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  • 1945-1949  (130,553)
Collection
Language
Years
Year
  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
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    Oslo : Univ. Press [in Komm.] ; Nr. 90.1948 - 201.2000
    Call number: ZSP-597
    Parallel Title: 123=1; 131=6; 133=9; 155=11 von Den Norske Antarktisekspedisjonen 〈1956 - 1960〉: Scientific results / den Norske Antarktisekspedisjonen, 1956 - 1960
    Former Title: Vorg. ---〉 Norges Svalbard- og Ishavs-Undersøkelser: Skrifter / Norges Svalbard- og Ishavsundersøkelser
    Subsequent Title: Aufgeg. in: ---〉 Norsk Polarinstitutt 〈Oslo〉: Rapportserie / Norsk Polarinstitutt
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
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    Oslo ; 68.1949 - 160.2000
    Call number: ZSP-598
    Parallel Title: 968979-5 106=12 von ---〉oeFridtjof Nansen minneforelesninger
    Parallel Title: 1413132-8 141=3 von ---〉oeEuropean Environment Agency: EEA environmental monograph
    Parallel Title: 1500339-5 140=1993/94; 148=1996/97; 156=1997/98 von ---〉oeReport of the Norwegian Antarctic research expedition
    Former Title: 980569-2 Vorg. ---〉oeNorges Svalbard- og Ishavs-Undersøkelser: Meddelelse
    Subsequent Title: 1140571-5 Aufgeg. in: ---〉oeNorsk Polarinstitutt 〈Oslo〉: Rapportserie
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Wellington, N.Z. : N.Z. Met. Serv.
    Call number: MOP Per 224
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0110-6937
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin : Akademie-Verl. ; 1.1946/47,Okt. - 41.1991
    Call number: MOP Per 150
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0084-5361
    Parallel Title: Daraus hervorgeg. ---〉 [Monatlicher Witterungsbericht für die Sowjetische Besatzungszone Deutschlands einschl. Berlins / 1]
    Parallel Title: Beil. ---〉 Meteorologischer und Hydrologischer Dienst der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik 〈Potsdam〉 / Zentralbibliothek: Neuerwerbungen der Zentralbibliothek des Meteorologischen und Hydrologischen Dienstes der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik im Hauptobservatorium Potsdam
    Parallel Title: Beil. ---〉 Angewandte Meteorologie
    Former Title: Vorg. ---〉 Meteorologische Zeitschrift
    Subsequent Title: Forts. ---〉 Meteorologische Zeitschrift, N. F.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 7
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer [u.a.] ; 1.1947/48 - 44.1991
    Call number: MOP Per 74
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0026-1211
    Former Title: Vorg. ---〉 Meteorologische Zeitschrift
    Former Title: Forts. ---〉 Meteorologische Zeitschrift
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 8
    Call number: ZSP-553
    ISSN: 0025-6676
    Note: Urh. teils: Commissionen for Ledelsen af de Geologiske og Geographiske Undersøgelser i Grønland
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 9
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Paris ; 1.1944/45 - 38.1982
    Call number: MOP Per 10
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0003-4029
    Subsequent Title: Forts. ---〉 Annales geophysicae
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 10
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Wien : Springer ; 1.1948/49 - 29.1980
    Call number: MOP Per 14
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0066-6416
    Subsequent Title: Forts. ---〉 [Archives for meteorology, geophysics, and bioclimatology / A]
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 11
    Map available for loan
    Map available for loan
    Associated volumes
    Call number: K 1979.9440(33-A) / R13
    In: Carta geológica de Portugal
    Type of Medium: Map available for loan
    Pages: 1 Kt., gefaltet + Er.-H. (37 S.)
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 12
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    London : Her Majesty's Stationary Office
    Call number: Per 343
    ISSN: 0072-6613
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 13
    Call number: MOP Per 3
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0369-0822
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 14
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stockholm ; Nr. 1.1947 - 18.1973[?]
    Call number: MOP Per 216/D
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Parallel Title: 2=6/14; 5=15/19 von [Bibliographie hydrologique / Sverige]
    Parallel Title: 10=20/25 etc. von [Hydrological bibliography / Sweden]
    Parallel Title: 9=10 von International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology: Mitteilungen / Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 15
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Warszawa : Wyd. Komunikacyjne ; 1.1947/49 - 12.1964/65; [N.S.] 1=13.1965 - 9=21.1973 = Nr. 1-96
    Call number: MOP Per 437
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0043-5171
    Subsequent Title: Forts.--〉 Wiadomo´sci meteorologii i gospodarki wodnej
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 16
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Oslo : Cammermeyer i komm.
    Call number: MOP Per 27
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0072-1174
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 17
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Washington, DC : US Gov. Print. Off. ; 1.1872 - 882.1971
    Call number: MOP Per 310
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0041-8021
    Subsequent Title: Forts. ---〉 USA / Patent Office : [Official gazette of the United States Patent Office / Patents]
    Subsequent Title: Forts. ---〉 USA / Patent Office : [Official gazette of the United States Patent Office / Trademarks]
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 18
    Call number: MOP Per 216/C
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 19
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stockholm
    Call number: MOP Per 216/B
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 20
    Call number: MOP Per 198
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0367-2794
    Parallel Title: Beil. ---〉 Reichszentrale für Wissenschaftliche Berichterstattung 〈Berlin〉: Kurznachrichten / Reichszentrale für Wissenschaftliche Berichterstattung
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 21
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Budapest
    Call number: MOP Per 378
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0200-0083
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 22
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Kyoto : Meteorological Research Institute ; 3.1949/57 - 22/23.1961 nachgewiesen
    Call number: MOP Per 414
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 23
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : Office ; 1.1948/50 - 3.1956/59 = Nr. 1-22
    Call number: MOP Per 151/A
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Subsequent Title: Forts. ---〉 Great Britain / Meteorological Office: Scientific paper / Meteorological Office, Air Ministry
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 24
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Offenbach, M. : DWD ; 1.1948 - 8.1957/58(1959)
    Call number: MOP Per 8
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0072-4122
    Former Title: Vorg. ---〉 Annalen der Hydrographie und maritimen Meteorologie
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 25
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    Associated volumes
    Call number: Z 92.0096/15-17
    In: Chemie der Erde
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 26
    Call number: MOP Einzelsignatur
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 1059-5600
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 27
    Call number: MOP Per 18
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISSN: 0342-5401
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 28
    Call number: MOP Per 60
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 29
    Call number: MOP 15014
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 30
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Colmar] : [Alsatia]
    Call number: MOP 18623
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 8, 9 S. : graph. Darst., Kt.
