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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (36,235)
  • Essen : Verl. Glückauf
  • Krefeld : Geologischer Dienst Nordhein-Westfalen
  • 2005-2009  (36,238)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Picoeukaryotes are a taxonomically diverse group of organism less than 2 micrometers in diameter. Photosynthetic marine picoeukaryotes in the genus Micromonas thrive in ecosystems ranging from tropical to polar and could serve as sentinel organisms for biogeochemical fluxes of modern oceans during climate change. These broadly distributed primary producers belong to an anciently diverged sister clade to land plants. Although Micromonas isolates have high 18S ribosomal RNA gene identity, we found that genomes from two isolates shared only 90 of their predicted genes. Their independent evolutionary paths were emphasized by distinct riboswitch arrangements as well as the discovery of intronic repeat elements in one isolate, and in metagenomic data, but not in other genomes. Divergence appears to have been facilitated by selection and acquisition processes that actively shape the repertoire of genes that are mutually exclusive between the two isolates differently than the core genes. Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Historically, observations have been too sparse to allow accurate tracking of changes in rates of CO2 uptake over ocean basins, so little is known about how these vary. Here, we show observations indicating substantial variability in the CO2 uptake by the North Atlantic on time scales of a few years. Further, we use measurements from a coordinated network of instrumented commercial ships to define the annual flux into the North Atlantic, for the year 2005, to a precision of about 10%. This approach offers the prospect of accurately monitoring the changing ocean CO2 sink for those ocean basins that are well covered by shipping routes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 325 (5944). pp. 1114-1118.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: One of the mysteries regarding Earth’s climate system response to variations in solar output is how the relatively small fluctuations of the 11-year solar cycle can produce the magnitude of the observed climate signals in the tropical Pacific associated with such solar variability. Two mechanisms, the top-down stratospheric response of ozone to fluctuations of shortwave solar forcing and the bottom-up coupled ocean-atmosphere surface response, are included in versions of three global climate models, with either mechanism acting alone or both acting together. We show that the two mechanisms act together to enhance the climatological off-equatorial tropical precipitation maxima in the Pacific, lower the eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures during peaks in the 11-year solar cycle, and reduce low-latitude clouds to amplify the solar forcing at the surface.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mayer-Schonberger, Viktor -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):396-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1178418.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore 259772, Singapore. Viktor_MS@nus.edu.sg〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628843" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-12-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 11;326(5959):1472-5. doi: 10.1126/science.326.5959.1472.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20007878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-11-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hasselbrink, Eckart -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):809-10. doi: 10.1126/science.1181275.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Fakultat fur Chemie and Center for NanoIntegration, Universitat Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen, Germany. eckart.hasselbrink@uni-due.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892971" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-11-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, Gretchen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):788-91. doi: 10.1126/science.326_788.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892956" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Academies and Institutes/economics/organization & administration ; Anthropology ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Germany ; Germany, East ; Physics ; Research Personnel ; Universities
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kintisch, Eli -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 16;323(5912):319. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5912.319.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19150815" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-09-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McAlister, Harold -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 11;325(5946):1325. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1325.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19745121" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-12-08
    Description: Despite the widespread importance of aqueous bicarbonate chemistry, its conjugate acid, carbonic acid, has remained uncharacterized in solution. Here we report the generation of deuterated carbonic acid in deuterium oxide solution by ultrafast protonation of bicarbonate and its persistence for nanoseconds. We follow the reaction dynamics upon photoexcitation of a photoacid by monitoring infrared-active marker modes with femtosecond time resolution. By fitting a kinetic model to the experimental data, we directly obtain the on-contact proton-transfer rate to bicarbonate, previously inaccessible with the use of indirect methods. A Marcus free-energy correlation supports an associated pKa (Ka is the acid dissociation constant) of 3.45 +/- 0.15, which is substantially lower than the value of 6.35 that is commonly assumed on the basis of the overall carbon dioxide-to-bicarbonate equilibrium. This result should spur further exploration of acid-base reactivity in carbon dioxide-rich aqueous environments such as those anticipated under sequestration schemes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adamczyk, Katrin -- Premont-Schwarz, Mirabelle -- Pines, Dina -- Pines, Ehud -- Nibbering, Erik T J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1690-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1180060. Epub 2009 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Born Institut fur Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Max Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19965381" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: Network analysis has emerged as a powerful way of studying phenomena as diverse as interpersonal interaction, connections among neurons, and the structure of the Internet. Appropriate use of network analysis depends, however, on choosing the right network representation for the problem at hand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butts, Carter T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):414-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1171022.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Sociology and Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences, University of California at Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, CA 92697-5100, USA. buttsc@uci.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans ; Humans ; Models, Theoretical ; Nerve Net ; *Systems Theory ; Time
