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  • 1945-1949  (32)
  • 1935-1939  (96)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An examination of six near earthquakes in Western and Central Europe indicates that the velocity of P in this region is somewhat higher than in Southern Europe and Japan, the difference in dt/dΔ being about os.5/1°. The agreement found in a previous comparison is attributed to a possibility that P in the Tauern earthquake was read late owing to weakness. Apart from the Tauern earthquake the earthquakes used in previous discussions are consistent with the existence of the difference. The results are consistent with the observations of the Burton-on-Trent explosion provided that the foci were shallow, probably within the sedimentary layer. The direct examination of Pg and Sg at short distances leads to a suggestion of differences of focal depth, but this is contradicted by the comparison of P with Pg and of S with Sg. The chief anomaly outstanding is that the comparison of P with Pg suggests an increase in the allowance for the upper layers for a surface focus, that of S with Sg a decrease; the residuals of S and Sg show discrepancies at several points from the hypothesis that the errors are purely random, but their distribution does not suggest any explanation.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The time for which it is necessary to leave a bore hole in order that the disturbance of temperature due to drilling may have disappeared is discussed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Measurements are described which permit the determination of the terrestrial heat flow in eighteen bore holes in S.W. Persia. The variations of heat flow that are found to exist can to a large extent be explained by the geological structure. The influence of topographic irregularities, climatic changes, recent tectonic movements and denudation upon the heat flow is discussed. If we assume that the climate has become warmer in the last 10,000 years this may have reduced the terrestrial heat flow by at most 0.31×10−6 cal./cm.2 sec. The other agencies discussed have only a small influence upon the observed heat flow. The mean value of the heat flow in eighteen bore holes is 0.87×10−6 cal./cm.2 sec. This is a low value, but it agrees rather well with the recently determined values of 0.98×10−6 in Great Britain and 1.16×10−6 in South Africa.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Values of the coefficient of surface friction between the ocean and the overlying air are deduced from pilot balloon observations. They would seem to indicate that this coefficient varies directly as the wind speed, the proportionality expressed in c. g. s. units being about 7 × 10−7. On the assumption that this is so, the coefficient of turbulence in the ocean is estimated to be represented by K= 7.3 × 10−11(V8)4, where k is the coefficient of turbulence and V8 is the surface wind speed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The hypothesis has been set down that at pressures ranging from 0.4 × 1012 to at least 3.6 × 1012 dynes/cm.2 (the latter being the pressure at the Earth's centre) the compressibility K−1 of a substance at temperatures of the order of those in the Earth's deep interior is essentially independent of its chemical composition. A simple form of the hypothesis to the effect that K and dk/dp (where p denotes pressure) change continuously and smoothly throughout the Earth below a depth of 1000 km. has been discussed in relation to seismic data. The hypothesis entails an abnormally large density gradient in the lowest 200 km. of the Earth's mantle, and in the Earth's inner core, and that these two regions are not chemically homogeneous. It entails that the density near the Earth's centre lies between about 16 g./cm.3 and 20 g./cm.3 (apart from a possible accumulation of even denser material very close to the centre). The hypothesis in its simplest form would require the Earth's density to be a little higher in the region above the 1000-km. level than the figures given in a previous model. The hypothesis would entail that the inner core is solid, capable of transmitting S waves at a speed not less than about 4.9 km./sec. and probably less than 6.0 km./sec.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A simplified method is given for finding the corrections for bending and stretching of a pendulum used for making an absolute determination of gravity. It appears that the correction given by Clark is incorrect and that the value of g for Teddington consequently needs an increase of about 1.7 mgal. Examination of several minor corrections mentioned by Heyl and Cook for the Washington determination shows that they mount up and that the value given by these authors also needs an increase of about 1.5 mgal. When taken in conjunction with the relative determination by Bullard and Browne, the revised values give a discrepancy of 4.7 ± 1.6 mgal., which is large enough to need attention. An independent determination is desirable.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In a previous paper (M. N., 108, 406, 1948) the author has suggested that the density jump at the boundary of the Earth's core is duc to a phase transition under pressure, and not to the appearance of a new material such as iron. A metallic type of structure was proposed for the material in the core. In the present paper the transition to the metallic phase is explained in greater detail. Seismological data are used to prove that the core cannot be composed of either iron or an alloy of nickel and iron. It is shown how the theory removes certain difficulties arising from the hypothesis of an iron core, and how it can account for features not hitherto explained.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The constitution of Venus is discussed in the light of the density-pressure hypothesis stated by W. H. Ramsey. It is shown that on this theory, an increase in the precision of observations of the diameter of Venue can lead to a useful test on the question of the chemical homogeneity of the Earth's mantle. ‘The bearing of the writer's compressibility-pressure hypothesis on the density distribution in Venus is discussed. Values of the density and pressure in Venus are also given on the older hypothesis that the Earth's mantle and core are composed of chemically distinct materials.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The tidal movement of sea water relative to the Earth's magnetic field induces electromotive forces of a few millivolts per kilometre. Recent measurements off Plymouth show that the potential gradient is at right angles to the streams in that part of the English Channel. Observations on cross-channel telephone cables indicate that a considerable flow of electric current takes place, which can be accounted for b assuming the mean conductivity of the sea-bed to be of the order of 6 × 10-5 (ohms-cm.)-1. Tidally generated earth-currents spread into the land on either side of the Channel and have been measured near Lulworth. It may be possible to use them for the measurement of tidal stream velocities.In the second part of the paper the potential gradients generated by water flow in shallow channels of rectangular or elliptical section are examined. The horizontal gradient in the water is almost independent of vertical variations in water velocity but is affected critically by the depth of the channel and the conductivity of the channel-bed. The induced electric currents can be expected to extend to depths comparable with the width of the channel.
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