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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (1,647)
  • 1995-1999  (1,647)
  • 1999  (1,647)
  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 284 (5411). pp. 118-120.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: A coral reef represents the net accumulation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by corals and other calcifying organisms. If calcification declines, then reef-building capacity also declines. Coral reef calcification depends on the saturation state of the carbonate mineral aragonite of surface waters. By the middle of the next century, an increased concentration of carbon dioxide will decrease the aragonite saturation state in the tropics by 30 percent and biogenic aragonite precipitation by 14 to 30 percent. Coral reefs are particularly threatened, because reef-building organisms secrete metastable forms of CaCO3, but the biogeochemical consequences on other calcifying marine ecosystems may be equally severe.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 286 (5442). pp. 1132-1135.
    Publication Date: 2016-06-10
    Description: Chlorofluorocarbon-11 inventories for the deep Southern Ocean appear to confirm physical oceanographic and geochemical studies in the Southern Ocean, which suggest that no more than 5 × 106 cubic meters per second of ventilated deep water is currently being produced. This result conflicts with conclusions based on the distributions of the carbon-14/carbon ratio and a quasi-conservative property, PO4 *, in the deep sea, which seem to require an average of about 15 × 106cubic meters per second of Southern Ocean deep ventilation over about the past 800 years. A major reduction in Southern Ocean deep water production during the 20th century (from high rates during the Little Ice Age) may explain this apparent discordance. If this is true, a seesawing of deep water production between the northern Atlantic and Southern oceans may lie at the heart of the 1500-year ice-rafting cycle.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barinaga, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1794-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use ; Cognition/drug effects/physiology ; Epilepsy/drug therapy ; Humans ; KCNQ2 Potassium Channel ; KCNQ3 Potassium Channel ; Neurons/*physiology ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels/*chemistry/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated ; Sympathetic Nervous System/cytology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jones, A M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2201-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599-3280, USA. alan_jones@unc.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890827" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/metabolism ; *Arabidopsis Proteins ; Biological Transport ; Carrier Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Genes, Plant ; Indoleacetic Acids/*metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/*genetics ; *Membrane Transport Proteins ; Models, Biological ; Plant Roots/metabolism ; Plant Shoots/metabolism ; Plants/genetics/*metabolism ; Proton-Motive Force
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2168.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890820" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asthma/*immunology/physiopathology ; Bronchoconstriction ; Eosinophils/immunology ; Goblet Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Interleukin-13/pharmacology/*physiology ; Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit ; Interleukin-4/pharmacology/physiology ; Lung/immunology/physiopathology ; Mice ; Receptors, Interleukin/metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-13 ; Receptors, Interleukin-4/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Th2 Cells/immunology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rath, J -- Jank, B -- Doblhoff-Dier, O -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2194.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890824" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Products ; Biological Warfare/*prevention & control ; *Biotechnology ; *Drug Industry ; International Cooperation
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1797,1799.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Brain/metabolism ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy ; Conditioning (Psychology)/drug effects ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Humans ; Nicotine/pharmacology ; Papio ; *Smoking Cessation ; Tobacco Use Disorder/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Vigabatrin ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moody, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1994-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874651" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Feedback ; Humans ; *Phonetics ; *Speech ; Speech Acoustics ; *Speech Perception
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bloom, F E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1989.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874645" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics ; *Databases, Factual/standards ; *Genome ; Genome, Human ; Humans
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferber, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1971.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874642" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Child ; *Developing Countries ; Foundations/*economics/organization & administration ; Humans ; Immunization Programs/*economics/organization & administration ; International Agencies/*economics ; Public Policy ; United Nations/economics ; Vaccines/*economics
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2157-61.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890816" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoimmune Diseases/etiology ; Bioethics ; Biological Clocks ; Biotechnology ; Circadian Rhythm ; Drug Design ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology ; Genome ; Humans ; Neoplasms/prevention & control/therapy ; Potassium Channels/chemistry/metabolism ; *Research ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stem Cells
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Normile, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1975-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874644" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Blastocyst ; Cattle/embryology/*genetics ; Cell Differentiation ; Cells, Cultured ; *Cloning, Organism ; Embryo Transfer/veterinary ; Fallopian Tubes/cytology ; Female ; Japan ; *Nuclear Transfer Techniques ; Oocytes ; Ovarian Follicle/cytology ; Pregnancy