    Series Statement: Rapports / Service de prévision ionosphérique marine 1-2
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 31
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    Unknown
    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.127
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: As was pointed out in the first instalment, the management of Flora Malesiana acknowledge collaborating and co-operating institutions; for this purpose a distinction was made between collaborators and co-operators. The former take an active part in the composition of the work (by revising certain families or large groups), the latter give assistance through the loan of specimens, information about collections, biblographical assistance etc.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 32
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: Wanneer iemand een periode van zijn leven afgesloten ziet, tracht hij voor zichzelf een balans op te maken van de vervlogen jaren. Wanneer hij in die tijd een openbare functie heeft bekleed, zullen ook anderen dat doen. Voor die anderen is dat een moeilijke opgave, want is het schrijven van een necrologie al een moeilijke zaak, het schrijven over een nog levend man van karakter, die het zeker niet zal waarderen in zijn gezicht geprezen te worden, is nog oneindig moeilijker. Toch maak ik dankbaar van de gelegenheid gebruik om de figuur van den scheidenden professor IHLE tenminste voor één maal voor het voetlicht te halen, dat hij altijd zo graag heeft willen ontlopen. Mijn eerste herinnering dateert van begin October 1925, toen de nieuwbenoemde professor, waar wij, jonge studenten, met zoveel spanning naar hadden uitgezien, plotseling op het tweedejaarspracticum verscheen, daar een rondgang maakte en ons vervolgens getweeën in zijn kamer ontbood voor een eerste kennismaking. Daarna kwam, op 26 October de oratie, het officiële begin van de voornaamste periode in zijn loopbaan.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 33
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.137
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Miquel, F.A.W., Illustrations de la flore de l’archipel Indien. 3 parts. 1870-1871. JACKSON (Guide 1881, p. 385) mentions this work, ”Flore de l’Archipel Indien”, as having been published 1870-’71. REHDER (Bradl. Bibl. 1, 1 (1909) 466) says that it contains X + 114 pp. 37 pl., and that it was published in 1871. He adds that another edition was published in 1874 containing 174 pp. Unbound copies in the original covers at the Rijksherbarium, Leyden, prove that these references are either incomplete or wrong.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 34
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.142
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: Baas Becking, L.G.M.: Notes on jungle trees I (Chron. Nat. 104, 1948, 271-277). Calculation of the age of the stand in the mountain forest reserve Tjibodas on Mt Gedeh, W. Java, by means of new measurements on the trees numbered by S.H. Koorders in 1890. By means of the losses (0.77% annually) the average life span of a tree is estimated at ca 130 years. Backer, C.A. c.s.: Beknopte Flora van Java (nooduitgave) afl. VII. Fam. XCLVIII-CLXXII. Rijksherbarium, Leiden. Sept. 1948. This instalment of the mimeographed emergency edition (in Dutch) contains the treatments of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, Aceraceae, Sabiaceae, Staphyleaceae, Anacardiaceae, Connaraceae, Juglandaceae, Cornaceae, Alangiaceae, Nyssaceae, Araliaceae, Umbelliferae, Clethraceae, Ericaceae, Vacciniaceae, Epacridaceae, Ebenaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrsinaceae, Styracaceae, Loganiaceae, Oleaceae, Apocynaceae. Dr Backer was assisted by Miss Amshoff, Messrs Adelbert, Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, Lam & v. Ooststroom.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 35
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    In:  Leidse Geologische Mededelingen (0075-8639) vol.14 (1949) nr.2 p.347
    Publication Date: 2014-10-27
    Description: Toen Cirillo Generelli in 1749 in de academic van Cremona een commentaar op de theorie van Lazzaro Moro (1687—1740) leverde, gaf hij te kennen, dat de geschiedenis der aarde zonder geweld, zonder verdichtsels, zonder veronderstellingen en zonder wonderen („senza violenze, senza finzioni, senza supposti, senza miracoli”), maar uitsluitend met behulp der tegenwoordige gebeurtenissen op aarde verklaard kan worden (Lyell, 1853, p. 37). Hij zal toen wel niet vermoed hebben, dat het nog tachtig jaren zou duren, voordat deze nieuwe zienswijze het geologische denken zou gaan beheerschen. Want eerst kwam Cuvier de klok terugzetten door in 1812 in het „Discours preliminaire” zijner „Recherches sur les ossements fossiles” (later gepubliceerd onder den naam „Discours sur les revolutions du globe”) de theorie te verkondigen, die later de catastrophen-theorie genoemd is, waarin de ontwikkeling van het leven op aarde door catastrophes werd afgesneden, en telkens een nieuwe schepping weer leven op aarde bracht. Zijn volgeling Alcide d'Orbigny telde in 1849 zelfs 27 vernietigingen der biosfeer, gevolgd door 27 scheppingen. Het was Charles Lyell (1797—1875) die aan Cuvier's theorie den nekslag toebracht door het uitgeven van zijn „Principles of Geology”, waarvan het eerste deel in 1830 verscheen en waarmede de denkwijze der catastrophen-theorie plaats begon te maken voor een andere, die reeds door Lazzaro Moro en Cirillo Generelli verkondigd was, maar in het vergeetboek geraakt was. Lyell’s opvatting blijkt duidelijk uit den aanvankelijk bedoelden ondertitel: „Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth’s Surface by Reference to Causes now in Operation”. In aantrekkelijken vorm gegoten en consequent doorgevoerd in zijn „Principles”, is deze denkwijze de geologische gedachtenwereld gaan beïnvloeden, en daarmede werd de moderne geologic ingeluid. Al spoedig werd in Engeland de naam van „uniformitarianisme” hieraan gegeven, later in Duitschland door „actualisme” vervangen.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 36
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.453
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: Een Zilvermeeuw voert zijn jongen op de volgende wijze: hij loopt in eigenaardig gebukte houding, een „klaaglijk” klinkende, langgerekte „au”-roep uitende, op de jongen toe, braakt grote brokken halfverteerd voedsel uit, neemt hiervan een klein stukje tussen de snavelpunten en houdt dat een jong voor. Het kuiken pikt naar de snavelpunt, aanvankelijk nog met betrekkelijk slecht gerichte bewegingen en herhaalt dit totdat het een stukje voedsel in de snavel krijgt, dat het dan doorslikt. Soms ook pikt het kuiken zelf van het op de grond liggende braaksel. Het is HEINROTH, die zovele vogelsoorten en ook Zilvermeeuwen uit het ei opgekweekt heeft, opgevallen dat de kuikens al dadelijk na het uitkomen de neiging tonen, „nach unten zu picken, wenn man ihnen mit der Greifzange Futter darreicht, vor allem gerne nach roten Gegenständen...” Hij geeft dan een interpretatie van de natuurlijke situatie waarbij deze bewegingswijze naar zijn mening wel zal passen, door te vervolgen: „... also nach Fleisch. Sie rechnen eben damit, dass die ankommenden Eltern ihnen die Nahrung nicht vorhalten, sondern vorlegen, indem sie sie ihnen vorwürgen.” (HEINROTH 1928, Dl. 3. p. 47).
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 37
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.123
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: The first instalment of ”Flora Malesiana” was published in the last days of December 1948. The issue was 2500 copies, of which 1500 have been distributed. It contains a notice on 4 unnumbered pages (the first the provisional title page) which explains the scheme for the whole of the Flora while a brief outline is given of the contents of volumes 1-4 of the first series.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 38
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.124
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: Father G. Peekel died Febr. 19, 1949, in the Bismarck Arch. He is known as a plant collector since 1908 when he was stationed in the Bismarck Archipelago. In this Bulletin (p. 44) the rescue of his MS. Flora of the Bismarcks was announced. Many of his specimens formed the subject of contributions to Malaysian phytography (cf. ”Beiträge zur Flora Papuasiens” in Engler’s Bot. Jahrb. since 1912, and ”Plantae Peekelianae” by L. DIELS). Peekeliodendron SLEUMER, and numerous plant species commemorate his name. Prof. Dr R. Kanehira died at Tokyo on November 27th, 1948. During the Japanese occupation of Java he was Head of the Herbarium and of the Library (”Bibliotheca”) at Buitenzorg. See also under ”Miscellaneous”.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 39
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.128
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: Prospects for an Indonesian Agar-agar Industry. – An Indonesian agar-agar industry seems possible. Seaweeds containing a sufficient percentage of agar-agar to make them eligible for industrial purposes, are found in suitable quantities in Indonesian waters. Dr J. S. Zaneveld, the recently arrived algologist of the Buitenzorg Herbarium (cf. p. 85), is at present at Batavia occupied in collecting scientific and practical data in view of a future industrial development of these natural resources. Dr Ch.J. Bernard, is Chairman of the new established Union Internationale pour la Protection de la Nature residing at Brussels, Rue Montoyer, 42. We are sure that the fast disappearing autochthonous fauna and vegetation of Indonesia will receive all possible attention.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 40
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.126
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: Dr C.A. Backer finished the MS on the Amaranthaceae for the Flora Malesiana; he started work on the Chenopodiaceae, Aizoaceae and other families. Mr R.D. Hoogland, Leyden, finished the revision of Malaysian Tetracera, Acrotrema, Didesmandra and Hibbertia. He will soon start to work on Wormia and Dillenia.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 41
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    In:  Flora Malesiana Bulletin (0071-5778) vol.5 (1949) nr.1 p.135
