The origins of this darkening degradation are not clearly identified yet and remain a major issue for curators. In the specific case of cinnabar (HgS)-based red pigment, a photoinduced conversion into black metacinnabar is usually suspected. This work is focused on the blackening of red cinnabar paintings coated on a sparry calcite mortar. Different samples exhibiting different levels of degradation were selected upon visual observations and analyzed by synchrotron-based microanalytical techniques. Atomic and molecular compositions of the different debased regions revealed two possible degradation mechanisms. On one hand, micro X-ray fluorescence elemental maps show peculiar distributions of chlorine and sulfur. On the other hand, X-ray absorption spectroscopy performed at both Cl and S K-edges confirms the presence of characteristic degradation products: (i) Hg- Cl compounds (e.g., corderoite, calomel, and terlinguaite), which may result from the reaction with exogenous NaCl, in gray areas; (ii) gypsum, produced by the calcite sulfation, in black coatings. Metacinnabar is never detected. Finally, a cross section was analyzed to map the in-depth alteration gradient. Reduced and oxidized sulfur distributions reveal that the sulfated black coating consists of a 5-ím-thick layer covering intact cinnabar.
    Description: Published
    Description: 7484-7492
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: Microspectroscopy Analysis ; 05. General::05.09. Miscellaneous::05.09.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2014-02-04
    Description: The effects of dissolved organic compounds on the determination of nanomolar concentrations of Fe(II) have been compared using two luminol-based flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) methods. One used the direct injection of sample into the luminol reagent stream, and the other incorporated on-line solid-phase extraction of the analyte on an 8-hydroxyquinoline microcolumn. The CL signals from analyses of dissolved iron species (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) with model ligands and organic compounds were examined in high-purity water and seawater. The organic compounds included natural reducing agents (e.g., ascorbic acid), nitrogen σ-donor/π-acceptor compounds (e.g., 1,4-dipyridine, protoporphyrin IX), aromatic compounds (e.g., 1,4-dihydroxybenzene), synthetic iron chelators (e.g., EDTA), and natural iron binding compounds (e.g., desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome A). Fe(II) determinations for both luminol FI-CL methods were affected by submicromolar concentrations of redox-active compounds, strong iron binding ligands (i.e., log KFeL > 6), and compounds with electron-donating functional groups in both high-purity water and seawater. This was due to reactions between organic molecules and iron species before and during analysis, rather than chemiluminescence caused by the individual organic compounds. In addition, the effects of strong ligands and size speciation on Fe(II) recoveries from seawater following acidification (pH 2) and reduction (100 μM sodium sulfite) were investigated. © 2005 American Chemical Society.
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  • 62
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (23). pp. 9009-9015.
    Publication Date: 2020-06-19
    Description: A critical examination of published data obtained primarily from recent nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis studies reveals an evolving new view of the molecular structure of soil humic substances. According to the new view, humic substances are collections of diverse, relatively low molecular mass components forming dynamic associations stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. These associations are capable of organizing into micellar structures in suitable aqueous environments. Humic components display contrasting molecular motional behavior and may be spatially segregated on a scale of nanometers. Within this new structural context, these components comprise any molecules intimately associated with a humic substance, such that they cannot be separated effectively by chemical or physical methods. Thus biomolecules strongly bound within humic fractions are by definition humic components, a conclusion that necessarily calls into question key biogeochemical pathways traditionally thought to be required for the formation of humic substances. Further research is needed to elucidate the intermolecular interactions that link humic components into supramolecular associations and to establish the pathways by which these associations emerge from the degradation of organic litter.
