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  • Articles  (583)
  • Chemical Engineering  (583)
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  • 1955-1959  (583)
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  • Articles  (583)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 155-158 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The available experimental density data for hydrogen have been complied to produce a reduced density correlation for the liquid and gaseous states. This investigation has utilized fifty-seven sources of data, extending from the early studies of Amagat (1880) to the recent contributions of Johnston, Keller, and Friedman (1954).Based on the concept of a reduced density, a correlation for hydrogen has been developed ranging in temperature from the melting point (14°K.) to 3,300°K. and in pressure as high as 2,550 atm. This correlation provides continuity between the liquid and gaseous phases; whereas existing equations of state fail to describe the experimental behavior in the transitional region, particularly near the critical point.Four hundred and eighty-five experimental points covering the entire region were checked to establish the reliability of this correlation, which reproduced the experimental data to within 0.49%.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 159-160 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Based on properties which are characteristic of all gases, modifications are developed for an equation of state previously proposed in this journal (1). A specific application of the modified equation is made for the PVT data on carbon dioxide, and considerable improvement over the original equation is shown for densities in the neighborhood of 1.4 times the critical density. The new equation differs from the old equation only by the presence of the A5 and C5 terms, these having originally been taken to be zero.
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  • 3
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 161-164 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The vapor-phase solubilities of carbon tetrachloride, iso-octane, toluene, and n-decane were measured in compressed hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide at 50° and 75°C. and at various pressures between 20 and 90 atm. The virial equation of state was used to describe the volumetric properties of the vapor mixtures, and the second virial cross coefficients were evaluated from the solubility data. The results indicate that the vapor phase departs from ideality very quickly for these systems as the pressure increases, particularly at pressures greater than 10 atm.
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  • 4
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 165-168 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transient absorption rates of oxygen into water have been measured by passing a laminar jet through the pure gas for contact times varying from 0.8 to 11.8 msec. The absorption rate is significantly lower than the theoretical value corresponding to no interfacial resistance, if a diffusivity of 2.20 × 10-5sq. cm./sec. at 22.2°C. is used for comparison. The available evidence indicates that this diffusivity is about correct and that the lowered rate may be caused by an interfacial resistance described by an interfacial transfer coefficient equal to 0.6 cm./sec. This resistance is small enough to be neglected in most gas absorbers.
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 169-174 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of five operating variables on the uniformity of fluidization in a 4-in.-diameter column were determined by a statistically designed experiment. Density fluctuations inside the bed were measured by a capacitance method. Certain parts of the experiment were repeated in a 24-in.-diameter column for comparison with the 4-in.-column data.In the 4-in. column gas velocity had by far the greatest effect on uniformity, with uniformity generally decreasing with an increase in gas velocity. This is consistent with the theory that most gas introduced in excess of the rate for incipient fluidization passes through the bed in the form of various-sized bubbles. Better uniformity at the lower bed level indicates that bubbles grow in size as they proceed up the column. An entirely different gas-flow pattern was indicated in the 24-in. column.
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 174-177 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The free-surface model, successfully employed to predict sedimentation, resistance to flow, and viscosity in assemblages of spherical particles, has been extended to the case of flow relative to cylinders. It is shown to be in good agreement with existing data on beds of fibers of various types and flow through bundles of heat-exchanger tubes for cases where it can reasonably be expected to apply. Close agreement in the dilute range with the only theoretical treatment for flow parallel to a square array of cylinders provides interesting validation of the model.
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 181-188 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental studies are described concerning the fluid dynamics, particularly in the turbulent region, of dilute solutions of free-draining, nonassociating, linear polymers; sodium carboxymethylcellulose, ammonium alginate, polyisobutylene, and carboxypolymethylene, all of which are pseudoplastic. These solutions were run in laminar, transition, and turbulent flow in a pipeline flow apparatus designed to permit measurement of dynamic pressure drop and impact pressure by radial traverse.Photographic studies with dye injection used at the tube wall and at the tube center showed that turbulent flow of these pseudoplastic fluids has the following characteristics compared to Newtonian fluids: poor over-all radial mixing, thicker nonturbulent layer at the wall, and decreased rate of formation of horseshoe vortices at the wall.