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: One of the causes of instability in botanical nomenclature is found in that our predecessors did not verify the nomenclatural bearing of an unknown number of (often very rare) works. In PENNANT’s 4-volume ”Outlines of the Globe” (1800), a standard geographical work at its time (1) a chapter was found recently devoted to a ”Flora Indica”. The compiler had unintentionally made some name changes which remained unrecorded in scientific botany. Not long ago ROTHMALER unearthed many such works (2). It must be realized that, quite probably, many other works will be detected necessitating future unexpected and undesirable name changes. Our proposal is to exclude, onwards of 1951, for botanical nomenclature, all works which, up till that date, have not been used for purposes of priority. In other words, to declare these to be ”nomenclaturally extinct”.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Leidse Geologische Mededelingen (0075-8639) vol.14 (1949) nr.2 p.1
    Publication Date: 2014-10-27
    Description: In the Bergamasc Alps we have observed one major unconformity between the Basement rock and the overlying Permian. The total absence of any recognisable Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks accentuates this unconformity, and moreover this enormous hiatus makes the dating of any Palaeozoic event impossible. However, by comparison with the Central Alps and Kärnten, we learned that the Asturian orogenitic phase precedes the deposition of the first volcanic sediments. In analogy with the Aar and Gotthard masses we presumed the intrusion of the less metamorphic ortho rocks of the Basement, the granodiorite and the gneiss chiaro, to be of Upper Carboniferous age. The close resemblance of the chemical composition and differentiation of the Permian volcanic rocks and the Upper Carboniferous intrusive rocks induces us to assemble this period of magmatic activity into one period of Permo-Carboniferous age. In long NE—SW striking anticlinal zones these intrusives have penetrated into the old paraschists, causing some contact metamorphism. In the Lugano region where the volcanoes are better preserved and the differentiation of the lavas is more complete, we have seen 1) that the last feature of magmatic activity had been the pressing out of the granophyr, an acid igneous rock, in a very large dome-like structure. The chemical composition of this granophyr is so much like that of the gneiss chiaro or the granites of the Val Rossiga that there can be little doubt that they all belong to the same magmatic source. Also, the intrusive rocks of the Err-Bernina, Lower East-Alpine thrustsheets and their Permian porphyries have a similar chemical composition and must be closely related to our intrusive and volcanic rocks. Hence the whole region of what Later became the Alpine geosyncline was in Permo-Carboniferous time the scene of extensive intrusion and extrusion of igneous rocks. In Permian time the topographical surface was above sea level in the Lugano region where erosion was active and the volcanoes were formed in a mountainous country, but it was mostly covered by shallow water further east. In the later stages of this period considerable tangential forces shaped long anticlines, pressed out the granophyr magma to the surface and formed the very deep central Permian trough and the Camonica uplift of the Bergamasc Alps (see Plate XLIII). Other structural features are indicated, but only these two latter structures, the Camonica uplift and the Permian trough, are clearly visible, and they may be the result of faulting instead of folding. The shape of the Permian trough with its steep flanks and flat bottom would indicate perhaps a fault trough rather than a syncline. This trough is flanked in the NW by the Averara ridge, which, however, is a more pronounced uplift in the Middle Triassic than in the Permian. Whether the Brinzio-Maroggio anticline of the Lugano district, along which the volcanoes are arranged, must also be regarded as a Permo-Carboniferous structure can not he ascertained. Both the Lower Permian (Collio) and the Upper Permian (Verrucano) increase in thickness in eastern direction (compare fig. 16 and 17). In the Lugano region the Verrucano is only preserved in the small outcrops of the San Martino conglomerate at both sides of the Lugano lake. East of the Como lake it has a thickness of less than 50 m, but increases gradually to sonic 800 m in the eastern Bergamasc Alps. The Collio has a similar development of its thickness but is in the west a pure volcanic formation and is first observed round the Valsassina core as a sedimentary rock, further west only irregular patches of volcanic rocks have been deposited. In the East Alpine thrustsheets the Verrucano is generally present but not in great thicknesses, except in the Campo sheet. The Permian in the Lower East Alpine sheets (Bernina sheet) consists of porphyries only. The western limit of the Permian is again observed in the Helvetian thrustsheets, where the most western Axen sheet does not contain any Permian, whilst the more eastern Glarner and Mürtschen sheets contain thick Verrucano masses. The same wedging out of the Permian towards the west is observed along the Tavetscher zone between the Gotthard and Aar massives. The Triassic of the Lombardic Alps is its most interesting and best developped formation. The Werfenian of Lugano consists of a simple coarse sandstone, and the upper dolomitic member is encountered for the first time in the Valsassina. Through the whole Bergamasc Alps the Werfenian is rather sandy but becomes more and more shaly and calcareous towards the east, apparently we pass from a purely continental region in the west to a marine facies in the east. The same tendency was found in the Upper Permian where the Bellerophon horizon of South Tirol sets in above the Verrucano from the Brenta group eastwards. The development of the Middle Triassic as Anisian and Ladinian in distinct facies, in the Bergamasc Alps increasing in thickness in eastern direction, connects with the development of these stages on the Mt. Giorgio, where the Salvatore dolomite is already split in two by the Bituminous Horizon on the boundary between the two stages. The Middle Triassic from Lugano, with its Salvatore dolomite where Anisian and Ladinian can hardly he distinguished, slowly develops in the Bergamasc facies of Ladinian Esino dolomite-limestone and Anisian Gracilisschists and Trinodosus horizon. We have seen that the northerly facies of the Ladinian contains mostly Buchensteiner and Wengener, in the southerly facies the Esino occupies the whole Ladinian. Over the Averara ridge both stages are much thinner and incomplete, and the Anisian increases in thickness towards the Val Camonica, whereas the Ladinian decreases. Here we find also the distinct Wengener splinter shale basin. On the westerly border of the Camonica ridge many facies changes take place. FABER (lit. 21) pointed out that the wedging out of the Collio, the facies change from cavernous dolomite to Elto dolomite of the Upper Werfenian, and the rapid transition from Wengener shales to Esino dolomite all occur on approximately the same line, the one above the other. In Southern Tirol the Middle Triassic has much the same development, the total thickness depending mostly on the presence of thick reef limestone (dolomite), e.g. the Schlern dolomite or Marmolata limestone. One pecularity is, however, very striking in the region between the Pale San Martino and the Adamello and that is the disappearance of the Raibler as a distinct lithological horizon. The merging of Carnian and Ladinian dolomites sets in in the Val Camonica, in the Brenta group only occasionally some Upper Raibler mals are observed and the Raibler appears again north of the Pale San Martino. At the same time the Lower Ladinian facies of Buchensteiner and Wengener is also absent. Elsewhere the Raibler, although very variable, has very much the same shallow water facies, with occasional tuffogenous intercalations. Is is much thinner in the Lugano region. The Upper Triassic and Rhaetic are very different in the regions of Tirol, Bergamasc Alps and Lugano. In the east the two formations are developped as one dolomitic mass, the Dachstein dolomite; in the Bergamasc Alps we find a thick Norian Hauptdolomite and a complete series of well developped Rhaetic series, whereas in the Lugano region the Rhaetic is either absent or represented by the Upper member, the Conchodon dolomite. At the same time the Liassic rests here uncomformably on the Rhaetic or Norian with the typical transgressive Hierlatz facies. The Liassic siliciferous limestones are very much the same from west to east, somewhat thicker in the west, specially in the large complex from the Mt. Generoso to the Como Lake. The comparison of the three regions, Lugano, Bergamasc Alps and South Tirol has been summarized in a tabel. The boundaries between these geographical units are not constant though. The boundary between Tirol and Bergamasc Alps lies during the Norian-Rhetic in the Brenta group and in the Carnian-Ladinian and in the Permian west of Val Camonica. The Collio reappears even in a thick complex east of the Camonica ridge in the Val Trompia. The boundary between the Lugano region and the Bergamasc Alps is even less fixed, it lies somewhere between the Generoso and the Alta Brianza Lecco region, but can not be determined much further as the Liassic limestones cover all the older formations between these two points. The Averara ridge, altough very pronounced in the Permian, Lower and Middle Triassic is not a facies boundary, at both sides the facies is very similar. It has always been known that the Lombardic Trias facies is very much alike that of the East Alpine thrustsheets. Both in the Helvetian and in the Pennine zones of the Alpine sedimentation basin the Triassic is very poorly developped, and can in no way be compared to that of the Southern and Eastern Alps. When we consider the conformity between the Lombardic and eastern Alps facies somewhat closer, we observe a great similarity between the Lugano region and the Lower East Alpine unit. Both have porphyries in the Permian and no Verrucano, in both the boundary between Ladinian and Anisian is very vague. The whole Triassic in the Err-Bernina sheets is much reduced as compared to the Triassic of Campo- and Silvretta thrustsheets. The Rhetic is much completer in the Err-Bernina than in the Lugano region, but both are again characterized by thick siliciferous Lias limestones, which is transgressive with a Hierlatz limestone facies on the Rhetic and Norian in both tectonical units. The Middle