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  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)  (92,500)
  • 1
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    American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) | GeoScienceWorld
    Online: 84.2000 – (GFZ only)
    Print: 34(12).1950 – 93(4).2009 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 9/7 - 10/6)
    Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) , GeoScienceWorld
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606 , 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
    Keywords: GeoScienceWorld ; petrology ; Erdöl ; Erdölgeologie ; Erdölgewinnung ; Erdgas ; Erdgasgeologie
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  • 2
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    American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) | GeoScienceWorld | formerly Blackwell Publishing
    Online: 4.1997 – (GFZ only)
    Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) , GeoScienceWorld , formerly Blackwell Publishing
    Print ISSN: 1075-9565
    Electronic ISSN: 1526-0984
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Keywords: GeoScienceWorld
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-17
    Description: The Arctic changes rapidly in response to global warming and is expected to change even faster in the future (IPCC 2001, 2007, 2013). Large areas of the shelves and continental slopes bordering the Arctic Ocean are characterized by permafrost and the presence of gas hydrates. Future global warming and potential hydrate dissociation in the Arctic Ocean challenge the slope stability of these areas. This may lead to slope failures. The first, and so far only reported, large-scale slope failure in the Arctic Ocean is the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM), which is located in front of the Hinlopen glacial trough north of Svalbard. During cruise MSM31 onboard the German R/V MARIA S. MERIAN we investigated this giant slope failure and the deeper structure of the Sophia Basin in detail to elucidate the potential causes of the main and following failure events as well as to test existing hypotheses on the generation of this giant submarine landslide. We studied the megaslide and the adjacent so far not failed shelf areas by means of multibeam swath bathymetry, Parasound sediment echo sounder, low- and high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiling. The seismic data image bottom-simulating reflectors beneath not failed areas of the slope, as well as a buried gas escape pipe. On the shelf, shallower than the gas hydrate stability zone, we observed widespread gas seepage as flares in the Parasound echo sounder data. These flares rise from a seafloor highly disturbed by iceberg scouring. Therefore, we could not identify pockmarks in the multibeam data. At one location, we sampled a flare by means of a CTD probe close to the seafloor and proofed that the emanating gas has a high methane concentration. The new data indicate that the existence of gas and gas hydrates beneath the shelf north of Svalbard was one key factor causing slope instability in the past and may also cause further slope failures in the future.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth’s past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG’s consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG’s complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N in the Boreas Basin and along the East Greenland continental margin are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: (1) the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and (2) the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic. Getting a continuous record of the Cenozoic sedimentary succession that recorded the evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic horizontal and vertical motions, and land and water connections will also help better understanding the post-breakup evolution of the NE Atlantic conjugate margins and associated sedimentary basins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: Petroleum systems located at passive continental margins received increasing attention in the last decade mainly because of deep- and ultra‐deep-water hydrocarbon exploration and production. The high risks associated with these settings originate mainly from the poor understanding of inherent geodynamic processes. The new priority program SAMPLE (South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with onshore Evolution), established by the German Science Foundation in 2009 for a total duration of 6 years, addresses a number of open questions related to continental breakup and post‐breakup evolution of passive continental margins. 27 sub‐projects take advantage of the exceptional conditions of the South Atlantic as a prime “Geo‐archive.” The regional focus is set on the conjugate margins located east of Brazil and Argentina on one side and west of Angola, Namibia and South Africa on the other (Figure 1) as well as on the Walvis Ridge and the present‐day hotspot of Tristan da Cunha. The economic relevance of the program is demonstrated by support from several petroleum companies, but the main goal is research on fundamental processes behind the evolution of passive continental margins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉ABSTRACT〈/div〉Porosity–permeability transforms were generated using an extensive data set covering two oil-bearing formations in Ohio: the Clinton Sandstone in eastern Ohio and the Copper Ridge Dolomite in central Ohio. The reservoirs were selected because of their historical importance as oil producers and their potential as targets for CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 use for enhanced oil recovery and associated geological storage. The porosity-permeability transforms generated in this study have coefficients of determination that are nearly double those in the published literature. Methods applying other information (e.g., lithofacies type and reservoir depth) to improve the transforms are also discussed. Ultimately, it was determined that although subdividing the Clinton Sandstone data by geologically similar areas constrained the porosity and permeability values, the data for most areas were too limited to yield robust correlations. Thus, the range of possible outcomes should be determined using the transform derived from all available data. The Copper Ridge values were largely not constrained when subdivided by depth.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 1075-9565
    Electronic ISSN: 1526-0984