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 189-204 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theoretical analysis for turbulent flow of non-Newtonian fluids through smooth round tubes has been performed for the first time and has yielded a completely new concept of the attending relationship between the pressure loss and mean flow rate. In addition, the analysis has permitted the prediction of non-Newtonian turbulent velocity profiles, a topic on which the published literature is entirely silent.To confirm the theoretical analysis, experimental data were taken on both polymeric gels and solid-liquid suspensions under turbulent-flow conditions. Fluid systems with flow-behavior indexes between 0.3 and 1.0 were studied at Reynolds numbers as high as 36,000. All the fully turbulent experimental data supported the validity of the theoretical analysis. The final resistance-law correlation represents a generalization of von Karman's equation for Newtonian fluids in turbulent flow and is applicable to all non-Newtonians for which the shear rate depends only on shear stress, irrespective of rheological classification. All the turbulent experimental data for the non-Newtonian systems were correlated by this relationship with a mean deviation of 1.9%.
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  • 9
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 235-239 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The physical absorption of gas by water in a tower packed with Raschig rings has been investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficient which was separated by dividing the capacity coefficient by the wetted surface area is discussed from the standpoints of the two-film and penetration theories. A new and simpler dimensionless group is presented which correlates about 90% of the data reported, including the author's own, within an accuracy of ±20%.
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  • 10
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 7S 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 8S 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 12
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 410-410 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 13
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 436-439 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The current understanding of the macroscopic (bulk) properties of polar substances in terms of molecular theory, or the correlation of them in terms of corresponding-states principles is summarized.
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  • 14
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 301-303 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Volumetric data on gas mixtures and vapor-phase data for gas-liquid equilibria have been correlated within the framework of the theory of corresponding states. An expression based on the London potential for dispersion forces was used to compute characteristic temperatures for various binary systems, and a correlation was developed relating these temperatures to the polarizabilities, ionization potentials, and critical volumes of the pure components. The correlation shows how the molecular shape of a liquid affects its vapor-phase solubility. With the help of this correlation it is possible to make very good predictions of such gas-liquid equilibria as are required in high-pressure distillation, absorption, and petroleum hydrofining operations.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The problem of multicomponent distillation is considered for a column with an arbitrary number of feed streams and an arbitrary number of side-stream withdrawals. The overheads from the side-stream strippers are admitted to the column, introducing the inert stripping medium into the main column. Provisions are made in the calculations for complete heat balancing, inert injection, and internal reflux cooling. The method of computation is that of a previous paper involving the component-by-component technique. Calculations are made on the main column and give first approximations to the side-stream compositions; stripper calculations are then initiated. An alternating procedure is instituted between the main column and the strippers, the successive iterations continuing until a preassigned accuracy in the desired quantities is reached. An extensive numerical problem is worked.
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  • 16
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 453-457 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A differential type of flow reactor, 0.25-in. I.D., was used to study the kinetics of the hydrogenation of ethylene on an alumina-supported nickel catalyst. This is apparently the first investigation made above atmospheric pressures. Data were obtained from 14.7 to 70 1b./sq. in. abs. and feed compositions from 40 to 90 mole % hydrogen. Measurements at temperatures from 30° to 80°C. indicated an apparent activation energy of 11,600 cal./g.-mole.It was found that the activity of the catalytic surface was reduced by exposure to ethylene, or mixtures containing an excess of ethylene, owing to the formation of acetylene residues. Pretreatment of the catalyst at temperatures of 170°C. with mixtures of ethylene and hydrogen stabilized the catalyst so that reliable rate data could be obtained.The rate measurements at 70°C. were correlated by an equation. While the mechanism of the reaction cannot be determined from the data, the rate expression and other kinetic studies suggest a process in which hydrogen is adsorbed on the small fraction of the surface not occupied by acetylenic residues and the reaction takes place between this adsorbed hydrogen and ethylene in the gas phase.