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-10-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, Gretchen -- Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 9;326(5950):212-3. doi: 10.1126/science.326_212.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19815741" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Disease ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; *Nobel Prize ; *Telomerase/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism ; *Telomere/physiology ; United States
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-06-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Volf, Petr -- Sadlova, Jovana -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jun 26;324(5935):1644. doi: 10.1126/science.324_1644b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Parasitology, Charles University in Prague, Prague 128 44, Czech Republic. volf@cesnet.cz〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19556486" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Hybridization, Genetic ; Insect Vectors/parasitology ; Leishmania/*genetics/growth & development/pathogenicity ; Phlebotomus/*parasitology
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: Human activities have increased the availability of nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In grasslands, this eutrophication causes loss of plant species diversity, but the mechanism of this loss has been difficult to determine. Using experimental grassland plant communities, we found that addition of light to the grassland understory prevented the loss of biodiversity caused by eutrophication. There was no detectable role for competition for soil resources in diversity loss. Thus, competition for light is a major mechanism of plant diversity loss after eutrophication and explains the particular threat of eutrophication to plant diversity. Our conclusions have implications for grassland management and conservation policy and underscore the need to control nutrient enrichment if plant diversity is to be preserved.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hautier, Yann -- Niklaus, Pascal A -- Hector, Andy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 1;324(5927):636-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1169640.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. yhautier@uwinst.uzh.ch〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407202" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biodiversity ; Biomass ; *Ecosystem ; *Eutrophication ; Fabaceae/growth & development ; Fertilizers ; *Light ; *Plant Development ; Poaceae/*growth & development
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-05-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Havlin, Shlomo -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 22;324(5930):1023-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1174658.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Physics Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 52900 Israel. havlin@ophir.ph.biu.ac.il〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19460993" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cell Phones ; *Computer Security ; Humans
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2009-08-08
    Description: Posttranslational modifications play key roles in regulating chromatin plasticity. Although various chromatin-remodeling enzymes have been described that respond to specific histone modifications, little is known about the role of poly[adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] in chromatin remodeling. Here, we identify a chromatin-remodeling enzyme, ALC1 (Amplified in Liver Cancer 1, also known as CHD1L), that interacts with poly(ADP-ribose) and catalyzes PARP1-stimulated nucleosome sliding. Our results define ALC1 as a DNA damage-response protein whose role in this process is sustained by its association with known DNA repair factors and its rapid poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent recruitment to DNA damage sites. Furthermore, we show that depletion or overexpression of ALC1 results in sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which poly(ADP-ribose) regulates DNA repair.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443743/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443743/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ahel, Dragana -- Horejsi, Zuzana -- Wiechens, Nicola -- Polo, Sophie E -- Garcia-Wilson, Elisa -- Ahel, Ivan -- Flynn, Helen -- Skehel, Mark -- West, Stephen C -- Jackson, Stephen P -- Owen-Hughes, Tom -- Boulton, Simon J -- 064414/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 11224/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A3549/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A5290/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 4;325(5945):1240-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1177321. Epub 2009 Aug 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉DNA Damage Response Laboratory, Clare Hall, London Research Institute, South Mimms EN6 3LD, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661379" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism ; Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly ; DNA Damage ; DNA Helicases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *DNA Repair ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology ; Immunoprecipitation ; Kinetics ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Nucleosomes/metabolism ; Phleomycins/pharmacology ; Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/*metabolism ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Radiation, Ionizing ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2009-09-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 4;325(5945):1200. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1200a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729635" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algal Proteins/*metabolism/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Anti-HIV Agents/metabolism/pharmacology ; Antiviral Agents/*metabolism/*pharmacology ; Ebolavirus/drug effects ; HIV/drug effects ; Humans ; Lectins/*metabolism/*pharmacology ; Mannose/*metabolism ; Mice ; Microbial Sensitivity Tests ; Plant Lectins ; SARS Virus/drug effects ; Virus Diseases/drug therapy ; Viruses/*drug effects