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  • 63
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Natural Products, 68 (5). pp. 759-761.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: Two new cyclic peroxides, 2 and 3, were isolated from a sample of the Norwegian sponge Plakortis simplex. Their structures including relative stereochemistry were elucidated by interpretation of MS and NMR data. Compound 3 exhibited moderate in vitro activity against six solid human tumor cell lines with IC50 values in the range 7−15 μg/mL.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-07-22
    Description: Microcionamides A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from the Philippine marine sponge Clathria (Thalysias) abietina. These new linear peptides are cyclized via a cystine moiety and have their C-terminus blocked by a 2-phenylethylenamine group. Their total structures, including absolute stereochemistry, were determined by a combination of spectral and chemical methods. Compound 1 was shown to slowly isomerize about the C-36/C-37 double bond when stored in DMSO. Microcionamides A (1) and B (2) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the human breast tumor cells lines MCF-7 and SKBR-3 and displayed inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to the detection of the iron(III) complexes of the hydroxamate siderophores rhodotoluric acid, deferrioxamine B, and deferrichrome. Separation of the iron(III) complexes was obtained using a polystyrene-divinylbenzene stationary phase. The retention and responses of ferrioxamine and ferrichrome were optimal when a gradient elution program with methanol and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as the mobile phases was used. These conditions were also suitable for the retention and separation of the uncomplexed ligands. Retention of iron(III) rhodotoluate was improved when formic acid was replaced by the ion-pairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid (0.1%). Detection limits for the ferric complexes, defined as 3 SD of the lowest determined standard, were 26 nM for iron(III) rhodotoluate, 0.23 nM for ferrioxamine, and 0.40 nM for ferrichrome. A protocol for the solid-phase extraction of these hydroxamate siderophores from seawater was developed and applied to the extraction of siderophores from enriched incubated seawater samples.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to the detection of the iron(III) complexes of the hydroxamate siderophores rhodotoluric acid, deferrioxamine B, and deferrichrome. Separation of the iron(III) complexes was obtained using a polystyrene-divinylbenzene stationary phase. The retention and responses of ferrioxamine and ferrichrome were optimal when a gradient elution program with methanol and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as the mobile phases was used. These conditions were also suitable for the retention and separation of the uncomplexed ligands. Retention of iron(III) rhodotoluate was improved when formic acid was replaced by the ion-pairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid (0.1%). Detection limits for the ferric complexes, defined as 3 SD of the lowest determined standard, were 26 nM for iron(III) rhodotoluate, 0.23 nM for ferrioxamine, and 0.40 nM for ferrichrome. A protocol for the solid-phase extraction of these hydroxamate siderophores from seawater was developed and applied to the extraction of siderophores from enriched incubated seawater samples.
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  • 67
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 107 (7). pp. 1050-1054.
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
    Description: We determined the coordination environment of Zn2+ in aqueous Cl- brines at 25 °C and 300 °C using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The ZnCl+ and ZnCl2 complexes exist as pseudo-octahedral ZnClm(H2O)6-m clusters at 25 °C but occur as pseudo-tetrahedral ZnClm(H2O)4-m clusters at 300 °C. The ZnCl3- complex occurs as the pseudo-tetrahedral ZnCl3(H2O)- cluster at 25 and 300 °C. The tetrahedral ZnCl42- complex, however, is the dominant Zn−Cl complex at 25 °C, at least in highly concentrated (7.4 m) Cl- brines. The change in hydration number with temperature for the ZnCl+ and ZnCl2 complexes will complicate extrapolations of solvation energies to hydrothermal conditions using a Born-model-based equation of state.