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  • 17
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 458-466 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The work reported in this paper is an outgrowth of an exploratory investigation of the feasibility of spray drying of materials in solution by using direct-contact heat transfer from a hot liquid rather than a gas to vaporize the solvent from the drops. Unexpectedly, it was found that drops suspended in a hot liquid had to be superheated to a very extreme degree in order to initiate vaporization. This effect was of such interest that the investigation was modified to a fundamental study of the vaporization of drops containing no dissolved solids. The results are closely related to problems of bubble formation in boiling, cavitation, and in the evolution of gases from supersaturated solutions. The experimental technique developed in this study is believed to be unique and capable of giving quite accurate data on homogeneous nucleation in superheated drops. After a discussion of the theory of homogeneous nucleation in pure liquids, the theory is extended to the formation of bubbles in superheated drops. The theoretical predictions were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results.
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  • 18
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 467-474 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Radiant transfer through fibrous and foamed insulating materials was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Transmission measurements were made under isothermal conditions with a black-body source varying from 200° to 800°F. Bulk density and fiber and pore size were also varied. These data were interpreted successfully in terms of a simple theoretical model. The results provide design information and define the contributions of the several mechanisms of transfer.
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  • 19
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 483-485 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A brief review is presented of the theoretical solution obtained by the authors to the problem of a rapid second-order reaction in the incompressible laminar boundary layer on a flat plate. An experimental system is described for investigating reactions of this type, specifically the dissolution of plates and cylinders of benzoic and cinnamic acids in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium hydroxide. Experimental data are reported in terms of a reaction factor, that is the ratio of the transfer rate with reaction to that in the absence of reaction. The reaction factor is independent of position. The theory closely predicts the reaction factor for cylinders as well as for flat plates. Data obtained by other investigators for packed beds can also be correlated although less successfully.
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  • 20
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 474-482 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Relationships are developed for establishing the most economic values of the major variables of a liquid-extraction process, including the concentrations of solute in recycled solvent and rejected raffinate, the solvent-to-feed ratio, and for mixer-settlers certain of the design features. Consideration is given to costs of extraction and solvent recovery, as well as to the value of unextracted solute and lost solvent. For the design of mixer settlers scale-up relationships are developed to permit prediction of the stage efficiency of a large extractor from experimental data taken on a small scale. These are expressed in terms of a scale-up index relating the relative size of the mixer with the volumetric rates of liquid flow. It is shown that the cost of multistage extractor increases with scale up in a different fashion from the stage efficiency, depending upon the scale-up index used. A detailed study of the costs for a typical case led to the development of economic scale-up indexes which, because they cover nearly a fivefold ratio of fixed to operating costs, are of fairly general utility. The common practice of scaling up with equal holding times on the large and small scale is shown to be amply safe from the point of view of stage efficiency to be realized on the large scale but usually uneconomic.Simplification of the complete system of equations permits rapid estimation of the most economic circumstances for any type of countercurrent extractor of which the cost per stage is proportional to Qg.
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  • 21
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 486-496 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper concerns a study of radiation as a contributing mechanism in the transfer of heat between discrete solid particles. A theory for transfer in such systems is generalized to include planar-, spherical-, and cylindrical-bed geometries; because of the particulate nature of the system the generalization is given in terms of finite-difference equations. Transfer experiments were performed in a quiescent cylindrical bed with an axial heat source and a cylinderical containing-wall sink. Heat fluxes and radial-temperature profiles were measured. As the experiments were arranged, only modest temprature gradients were established between source and sink, but the ambient sink temperature was taken in steps from 100° to 1,000°C. For a bed of 3.8-mm.-diameter alumina spheres the ratio of heat transferred by radiation to that transferred by conduction was estimated to increase with average bed temperature from the order of 0.1 at 100°C., to 1.2 at 1,000°C. The effects of temperature on bed reflectivity and transmissivity and on apparent boundary-temperature discontinuities are discussed.