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2009-09-12
    Description: RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi is present in other budding yeast species, including Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans. These species use noncanonical Dicer proteins to generate small interfering RNAs, which mostly correspond to transposable elements and Y' subtelomeric repeats. In S. castellii, RNAi mutants are viable but have excess Y' messenger RNA levels. In S. cerevisiae, introducing Dicer and Argonaute of S. castellii restores RNAi, and the reconstituted pathway silences endogenous retrotransposons. These results identify a previously unknown class of Dicer proteins, bring the tool of RNAi to the study of budding yeasts, and bring the tools of budding yeast to the study of RNAi.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786161/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786161/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Drinnenberg, Ines A -- Weinberg, David E -- Xie, Kathleen T -- Mower, Jeffrey P -- Wolfe, Kenneth H -- Fink, Gerald R -- Bartel, David P -- GM0305010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM040266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM067031/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM067031/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):544-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1176945. Epub 2009 Sep 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19745116" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Fungal Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genes, Fungal ; Genetic Loci ; Mutation ; Open Reading Frames ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Fungal/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics/*metabolism ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Retroelements ; Ribonuclease III/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces/*genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomycetales/*genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transformation, Genetic
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2009-02-14
    Description: Flexible, stretchable, and spanning microelectrodes that carry signals from one circuit element to another are needed for many emerging forms of electronic and optoelectronic devices. We have patterned silver microelectrodes by omnidirectional printing of concentrated nanoparticle inks in both uniform and high-aspect ratio motifs with minimum widths of approximately 2 micrometers onto semiconductor, plastic, and glass substrates. The patterned microelectrodes can withstand repeated bending and stretching to large levels of strain with minimal degradation of their electrical properties. With this approach, wire bonding to fragile three-dimensional devices and spanning interconnects for solar cell and light-emitting diode arrays are demonstrated.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ahn, Bok Y -- Duoss, Eric B -- Motala, Michael J -- Guo, Xiaoying -- Park, Sang-Il -- Xiong, Yujie -- Yoon, Jongseung -- Nuzzo, Ralph G -- Rogers, John A -- Lewis, Jennifer A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 20;323(5921):1590-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1168375. Epub 2009 Feb 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19213878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2009-08-22
    Description: The resonant elements that grant metamaterials their distinct properties have the fundamental limitation of restricting their useable frequency bandwidth. The development of frequency-agile metamaterials has helped to alleviate these bandwidth restrictions by allowing real-time tuning of the metamaterial frequency response. We demonstrate electrically controlled persistent frequency tuning of a metamaterial, which allows the lasting modification of its response by using a transient stimulus. This work demonstrates a form of memory capacitance that interfaces metamaterials with a class of devices known collectively as memory devices.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Driscoll, T -- Kim, Hyun-Tak -- Chae, Byung-Gyu -- Kim, Bong-Jun -- Lee, Yong-Wook -- Jokerst, N Marie -- Palit, S -- Smith, D R -- Di Ventra, M -- Basov, D N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1518-21. doi: 10.1126/science.1176580. Epub 2009 Aug 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego (UCSD), La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. tdriscol@physics.ucsd.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696311" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2009-08-22
    Description: We have developed methods for creating microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and for assembling and interconnecting them into unusual display and lighting systems. The LEDs use specialized epitaxial semiconductor layers that allow delineation and release of large collections of ultrathin devices. Diverse shapes are possible, with dimensions from micrometers to millimeters, in either flat or "wavy" configurations. Printing-based assembly methods can deposit these devices on substrates of glass, plastic, or rubber, in arbitrary spatial layouts and over areas that can be much larger than those of the growth wafer. The thin geometries of these LEDs enable them to be interconnected by conventional planar processing techniques. Displays, lighting elements, and related systems formed in this manner can offer interesting mechanical and optical properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Park, Sang-Il -- Xiong, Yujie -- Kim, Rak-Hwan -- Elvikis, Paulius -- Meitl, Matthew -- Kim, Dae-Hyeong -- Wu, Jian -- Yoon, Jongseung -- Yu, Chang-Jae -- Liu, Zhuangjian -- Huang, Yonggang -- Hwang, Keh-chih -- Ferreira, Placid -- Li, Xiuling -- Choquette, Kent -- Rogers, John A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):977-81. doi: 10.1126/science.1175690.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science, Beckman Institute, and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696346" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cahoon, Lauren -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):204. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5911.204.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19131606" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Female ; Humans ; Lung/*pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/*pathology ; Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/drug therapy/*pathology ; Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology ; Sirolimus/therapeutic use ; Tuberous Sclerosis/drug therapy/*pathology