East-Alpine thrustsheet, the Camposheet and its accessory units, is characterized in the Münster valley by a thick Verrucano series of some 600 m. with pebbles of quartzporphyry and granite. Porphyry sheets are lacking in this serie. The Triassic of the Camposheet as a whole is much thicker than that of the Lower East-Alpine sheets, but the Anisian is not very thick yet, much less than in the Upper East-Alpine sheets, and the Werfenian is hardly represented. Lugano Bergamasc Alps South Tirol Liassic Siliciferous limestone 100—1000 m. Transgressive Hierlatz facies Siliciferous limestone 500—1000 m. Limestone 300—400 m. Rhetic. Absent, or only Upper member Conchodon dolomite Complete from Alta Brianza to Brenta group 550—800 m. Daehstein dolomite ;' 1000 1400 m Norian Hauptdolomite 250 m. 1200 m. Hauptdolomite Carnian Series of shales, marl, dolomite 100—350 m. Thick series of shales, marl, dolom. and sandstones 250—700 m. Western facies Eastern facies Schlern dolomite porphyries, tufs etc. from Pale S. Martino 150 m shale Sst. dolomite Northern facies Southern facies Northern facies Southern facies Marmolata St. Cassian limestone Wengener Esino limestone Wengener sst. and sh. Buchensteiner chert, limestone 600—1200 Esino dolomite, limestone Wengener, splinter shale facies Ladinian Salvatore dolomite 300—600 m Salvatore dot. Bituminous horizon Mendola dolomite Buchensteiner or Beitzi sch. Anisian Trinodosus hor. 50—150 m. Gracilis Schists from W—E 150—450 m., Nodulous limest. Mendola dolomite Gracilis schists marls, dolom. """"Werfenian 50 m. sandstone Cavernous dolomite 200—450 m. shale, marl, sst. Servino Campiler sch. 250 m. Gastropod, list. Seiser sch. 80 m. Permian absent or porphyries, tufs etc. basal congl. Verrucano from WE 50—800 m. Collio, porph. vole. sst. tufs etc. central Collio shale basin 0—2000 m. Basal conglomerate Bellerophon hor. 0—250 m. Ciavflpnn Sst 100 9.CV\ m (Vermomnn} Bozener porphyries Basal conglomerate (Collio) The Ladinian is present as Wettersteindolomite (250—600m) without the typical Partnach facies of the Upper East-Alpine thrustsheets. The Raibler is some 400 m thick, dolomites, shales, shaly limestones, rauhwacke and gypsum, porphyrites etc. The Norian is very thick, 500—2000m, and developed as typical Hauptdolomite, whereas the Rhetic is present in the facies of the Kössener schists, black and reddish shaly limestones and shales, which can be compared to the Lombardic facies of the Scisti neri. The agreement with our western Bergamasc Alps is striking. Exeptionally thick Norian, Esinodolomite, thin Anisian, and thick Verrucano are the characteristics of the region between the Valsassina and the Val Seriana. The Werfenian is much completer in Lombardia, and the Collio of the central trough is absent in the Camposheet but in general the similarity is not less striking than that of the Err-Bernina sheet with the Lugano-Grigna region. The Averara ridge although not the boundary between the two facies, can possibly be correlated with the geoanticlinal ridge between the Lower and Upper East-Alpine sheets. The Upper East-Alpine thrustsheets, (Lechtal, Silvretta) show a great similarity with the eastern Bergamasc Triassic. The Werfenian has an Upper Rauhwacke member, the Anisian shows the nodulous limestone (Reiflinger Knollenkalk), the Gracilis limestone, the brachiopod limestone etc. in exactly the same facies. The Ladinian is not identical to such a degree as the lower members of the Triassic, but the Arlberg Limestone and dolomite can be very well compared to the Esino limestone and the Partnachschichten to the Wengener shales (splinter-shales!). The Carnian again is very similar, rauhwacke, marls, gypsum, shales and sandstones, black limestones are present in both units. In the Lechtal sheet the Norian Dachstein limestone and the Rhetic Dachstein corraline limestone are only separated by the „Kössenerschichten”, corraline limestone and shales of the Lower Rhetic. The Norian is reduced in comparison with that of the Camposheet. The Carnian of the Ducan region is exeptionally thick, some 900 m, with an upper 300 m of Upper-Carnian dolomites 1). Such development of the southerly part of the Upper East Alpine thrustsheet can already be regarded as a transition to the Camonica facies where nearly the whole 700m thick Raibler is developped as dolomites. Striking as the agreement of the development of the sedimentary sequence in Lombardia and in the east Alpine thrustsheets may be, great differences can also be noted. First of all the Permian of the Bergamasc Alps with its central Permian trough with 1500—2000 m of Lower Permian Carona shales and volcanic rocks can not be found back in the Eastern Alpine thrustsheets. In the second place the typical development of the Lower Ladinian in Buchensteiner and Wengener facies is restricted to the Southern Alps and Tirol. Finally the „Flecken mergel”, (mottled marls), and Allgäuschiefer of the Liassic of the eastern Alpine facies are not represented in Lombardia. On the other hand the abyssal facies of Upper Liassic, Dogger and Malm in Radiolarite and Aptici limestone and marl is present in both stratigraphical units. That great differences exist between two regions, which in their original position in the geosyncline are widely separated although in the same basin, is quite logical. Lombardia is the southwesterly extension of a large basin, of which the East-Alpine thrustsheets occupy the centre and the north easterly end. Moreover the basin must have widened out considerably in NE direction. That the troughs and ridges opened fan-like in this direction from Lombardia follows from the fact that the E—W distance from L. Maggiore to the Val Camonica is less than the combined breadth of the East Alpine thrustsheets. Moreover we must not forget that even in the small width of the Bergamasc Alps already considerable facies change from North to South could be demonstrated, both in the Ladinian and in the Anisian. The main differences are found, as mentioned above, in the Permian and in the Lower Liassic, particularly in the Middle and Upper East-Alpine sheets. The development of the Permian in the Bergamasc Alps is due to late Variscian movements which apparently are not parallel to the Alpine geosyncline, and therefore need not continue in similar facies in the direction of the Alpine geosyncline. The Liassic Allgäuschiefer of the East-Alpine facies can be regarded as a transition between the penninic Bündnerschiefer facies and the Lombardic silieiferous limestone facies. The Cretaceous of the East Alpine basins can in no way be compared to the Lombardic Majolica and Scaglia. This is due to the fact that in Upper Cretaceous time the Alpine orogeny attacked this northern part of the Alpine geosyncline, whereas Lombardia remained mostly undisturbed. The dividing line between the southern and eastern Alps originated with the folding of the East-Alpine sheets, and became accentuated when the Pennine sheets were folded in the Oligocene, and became still more pronounced when the uplift of the central folded system occurred in the post Oligocene Insubric phase. In the tectonical part we have shown that the youngest Tertiary tectonical direction is purely W—E. The Orobic thrustfault and its accessories cut off obliquely the older ENE—WSW structures as for instance the Orobic anticline. This latter direction is mainly pronounced in the anticlinal structures, e.g. the Brinzio-Marroggio anticline, the Orobic anticline, the Cabianca-Trabuchello anticline, and the Cedegolo anticline, but also in some faults as the Clusone and Bondione faults. The great thrustmovements, the Grigna thrustsheets, the thrusting against the Valtorta and the Valcanale faults, further the Timogno and Ardesio thrusts, and the eastern thrusts of the Pzo Camino and the Palline Borno-Lozzio masses is all bound to the E—W strike or the N—S compression. The Insubric line, the boundary between the Southern Alps and the Central Alps, i.e. the division line between Pennine root zone and the Orobic zone, has also a W—E strike from the Lago Maggiore to Dinaro. Therefore also this major tectonical line probably originated only in a later period of the folding process. This conclusion is in complete accordance with the views of the general conception of the Alpine orogeny, which places the origin of the Insubric line in the post Oligocene, older Insubric phase. In this phase the roots of the Pennine thrustsheets were tilted in a vertical position. The Insubric phase, the tilting of the root zones is naturally a time of uplift, the Central Alps rose above their fore- and hinterland. This is also the origin of the several fault steps we could discern in the Bergamasc Alps. In the Younger Insubric phase (Pliocene) when the final compression took place, all the Bergamasc thrustsheets were formed, they were sheared of their substratum from a higher step and pushed over the lower step. The N—S faulting has a intermediate position, it is younger than the old anticlinal folding and older than the final thrust, and is probably connected with the older Insubric phase when the uplifting of the steps occurred. The stratigraphic comparison has made it clear that the southern, the central and the eastern Alpine basins were portions of one geosyncline, separated from another probably by ridges, geanticlines, but still forming together one continuous unit. This connection was ruptured by the first severe Upper-Cretaceous Alpine orogenesis, the origin of the east-Alpine thrustsheets. At that moment an oblique line cut a southern minor portion from the rest. This rupture line later became the Insubric line. By its present position we can still follow its course in the original basin, because the southern Alps are only little changed in aspect compared to the more central parts. West of the Lago Maggiore it followed the ridge dividing the southern basins from the central Pennine ones, then, north of this lake it curves round to an E—W strike thus cutting obliquely through the basin structures. It retains this diagonal coarse untill it had crossed or just reached the very important Camonica geanticline, it then swung back to its original direction parallel to this ridge along the so called Judicaria line. Finally it resumes its E—W strike as the Pusteria line and limites southern Tirol to the North, separating this region from the East Alpine thrustsheets. This early boundary line is not quite identical with the Insubric line, because the latter cuts occasionally with a very sharp angle through the root zones of the Pennine