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  • 68
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  In: Environmental Electrochemistry. ACS Symposium Series, 811 . American Chemical Society, pp. 73-101. ISBN 9780841237742
    Publication Date: 2014-02-04
    Description: The increasing environmental pressures on estuarine and coastal waters call for improved monitoring techniques of chemical constituents to aid management decisions. Automated stripping voltammetry is a suitable technique for continuous, near real-time monitoring of trace metals in marine systems. This contribution describes the application of voltammetric monitoring techniques in estuarine and coastal waters of the UK and Spain. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the data obtained, allows a thorough interpretation of the trace metal sources and behaviour. Future trends in this field research include submersible sensors which can be remotely deployed for a period of several weeks.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: Two new isomalabaricane triterpenes, stellettin H (1) and stellettin I (2), have been isolated from the marine sponge Rhabdastrella globostellata, collected from the Philippines. Stellettins A−D (3−6), (−)-stellettin E (7), and rhabdastrellic acid-A (8) were also isolated and characterized. Stellettin B (4) and (−)-stellettin E (7) showed selective cytotoxicity toward p21WAF1/Cip1-deficient human colon tumor (HCT-116) cells with IC50 values of 0.043 and 0.039 μM, respectively.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2020-07-23
    Description: Raf/MEK-1/MAPK cascade inhibitor activity-directed fractionation of the sponge Stylissa massa afforded eight known alkaloids:  aldisine (1), 2-bromoaldisine (2), 10Z-debromohymenialdisine (3), 10E-hymenialdisine (4), 10Z-hymenialdisine (5), hymenin (6), oroidin (7), and 4,5-dibromopyrrole-2-carbonamide (8). Both 4 and 5 showed significant enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 3 and 6 nM, respectively). Secondary assays identified these compounds as potent MEK-1 inhibitors. Compounds 4 and 5 also inhibited the growth of human tumor LoVo cells.
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  • 71
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Natural Products, 64 (7). pp. 961-964.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
    Description: From the aerial parts of Putoria calabrica, two new flavonol triglycosides were isolated and their structures were elucidated as quercetin-3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside]-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, calabricoside A) and quercetin-3-O-[4‘ ‘‘-O-caffeoyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside]-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, calabricoside B). Additionally, seven iridoid and three lignan glycosides were isolated and characterized. Radical scavenging activities of all compounds were determined by quantifying their effects on luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Calabricoside A and B showed strong radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.25 and 0.3 μM, respectively.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2020-07-21
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  • 73
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Organic Chemistry, 66 (4). pp. 1210-1215.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-20
    Description: The valuable nutraceutical γ-linolenic acid (GLA, (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadecatrienoic acid) is biosynthesized by a series of regio- and stereoselective dehydrogenation reactions that are catalyzed by a set of enzymes known as fatty acid desaturases. As part of ongoing research into the mechanism of these remarkable catalysts, we have examined the cryptoregiochemistry (site of initial oxidation) of Δ6 desaturation as it occurs in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Two complementary approaches that address this issue are described. In the first set of experiments, we measured the individual primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects associated with the C−H bond cleavages at C-6 and C-7. Competition experiments using appropriately deuterium-labeled 4-thiasubstrates revealed that a large KIE (kH/kD = 7.1 ± 0.5) was observed for the C−H bond-breaking step at C-6, whereas the C−H bond cleavage at C-7 was insensitive to deuterium substitution (kH/kD = 1.04 ± 0.05). These results point to C-6 as the site of initial oxidation in Δ6 desaturation since the first chemical step in this type of reaction is rupture of a strong, unactivated C−H bond, an energetically difficult process that typically exhibits a large KIE. This conclusion was supported by the results of our second approach, which involved locating the position of the putative diiron oxo oxidant with respect to substrate by monitoring the efficiency of oxo transfer to a series of thia fatty acid probes. Thus only a 6-thia-analogue is converted to significant amounts of the corresponding sulfoxide (9% yield). The absolute configuration of this product was determined to be S using (S)-MPAA as a chiral shift reagent. Taken together, these results point to the abstraction of the C-6 pro S hydrogen as the initial event in Δ6 desaturation as it occurs in T. thermophila.
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  • 74
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    American Chemical Society
    In:  Journal of Natural Products, 63 (10). pp. 1449-1450.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-22
    Description: A new iridoid glucoside, 5β,6β-dihydroxyboschnaloside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Euphrasia pectinata. Five known iridoid glucosides, 6β-hydroxyboschnaloside (2), aucubin, euphroside, plantarenaloside, and geniposidic acid, and two known phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside (= acteoside) and leucosceptoside A, were also obtained and characterized. The structure of compound 1 was established by spectroscopic evidence.
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