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-08-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):809. doi: 10.1126/science.325_809.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19679787" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2009-08-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McCaw, James M -- McVernon, Jodie -- McBryde, Emma S -- Mathews, John D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1071; author reply 1072-3. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1071a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19713508" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Child ; Disease Susceptibility ; Humans ; Immunity ; *Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology ; Influenza, Human/*epidemiology/*immunology
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2009-09-12
    Description: Tunneling, one of the most striking manifestations of quantum mechanics, influences the electronic structure of many molecules and solids and is responsible for radioactive decay. Much of the interaction of intense light pulses with matter commences with electrons tunneling from atoms or molecules to the continuum. Until recently, this starting point was assumed to be the highest occupied orbital of a given system. We have now observed tunneling from a lower-lying state in hydrogen chloride (HCl). Analyzing two independent experimental observables allowed us to isolate (via fragment ions), identify (via molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions), and, with the help of ab initio simulations, quantify the contribution of lower-lying orbitals to the total and angle-dependent tunneling current of the molecule. Our results bolster the emerging tenet that the coherent interaction between different orbitals--which can amplify the impact of lower orbitals--must be considered in tunneling processes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Akagi, H -- Otobe, T -- Staudte, A -- Shiner, A -- Turner, F -- Dorner, R -- Villeneuve, D M -- Corkum, P B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 11;325(5946):1364-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1175253.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Joint Laboratory for Attosecond Science, University of Ottawa and National Research Council, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19745145" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-12-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alberts, Bruce -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1589. doi: 10.1126/science.1185821.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20019250" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astronomical Phenomena ; Fossils ; Gamma Rays ; *Hominidae ; *Science
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2009-12-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duffy, J Emmett -- Canuel, Elizabeth A -- Adey, Walter -- Swaddle, John P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 4;326(5958):1345; author reply 1346. doi: 10.1126/science.326.5958.1345-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19965739" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biofuels ; *Eukaryota
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of the exosphere, as well as differing spatial distributions of magnesium, calcium, and sodium atoms in both the tail and the nightside, near-planet exosphere. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby, as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McClintock, William E -- Vervack, Ronald J Jr -- Bradley, E Todd -- Killen, Rosemary M -- Mouawad, Nelly -- Sprague, Ann L -- Burger, Matthew H -- Solomon, Sean C -- Izenberg, Noam R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 1;324(5927):610-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1172525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. william.mcclintock@colorado.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407195" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):379. doi: 10.1126/science.325_379a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628830" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Energy-Generating Resources ; Eukaryota/*chemistry ; Genetic Engineering ; Hydrocarbons/chemistry ; Industry ; *Motor Vehicles ; Research Support as Topic
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2009-01-03
    Description: The assembly of nanoparticles into three-dimensional (3D) architectures could allow for greater control of the interactions between these particles or with molecules. DNA tubes are known to form through either self-association of multi-helix DNA bundle structures or closing up of 2D DNA tile lattices. By the attachment of single-stranded DNA to gold nanoparticles, nanotubes of various 3D architectures can form, ranging in shape from stacked rings to single spirals, double spirals, and nested spirals. The nanoparticles are active elements that control the preference for specific tube conformations through size-dependent steric repulsion effects. For example, we can control the tube assembly to favor stacked-ring structures using 10-nanometer gold nanoparticles. Electron tomography revealed a left-handed chirality in the spiral tubes, double-wall tube features, and conformational transitions between tubes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2893555/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2893555/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sharma, Jaswinder -- Chhabra, Rahul -- Cheng, Anchi -- Brownell, Jonathan -- Liu, Yan -- Yan, Hao -- P41 RR-01081/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR000592/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR017573-086704/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR17573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 2;323(5910):112-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1165831.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Single Molecule Biophysics, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119229" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA/*chemistry ; Electron Microscope Tomography ; *Gold ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Inverted Repeat Sequences ; Metal Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; Nanotubes/*chemistry ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Thermodynamics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2009-11-07
