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  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)  (92,538)
  • 1
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) | GeoScienceWorld | formerly Blackwell Publishing
    Online: 4.1997 – (GFZ only)
    Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) , GeoScienceWorld , formerly Blackwell Publishing
    Print ISSN: 1075-9565
    Electronic ISSN: 1526-0984
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Keywords: GeoScienceWorld
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  • 2
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    American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) | GeoScienceWorld
    Online: 84.2000 – (GFZ only)
    Print: 34(12).1950 – 93(4).2009 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 9/7 - 10/6)
    Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) , GeoScienceWorld
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606 , 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
    Keywords: GeoScienceWorld ; petrology ; Erdöl ; Erdölgeologie ; Erdölgewinnung ; Erdgas ; Erdgasgeologie
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-17
    Description: The Arctic changes rapidly in response to global warming and is expected to change even faster in the future (IPCC 2001, 2007, 2013). Large areas of the shelves and continental slopes bordering the Arctic Ocean are characterized by permafrost and the presence of gas hydrates. Future global warming and potential hydrate dissociation in the Arctic Ocean challenge the slope stability of these areas. This may lead to slope failures. The first, and so far only reported, large-scale slope failure in the Arctic Ocean is the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM), which is located in front of the Hinlopen glacial trough north of Svalbard. During cruise MSM31 onboard the German R/V MARIA S. MERIAN we investigated this giant slope failure and the deeper structure of the Sophia Basin in detail to elucidate the potential causes of the main and following failure events as well as to test existing hypotheses on the generation of this giant submarine landslide. We studied the megaslide and the adjacent so far not failed shelf areas by means of multibeam swath bathymetry, Parasound sediment echo sounder, low- and high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiling. The seismic data image bottom-simulating reflectors beneath not failed areas of the slope, as well as a buried gas escape pipe. On the shelf, shallower than the gas hydrate stability zone, we observed widespread gas seepage as flares in the Parasound echo sounder data. These flares rise from a seafloor highly disturbed by iceberg scouring. Therefore, we could not identify pockmarks in the multibeam data. At one location, we sampled a flare by means of a CTD probe close to the seafloor and proofed that the emanating gas has a high methane concentration. The new data indicate that the existence of gas and gas hydrates beneath the shelf north of Svalbard was one key factor causing slope instability in the past and may also cause further slope failures in the future.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth’s past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG’s consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG’s complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N in the Boreas Basin and along the East Greenland continental margin are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: (1) the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and (2) the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic. Getting a continuous record of the Cenozoic sedimentary succession that recorded the evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic horizontal and vertical motions, and land and water connections will also help better understanding the post-breakup evolution of the NE Atlantic conjugate margins and associated sedimentary basins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: Petroleum systems located at passive continental margins received increasing attention in the last decade mainly because of deep- and ultra‐deep-water hydrocarbon exploration and production. The high risks associated with these settings originate mainly from the poor understanding of inherent geodynamic processes. The new priority program SAMPLE (South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with onshore Evolution), established by the German Science Foundation in 2009 for a total duration of 6 years, addresses a number of open questions related to continental breakup and post‐breakup evolution of passive continental margins. 27 sub‐projects take advantage of the exceptional conditions of the South Atlantic as a prime “Geo‐archive.” The regional focus is set on the conjugate margins located east of Brazil and Argentina on one side and west of Angola, Namibia and South Africa on the other (Figure 1) as well as on the Walvis Ridge and the present‐day hotspot of Tristan da Cunha. The economic relevance of the program is demonstrated by support from several petroleum companies, but the main goal is research on fundamental processes behind the evolution of passive continental margins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-16
    Description: Abnormal pressures are encountered during exploration drilling in different parts of Krishna–Godavari Basin on the east coast of India. The nature and stratigraphic occurrences of the overpressure zones vary across the basin. Three different clusters of wells, covering a large part of the basin encompassing both onshore- and offshore-drilled wells, are analyzed to capture this variation. A wide range of pore-pressure gradients from normal to as high as 18 MPa/km was observed in the present data set. The tops of overpressure zones demonstrate a large range from 2200 to 3000 m (6562 to 9842 ft). These depths generally correspond to either a Miocene deltaic sequence or Cretaceous synrift and postrift sequences. Available well data reveal two main reasons for the development of overpressure. Considerably high pore-pressure regimes in the Cretaceous sequence in the eastern corner of the basin are found to be mainly caused by gas generation, whereas disequilibrium compaction is proposed as the main cause for overpressure in the other parts of the basin. The outcome of this analysis provides a fair idea of the nature, magnitude, and distribution of the overpressure, and this will also help to strategize further exploration activities in the basin.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 0149-1423
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-12-16