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spear, P G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1999-2000.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. p-spear@nwu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874652" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Dystroglycans ; Humans ; Laminin/metabolism ; Lassa Fever/*virology ; Lassa virus/*metabolism ; Leprosy/*microbiology ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/metabolism ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Mycobacterium leprae/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Schwann Cells/microbiology
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goldman, L R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1825-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874633" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Child ; Environmental Exposure ; Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects ; Government Agencies ; Humans ; Lead/adverse effects ; Lead Poisoning/*prevention & control ; United States ; United States Environmental Protection Agency
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adams, M W -- Stiefel, E I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1842-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. adams@bmb.uga.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874636" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Carbon Monoxide/chemistry ; Clostridium/*enzymology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cyanides/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogen/*metabolism ; Hydrogenase/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Iron/chemistry ; Ligands ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Pyruvic Acid/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couzin, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2175-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Budgets ; Cartilage ; *Complementary Therapies/economics/organization & administration ; Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/therapy ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics/*organization & administration ; Research Support as Topic ; Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use ; United States
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 9;285(5425):184-5, 187.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10428711" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biological Products/chemical synthesis/chemistry ; *Chemistry, Organic ; *Chemistry, Pharmaceutical ; Drug Design ; Drug Industry ; Organic Chemicals/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Organic Chemistry Phenomena ; Pharmaceutical Preparations/*chemical synthesis/chemistry
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 16;285(5426):310-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10438289" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies/immunology ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/*immunology ; Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects/*immunology ; Graft vs Host Disease/*prevention & control ; Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology ; Humans ; Mice ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lanciotti, R S -- Roehrig, J T -- Deubel, V -- Smith, J -- Parker, M -- Steele, K -- Crise, B -- Volpe, K E -- Crabtree, M B -- Scherret, J H -- Hall, R A -- MacKenzie, J S -- Cropp, C B -- Panigrahy, B -- Ostlund, E -- Schmitt, B -- Malkinson, M -- Banet, C -- Weissman, J -- Komar, N -- Savage, H M -- Stone, W -- McNamara, T -- Gubler, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2333-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. rsl2@cdc.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; Base Sequence ; Bird Diseases/epidemiology/virology ; Birds/virology ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese/classification/genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; New England/epidemiology ; New York City/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Songbirds/virology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; West Nile Fever/*epidemiology/veterinary/*virology ; West Nile virus/*classification/*genetics/immunology/isolation & purification
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whitacre, C C -- Reingold, S C -- O'Looney, P A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 26;283(5406):1277-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. whitacre.3@osu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Formation ; *Autoimmune Diseases/genetics/immunology/therapy ; *Autoimmunity ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/immunology ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology ; Hormones/physiology ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications/immunology ; *Sex Characteristics ; Th1 Cells/immunology ; Th2 Cells/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lane, N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 17;285(5435):1850-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10515788" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Disaster Planning/*organization & administration ; *Disasters ; Private Sector ; Public Policy ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wetzel, D L -- LeVine, S M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1224-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Lab, Kansas State University, Manhatten, KS 66506, USA. dwetzel@ksu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biochemistry/*methods ; Biological Science Disciplines/*methods ; Forensic Medicine ; Humans ; Specimen Handling ; *Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation/methods ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-15
    Description: The structure of a highly conserved complex between a 58-nucleotide domain of large subunit ribosomal RNA and the RNA-binding domain of ribosomal protein L11 has been solved at 2.8 angstrom resolution. It reveals a precisely folded RNA structure that is stabilized by extensive tertiary contacts and contains an unusually large core of stacked bases. A bulge loop base from one hairpin of the RNA is intercalated into the distorted major groove of another helix; the protein locks this tertiary interaction into place by binding to the intercalated base from the minor groove side. This direct interaction with a key ribosomal RNA tertiary interaction suggests that part of the role of L11 is to stabilize an unusual RNA fold within the ribosome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Conn, G L -- Draper, D E -- Lattman, E E -- Gittis, A G -- R37 GM29048/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1171-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10325228" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Peptide Elongation Factor G ; Peptide Elongation Factors/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Protein Conformation ; RNA, Bacterial/*chemistry/metabolism ; RNA, Ribosomal/*chemistry/metabolism ; Ribosomal Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism
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    Publication Date: 1999-03-05
    Description: Temporal evolution of depleted mantle thorium-uranium-niobium systematics constrain the amount of continental crust present through Earth's history (through the niobium/thorium ratio) and date formation of a globally oxidizing atmosphere and hydrosphere at approximately 2.0 billion years ago (through the niobium/uranium ratio). Increase in the niobium/thorium ratio shows involvement of hydrated lithosphere in differentiation of Earth since approximately 3.8 billion years ago. After approximately 2.0 billion years ago, the decreasing mantle thorium/uranium ratio portrays mainly preferential recycling of uranium in an oxidizing atmosphere and hydrosphere. Net growth rate of continental crust has varied over time, and continents are still growing today.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Collerson -- Kamber -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 5;283(5407):1519-22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10066171" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-05
    Description: Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉West, G B -- Brown, J H -- Enquist, B J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1677-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Theoretical Division, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. gbw@lanl.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10356399" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology ; *Body Constitution ; *Body Surface Area ; *Fractals ; Humans ; Mathematics ; *Metabolism ; *Models, Biological ; Plants/anatomy & histology ; Selection, Genetic
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Collignon, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 3;286(5446):1855-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610574" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/analysis ; *Gammaretrovirus/immunology ; Humans ; Retroviridae Infections/diagnosis/*transmission ; *Swine/virology ; *Transplantation, Heterologous/adverse effects
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 9;284(5412):243-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biocompatible Materials ; *Biomedical Engineering ; Brain/*drug effects/metabolism ; Caffeine/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Catalysis ; Genetic Engineering ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Humans ; Polycarboxylate Cement/chemical synthesis ; Polymers/chemical synthesis ; Rats ; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: West Nile (WN) virus, a mosquito-transmitted virus native to Africa, Asia, and Europe, was isolated from two species of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans, and from brain tissues of 28 American crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, and one Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii, in Connecticut. A portion of the genome of virus isolates from four different hosts was sequenced and analyzed by comparative phylogenetic analysis. Our isolates from Connecticut were similar to one another and most closely related to two WN isolates from Romania (2.8 and 3.6 percent difference). If established in North America, WN virus will likely have severe effects on human health and on the health of populations of birds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anderson, J F -- Andreadis, T G -- Vossbrinck, C R -- Tirrell, S -- Wakem, E M -- French, R A -- Garmendia, A E -- Van Kruiningen, H J -- P01-AI-30548/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2331-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Entomology, Department of Soil and Water, the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Post Office Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA. john.f.anderson@po.state.ct.us〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600741" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Bird Diseases/epidemiology/*virology ; Brain/*virology ; Connecticut/epidemiology ; Culex/virology ; Culicidae/*virology ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/*virology ; Phylogeny ; Raptors/virology ; Romania ; Songbirds/virology ; West Nile Fever/epidemiology/*veterinary/virology ; West Nile virus/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1097-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10366336" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fertilization in Vitro ; *Gene Transfer Techniques ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Luminescent Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Microinjections ; Sperm Head/*physiology ; *Transgenes
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anderson, J J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 26;283(5410):2018.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10206904" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; Peer Review, Research ; *Research ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Niklason, L E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 19;286(5444):1493-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. nikla001@mc.duke.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610551" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Arteries ; *Biomedical Engineering ; *Blood Vessel Prosthesis ; Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation ; Cells, Cultured ; Collagen ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/physiology ; Humans ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology/physiology ; Pressure
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 1999-09-25
    Description: The flow of information from calcium-mobilizing receptors to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent genes is critically dependent on interaction between the phosphatase calcineurin and the transcription factor NFAT. A high-affinity calcineurin-binding peptide was selected from combinatorial peptide libraries based on the calcineurin docking motif of NFAT. This peptide potently inhibited NFAT activation and NFAT-dependent expression of endogenous cytokine genes in T cells, without affecting the expression of other cytokines that require calcineurin but not NFAT. Substitution of the optimized peptide sequence into the natural calcineurin docking site increased the calcineurin responsiveness of NFAT. Compounds that interfere selectively with the calcineurin-NFAT interaction without affecting calcineurin phosphatase activity may be useful as therapeutic agents that are less toxic than current drugs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aramburu, J -- Yaffe, M B -- Lopez-Rodriguez, C -- Cantley, L C -- Hogan, P G -- Rao, A -- R01 AI 40127/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL 03601/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R43 AI 43726/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 24;285(5436):2129-33.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10497131" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Calcineurin/*metabolism ; Calcineurin Inhibitors ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cyclosporine/pharmacology ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Immunosuppressive Agents/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Jurkat Cells ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NFATC Transcription Factors ; *Nuclear Proteins ; Oligopeptides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Peptide Library ; Peptides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Phosphorylation ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/immunology ; Transcription Factors/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Transfection