    Description: Sexual conflict occurs when males and females act against each others' interest, typically resulting in selection favoring harmful males. We performed laboratory experiments on sexual conflict that both confined individuals in isolated groups, which prevents selection acting counter to this conflict, and provided more naturalistic multigroup population structures. We show that in water striders, aggressive male mating behavior was strongly favored within groups but not favored in a multigroup population when individuals can freely disperse among groups. These observations explain the persistence of less-aggressive males within natural populations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eldakar, Omar Tonsi -- Dlugos, Michael J -- Pepper, John W -- Wilson, David Sloan -- 5 K12 GM000708/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K12 GM000708/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):816. doi: 10.1126/science.1180183.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892974" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression ; Animals ; Female ; Heteroptera/*physiology ; Male ; Mating Preference, Animal ; Population Dynamics ; *Sexual Behavior, Animal
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) detoxifies cells by exporting hundreds of chemically unrelated toxins but has been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the treatment of cancers. Substrate promiscuity is a hallmark of P-gp activity, thus a structural description of poly-specific drug-binding is important for the rational design of anticancer drugs and MDR inhibitors. The x-ray structure of apo P-gp at 3.8 angstroms reveals an internal cavity of approximately 6000 angstroms cubed with a 30 angstrom separation of the two nucleotide-binding domains. Two additional P-gp structures with cyclic peptide inhibitors demonstrate distinct drug-binding sites in the internal cavity capable of stereoselectivity that is based on hydrophobic and aromatic interactions. Apo and drug-bound P-gp structures have portals open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry. The inward-facing conformation represents an initial stage of the transport cycle that is competent for drug binding.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720052/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720052/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aller, Stephen G -- Yu, Jodie -- Ward, Andrew -- Weng, Yue -- Chittaboina, Srinivas -- Zhuo, Rupeng -- Harrell, Patina M -- Trinh, Yenphuong T -- Zhang, Qinghai -- Urbatsch, Ina L -- Chang, Geoffrey -- F32 GM078914/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32 GM078914-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM078914/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM61905/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197-050002/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM061905/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM061905-09/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1718-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1168750.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, CB105, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325113" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Apoproteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cell Membrane/chemistry ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Lipid Bilayers/chemistry ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; P-Glycoprotein/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Peptides, Cyclic/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Stereoisomerism ; Verapamil/metabolism/pharmacology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2009-06-27
    Description: Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare pediatric lung tumor that is often part of an inherited cancer syndrome. PPBs consist of mesenchymal cells that are susceptible to malignant transformation and cysts lined by epithelial cells. In a subset of patients, overgrowth of the cysts by mesenchymal cells leads to sarcoma formation. Here, we show that 11 multiplex PPB families harbor heterozygous germline mutations in DICER1, a gene encoding an endoribonuclease critical to the generation of small noncoding regulatory RNAs. Expression of DICER1 protein was undetectable in the epithelial component of PPB tumors but was retained in the malignant mesenchyme (sarcoma). We hypothesize that loss of DICER1 in the epithelium of the developing lung alters the regulation of diffusible factors that promote mesenchymal proliferation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098036/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098036/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hill, D Ashley -- Ivanovich, Jennifer -- Priest, John R -- Gurnett, Christina A -- Dehner, Louis P -- Desruisseau, David -- Jarzembowski, Jason A -- Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A -- Suarez, Brian K -- Whelan, Alison J -- Williams, Gretchen -- Bracamontes, Dawn -- Messinger, Yoav -- Goodfellow, Paul J -- P30 CA091842/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA091842-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA091842-08/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA143167/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL109265/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):965. doi: 10.1126/science.1174334. Epub 2009 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. dashill@cnmc.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19556464" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DEAD-box RNA Helicases/chemistry/*genetics ; Epithelium/metabolism ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Germ-Line Mutation ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/enzymology/*genetics/pathology ; Male ; Pedigree ; Pulmonary Blastoma/enzymology/*genetics/pathology ; Ribonuclease III/chemistry/*genetics
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-05-09