thrustsheets, but the two lines are sufficiently alike to identifie them for our purpose. The remarkable wavy course of the Pusteria-Insubric line is thus due to the fact that the N—S compressional direction necessitated an E—W strike but the existing inhomogenities of the region indicated a NE—SW strike, between those two influences the result alternated. The ENE—WSW anticlinal structures being older than the original Insubric line, belong therefore to a prae-Cretaceous or Cretaceous phase, a phase which also accounts for the totally different facies of the Cretaceous in East-Alpine and Lombardic sedimentary-basins. If this is true some erosion on the crests of the Cretaceous structures may have taken place before the much later, probably Pliocene, finial compression took place. RASSMUS 1) has thoroughly treated the Cretaceous folding phase of the Lombardic Alps. The Scaglia of the foothills, in which unfortunately no fossils of stratigraphic value have been found, belongs probably to the Cenomanian-Turonian and is a typical regressive facies with which the Alpine sedimentary cycle closes. In the thick Santonian gravels, which were deposited in the Po plain, the material is derived from Liassic and Jurassic rocks, but also of Triassic rocks and even of Permian porphyrites. This conglomerate can he regarded as a equivalent of the Gosau Schists of the northern Alps. The folding phase preceding the erosion can be put therefore in one of the subhercynic phases of Stille. Undoubtedly the final thrusting has therefore been preceded by erosion, and we may presume that some of the thrusting has the character of „reliefüberschietrangen” as advocated by AMPFERER 2). In general, however, our thrustsheets are of too small dimensions to allow the determination of the characteristics of this particular way of thrusting. This phenomenon may to a certain extent account for the fact that the Grigna thrustsheets pass over the faulted and folded underground with plane thrustplanes without being affected in the least by these structures. I can not find much evidence in favour of such theory, though, because most of the structural features of the underground are of equally recent datum as the thrusting movement, or only very slightly older. The Valtorta fault for instance is certainly older than the thrusting, both because the thrustplanes pass over the fault and because the Norian and Raibler of the southern limb have been pressed against it. But it is not as old as the Orobic anticline, although it is fairly parallel to this structure, because it certainly belongs to the phase of uplifting of the central Alps, the older Insubric phase, and therefore not to the Cretaceous phase of folding. Still, even between the Older and Younger Insubric phases some erosion may have taken place, that is between the Miocene and the Lower Pliocene, and the height differences along this fault may have been removed to some extent. The same is true for the Clusone fault in connection with the Presolana sheet and the Pilo fault in connection with the Lozio overthrust. Let us summarize the results of our deductions in a short tabel. Extensive denudation removing all palaeozoic sedimentary rocks. Asturian folding followed by extensive intrusion of acid magmas in long stretched NE—SW zones. Permian. Erosion continues in the west. Magmatic intrusion is followed by widespread volcanic action. In the east deposition of large subaquatic volcanic sediments. Saalic compression, origin of central Permian Collio trough, Camonica uplift and extrusion of granophyr, Erosion in the western region continues, in the east deposition of Verrucano conglomerates. Triassic. Continuous sedimentation in the south-east Alpine basin of Triassic rocks. Older Kimmeric phase uplift of the Arzo anticline followed by erosion and transgressive Hierlatz facies in the Lugano-Lower East Alpine region. In the Lugano region the movement started already in the Rhaetic. Sedimentation of Liassic and of abyssal Dogger and Malm and bathyal Lower Cretaceous. Austrian or Subhercynic folding („Juvavische phase” of R. Staub) origin of long ENE—WSW anticlines. Only the first beginnings of the strong Cretaceous orogenesis of the East-Alpine sheets has effected Lombardia, later in this phase the eastern Alps were cut off along a diagonal line partly following the anticlinal ridges and were severely compressed in thrustsheets. The major Pennine (Oligocene) phase of the folding of the Pennine sheets and further compression of the east Alpine sheets did not reach the southern alps. Insubric phases, lste phase. The central Alps were raised to considerable height, the roots were tilted in vertical position and the ,,steps"""" of the Lombardic Alps were formed. Origin of BNE—WSW faults (Valtorta, Clusone, Valcanale faults). N—S striking fault systems (Val Vedra fault trough, Manina fault troughs). Intrusion of Adamello tonalite. 2nd. phase. N"""" to S compression, the lower limbs of the ENB—WSW faults were pressed against the fault, origin of Timogno and Ardesio thrusts. Origin of Tertiary dikes. 3rd. phase. Possibly some erosion. Strong N to S compression. Origin of Orobic thrust and accessory thrusts, (Jrigna thrustsheets, Arera thrust, Palline-Borno and Lozzio oventhrusts and the Presolana and ('amino thrustsheets. Often renewed activity along existing faults (Clusone fault). The age of these Insubric phases can be judged by the fact that the Miocene inolasse has been folded, and that (the horizontal Pliocene has been deposited in fjords eroded in a strongly dissected landscape.
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  • 43
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    Unknown
    In:  Leidse Geologische Mededelingen (0075-8639) vol.14 (1949) nr.2 p.258
    Publication Date: 2014-10-27
    Description: Pollen analytical and geological investigations of the Lower and Middle Pleistocene in the Northern Netherlands. The Pleistocene deposits in the northern part of the Netherlands, form through their extreme thickness up to more than 300 m, a promising object for study from the stratigraphical point of view. The boulder clay of the penultimate glaciation lies in the province of Drente at or near the surface, but in northerly and westerly directions it dips away beneath Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. The Pleistocene deposits below this boulder clay form the subject of the present paper. In the first chapter the existing opinions regarding the stratigraphy are briefly reviewed. Van Cappelle (1888, 1891, 1892a, 1892b) and Lorié (1887a, 1893, 1899) described several borings already in the last century. They found the boulder clay in general to be underlain by a fine grained sand below which a coarse sand occurred, containing many Scandinavian erratics. Both, Lorié and Van Cappelle considered the coarse sands as having been deposited under the simultaneous influence of southern rivers and northern fluvio-glacial streams. Therefore it was assumed that a Scandinavian ice-front was at that time not too far distant. Van Cappelle believed that this ice-front belonged to an older glaciation than that from which the boulder clay originated, since he found in the fine sediments some rare plant remains which indicated a temperate climate. Lorié, however, took the ice-front to be a mere oscillation of the same glaciation which deposited the boulder clay. Later geologists agreed with Lorié (Tesch, 1934, 1937, 1947; Steenhuis, 1939), basing their opinion on a correlation with the central part of the Netherlands, where a coarse zone occurs above the Nede clay representing the Mindel-Riss Interglacial (Florschütz and Jonker, 1942). It is at present generally accepted that these coarse gravel containing sands form one continuous horizon which was deposited during the first cold stage of the Riss glaciation, whereas the boulder clay represents the second cold stage. Hardly anything is known about deeper horizons in the northern Netherlands. According to Tesch and Steenhuis Mindel-Riss Interglacial deposits are lacking; the Mindel Glacial stage is perhaps represented by an other zone of coarse deposits overlying again a series of fine grained sediments. The base of the Pleistocene is formed by marine beds which, in the opinion of Tesch (1934, 1937), comprise in part, the Günz Glacial stage, since the molluscan fauna of the middle part bears a distinctly arctic character. Since the stratigraphy was based on lithological criteria alone it seemed desirable to investigate whether it could be confirmed on palaeontological grounds. For this purpose pollen analysis proved to be the most suitable method, since the sequence of sediments under review is accessible only in borings, which seldom yield macroscopic fossils. In chapter II some technical aspects of the pollen analytical research are discussed. The material available consisted of samples of some rare peat beds, of samples of often thick clay beds and of lumps of clay and peat, which are found sometimes in sand samples. Such lumps probably originate from very thin peat beds, which were not differentiated in the sample as separate layers. This is proved by the similarity between the spectra of these lumps and the spectra of thin beds found in situ in nearby borings (table II and III, p. 272). In general very sandy samples were not analysed. unless they were very humic and nearly sandy peat in appearance (table IV, p. 273). The samples investigated proved to be rich enough in pollen to furnish reliable counts. A number of absolute pollen frequencies of different materials are given in table I (p. 271). All the samples were prepared after the technique introduced by Erdtman (1943). Some spectra indicated pollen of tertiary genera, which became extinct in western Europe at the beginning of the Pleistocene period. These pollens are clearly derived from tertiary deposits, but the same may be the case with other pollen of less diagnostic character. The question thus arises to which extent the pollen content of the strata under study has been derived from older series. The correction technique developed by Iversen (1936), who subtracted the clearly secondary pollen he found in a boulder clay from the spectrum he obtained in the complex overlying it, could not be applied in our case, where the sediments studied unfortunately underly the boulder clay. It might be feasible to correct contaminated spectra by comparing them with pure spectra from nearly the same depth, so that possible climatic differences can be disregarded. Contaminated spectra were found