    Description: Statistical classification methods consisting of the k -nearest neighbor algorithm ( k -NN), a probabilistic clustering procedure (PCP), and a novel method that incorporates outcrop-based thickness criteria through the use of well log indicator flags are evaluated for their ability to distinguish fluvial architectural elements of the upper Mesaverde Group of the Piceance and Uinta Basins as distinct electrofacies classes. Data used in training and testing of the classification methods come from paired cores and well logs consisting of 1626 wireline log curve samples each associated with a known architectural element classification as determined from detailed sedimentologic analysis of cores ( N = 9). Thickness criteria are derived from outcrop-based architectural element measurements of the upper Mesaverde Group. Through an approach that integrates select classifier results with thickness criteria, an overall accuracy (number of correctly predicted samples/total testing samples) of 83.6% was achieved for a four-class fluvial architectural element realization. Architectural elements were predicted with user’s accuracies (accuracy of an individual class) of 0.891, 0.376, 0.735, and 0.985 for the floodplain, crevasse splay, single-story channel body, and multistory channel body classes, respectively. Without the additional refinement by incorporation of thickness criteria, the k -NN and PCP classifiers produced similar results. In both the k -NN and PCP techniques, the combination of gamma ray and bulk density wireline log curves proved to be the most useful assemblage tested.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 0149-1423
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-16
    Description: The Triassic Yanchang Formation contains the main oil-bearing strata in the Ordos Basin, central China. But the sedimentology of the Upper Triassic is still under debate, and flood-generated, hyperpycnal-flow deposits and their implications for unconventional petroleum development have long been overlooked. Our study indicates that hyperpycnites are well developed in the seventh oil member of the Yanchang Formation. They are characterized by couplets of upward-coarsening intervals and upward-fining intervals, separated by microscale erosion surfaces. The origination of hyperpycnal flows was controlled mainly by episodic tectonic movements and the humid climate. The deposits extend from distributary estuaries into the deep lake, have intercalations of dark shales and tuffs, and coexist with debrites and turbidites as a result of the progradation of subaqueous fans. The hyperpycnites have implications for unconventional petroleum reservoirs, because the flows supplied not only large amounts of coarse grains and organic material to the deep-water, fine-grained central lake sediments but also affected the ecosystems, resulting in a higher total organic carbon content in the sediments.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 0149-1423
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: In the Qinhuangdao 29 (QHD29) oil field, oil generated from the first member of the Shahejie source rocks is mainly contained in Paleogene reservoirs, whereas deeper oil sourced from the third member of the Shahejie (Es 3 ) source rocks is generally accumulated in Neogene reservoirs. The present study was undertaken to better understand the differences in petroleum accumulation in the QHD29 oil field and to provide suggestions for future petroleum exploration on the Shijiutuo uplift. Laser Raman spectroscopy reveals that carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exists with hydrocarbon gas in the same fluid inclusions. Measured homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions range from 80°C to 160°C (176°F to 320°F), indicating late-stage rapid petroleum accumulation with a charging time of no earlier than 5.1 Ma. The results of grains containing oil inclusions measurements reveal the presence of paleo-oil accumulation in the current natural gas column. In terms of the boundary fault activity rate (FAR), CO 2 distribution is quite relevant to the late-stage activity of boundary faults, with high content of CO 2 corresponding to the section of the F1 fault with high-intensity activity (higher FAR values). Both Neogene and Paleogene reservoirs in well A1 contained predominantly Es 3 -derived oil and were accompanied by abundant mantle CO 2 . This reveals the segmented vertical transport of petroleum in the fault: both the mantle-derived CO 2 and hydrocarbons vertically migrated and accumulated in shallower reservoirs in the high-activity intensity section of the boundary fault. This may account for the occurrence of predominantly Es 3 -derived oil in the reservoirs near the section of the fault with high activity intensity. In the eastern part of the QHD29 oil field, vertical migration may have been limited because of the relatively low intensity of fault activity, and the distribution of sandstones seems to dominate the petroleum accumulation. Our research reveals that lithologic traps in the Es 3 stratum may still have great potential for exploration along the slope of the Shijiutuo uplift.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 0149-1423
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-10-18
    Description: Volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs are rare and may be overlooked. The Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the Kebai fault zone in the western Junggar Basin contain hydrocarbon (HC) reservoirs in volcanic rock with proven oil reserves of 9.76 x 10 8 bbl that have a complex filling history. We have investigated the lithology and properties of these volcanic rock HC reservoirs as well as diagenesis and control of faults and fractures in oil reservoirs. The lithology of these Carboniferous volcanic rocks is primarily andesite and tuff. Also present were volcanic breccia and metamorphic rock in addition to rhyolite, felsite, diabase, and granite in the volcanic lava. On the basis of microscopic examination, five types of pores and fractures were observed: (1) fracture–dissolved phenocrystal pore, (2) fracture–intergranular pore, (3) fracture–gas pore, (4) fracture–dissolved intragranular pore, and (5) fracture–dissolved matrix pore. The fractures in these rocks are a significant factor in connecting the pores. Diagenetic processes that control reservoir quality include compaction, filling of pores and fractures, cementation, metasomatism, and grain dissolution. The volcanic reservoirs show a variety of lithologies, and oil has been discovered in all types of Carboniferous rocks. The controlling factors for oil distribution in these Carboniferous volcanic rocks are faulting, fracture development, and degree of weathering when they were subaerially exposed in the Permian. The area in which these faults and fractures developed is the primary area of oil enrichment with high yields. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the characteristics of different types of volcanic rocks and reservoirs found in this basin and (2) characterize the diagenetic history of these rocks and document how diagenesis controls porosity and permeability.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 0149-1423
    Topics: Geosciences
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