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 1999-11-05
    Description: The last glacial period was terminated by an abrupt warming event in the North Atlantic approximately 15,000 years before the present, and warming events of similar age have been reported from low latitudes. Understanding the mechanism of this termination requires that the precise relative timing of abrupt climate warming in the tropics versus the North Atlantic be known. Nitrogen and argon isotopes in trapped air in Greenland ice show that the Greenland Summit warmed 9 +/- 3 degrees C over a period of several decades, beginning 14,672 years ago. Atmospheric methane concentrations rose abruptly over a approximately 50-year period and began their increase 20 to 30 years after the onset of the abrupt Greenland warming. These data suggest that tropical climate became warmer or wetter (or both) approximately 20 to 80 years after the onset of Greenland warming, supporting a North Atlantic rather than a tropical trigger for the climate event.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Severinghaus -- Brook -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 29;286(5441):930-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Geology, Washington State University, 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10542141" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawler, C -- Erbisch, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 1;283(5398):33-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9917260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biotechnology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Patents as Topic ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*genetics ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arctander, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 25;284(5423):2090-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10409064" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Female ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; *Recombination, Genetic
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shannon, T A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 15;283(5400):329.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9925490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Rights ; *Animal Welfare ; Animals ; *Public Opinion ; *Research
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shalala, D E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 13;285(5430):1011.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10475838" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antiviral Agents ; Biological Specimen Banks ; Biological Warfare ; *Research ; Smallpox Vaccine ; *Variola virus/genetics/immunology/pathogenicity ; Violence ; World Health Organization
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lasley, E N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 10;285(5434):1649-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10523176" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Experimentation ; *Animal Welfare ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory ; Federal Government ; Government Regulation ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; New Mexico ; *Pan troglodytes ; Research ; United States ; United States Department of Agriculture
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Antia, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 28;284(5419):1445.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10383317" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cells/*chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Lasers ; Microscopy/*methods ; Proteins/analysis ; *Scattering, Radiation
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1265-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610528" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*enzymology ; Brain/*enzymology ; Cloning, Molecular ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Neurons/metabolism ; Racemases and Epimerases/*genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Serine/*biosynthesis/metabolism ; Stereoisomerism ; Synapses/metabolism
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-26
    Description: This review critically examines neuronal coding strategies and how they might apply to olfactory processing. Basic notions such as identity, spatial, temporal, and correlation codes are defined and different perspectives are brought to the study of neural codes. Odors as physical stimuli and their processing by the early olfactory system, one or two synapses away from the receptors, are discussed. Finally, the concept of lateral inhibition, as usually understood and applied to odor coding by mitral (or equivalent) cells, is challenged and extended to a broader context, possibly more appropriate for olfactory processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Laurent, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 22;286(5440):723-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. laurentg@its.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10531051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Neural Inhibition ; Neurons/physiology ; *Odors ; Olfactory Bulb/*physiology ; Olfactory Pathways ; Olfactory Receptor Neurons/*physiology ; Perception ; Receptors, Odorant/*physiology ; Smell/*physiology ; Time Factors
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 5;283(5403):777.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10049117" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cultural Characteristics ; *Family ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; *Marriage ; *Paternal Behavior ; Paternity ; *Sexual Behavior
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Laver, W G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 25;284(5423):2089.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10409063" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallization ; Neuraminidase/*chemistry ; *Space Flight ; *Spacecraft ; United States ; United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; *Weightlessness
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 1999-08-24