in several thick clay complexes. In these cases intercalations of peat beds which could have yielded uncontaminated material for comparison do not occur. Therefore the amount of contamination could not be estimated and all spectra given are uncorrected. However, we have indicated in the diagrams the amount of typical tertiary pollen (T) and of Hystrix (H), expressed in percentages of the tree pollen. However, four arguments indicate that the amount of reworked pollen in general not great: 1. the low frequency of Hystrix, which proved to be a measure of the impurity in Iversen’s material; 2. the absolute pollen frequencies of the impure spectra as compared with the pure ones; 3. the very small pollen content of the boulder clay; 4. the similarity of pure and impure spectra in corresponding zones of different diagrams. The depth given for each spectrum in the diagrams corresponds with the average depth of top and bottom of the sample (in metres below N. A. P. = high water at Amsterdam). In chapter III the results of the pollen analysis are discussed, whereas in chapter IV a stratigraphical interpretation is attempted after comparing the diagrams. The number of Lower and Middle Pleistocene pollen diagrams from western Europe is still very limited. The most important diagrams are those from Quakenbrück (Wildvang, 1935; Jonas, 1937a) and Ummendorf (Selle, 1941), both from western Germany. The diagrams from Starup and Harreskov, published in the classical paper by Jessen and Milthers (1928), have not been used since it is quite uncertain whether the penultimate interglacial referred to by the authors can be correlated with the Mindel-Riss or the Riss-Warthe Interglacial. Of the borings investigated (for localities compare map, fig 1) Bantega yielded by far the best diagram. This boring has specially been carried out for this purpose and yielded a complete sequence of undisturbed cores. The diagram is found to be in close agreement with those of Quakenbrück and Ummendorf: during the hardwood phase the mixed oak forest reached its maximum at an early date (20.65—20.85m); only afterwards Carpinus and Abies appeared and Picea had a distinct (double) maximum after the climatic optimum of the hardwood phase (18.54 and 17.94 m). There can be no doubt as to the Mindel-Riss Interglacial age of this diagram. The same interglacial epoch can, based on a smaller number of spectra still clearly be recognized in some other diagrams viz. Bergumerheide (41.60—65.0 m), Sneek (24.0—46.0 m), Spannenburg (20.40—88.0 m), Lemsterland (15.58— 54.47 m) and Gasselte (27.80—62.65 m). Furthermore Bergumerheide (7.00 m) and Spannenburg (9.30 m) show a temperate spectrum close below the boulder clay, representing probably the Riss I/II Interstadial stage. Three deeper borings again show beneath the Mindel-Riss Interglacial a number of spectra with a temperate character. In a few of these pollen of Pterocarya occur (Spannenburg, 211.90 to and deeper; Lemsterland 153,40 m). Pterocarya has long been known from the Tegelen clay, but the age of this famous locality has not yet been determined with certainly. Tesch (1934, 1937) and Florschütz (1939) hold the view that it represents the Günz-Mindel Interglacial, but at present some authors consider the Tegelen clay as belonging to the Günz I/II Interstadial. Our palaeontological knowledge of the Lower Pleistocene is still too incomplete to solve the problem. We do not know whether some so-called tertiary relics (for inst. Tsuga, Pterocarya) which occur in the Tegelen clay, range upward into the first interglacial or not. In this respect we may remark that the diagrams from Spannenburg and Lemsterland possess no indications of cold spectra which could he interpreted as Günz II Glacial stage. An equivalent of the Tegelen clay has probably been found at Bergumerheide. Florschütz (1938) mentioned Azolla tegeliensis (155—157 m) which he suggested as a characteristic species of the zone of Tegelen. At Spannenburg another species (A. filiculoides) which is characteristic for the Nede clay (Mindel-Riss Interglacial) has been found between 25 and 40 m. A boring near Dordrecht however, yielded both species from the same bed. Bergumerheide shows between the horizon with A. tegeliensis and the Mindel-Riss Interglacial deposits a third zone with spectra of a temperate climate and without tertiary relics (88.0—125.25 m). This strongly suggests that the zone of Tegelen belongs to the Günz I/II Interstadial and that the abovementioned horizon at Bergumerheide represents the Günz-Mindel Interglacial. Perhaps the spectra between 187.15 and 197.90 m of Spannenburg belong to the same horizon. An entirely different picture is shown by the diagrams of Assen and Winschoten. Pinus predominates throughout the diagrams, but nearly all spectra are contaminated with tertiary pollen and with Hiystrix. As we do not know to which degree the percentages of certain genera are overrated, the diagrams are less valuable. The diagram of Assen is particularly monotonous. Winschoten shows rather high Alnus percentages in the lower part. The same has been observed in a thin peat bed of the boring Zuidbroek (93.17—93.27 m, table V, p. 291), which possesses 2% Tsuga pollen. Since in this case we have no reason to believe that the sample is contaminated, it must be assumed that the entire pollen content is autochthonous and therefore the spectrum probably represents the (Günz I/II Interstadial. The same horizon can perhaps be recognized in the nearby boring at Winschoten. The same picture as at Assen and Winschoten is shown by the diagram of Drouwen and the lower part of Sneek. We shall see later that geological considerations are of assistance in interpreting these profiles. In chapter V further consideration is given to the Middle Pleistocene marine horizon and a new conclusion has been reached regarding the age of this deposit which has a hearing upon the general understanding of the glacial stratigraphy of the northern Netherlands. In two borings the Middle Pleistocene sediments are partly developed in marine facies (Bergumerheide 46.00—62.00 m; Sneek 31.00—42.00 m). The marine deposits lie above a coarse fluviatile series which is generally held to be of early Riss Glacial age. The pollen diagrams prove the marine sediments to be deposited between the mixed oak forest phase and the Picea phase, i. e. in the second half, of the Mindel-Riss Interglacial. The underlying coarse deposits must therefore have been laid down during the first half of the same interglacial. A Mindel-Riss Interglacial transgression is known from England as well as from Germany. In East Anglia the Corton Sands (Baden-Powell and Reid Moir, 1942; Zeuner, 1945) and in N. W. Germany the sediments of the Holstein-See (Grahle, 1938) were deposited during this transgression. The molluscan fauna (Tesch, 1939) proves to be somewhat colder in character than the landflora which is understandable since the sea transgressed from the north and consequently introduced northern species. On the other hand free immigration from the south was possible by land. Reid (1890) has already pointed out that different conclusions may be reached regarding climatic conditions from a comparison of marine and terrestrial organisms. Furthermore several rivers are known to have had their main aggradation phases during interglacial times when the rising sea level decreased their transporting capacity and thus were forced to deposit their load. As Zeuner (1945) stated we have to distinguish between thallassostatic terraces in the lower and climatic terraces in the middle courses. All classic studies of river terraces have been made of climatic terraces with glacial aggradation and interglacial valley formation. The lower courses of two west European rivers have been studied from the eustatic point of view: the Somme (Commont, 1910; De Lamothe, 1918; Breuil and Koslowski, 1931/32) and the Thames (King and Oakley, 1936) and the results are briefly reviewed. It seems that the same conditions which obtained in the lower Somme and the lower Thames were present in the northern part of the Netherlands: the principal factors affecting the behaviour of the rivers were oscillations of the sealevel during glacial and interglacial times, although terraces in the morphological sense did not develop owing to the gradual subsidence of the North Sea basin. Since all relevant deposits are entirely covered by younger sediments we do not yet know where in this country the transition occurs from the type of sedimentation typical for the lower course of the rivers under predominant marine influence to the climatic terraces of their middle course. Three marine transgressions are known to have occurred in the Netherlands Pleistocene: 1° the Eemian, of Riss-Würm Interglacial age which has long been generally recognized; 2° the Middle Pleistocene transgression, the Mindel-Riss Interglacial age of which has now been proved by the pollen diagrams; and 3° the Lower Pleistocene transgression (Icenian), the exact age of which is still unknown. Therefore the question arises whether this oldest transgression might be connected with the first interglacial. This point is discussed in chapter VI. Tesch (1934, 1937) argued that the middle part of the marine Lower Pleistocene represents the Günz Glacial stage on the ground that its molluscan fauna is distinctly arctic in character. Unfortunately the oldest marine deposits occur in only one of the borings investigated (Lemsterland). A few spectra immediately above this horizon show a temperate character. Though the horizon from which the spectra are derived may possibly be separated from the marine deposits by a stratigraphical hiatus, we must consider the possibility that the marine Lower Pleistocene horizon has not been deposited under such cold conditions as would appear from the conclusions of Tesch. The lowermost spectrum shows a small amount of Pterocarya pollen, suggesting, in accordance with our present state of knowledge, a Günz I/II Interstadial age rather than a Günz-Mindel interglacial age. However, if Pterocarya would still prove to have occurred in Günz-Mindel Interglacial time, the marine Lower Pleistocene could be ascribed to a Günz-Mindel Interglacial age. Incidentally, during this epoch, a high sea-level has been observed all over the world. The map (fig. 2) shows the location of all borings of more than 150 m deep, whereas some other important borings have been added in the southern part of the area. The following is an explanation of the figures shown on the map with each boring: if two figures are given the first means the depth to the top of the marine Lower Pleistocene in metres, whilst the second, in brackets, indicates the lowest level reached without penetrating this marine horizon. One figure in brackets indicates the greatest depth reached. In this case no marine Lower Pleistocene or older formations have been met with. A figure preceded by T means that the Tertiary has been reached at this depth without encountering marine Lower Pleistocene. The map shows that the Lower Pleistocene in a marine facies is restricted to the western part of the area. Since the base of the marine beds has nowhere been reached we do not know whether it is transgressive, as it is in the southern Netherlands. Comparing the figures of Zwartsluis, Vollenhove and Lemsterland with that of Spannenburg, there is a striking difference which suggests that the marine horizon has disappeared by erosion in the sub-soil of Spannenburg. The profile of Spannenburg gives no evidence of the relative age of the sediments present as compared with the marine deposits elswhere. It follows from the above that the Pleistocene of the area under investigation is not composed of a number of continuous horizons laid down one upon the other. Up to now it was assumed that coarse sediments represented cold or glacial periods, whereas finer deposits corresponded with wanner and intraglacial phases. However comparing the results of the Spannenburg and Lemsterland borings in this light, we are struck by the fact that the deposits of the Mindel Glacial phase at Lemsterland are composed of coarse grained sediments, whilst the equivalent interval at Spannenburg is fine grained. Both show, however, spectra indicating a cold climate. Furthermore at Bergumerheide a continuous coarse section is formed which shows a diagram containing successively warm, cold and again warm spectra, which correspond with the Günz-Mindel Interglacial, Mindel Glacial and Mindel-Riss Interglacial respectively. This demonstrates that grain size alone is not indicative of the climatic conditions prevailing during sedimentation. A number of borings have been investigated from a sedimentary penological viewpoint by Edelman (1933) and by Böhmers (1937). From a stratigraphical viewpoint, the B-Scheemda group is most interesting. It is characterized by high percentages of para-metamorphic minerals, the amount of which decreases from east to west. Edelman therefore looked for their origin in an easterly direction. Later he suggested that this group might have been deposited during the Mindel glaciation, when the courses of German rivers were deflected through the northern Netherlands by the icefront (Edelman, 1939). In the boring at Urk the most conspicuous B-Scheemda influence occurs between 66 and 99 m; in the Kippenburg boring between 66 and 92 m, whilst the nearest wells of Lemsterland and Spannenburg show spectra with a cold character at corresponding depths. In the Suameer boring the B-Scheemda influence is, according to Böhmers, most distinctly developed between 163 and 175 m. However, his mineralogical table (Böhmers, 1937, p. 62) shows the presence of two more horizons with rather high percentages of para-metamorphic minerals, viz. between 122 and 142 m and between 70 and 80 m. The lowest interval could not be investigated for its pollen content. The 122—142 m interval is unfortunately barren of pollen but the underlying and overlying beds contain a temperate flora. The uppermost zone (70—80 m) is apparently equivalent to the Mindel Glacial interval as established at nearby Bergumerheide. Thus it is obvious that the B-Scheemda group or a mineral aggregate comparatively rich in parametamorphic minerals fluctuated at different times and that these fluctuations might correspond to periodic deflections of the Germanic rivers into the northern part of the Netherlands. A discussion of the considerable clay deposits, which puzzled Lorié already half a century ago, is given in chapter VII. These deposits are known from a limited number of localities. In general all fine grained sediments between the boulder clay and the upper coarse horizon have been considered to form one unit, comprising the Riss I/II Interstadial as well as the early fluvioglacial deposits. The pollen diagrams strongly indicate that this cannot be the case. The clay deposits of Bantega and the upper clay of Spannenburg are undoubtedly of Mindel-Riss Interglacial age. Assen and Winschoten, however, represent another, probably glacial type, also by their content of reworked pollen. Of further localities known to have very thick clay beds Dronrijp is the most interesting. Here the clay is clearly deposited in a valley cut in the marine Mindel-Riss Interglacial series and therefore is apparently younger. As the boulder clay shows hardly any depression above the clay, the valley must have been filled up before the Riss ice reached the region (pl. XLVI). All localities with clay deposits thicker than 70 m, including occasionally fine sand beds, have been shown in black on the map (fig. 3). The two figures given indicate the top and bottom of the clay horizon, unless the second figure is in brackets, which means that at that depth the base has not been reached. Their distribution suggests that the localities belong to two valleys, one running from east to west and a second one from southeast to northwest. The thick clay deposits in the lower half of the Sneek boring correspond, from a pollen analytical point of view, to the clay deposits of Assen and Winschoten, which are of a post Mindel-Riss Interglacial age. The clay of Sneek however, is covered by the marine Mindel-Riss Interglacial beds and must therefore be older. This suggests that the thick clay beds of other localities might also have been deposited in two phases, although separating interglacial beds are lacking in most of the profiles. The clay itself is an unpromising medium for pollen analysis, but better results may be obtained from the border regions where intercalations of sands with peat might occur. The profiles (fig. 4) show a gradual thinning out of the coarse deposits in the direction of Assen. The profile at Drouwen, in the vicinity of Gasselte, yielded spectra with a cold character and with reworked pollen above (see plate XLV) as well as below (refer table, p. 290) the coarse horizon. Strong evidence therefore exists that thick clay beds were deposited twice in valleys of glacial age during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene. The older of the two deposits apparently correspond with the „Lauenburger Ton” from northwestern Germany (Schucht, 1912). Apart from the above discussed valley systems of Sneek and Dronrijp a still younger valley system is known to exist. It developed after the above mentioned two valley systems had been filled up and it still existed at the time the Riss ice arrived because we find a mantle of boulder clay deposited in the bottom as well as on the flanks of these valleys. Such valleys have been recognized below the present Overijselse Vecht and the Ems rivers. Essentially we have recognized three periods during which valleys were formed in Middle Pleistocene times. The first (Sneek) is pre Mindel-Riss Interglacial and therefore probably of Mindel Glacial age. The second (Dronrijp) and the third (Vecht-Ems) both occur between the Mindel-Riss Interglacial and the arrival of the Riss ice and therefore probably correspond with the two cold stages of the Riss Glacial. From this scheme it might be concluded that the Riss ice reached the Netherlands during the Riss II stage. Chapter VIII summarizes in Dutch the sequence of events during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene and we refer to table (p. 333) for a chronological representation of most of the above described events.
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.32
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: For certain reasons I wished to train a young chimpanzee to choose from two similar boxes the one characterised by the ticking of a metronome inside it. My subject was a young male chimpanzee (Pan leucoprymnus Lesson), approximately three years old, Tommy by name. He was a good-natured chap, quite tame, and already for some years in captivity. When we knew each other a little better, he would welcome me every morning with a hearty “uhuh”, as soon as he heard my steps, and after the experiments of the day we would take leave by shaking hands as old friends. Tommy was rather lazy and not so playful as most young chimpanzees, but this quality made working with him easier and more regular. With a few exceptions it did not give much trouble to make 50—60 trials with him each day.
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  • 45
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.315
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: The distribution of fresh-water fishes like that of other groups, has been widely utilized by zoogeographers, but with widely divergent acumen and success. At one extreme are those non-ichthyologists who have uncritically utilized for evidence certain groups whose distribution happens to support whatever theory they may be espousing. At the other extreme is the work of careful ichthyologists like DE BEAUFORT (1913) and REGAN (1922) whose thorough knowledge of the groups with which they are working demands the most careful consideration of their conclusions. However, no zoogeographer who utilizes the evidence of diverse groups can be familiar at first hand with all of them, and the difficulty facing such workers is that of seeking out the really dependable evidence in those groups he does not know well. Aside from the difficulty of selecting dependable authorities or systematic works, the zoogeographer desiring to use the evidence of fresh-water fishes has another troublesome matter to contend with. This is the differing tolerance of salt-water exhibited by different groups of fresh-water fishes. As one example, and one which has frequently troubled zoogeographers, we may mention the Galaxiidae, fresh-water fishes of Southern South America, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, whose distribution has been held by some to be evidence for continental drift or southern intercontinental land-bridges. Ichthyologists now know that these fishes are, as a group, salt-tolerant and possibly either anadromous or catadromous, and that they are not really strong evidence for continental connections simply because it seems possible that they may cross ocean barriers.
