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  • 1950-1954  (41)
  • 1935-1939  (96)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An expression is derived for the temperature distribution T(x, t) in a semi-infinite solid, accreting with constant velocity v, on whose rising surface there is impressed the temperature T(o, t)= A+B cos (wt-θ), where x is depth, t is time, and A, B, ω and θ are constants. This solution is applied to the problem of an accumulating snowfield. The annual temperature wave, if accompanied by the rapid accumulation of snow, is shown to produce considerably lower temperatures in the firn than if accumulation is lacking. The effect of a diffusivity which varies with depth is also discussed; it is found that this may be treated approximately as equivalent to a theoretical fictitious velocity of accumulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The corrections for bending and stretching of a pendulum, used for making an absolute determination of gravity, are obtained by a simple process depending on the equation of angular momentum, the results agreeing with those recently given by Jeffreys. The source of error in Clark's work is pointed out, and also an error in Jeffreys' which has no effect on the result.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: At a certain stage in the cooling of the Earth a type of circulation could arise, analogous to the cellular convection of H. Bénard. G. F. S. Hills has suggested this as an explanation of the distribution of continents. It is found that the easiest modes to excite are those in which the disturbances of temperature and radial velocity contain spherical harmonics of degree I, and the surface currents would tend to sweep floating matter to one side. The theory shows some prospect of providing an explanation of the land and water hemispheres, though there are some outstanding difficulties.An approximate solution is also derived for a spherical mass with a rigid boundary, heated from within. It is again found that the easiest modes to excite correspond to harmonics of degree I.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Geological data are used to contour the bottom of the Cuddapah Basin, which is found to slope down eastward to a maximum depth of over 18,000 feet below sea-level. Using these contours the geological effect on gravity at the surface due to the departure from normal density (2.67) of the pre-Cambrian sediments in the Basin is calculated. Gravity anomalies over the Basin computed for density 2.67 are strongly negative, and these are increased by the geological corrections, since the average density of the sediments in the Basin is 2.74. Since it is probable that the underlying rocks, like those surrounding the Basin, have normal density, the defect of gravity is ascribed to a downwarping of the crust, which is assumed to have a total thickness of 30 km. Computation of the effect of downwarping to 18,000 feet gives results consistent with the gravity data. Crustal warping is briefly discussed, and a modified method of topographical reduction of gravity data is suggested.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Calculations have been made of the partitioning of energy of P waves incident from above against the boundary of the Earth's inner core, and of P and SV waves incident against this boundary from below. In these calculations the inner core has been assumed to have rigidity as in an Earth model based on compressibility theory. The calculations have been applied to estimating the relative amplitudes of the phases PKJKP and PKIKP at various epicentral distances for a given earthquake. It is shown that, on the assumptions made, the phase PKJKP is most likely to be observed over a range 130°≫Δ≫ 155° of epicentral distance, the amplitude in this range being about one-fifth of that for PKIKP. It is suggested that readers of seismograms who find PKIKP strongly recorded in this range might also look for the phase PKJKP; the writer of this paper would much appreciate it if observational evidence supporting the existence of the phase PKJKP could be communicated to him for purposes of collation.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A review of current theories of the scintillation of stars on optical wavelengths shows that the refraction theory of scintillation requires excessive atmospheric density gradients, and fails to explain the observed scintillation in colour, whilst the physiological explanations are insufficient to explain all the observed phenomena. A new theory, in which the scintillation phenomena are attributed to Fresnel diffraction at a non-homogeneous atmospheric layer, is shown to explain the observed effects, and to require considerably smaller density gradients. A similar theory, taking into account the effect of a wave-length change of 107, is shown to explain the observed fluctuations in intensity of radio waves from the localized extra-terrestrial sources of radio noise.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The energy in various model primitive Earth-Moon bodies containing a normal phase X and two high-pressure phases Y and Z has been examined. In each model, the first high-pressure phase Y has been taken to be in agreement with the data for the outer central core of Bullen's Earth Model B. On certain simplifying assumptions, it is then shown that disappearance of the phase Z from the primitive body would be accompanied by the release of sufficient energy to eject a body of the Moon's mass, provided that the radius of the region occupied by the phase Z was at least about 1500 km and that the density of Z is at least about 18 g/cm3. This result gives some quantitative support to Bullen's theory of the origin of the Moon, provided that his suggested mechanism of resonance could lead to sufficient distortion to take the primitive body over a potential barrier into the state in which the phase Z has disappeared.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Simultaneous measurements of the vertical component and two perpendicular horizontal components of gravity have been made in the I. C. I. Salt Mine at Winsford (Cheshire) over the period 1951 April 16 to 24. Apart from the gravitational tide the measurements show a well-developed influence of the variations in the maritime loading, especially in the horizontal components. A common drift in all components indicates the influence of meteorological pressure variations over a large area. Furthermore, diurnal variations of presumably meteorological origin have been observed. The “load tilt” has been determined. It is elliptical with an azimuth of N. 47° W. of the main axis and has an amplitude of 1.65 millisec per foot tide at Liverpool (5.5 millisec/m). The load influences in the vertical component are only 2.4 per cent of those in the horizontal direction and indicate the influence of more distant oceanic areas.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The times of P in six Japanese and five “European” earthquakes, selected because good determinations of epicentres are possible from stations within 30°, are studied. Revised tables for earthquakes in Europe and Japan are constructed. Evidence concerning differences of the times at distances over 30° is some what conflicting; if there are any they do not exceed 28, but a difference of the order of I part in 300 between the velocities under the eastern and western halves of Eurasia is possible.
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