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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (380,433)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) | JSTOR
    Online: 1(1).1880 – 56(1461).1922
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) | HighWire Press
    Online: 2001 –
    Formerly as: Science Express  (2001–2015)
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) , HighWire Press
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) | JSTOR
    Online: 1(1).1915 – 17(6).1923
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0096-3771
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) | HighWire Press
    Online: 1.1880 –
    Print: 159.1968 - 206.1979, 213.1981 - 220.1983, 259.1993 – 338.2012 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 63/2 - 64/5)
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) , HighWire Press
    Corporation: American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Online: 2013 –
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Keywords: Allgemeine Naturwissenschaften
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-03-06
    Description: Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Description: Transects of the submersible Alvin across rock outcrops in the Oregon subduction zone have furnished information on the structural and stratigraphic framework of this accretionary complex. Communities of clams and tube worms, and authigenic carbonate mineral precipitates, are associated with venting sites of cool fluids located on a fault-bend anticline at a water depth of 2036 meters. The distribution of animals and carbonates suggests up-dip migration of fluids from both shallow and deep sources along permeable strata or fault zones within these clastic deposits. Methane is enriched in the water column over one vent site, and carbonate minerals and animal tissues are highly enriched in carbon-12. The animals use methane as an energy and food source in symbiosis with microorganisms. Oxidized methane is also the carbon source for the authigenic carbonates that cement the sediments of the accretionary complex. The animal communities and carbonates observed in the Oregon subduction zone occur in strata as old as 2.0 million years and provide criteria for identifying other localities where modern and ancient accreted deposits have vented methane, hydrocarbons, and other nutrient-bearing fluids.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 257 (5070). pp. 644-647.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: Seasonal records of tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) over the past 10(5) years can be recovered from high-precision measurements of coral strontium/calcium ratios with the use of thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The temperature dependence of these ratios was calibrated with corals collected at SST recording stations and by (18)O/(16)O thermometry. The results suggest that mean monthly SST may be determined with an apparent accuracy of better than 0.5 degrees C. Measurements on a fossil coral indicate that 10,200 years ago mean annual SSTs near Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific Ocean were about 5 degrees C colder than today and that seasonal variations in SST were larger. These data suggest that tropical climate zones were compressed toward the equator during deglaciation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 284 (5411). pp. 118-120.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: A coral reef represents the net accumulation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by corals and other calcifying organisms. If calcification declines, then reef-building capacity also declines. Coral reef calcification depends on the saturation state of the carbonate mineral aragonite of surface waters. By the middle of the next century, an increased concentration of carbon dioxide will decrease the aragonite saturation state in the tropics by 30 percent and biogenic aragonite precipitation by 14 to 30 percent. Coral reefs are particularly threatened, because reef-building organisms secrete metastable forms of CaCO3, but the biogeochemical consequences on other calcifying marine ecosystems may be equally severe.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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