    Description: Agricultural productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. Overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport from Arabidopsis thaliana in Arabidopsis plants promotes sustained growth and development in soil watered with up to 200 millimolar sodium chloride. This salinity tolerance was correlated with higher-than-normal levels of AtNHX1 transcripts, protein, and vacuolar Na+/H+ (sodium/proton) antiport activity. These results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering salt tolerance in plants.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Apse, M P -- Aharon, G S -- Snedden, W A -- Blumwald, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1256-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Botany, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10455050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/drug effects/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; *Arabidopsis Proteins ; *Cation Transport Proteins ; Chloride Channels/metabolism ; Chlorides/metabolism ; Gene Expression ; Hydrogen/metabolism ; Plant Leaves/metabolism ; Plant Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Sodium/*metabolism ; Sodium Chloride/*toxicity ; Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter/genetics/*metabolism ; Vacuoles/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-11-05
    Description: Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a nucleotide sequence-specific defense mechanism that can target both cellular and viral mRNAs. Here, three types of transgene-induced PTGS and one example of virus-induced PTGS were analyzed in plants. In each case, antisense RNA complementary to the targeted mRNA was detected. These RNA molecules were of a uniform length, estimated at 25 nucleotides, and their accumulation required either transgene sense transcription or RNA virus replication. Thus, the 25-nucleotide antisense RNA is likely synthesized from an RNA template and may represent the specificity determinant of PTGS.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hamilton, A J -- Baulcombe, D C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 29;286(5441):950-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10542148" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Oxidoreductases/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; *Gene Silencing ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Luminescent Proteins/genetics ; Plants/enzymology/genetics/virology ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Plants, Toxic ; Potexvirus/genetics ; RNA, Antisense/analysis/*physiology ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/physiology ; RNA, Plant/analysis/*physiology ; RNA, Viral/metabolism ; Tobacco/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 46
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 19;283(5409):1832-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10206886" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Child ; Child, Preschool ; *Education ; *Environment ; Genes ; Humans ; Infant ; *Intelligence ; Intelligence Tests ; *Linguistics ; Vocabulary
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 1999-03-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hannon, G J -- Sun, P -- Carnero, A -- Xie, L Y -- Maestro, R -- Conklin, D S -- Beach, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 19;283(5405):1129-30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075573" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cloning, Molecular/*methods ; DNA, Complementary ; Gene Expression ; Gene Library ; Genes, p53 ; Genes, ras ; *Genetic Techniques ; Genetic Vectors ; Mammals ; Phenotype ; Proviruses/genetics ; Retroviridae/genetics ; Transformation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 48
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 12;283(5408):1617, 1619.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189312" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Haplorhini ; Memory/*physiology ; Mental Recall/*physiology ; Motor Cortex/cytology/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Psychomotor Performance ; Thinking/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 49
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-08
    Description: The average seismic velocity and density jumps across the 410- and 660-kilometer discontinuities in the upper mantle were determined by modeling the observed range dependence in long-period seismic wave arrivals that reflect off of these interfaces. The preliminary reference Earth model (PREM) is within the computed 95 percent confidence ellipse for the 410-km discontinuity but outside the allowed jumps across the 660-kilometer discontinuity. Current pyrolite mantle models appear consistent with the constraints for the 410-kilometer discontinuity but overpredict amplitudes for the 660-kilometer reflections. The density jump across the 660-kilometer discontinuity is between 4 and 6 percent, below the PREM value of 9.3 percent commonly used in mantle convection calculations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shearer -- Flanagan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 3;285(5433):1545-1548.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0225, USA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Post Office Box 808, L-206, Livermore, CA 94551, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10477514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 1999-04-30
    Description: Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral replication, animals infected with the R5 and X4 SHIV had distinct pathogenic outcomes. SHIVSF162P caused a dramatic loss of CD4+ intestinal T cells followed by a gradual depletion in peripheral CD4+ T cells, whereas infection with SHIVSF33A.2 caused a profound loss in peripheral T cells that was not paralleled in the intestine. These results suggest a critical role of co-receptor utilization in viral pathogenesis and provide a reliable in vivo model for preclinical examination of HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutic agents in the context of the HIV-1 envelope protein.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harouse, J M -- Gettie, A -- Tan, R C -- Blanchard, J -- Cheng-Mayer, C -- AI41945/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA72822/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI041945/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA072822/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 30;284(5415):816-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10221916" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology/*virology ; Animals ; *CD4 Lymphocyte Count ; CD4-CD8 Ratio ; Chimera ; Colon/immunology ; HIV-1/genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/immunology ; Jejunum/immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Reassortant Viruses ; Receptors, CCR5/*metabolism ;