    Description: Understanding of plant-pathogen coevolution in natural systems continues to develop as new theories at the population and species level are increasingly informed by studies unraveling the molecular basis of interactions between individual plants and their pathogens. The next challenge lies in further integration of these approaches to develop a comprehensive picture of how life history traits of both players interact with the environment to shape evolutionary trajectories.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689373/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689373/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Burdon, Jeremy J -- Thrall, Peter H -- R01 GM074265-01A2/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):755-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1171663.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)-Plant Industry, Post Office Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Jeremy.Burdon@csiro.au〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19423818" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; *Ecosystem ; Fungal Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Fungi/genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Immunity, Innate ; Plant Diseases/immunology/*microbiology ; Plant Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Plants/genetics/immunology/metabolism/*microbiology
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: Microorganisms have critical roles in the functioning of soil in nutrient cycling, structural formation, and plant interactions, both positive and negative. These roles are important in reestablishing function and biodiversity in ecosystem restoration. Measurement of the community indicates the status of the system in relation to restoration targets and the effectiveness of management interventions, and manipulation of the community shows promise in the enhancement of the rate of recovery of degraded systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harris, Jim -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 31;325(5940):573-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1172975.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Natural Resources, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644111" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Bacterial Physiological Phenomena ; Biodiversity ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecosystem ; Fungi/*physiology ; Mycorrhizae/*physiology ; Plant Physiological Phenomena ; *Soil Microbiology ; Symbiosis
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-17
    Description: Networks in which the formation of connections is governed by a random process often undergo a percolation transition, wherein around a critical point, the addition of a small number of connections causes a sizable fraction of the network to suddenly become linked together. Typically such transitions are continuous, so that the percentage of the network linked together tends to zero right above the transition point. Whether percolation transitions could be discontinuous has been an open question. Here, we show that incorporating a limited amount of choice in the classic Erdos-Renyi network formation model causes its percolation transition to become discontinuous.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Achlioptas, Dimitris -- D'Souza, Raissa M -- Spencer, Joel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1453-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1167782.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computer Science, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286548" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2009-09-26
    Description: Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of approximately 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays--tracers of such cosmic rays--from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Acero, F -- Aharonian, F -- Akhperjanian, A G -- Anton, G -- Barres de Almeida, U -- Bazer-Bachi, A R -- Becherini, Y -- Behera, B -- Bernlohr, K -- Bochow, A -- Boisson, C -- Bolmont, J -- Borrel, V -- Brucker, J -- Brun, F -- Brun, P -- Buhler, R -- Bulik, T -- Busching, I -- Boutelier, T -- Chadwick, P M -- Charbonnier, A -- Chaves, R C G -- Cheesebrough, A -- Chounet, L-M -- Clapson, A C -- Coignet, G -- Dalton, M -- Daniel, M K -- Davids, I D -- Degrange, B -- Deil, C -- Dickinson, H J -- Djannati-Atai, A -- Domainko, W -- Drury, L O'C -- Dubois, F -- Dubus, G -- Dyks, J -- Dyrda, M -- Egberts, K -- Emmanoulopoulos, D -- Espigat, P -- Farnier, C -- Fegan, S -- Feinstein, F -- Fiasson, A -- Forster, A -- Fontaine, G -- Fussling, M -- Gabici, S -- Gallant, Y A -- Gerard, L -- Gerbig, D -- Giebels, B -- Glicenstein, J F -- Gluck, B -- Goret, P -- Goring, D -- Hauser, D -- Hauser, M -- Heinz, S -- Heinzelmann, G -- Henri, G -- Hermann, G -- Hinton, J A -- Hoffmann, A -- Hofmann, W -- Hofverberg, P -- Hoppe, S -- Horns, D -- Jacholkowska, A -- de Jager, O C -- Jahn, C -- Jung, I -- Katarzynski, K -- Katz, U -- Kaufmann, S -- Kerschhaggl, M -- Khangulyan, D -- Khelifi, B -- Keogh, D -- Klochkov, D -- Kluzniak, W -- Kneiske, T -- Komin, Nu -- Kosack, K -- Kossakowski, R -- Lamanna, G -- Lenain, J-P -- Lohse, T -- Marandon, V -- Martineau-Huynh, O -- Marcowith, A -- Masbou, J -- Maurin, D -- McComb, T J L -- Medina, M C -- Mehault, J -- Moderski, R -- Moulin, E -- Naumann-Godo, M -- de Naurois, M -- Nedbal, D -- Nekrassov, D -- Nicholas, B -- Niemiec, J -- Nolan, S J -- Ohm, S -- Olive, J-F -- de Ona Wilhelmi, E -- Orford, K J -- Ostrowski, M -- Panter, M -- Paz Arribas, M -- Pedaletti, G -- Pelletier, G -- Petrucci, P-O -- Pita, S -- Puhlhofer, G -- Punch, M -- Quirrenbach, A -- Raubenheimer, B C -- Raue, M -- Rayner, S M -- Reimer, O -- Renaud, M -- Rieger, F -- Ripken, J -- Rob, L -- Rosier-Lees, S -- Rowell, G -- Rudak, B -- Rulten, C B -- Ruppel, J -- Sahakian, V -- Santangelo, A -- Schlickeiser, R -- Schock, F M -- Schwanke, U -- Schwarzburg, S -- Schwemmer, S -- Shalchi, A -- Sikora, M -- Skilton, J L -- Sol, H -- Stawarz, L -- Steenkamp, R -- Stegmann, C -- Stinzing, F -- Superina, G -- Szostek, A -- Tam, P H -- Tavernet, J-P -- Terrier, R -- Tibolla, O -- Tluczykont, M -- van Eldik, C -- Vasileiadis, G -- Venter, C -- Venter, L -- Vialle, J P -- Vincent, P -- Vivier, M -- Volk, H J -- Volpe, F -- Wagner, S J -- Ward, M -- Zdziarski, A A -- Zech, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 20;326(5956):1080-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1178826. Epub 2009 Sep 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 70, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19779150" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-03