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉ABSTRACT〈/div〉The middle Cambrian Maryville–Basal sands in the interval of 4600–4720 ft (1402.1–1438.7 m) in the Kentucky Geological Survey 1 Hanson Aggregates well (i.e., muddy sandstones separated by sandy mudstones) were evaluated to determine effective porosity (ϕ〈sub〉〈span〉e〈/span〉〈/sub〉), clay volume (〈span〉Vc〈/span〉), and supercritical CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 storage capacity. Average porosity and permeability measured in core plugs were 8.71% porosity and 2.17 md permeability in the Maryville sand and 10.61% porosity and 15.79 md permeability in the Basal sand. The ϕ〈sub〉〈span〉e〈/span〉〈/sub〉 and 〈span〉Vc〈/span〉 were calculated from the density log using a multiple-matrix shaly sand model to identify four formation lithologies: muddy sandstone, sandy mudstone, dolomitic mudstone, and dolomitic claystone. Average ϕ〈sub〉〈span〉e〈/span〉〈/sub〉 and 〈span〉Vc〈/span〉 calculated in the Maryville sand were 8.9% and 35.3%, respectively, and an average of 8.7% and 41.2% in the Basal sand, respectively. Calculated ϕ〈sub〉〈span〉e〈/span〉〈/sub〉 exhibits a good match with porosity measured in core plugs. Prior to step-rate testing, static reservoir pressure was 2020 psi (13.9 MPa), representing a 0.435 psi/ft (9.8 kPa/m) hydrostatic gradient, which is consistent with other underpressured reservoirs in Kentucky. The interval fractured at 2698 psi (18.0 MPa), yielding a fracture gradient of 0.581 psi/ft (12.7 kPa/m). Pressure falloff analysis suggests a dual-porosity/dual-permeability reservoir consistent with core data. Estimated 50th percentile supercritical CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 storage volume supercritical CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 storage volume, using 7% porosity cutoff for determining net reservoir volume, is 0.538 tons/ac (1.33 t/ha). Thin reservoir sands, low porosity and permeability, and low fracture gradient, however, preclude the Maryville–Basal sands as large-volume deep-saline CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 storage reservoirs in this area.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 1075-9565
    Electronic ISSN: 1526-0984
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 8
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    American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉ABSTRACT〈/div〉In this paper, high-resolution three-dimensional seismic data are used to interpret a transpressional salt tectonic structure in the Yingxiongling area, Qaidam Basin, China. The geometries of the salt structure and the Shizigou fault system that intersects it are precisely depicted. The Shizigou fault system is composed of suprasalt and subsalt components. The suprasalt component is a Y-shaped reverse fault, and the subsalt component is a complex flower structure. In previous studies, suprasalt and subsalt components were interpreted as two independent fault systems. This paper proposes instead that the suprasalt and subsalt faults are kinematically related and decoupled across the salt layer.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
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    American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉ABSTRACT〈/div〉The upper zone of the Lower Cretaceous Kharaib Formation (151–177 ft [46–54 m] thick in the studied wells) is a major oil reservoir in several giant oil fields. Wide variations in porosity and permeability of this zone have been shown to result from both the inhibition of burial cementation by oil in the crest of each field and localized cementation adjacent to stylolites, combined with the more subtle influence of widely varying depositional mud content and grain size. The present study examines these relationships in closer detail, using core and petrographic observations from two wells on the oil-filled crest and two wells on the water-filled flanks of a giant domal oil field.Although porosities are higher overall in the crestal cores, each well shows wide variations within each of seven main groupings of the samples by depositional texture. This heterogeneity results mainly from the distribution of clay, which is concentrated along depositional laminations and causes widely varying porosity losses in all textures by promoting stylolite development and associated calcite cementation. Higher clay abundance (and lower porosity) within the upper and lower 12–17 ft (4–5 m) of the reservoir reflects increased influx of siliciclastic fines across the epeiric Barremian carbonate platform immediately following and preceding, respectively, third-order falls in global sea level. Most (95%) of porosity-permeability data from the studied wells lie within Lucia rock-fabric class 3, showing distinct but relatively subtle differences between texture groups, whereas a subordinate part of the data from the upper, relatively mud-poor third of the reservoir plot at higher permeabilities. Development of a predictive model for the petrophysical heterogeneity of this example requires a combination of the following: (1) a diagenetic model for porosity controls; (2) the use of a modestly higher porosity-permeability transform (upper class 3) in the upper part of the reservoir than in the lower reservoir (lower class 3); and (3) a recognition of the scattered and widely varying occurrences of exceptionally high permeabilities in the upper reservoir.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉ABSTRACT〈/div〉Miocene carbonate reservoirs in Central Luconia, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia, have been delivering gas for over 30 yr. In this paper, learnings from that period of production are used to understand the key drivers affecting flow during production and recovery optimization in existing fields as well as development decisions for new discoveries. The large data set, generated over more than 40 yr, was analyzed in a consistent manner through a holistic database, constrained by a stratigraphic framework, to allow reservoir units to be compared like-for-like (“integrated knowledge base” [IKB] concept). Carbonate reservoir heterogeneities impacting flow are grouped into “horizontal–heterogeneities”—argillaceous flooding layers and exposure-related karst—and “vertical–heterogeneities”—large-scale architectural elements, found especially along platform margins. Both types of heterogeneities control water ingress during production and influence the recovery mechanism. Argillaceous flooding layers can act as baffles, holding back water rise during production, or can form pressure compartments. Long-lived, fault-bounded reef margins, carbonate shoals, islands, and karsts can be vertical conduits for aquifer inflow. Platform shape and architecture impact column height and hence recovery efficiency. Additional drivers impacting recovery were found to be gas-column height, aquifer size and permeability, pressure connection to neighboring fields, and field development concepts. All drivers identified impact decisions throughout the field life, e.g., well count and design, intervention capabilities, evaluation and mitigation of early-water breakthrough, reservoir management, selecting enhanced recovery methods, and abandonment pressure. The IKB allowed to derive “big rules” on what matters for flow, which were used to decide on development strategies for greenfields in Central Luconia. The presented outcomes can be extrapolated to comparable carbonate systems, whereas the IKB approach can be adapted and applied to other mature basins and reservoir types where equally vast and historic data sets are awaiting to be used in the current era of digitalization.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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