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  • 1995-1999  (1,011)
  • 1915-1919  (1,202)
  • 1905-1909  (1,655)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Significant progress has been made with the introduction of new AOAC INTERNATIONAL programs since plans were announced at BERM-5 in Aachen, Germany. The AOAC® Technical Division on Reference Materials has been formed, the AOAC® Peer-Verified Methods Program has been established and ready to accept methods for study, and the AOAC® Test Kit Performance Testing Program has become operational.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The Database COMAR now includes data from more than 8640 CRMs supplied by 180 producers in 24 countries. These data are divided into 8 main categories, containing up to 10 sub-categories. Quality of life as well as biological and clinical CRMs are two main categories where a great increase could be observed in the past years. These fields represent approximately 20|X% of the data records. Therefore it will be possible to gather different statistical information from these data.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract An attempt has been made to prepare a Secondary Reference Material for heavy metals in milk powder. From fresh milk obtained locally, two batches of milk powder have been prepared by pasteurising, homogenising, evaporating and spray drying. One of the batches, treated as an experimental batch, was spiked before the preparation with lead, cadmium and arsenic solutions (imported BDH standards) at a level about 1 mg/kg. After spray drying, both batches were packed under nitrogen using a polyester-aluminium/polyethylene foil as inner pouch and an outer cover of metallised polyester/polyethylene as a supporting film. Preliminary data have been obtained for the concentrations of Pb, Cd and As in both batches using acid digestion and flame AAS and UV/Vis spectrophotometry.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Strawberry and cabbage candidate reference materials (RMs) have been prepared by our laboratory during 1992–1993. Fresh materials have been homogenized and spiked with known concentrations of pesticides representing compounds commonly used for strawberries and cabbages. The candidate RMs have been then freeze-dried, homogenized, bottled under a stream of nitrogen and stored frozen at −20°C. Homogeneity and stability of the candidate RMs have been studied during the storage period. Homogeneity of the candidate RMs for 5 g samples has been within 10%. Homogeneity and stability studies have been carried out using the conventional multiresidue method of Luke et al. [1]. Instrumental analysis have been performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) employing selected ion monitoring (SIM).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Primary, secondary and tertiary reference materials (RM) play an important role in quality controls of analytical measurements. Logistics of preparation and proper use of primary and secondary RMs are presented. Tertiary (i.e. in-house) control materials are useful as substitutes in the absence of recognized primary or secondary RMs. The lack of interdisciplinary interaction during development of RMs (e.g. in specific areas such as foods), has an important impact on limiting the usefulness of certain types of RMs. The abundance of RMs in some countries and regions appears to have little effect on the existing paucity in RMs in other regions, and the underlying causes are outlined. The ability of a laboratory to produce good quality in-house RMs traceable to recognized primary or secondary RMs is a direct measure of its quest for reliable analytical data. Therefore many laboratories should be encouraged to engage in secondary and tertiary RM activities designed to answer specific measurement problems. In this context, assistance (e.g. practical training opportunities) in identifying simple methods of analyses for their efficacy in determining specific analytes is a source of help that can be extended to countries experiencing limitations in laboratory instrumentation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The Australian Government Analytical Laboratories (AGAL) has historically been the major provider of chemical and micro biological analytical services to the Australian Government. An equally important role has been the provision of specialist functions associated with: •development and implementation of new and improved testing methods; •evaluation and commissioning of new instrumentation; •advice and assistance to government with the design, implementation and conduct of proficiency testing programs, particularly in areas of chemical testing related to international trade. In July 1993, in response to increasing international interest in chemical metrology, AGAL established a Valid Analytical Measurement program focused on improving the acceptability of laboratory data and supporting the development of appropriate standards through the National Standards Commission. AGAL has recently surveyed Australian residue testing laboratories to determine their priority requirements for reference materials and inter laboratory check sample programs. Survey results have clearly demonstrated a need for reasonably priced, certified reference materials for pesticide and antibiotic residue testing in raw agricultural produce. There are few reference materials available in this field