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  • 22
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 496-501 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The vapor-phase reaction between ethylene oxide and water to form glycols has been carried out under a wide range of conditions with particles of polystyrene-sulfonic acid ion exchange resins used as catalysts. The rates observed appeared to be directly proportional to the product of the partial pressure of ethylene oxide and the amount of water sorbed by the resin. By use of the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller equation to describe the amount of water sorbed by the resin, the experimental data were correlated over a sixty-fold range of reaction rates with a mean deviation of 15%.To obtain data of value in elucidating reaction mechanisms, the reactor was usually run under “differential” conditions, that is low conversions. However in a few runs conversions of as high as 54% were obtained for a contact time of 0.02 sec. The ratio of ethylene glycol to higher glycols (selectivity) obtained varied between 73 and 99% but was usually above 80% under conditions of high conversion. However it could also be reduced forcibly to produce higher glycols as the major product, if desired.
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  • 23
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 506-509 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: After application of a biochemical technique, size distribution of liquid drops from air bubbles blown through water and a butanol and glycerine solution filled to a certain depth in a glass cylinder 9.6 cm. in diameter and 47 cm. in length was measured.The initial vertical velocity of drops was estimated from the experimental results, with reference to its trajectory.
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  • 24
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 502-505 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pure liquids were evaporated in a wetted-wall column into flowing streams of air to investigate the thickness and transfer resistance of gas films.It was found necessary to express Reynolds number relative to the liquid surface to correlate transfer with gas flow.Laminar and buffer layers in the gas phase were calculated from fluid-flow principles and compared to the effective film thickness calculated from mass transfer and molecular diffusivity. Good agreement was obtained, indicating applicability of fluid mechanics to mass transfer problems.Eddy diffusivity was indicated to have a negligible effect upon the total resistance to transfer. Consequently it might be concluded that in packed towers where distances in the turbulent phase are shorter transfer between phases depends almost entirely upon molecular diffusivity.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Measurements were obtained of the interfacial resistance due to thin films of straight-chain higher alcohols and their effect on the evaporation of water. This was done by passing preheated dry air at a constant rate over water in a beaker. Unlike previous studies both phases were stitted. Four alcohols, dodecyl, myristyl, cetyl, and stearyl, were studied. A large reduction in evaporation was observed when 0.00025 gm. of cetyl alcohol was added to 1 liter of water with gas-liquid interfacial area of 0.2015 sq. ft. A much higher amount of stearyl alcohol, 0.0006 g., was needed for commensurate effect. Resistance due to films of dodecyl and myristyl alcohols was neglibible. For the most part cetyl alcohol is the most effective of those tested. Plots are given of the pseudo mass transfer coefficients and interfacial resistances as a function of the amount of the various alcohols.
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  • 26
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 514-523 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The origin of interfacial turbulence, spontaneous agitation of the interface between two unequilibrated liquids, has been explained in terms of classical flow, diffusion, and surface processes. The essence of the explanation is the long-known though much neglected Marangoni effect, wherein movement in an interface is caused by longitudinal variations of interfacial tension. It is proposed that interfacial turbulence is a manifestation of hydrodynamic instability, which is touched off by ever present, small, random fluctuations about the interface.A simplified mathematical model has been analyzed in order to detail the mechanism of the “interfacial engine” which supplies the mechanical energy of interfacial turbulence. In its present form the analysis incorporates several drastic simplifications, though ways of removing some of these have been suggested. The groundwork has been laid for the more elaborate analyses that are needed for a decisive test of the theory.The analysis shows how some systems may be stable with solute transfer in one direction yet unstable with transfer in the opposite direction, a striking result. It also suggests that interfacial turbulence is usually promoted by (1) solute transfer out of the phase of higher viscosity, (2) solute transfer out of the phase in which its diffusivity is lower, (3) large differences in kinematic viscosity and solute diffusivity between the two phases, (4) steep concentration gradients near the interface, (5) interfacial tension highly sensitive to solute concentration, (6) low viscosities and diffusivities in both phases, (7) absence of surface-active agents, and (8) interfaces of large extent.That some of these effects have been observed in the laboratory lends credence to the theory.