    Description: Online education is established, growing, and here to stay. It is creating new opportunities for students and also for faculty, regulators of education, and the educational institutions themselves. Much of what is being learned by the practitioners will flow into the large numbers of blended courses that will be developed and delivered on most campuses. Some of what is being learned will certainly improve pedagogical approaches and possibly affect other important problems, such as the lengthening time to completion of a degree. Online education is already providing better access to education for many, and many more will benefit from this increased access in the coming years.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mayadas, A Frank -- Bourne, John -- Bacsich, Paul -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 2;323(5910):85-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1168874.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10111, USA. mayadas@sloan.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119225" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Computer-Assisted Instruction/economics ; *Education, Distance/economics ; Faculty ; Federal Government ; Humans ; *Internet ; Online Systems ; State Government ; Students ; Training Support ; United States ; *Universities
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-11-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, Gretchen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):791. doi: 10.1126/science.326_791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892957" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Academies and Institutes/*organization & administration ; *Administrative Personnel ; Germany ; Germany, East
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2009-12-08
    Description: Fanconi anemia is a human cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in 13 Fanc genes. The disorder is characterized by genomic instability and cellular hypersensitivity to chemicals that generate DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). A central event in the activation of the Fanconi anemia pathway is the mono-ubiquitylation of the FANCI-FANCD2 complex, but how this complex confers ICL resistance remains enigmatic. Using a cell-free system, we showed that FANCI-FANCD2 is required for replication-coupled ICL repair in S phase. Removal of FANCD2 from extracts inhibits both nucleolytic incisions near the ICL and translesion DNA synthesis past the lesion. Reversal of these defects requires ubiquitylated FANCI-FANCD2. Our results show that multiple steps of the essential S-phase ICL repair mechanism fail when the Fanconi anemia pathway is compromised.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909596/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909596/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knipscheer, Puck -- Raschle, Markus -- Smogorzewska, Agata -- Enoiu, Milica -- Ho, The Vinh -- Scharer, Orlando D -- Elledge, Stephen J -- Walter, Johannes C -- GM62267/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062267/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062267-09/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM044664/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM044664-23/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32CA09216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1698-701. doi: 10.1126/science.1182372. Epub 2009 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19965384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell-Free System ; Chromatin/metabolism ; DNA/biosynthesis ; DNA Damage ; *DNA Repair ; *DNA Replication ; Fanconi Anemia/genetics/metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein/*metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; S Phase ; Signal Transduction ; Ubiquitinated Proteins/metabolism ; Ubiquitination ; Xenopus Proteins/*metabolism ; Xenopus laevis
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-17
    Description: As fundamental units of neuronal communication, chemical synapses are composed of presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations that form at specific locations with defined shape and size. Synaptic assembly must be tightly regulated to prevent overgrowth of the synapse size and number, but the molecular mechanisms that inhibit synapse assembly are poorly understood. We identified regulator of synaptogenesis-1 (RSY-1) as an evolutionarily conserved molecule that locally antagonized presynaptic assembly. The loss of RSY-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans led to formation of extra synapses and recruitment of excessive synaptic material to presynaptic sites. RSY-1 directly interacted with and negatively regulated SYD-2/liprin-alpha, a master assembly molecule that recruits numerous synaptic components to presynaptic sites. RSY-1 also bound and regulated SYD-1, a synaptic protein required for proper functioning of SYD-2. Thus, local inhibitory mechanisms govern synapse formation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087376/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087376/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Patel, Maulik R -- Shen, Kang -- 1R01NS048392/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048392/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048392-05/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1500-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1169025.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, 385 Serra Mall, Herrin Labs, Room 144, Stanford University, Stanford,CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286562" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Humans ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Interaction Mapping ; Protein Isoforms/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Synapses/metabolism/*physiology
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-02-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 20;323(5917):1000-2. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5917.1000.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19229012" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1665. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5922.1665.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325095" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2009-06-23