of testing, particularly for residues of concern in Australia. AGAL has therefore initiated action as follows: •Preparation and certification of two priority reference materials (i) organochlorines (dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide) in animal fat, (ii) organophosphates (diazinon, chlorpyrifos and ethion) in animal fat. •Investigation of storage stability of animal liver samples containing avermectin, sulphonamide and other antibiotic residues to ascertain suitability for reference material production. In the area of proficiency testing, AGAL provides ongoing services (in close consultation with NATA, the National Association of Testing Authorities) to the Australian export meat industry. AGAL is seeking to expand this role to involve a wider range of laboratories engaged in residue testing of both export and domestic produce. The Australian Government believes it has an important role to play, particularly in the South East Asian and Pacific Rim regions, in co-operation, collaboration, assistance with training, and provision of specialist technical services.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) was used as a probe to quantitate aflatoxin B1 by a homogeneous immunoassay. The conjugation of AFB1 to HRPO resulted in 54% loss of enyzme activity. In the presence of AFB1 specific antibodies, the HRPO-AFB1 conjugate showed reversal of its lost enzyme activity by 12%. This positive modulatory effect of antibody on the enzyme activity was used as an analytical tool to quantitate AFB1. The homogeneous assay carried out with free AFB1 and HRPO-AFB1 conjugate in the presence of antibodies indicated poor linearity as compared to the heterogeneous assay. It was observed that the number of HRPO-lysine residues involved in AFB1 conjugation were 6–8. The low level of modulation of enzyme activity by antibody with respect to HRPO-AFB1 conjugate, could possibly be attributed to the limited number of lysine residues in the HRPO molecule and its proximity to the active site of the enzyme. Thus, HRPO was found to be limiting as an enzyme with respect to the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for AFB1 analysis. The antibodies raised were specific for AFB1, and showed excellent linearity even at high dilution for the detection of AFB1 by ELISA indicating that antibodies per se were not the limiting factor.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The analytical strategy for the elemental chemical characterization of biological reference materials followed during a recently completed Reference Material development endeavour is discussed. Characterization, the assignment of reliable values to total elemental concentrations of a wide range of elements, poses the most difficult challenge in the scheme of reference material (RM) production. A review is presented of the many factors considered that significantly impinged on the conduct and outcome of the complex analytical characterization exercise. Major considerations were: (1) analytical elemental characterization philosophy, (2) analyte selection, (3) selection of analytical methodologies, (4) statistical protocols, (5) in-house characterization, (6) assessment of material homogeneity (7) cooperative interlaboratory characterization campaign, (8) data evaluation and (9) calculation of concentration values and associated uncertainties.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The IAEA-331 spinach material NIST SRM 1570a Spinach Leaves, submitted to an intercomparison run by the IAEA, has been analysed by k0-based INAA with counting using both low and high energy photon detectors. The results have been compared with (i) the certified values of the NIST SRM 1570a; the agreement is good, taking into account the uncertainties; and (ii) the certified and “consensus” values of the former NIST SRM 1570 Spinach Leaves, their composition in minor and trace-elements are quite similar; however a lower content has been observed for Co, Fe and Sc in the IAEA-331 and for Zn in the SRM 1570. For quality control, the NIST 1573 Tomato Leaves and the NIST 1575 Pine Needles have been analysed using the same conditions as for the IAEA-331. The results agree quite well with the certified and “consensus” values given in the literature.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) methods have been optimized and applied to several biological reference materials and selected food items for the determination of iodine. The method involves irradiation of the samples for different periods in epi-cadmium and/or epi-boron flux of the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor and direct counting without any pre-treatment on a 25-cm3 hyperpure Ge detector. The 443 keV photopeak of 128I is used for assaying the iodine content. Precision of measurements, expressed as the relative standard deviation, is 10–15% at 200–500 ppb and 3–12% at 500–6000 ppb levels of iodine. Accuracy of iodine measurements is within 5%. The detection limits for iodine in several biological materials with cadmium and boron, either alone or a combination of the two, as thermal neutron shields have been found to vary between 0.1 and 0.4 mg · kg−1 for different periods of irradiation, decay and counting. The results suggest that the EINAA methods can be successfully applied to biological materials for routine analysis of iodine at levels higher than 200 ppb.
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