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  • 1
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    Unknown
    American Chemical Society
    In:  ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry Preprints, 42 (2). pp. 544-547.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Test specimens of methane hydrate were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with H2O ice grains, then warming the system to promote the reaction CH4 (g) + 6H2O (s???l) ??? CH4??6H2O. Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above 271.5 K and up to 289 K, at 25-30 MPa, for approximately 8 hours. The resulting material is pure methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random texture. Fabrication conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature before reaction completed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, verified that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting is easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably at temperatures well above its melting point. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T= 140-200 K, Pc= 50-100 MPa, and ????= 10-4-10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to a higher degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing stoichiometry under pressure during plastic deformation; x-ray analyses showed that methane hydrate undergoes a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution during deformation at conditions well within its conventional stability field.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: We describe a new and efficient technique to grow aggregates of pure methane hydrate in quantities suitable for physical and material properties testing. Test specimens were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with granulated H2O ice, and then warming the reactants to promote the reaction CH4(g) + 6H2O(s→l) → CH4·6H2O (methane hydrate). Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface on ice grain surfaces, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above the ice melting point and up to 290 K, at 25−30 MPa, for approximately 8 h. The resulting material is pure, cohesive, polycrystalline methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random orientation. Synthesis conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature while reaction progressed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the unreacted portions of ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, showed that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting are easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably to temperatures well above its ordinary melting point while reacting to form hydrate. Direct observations of the hydrate growth process in a small, high-pressure optical cell verified these conclusions and revealed additional details of the hydrate growth process. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T = 140−200 K, Pc = 50−100 MPa, and ε = 10-4−10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to an unusually high degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing stoichiometry under pressure during plastic deformation; X-ray analyses showed that methane hydrate undergoes a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution during deformation at conditions well within its conventional stability field.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Experiment was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope during 2011 and 2012. The primary goals of the program were to (1) determine the feasibility of gas injection into hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and (2) observe reservoir response upon subsequent flowback in order to assess the potential for C02 exchange for CH4 in naturally occurring gas hydrate reservoirs. Initial modeling determined that no feasible means of injection of pure C02 was likely, given the presence of free water in the reservoir. Laboratory and numerical modeling studies indicated that the injection of a mixture of C02 and N2 offered the best potential for gas injection and exchange. The test featured the following primary operational phases: (1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of C02, N2, and chemical tracers; (2) flowback conducted at downhole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4 hydrate; and ( 3) an extended ( 30-days) flowback at pressures near, and then below, the stability threshold of native CH4 hydrate. The test findings indicate that the formation of a range of mixed-gas hydrates resulted in a net exchange of C02 for CH4 in the reservoir, although the complexity of the subsurface environment renders the nature, extent, and efficiency of the exchange reaction uncertain. The next steps in the evaluation of exchange technology should feature multiple well applications; however, such field test programs will require extensive preparatory experimental and numerical modeling studies and will likely be a secondary priority to further field testing of production through depressurization. Additional insights gained from the field program include the following: (1) gas hydrate destabilization is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for uncontrolled destabilization; (2) gas hydrate test wells must be carefully designed to enable rapid remediation of wellbore blockages that will occur during any cessation in operations; (3) sand production during hydrate production likely can be managed through standard engineering controls; and ( 4) reservoir heat exchange during depressurization was more favorable than expected-mitigating concerns for near-wellbore freezing and enabling consideration of more aggressive pressure reduction.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Chemical Society
    In:  Accounts of Chemical Research, 49 (9). pp. 1957-1968.
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Chemical Society
    In:  The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 82 (1). pp. 269-275.
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: A synthesis of the 12,12′-azo-analogue of ritterazine N from hecogenin is reported. Ring contraction of two 6/5 bicyclic ring systems, one trans-fused and another spiro, to 5/5 spiro ring systems is accomplished with excellent stereochemical control. Key transformations include an abnormal Baeyer–Villiger oxidation, a Norrish type I cleavage, an intramolecular dipolar [3 + 2] cycloaddition, and an intramolecular oxymecuration. Failing to uncover the β-OH ketone from the isoxazoline ring, we end up with a synthesis of a cyclic analogue of ritterazine N.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: The first total synthesis and structure revision of (−)-11β-hydroxycurvularin (1b), a macrolide possessing a β-hydroxyketone moiety, were accomplished. The β-hydroxyketone moiety in this natural product was introduced by cleavage of the N–O bond in an isoxazoline ring that was formed diastereoselectively in a 1,5-remote stereocontrolled fashion by employing intramolecular nitrile oxide cycloaddition
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 20 (1948), S. 949-950 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 20 (1948), S. 962-964 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 27 (1955), S. 1972-1975 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 27 (1955), S. 1980-1982 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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