    Description: The pace of Late Triassic (LT) biodiversity loss is uncertain, yet it could help to decipher causal mechanisms of mass extinction. We investigated relative abundance distributions (RADs) of six LT plant assemblages from the Kap Stewart Group, East Greenland, to determine the pace of collapse of LT primary productivity. RADs displayed not simply decreases in the number of taxa, but decreases in the number of common taxa. Likelihood tests rejected a hypothesis of continuously declining diversity. Instead, the RAD shift occurred over the upper two-to-four fossil plant assemblages and most likely over the last three (final 13 meters), coinciding with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and global warming. Thus, although the LT event did not induce mass extinction of plant families, it accompanied major and abrupt change in their ecology and diversity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McElwain, Jennifer C -- Wagner, Peter J -- Hesselbo, Stephen P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jun 19;324(5934):1554-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1171706.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. jennifer.mcelwain@ucd.ie〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19541995" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biodiversity ; Biological Evolution ; *Extinction, Biological ; *Fossils ; Greenland ; Likelihood Functions ; Models, Biological ; *Plants/genetics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2009-03-17
    Description: Visibility in the clear sky is reduced by the presence of aerosols, whose types and concentrations have a large impact on the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. Here we establish a global climatology of inverse visibilities over land from 1973 to 2007 and interpret it in terms of changes in aerosol optical depth and the consequent impacts on incident solar radiation. The aerosol contribution to "global dimming," first reported in terms of strong decreases in measured incident solar radiation up to the mid-1980s, has monotonically increased over the period analyzed. Since that time, visibility has increased over Europe, consistent with reported European "brightening," but has decreased substantially over south and east Asia, South America, Australia, and Africa, resulting in net global dimming over land.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Kaicun -- Dickinson, Robert E -- Liang, Shunlin -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1468-70. doi: 10.1126/science.1167549.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. kcwang@umd.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286553" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2009-02-07
    Description: Existing research reports inconsistent findings with regard to the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Some research suggests that blue or green leads to better performances than red; other studies record the opposite. Current work reconciles this discrepancy. We demonstrate that red (versus blue) color induces primarily an avoidance (versus approach) motivation (study 1, n = 69) and that red enhances performance on a detail-oriented task, whereas blue enhances performance on a creative task (studies 2 and 3, n = 208 and 118). Further, we replicate these results in the domains of product design (study 4, n = 42) and persuasive message evaluation (study 5, n = 161) and show that these effects occur outside of individuals' consciousness (study 6, n = 68). We also provide process evidence suggesting that the activation of alternative motivations mediates the effect of color on cognitive task performances.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mehta, Ravi -- Zhu, Rui Juliet -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1226-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1169144. Epub 2009 Feb 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, 2053 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197022" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; *Cognition ; *Color ; Creativity ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; *Mental Processes ; Mental Recall ; Motivation ; *Task Performance and Analysis ; Young Adult
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2009-01-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hines, Pamela J -- Jasny, Barbara R -- Mervis, Jeffrey -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 2;323(5910):53. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5910.53a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119209" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Education/methods ; *Educational Technology ; Humans ; *Learning ; Teaching Materials
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  • 48
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cave, Robert J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1435-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1169338.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711, USA. Robert_Cave@HMC.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286541" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: The sensitivity of both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging is very low because the detected signal strength depends on the small population difference between spin states even in high magnetic fields. Hyperpolarization methods can be used to increase this difference and thereby enhance signal strength. This has been achieved previously by incorporating the molecular spin singlet para-hydrogen into hydrogenation reaction products. We show here that a metal complex can facilitate the reversible interaction of para-hydrogen with a suitable organic substrate such that up to an 800-fold increase in proton, carbon, and nitrogen signal strengths are seen for the substrate without its hydrogenation. These polarized signals can be selectively detected when combined with methods that suppress background signals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adams, Ralph W -- Aguilar, Juan A -- Atkinson, Kevin D -- Cowley, Michael J -- Elliott, Paul I P -- Duckett, Simon B -- Green, Gary G R -- Khazal, Iman G -- Lopez-Serrano, Joaquin -- Williamson, David C -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1708-11. doi: 10.1126/science.1168877.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325111" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/analysis ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Iridium/chemistry ; Ligands ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; *Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Niacinamide/chemistry ; Nitrogen/analysis ; Protons ; Pyridines/chemistry ; Sensitivity and Specificity
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2009-10-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 16;326(5951):346-7. doi: 10.1126/science.326_346.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833925" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chemistry/*history ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Great Britain ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Israel ; *Nobel Prize ; *Ribosomes/physiology/ultrastructure ; United States
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