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  • 1950-1954  (41)
  • 1940-1944  (12)
  • 1935-1939  (96)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: When account is taken of the angular momentum of surface masses moving relative to the solid Earth it is found that the equations governing the variation of latitude are not sensibly affected by changes in the rate of rotation and that the equations previously used are adequate if correction terms are added to account for the angular momentum which may be large enough to have an observable effect.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In an earlier paper it was suggested that it was failure in the region between 250 and 600 km below the surface which determined the periodicity of orogenic phenomena. In this paper estimates of the cross-sectional areas of the oceanic troughs and of the mass deficiencies reflected in the strips of large negative gravity anomalies are given and it is inferred that the interval between successive periods of failure is 50 million years.It is pointed out that if the troughs are formed in the manner described in the earlier paper then a regression of sea-level of about 70 metres will occur as a result of their formation. Finally some aspects of the development of the trough regions into mountain ranges are discussed qualitatively.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The results are given of the harmonic analysis of the Admiralty magnetic charts of declination, horizontal intensity and inclination for the epoch 1942.5. Within the limits of observational error, the Earth's magnetic field appears to be entirely of internal origin. There is no evidence of a dipole field of external origin greater than 0-1 per cent of the field of internal origin. The intensity of the dipole field is at present decreasing at a rate of about 5 per cent per century. The geomagnetic poles have a westerly drift at a rate of 4°-5 per century; the north magnetic dip pole is moving in a direction a little to the west of north, but the south magnetic dip pole appears to be practically stationary. In consequence of the dearth of magnetic data over the oceans since 1929, magnetic charts are becoming less accurate and there is a great need for airborne magnetic surveys of ocean areas.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: This paper, which was almost completed* by Dr Corkan just before his death in 1952, gives a method of analysing observations of the tilting of the Earth's surface. The method combines observations from two places and assumes only that the body tilt due to the direct yielding to the attractive forces is simply related to the equilibrium form, but with a constant phase lag, and that the semidiurnal constituents in the load tilt have the same ratios as in the loading tide. It is shown that these ratios are very stable over large parts of the oceans, and a useful table is given for the main seas and oceans. This method avoids the uncertainties of computation of the loading tide which have caused many difficulties in previous investigations, and it automatically eliminates the greater part of the secondary effects of the more distant oceanic tides.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Two field gravity meters were read continuously for a period of 14 days, one at Peebles in South Scotland, the other at Kirklington near Nottingham. The experiments have shown that the observed variations of gravity were proportional to the predicted tide-raising force to within a standard deviation of 1/50, milligal. The factors of proportionality are 1.02 for Kirklington, and 1.10 for Peebles. There were no significant phase differences on the average; the individual phase differences were rather irregular.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Simultaneous tidal gravity measurements at Peebles and Kirklington over a period of 14 days have been analysed harmonically. The diurnal terms K1 and O1 give a ratio of observed to theoretical amplitude of G= 1.1 without significant phase difference. The semi-diurnal terms show a phase lag of about 10° and G= 1.2 at Kirklington and G= 1.1 at Peebles. This difference is explained as due to regional influences of sea-tides. G= 1.10 to 1.15 is regarded as the most probable value resulting out of these observations. The influence of temperature and pressure is discussed and the existence of a 24-hour period of non-gravitational origin (“thermal tide”) confirmed. The most probable values of Love's numbers “k” and “h” and the geophysical consequences as to the properties of the interior of the Earth are discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A definition of height is given in terms of the geopotential that will agree to the second order with the height determined by direct measurement along the vertical where such measurement is possible. The free-air reduction of gravity is carried to the second order so as to permit allowance for terms in eh and h2.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An extensive network of gravimeter stations has been observed by the Geological Survey of Great Britain using a Frost gravimeter. In the course of this survey gravimeter observations were made at recent pendulum stations in York, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Edinburgh and Aberdeen. At these stations the gravimeter determinations gave values for differences in gravity from Pendulum House, Cambridge, which were consistent with the pendulum observations of Browne, Cook, McCarthy and Parasnis (1950). If the value of gravity at Pendulum House, Cambridge, is assumed to be 981.26500 cm/s2 the values at the other stations are found by combining the pendulum and gravimeter observations as:–York, Minster Crypt 981.41474 cm/s2± 0.00011Newcastle, King's College 981.50608 cm/s2± 0.00012Edinburgh, Royal Observatory 981.58014 cm/s2± 0.00013Aberdeen, Marischal College 981.69597 cm/s2± 0.00014From the observations at these pendulum stations an accurate calibration factor was obtained for the Frost gravimeter and this was found to differ significantly from the calibration factor determined from observations in the tower of Westminster Cathedral. Further measurements at Westminster Cathedral showed that the vertical variation in gravity is not linear but is distorted near the base of the tower, probably due to local terrain effects.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Using the Cambridge pendulum apparatus the value of gravity at the National Physical Laboratory has been found to be 69.90 ± 0.16 mgal greater than that at the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. The result of a measurement with a Worden gravimeter was 70.36 mgal, and other indirect gravimeter measurements are in satisfactory agreement with the pendulum result.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide: The rate of photo-dissociation of CO2 is appreciable only in the region above about 100 km. If local equilibrium prevails the carbon would occur mainly as the monoxide in this region, and as the dioxide below. However, oxidation may proceed so slowly that the life of a CO molecule is long compared with the characteristic time associated with atmospheric mixing effects. In this case the CO resulting from photo-dissociation would not be confined to above the 100 km level, but would extend much lower; its total abundance could scarcely be great enough to produce the observed absorption lines. It is estimated that the various forms of combustion taking place on the Earth would provide the CO content of the atmosphere within perhaps four years or even less. Methane: Dissociation of CH4 in the upper atmosphere is brought about mainly by collision processes. These prevent the existence of appreciable CH4 above the 100 km level and probably keep the concentration low even down to 70 km. The yield to date from oil wells and coal mines appears to be less than the amount of the gas now in the atmosphere. Seepage from fuel beds, and the anaerobic decay of vegetable matter, are the only obvious naturally occurring sources of significance. As far as can be judged at least ten years (and probably much longer) is required for the production of the atmospheric abundance. Nitrous oxide : Information on the necessary rate of formation of N2O is obtained by calculating the photo-dissociation rate. One hypothesis is that soil micro-organisms produce the gas, but it appears that the yield would only be sufficient if N2O were a major end-product of denitrification. Many of the homogeneous gas reactions suggested by earlier workers must be rejected, since there is an inadequate supply of the requisite parent particles. The only acceptable parent particles seem to be those arising directly or indirectly from the photo-dissociation of O2 in the Herzberg continuum. Various reactions involving O, O3 and N2 are discussed. Though they are very slow they might nevertheless give rise to sufficient N2O.
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