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  • 46
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.57
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: In all snakes, the Boidae and Xenopeltidae excepted, only the right lung is well developed, while the left lung is rudimentary or absent (BUTLER, 1895). The right lung consists of an anterior alveolar part that is strongly vascularized, and of a posterior smooth-walled air-sac that is anangious. Between these two parts a transitional zone may be present, in which the wall of the lung shows a faint reticulate pattern, and which receives some very fine branches from the pulmonary vessels. In a number of snakes, among which the Viperidae, the situation becomes more complicated. In these snakes the membrane that connects the dorsal ends of the incomplete tracheal cartilages has become greatly expanded, and this dorsal wall has developed an alveolar structure. COPE (1894, p. 218) very aptly has named this the tracheal lung. When the tracheal lung has very strongly developed, it sometimes merges gradually into the right lung. In species with a rudimentary left lung, its opening into the trachea may be considered to mark the end of the trachea, and consequently also the beginning of the right lung. In other species a slight change in the structure of the alveoles may mark the boundary, but in a number of species it becomes a more or less arbitrary procedure to draw a boundary between the tracheal lung and the right lung. For the purpose of the present note it suffices, however, to consider as right lung that part of the respiratory tract that lies posterior to the middle of the heart. The development of the tracheal lung, and the relative size of the alveolar part of the right lung and of the air-sac vary according to genera and species.
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.530
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: Tijdens het directoraat van Prof. Dr. J. E. W. IHLE is mij op het Zoölogisch Laboratorium steeds vrijheid gelaten om bij de studenten belangstelling te wekken voor hydrobiologisch onderzoek. Hoewel de Hoogleraar IHLE dit onderdeel der biologie zelf niet beoefende, verleende hij hiervoor met grote bereidwilligheid alle materiële steun, waartoe de bescheiden middelen van het laboratorium hem in staat stelden. Wij beschikken thans dan ook over een kern van literatuur op hydrobiologisch gebied, waartoe niet weinig heeft bijgedragen de aankoop van de gehele separatencollectie van wijlen Dr. H. C. REDEKE, waarvoor de steun van de Vereeniging „Het Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres” werd verkregen. Onder auspiciën van het Zoölogisch Laboratorium werden in de jaren 1940 en 1941 cursussen georganiseerd op het gebied der hydrobiologie, waaraan respectievelijk 35 en 43 studenten deelnamen. Op deze cursussen werden door de volgende sprekers het woord gevoerd. In September 1940 door Dr. H. C REDEKE over Watertypen in Nederland, door Dr. B. HAVINGA over de Fauna van het IJselmeer, door Mej. A. P. C. DE VOS over Leeftijden van vissen en de biologie van de snoekbaars, door Dr. J. HEIMANS over Desmidiaceën, door Dr. G. BARENDRECHT over Waterinsecten, door Dr. C. O. van REGTEREN ALTENA over Mollusken, door Ir. K. W. H. LEEFLANG over het Waterleidingbedrijf, door den Heer A. VAN DER WERFF over Diatomeën, door Dr. Ir. T. Y. KINGMA BOLTJES over de biologische zelfreiniging van het water, door Mevr. N. L. WIBAUT-ISEBREE MOENS over zoutgehalten in Noord-Holland, door Prof. Dr. N. H. SWELLENGREBEL over Malariamuggen en door Mej. Dr. A. G. VORSTMAN over de Cyclus van het plankton gedurende een jaar aan de hand van het plankton in het Kinselmeer.
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  • 48
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    In:  Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (0067-8546) vol.28 (1949) nr.1 p.164
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: Before the outbreak of the war with Japan the author had the intention to publish an extensive account on the occurrence of an aestuarine fishfauna in and in front of the large aestuarines and river-mouths so often found in India, Burma, Malaya, Thailand and Indo China and in the Greater Sunda Islands, Sumatra and Borneo, the rivers of the latter two islands being the special field of investigation. However as a consequence of the war all, thus far, unpublished notes and the greater part of the collections were lost as is the case with a most interesting sample of an aestuarine fishfauna from South New Guinea, where biologically the same conditions exist as in Sumatran and Bornean rivermouths. This last collection remained partly unpacked when war broke out and its still unassorted part disappeared. Only about 20 % of the total was found back in a more or less good condition.
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    Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie
    In:  EPIC3Innsbruck, Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 280, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 278-279, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 284, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 287-292, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 280-281, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 281-282, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 295-296, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 274-278, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 293, ISSN: 0032-2490
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 283-284, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 292, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 285-286, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 297, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 286-287, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 296-297, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 293, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 297-298, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 261-273, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research
    In:  EPIC3Polarforschung, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research & German Society of Polar Research, 19(1/2), pp. 294-295, ISSN: 0032-2490
    Publication Date: 2022-02-16
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Polarforschung" , peerRev
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Sandner, Werner (1949): Nordlichtbeobachtungen in Grönland 1911/1931. Polarforschung, 19(1/2), 287-292, hdl:10013/epic.29024.d001
    Publication Date: 2022-05-07
    Description: Die Peridogramme aus Grönland zeigen Maxima bei den folgenden Werten: W-Küste: 29, 57, 86 Tage, im Mittel also 28,7 Tage. O-Küste: 27, 57 Tage, im Mittel also 28 Tage- Zusammenfassend kann man feststellen, daß sich die Abhängikeit der Nordlichttätigkeit von der Sonnentätigkeit zwar auch aus dem grönländischen Material erweisen läßt, daß sie aber dort bei weitem nicht so deutlich erkennbar wird, wie bei Aufzeichnungen aus niedrigeren Breiten.
    Keywords: Calculated; DATE/TIME; Date/time end; Duration, number of days; Maximum; Minimum; Visual observation
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 91 data points
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Owen, D M (1949): Atlantis Cruise 151 to Mediterranean area - scientific report No. 2 - bottom samples and underwater photography. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/data/atlantis_ii/02025011/02025011.pdf, 49-08, 31 pp, hdl:10013/epic.47451.d002
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: One of the objectives of WHOI Atlantis Cruise 151, covering the period from 7 December 1947 to 18 June 1948, was to obtain as complete a sampling of the sea bottom of the Meditterranean and Aegean Seas as was compatible with the remainder of the scientific program. It was furthermore planned to make concurrent bottom photographs as a means for studying the correlation between bottom sediments and the morphology of the sea floor. The photographs also held the possibility of determining the presence of bottom fauna. The underwater camera used for this work was loaned to us by Dr. Maurice Ewing of Columbia University. As it was fitted with a one foot long coring tube at the base of its pole a majority of the bottom samples were obtained by the camera itself. On the way to Gibraltar, several bottom photos were taken in the Atlantic ocean. One of them was the deepest underwater photograph ever taken at the tima (3026 fathoms) showing a cluster of objects, some as much as 5 inches across on a clay bottom. These appeared to be manganese nodules, judging from their rounded and bulbous shape, especially the potato-like form of some of them. A core sample obtained at the same spot with a corer attached to the camera stand contained abundant manganese grains.
    Keywords: AT151; AT151-73C; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantis (1931); Deposit type; DEPTH, sediment/rock; Description; Identification; NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database; NOAA-MMS; Photo/Video; Position; PV; Quantity of deposit; Sediment type; Size; Uniform resource locator/link to image; Visual description
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 8 data points
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    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: The cores described are taken during the USS San Pablo Cruise 3 from July to August 1949 by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. A total of 49 cores were recovered and are available at Scripps Institute of Oceanography for sampling and study.
    Keywords: Atlantic Ocean; Comment; Deposit type; Depth, bottom/max; DEPTH, sediment/rock; Depth, top/min; Description; Elevation of event; Event label; Latitude of event; Longitude of event; NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database; NOAA-MMS; PC; Piston corer; Position; Quantity of deposit; Sample ID; Sediment type; Size; SP003-33; SP003-48; Substrate type
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: The geographical, physical and biological aspects of the submarine canyons of the continental shelf off the coast of southern California have been described in earlier parts of this volume. Isopods were collected in 10 of the 15 canyons. Many benthic species were obtained since the specimens were obtained with a Campbell grab bottom sampler operated from the Hancock Foundation research vessel Velero IV.
    Keywords: 404_SCRV; Comment; Deposit type; DEPTH, sediment/rock; Description; Grab; GRAB; Identification; NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database; NOAA-MMS; Pacific Ocean; Position; Quantity of deposit; Sediment type; Velero; Visual description; VL4-6840
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 7 data points
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Stetson, Henry C (1949): Sediments and stratigraphy of the East Coast continental margin : Georges Bank to Norfolk Canyon. Papers in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Cambridge, MA and Woods Hole, MA, 11(2), 63 pp, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/440
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: New surveys were completed and data from the field sheets were kindly furnished by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for use in dredging and coring operations. This field work, first reported in 1936, was continued from time to time until 1941 as new soundings became available. Rock dredging and coring has been carried out in every major canyon on the slope from Corsair Canyon at the tip of Georges Bank to Norfolk Canyon off the entrance to the Chesapeake. Numerous cores have also been taken from the areas in between; and while the whole slope from Georges to the Chesapeake has not been covered, it is believed that no significant areas have been missed. In the following report the tows and cores will be described by areas from Georges Bank southwards, as the same region was revisited in successive years. The various samples, however, will be referred to by number followed by the year in which they were taken. The material is in storage in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and in the Museum of C