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  • 27
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 545-551 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental study on the system hydrogen sulfide-carbon dioxide was performed from the critical region to the solid-liquid-vapor region. For seven mixtures individual phase diagrams were determined by the establishment of dew, volume percentage liquid, hubble, critical, and triple points. A splendid study of this system had been reported earlier by Bierlein and Kay (1) for temperatures above 32°F. However from a temperature point of view this earlier work represents about one half of the phase diagram from the critical locus to the locus of triple points. Hence in this study particular attention was devoted to the lower temperature regions.Equilibrium constants were determined from 100 to 1,200 lb./sq. in. abs. Vapor and liquid equilibrium compositions from this investigation were compared with those obtained by Bierlein and Kay (1) at 20, 40, 60, and 80 atm.Solid-liquid-vapor loci were found to meet at a minimum temperature, lower than either of the individual pure component triple points, due to the formation of a eutectic mixture consisting of 12.5 mole % carbon dioxide. Vapor and liquid compositions in equilibrium with solid were established along the vapor-liquid-solid carbon dioxide and vapor-liquid-solid hydrogen sulfide loci.
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  • 28
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 564-564 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 29
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 551-555 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The enthalpy of water in the liquid state has been calculated from 32°F. to temperatures approaching the critical and pressures ranging from saturated conditions to 160,000 lb./sq. in. abs. (approximately 11,000 atm). The results of this study are presented graphically and show that the influence of pressure on enthalpy is significant, particularly in the lower temperature region. At these conditions pressure is found to increase the enthalpy of liquid water by as much as 360 B.t.u./lb. above the corresponding enthalpy of the saturated liquid state.A comprehensive literature search disclosed PVT data for water that permitted the construction of a density correlation. This correlation expressed in reduced coordinates extends from the normal freezing point of water to temperatures of 1,870°F. (TR = 2.0) and pressures ranging up to 10,915 atm. (PR = 50). The recent extensive PVT data of Kennedy reported in 1950 supplemented with the earlier data of Amagat and Bridgman allowed the calculation of enthalpies at these elevated temperatures and pressures. For these calculations basic thermodynamic relationships were adapted which utilized this reduced density correlation. This approach has made possible the extension of the thermodynamic properties of liquid water above the highest pressure reported by Keenan and Keys. Below this pressure of 6,000 lb./sq. in abs. good agreement was found to exist between the enthalpy values presented by Keenan and Keyes and those reported in this investigation.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 561-563 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series is composed of papers on specific subjects conveniently bound in individual books, which are published at intervals. The books are 81/2 by 11 inches, paper covered, and cost as follows: “Computer Techniques in Chemical Engineering,” $3.00 to members, $4.00 to nonmembers; “Nuclear Engineering Part V,” $3.50 to members, $4.50 to nonmembers; “Adsorption, Dialysis, and Ion Exchange,” $3.50 to members, $4.50 to nonmembers. They may be ordered from the Secretary's Office, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 25 West 45 Street, New York 36, New York.The A.I.Ch.E. Journal will publish, from time to time, abstracts of the articles appearing in the Symposium Series volumes, beginning with volume 55.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 565 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 32
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 566 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 33
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 5D-5D 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 178-181 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: Mass transfer coefficients from 1/2-in. spheres of benzoic and cinnamic acids and 2-napthol to water were measured in the high Reynolds number region of 600 to 140,000. Previous data for liquids extended only to a Reynolds number of 11,000. Three separate and approximately parallel lines of JD vs. Reynolds number were found for the different solutes, and the shape of the curves was found to be similar to the total-drag-coefficient correlation for spheres.Experiments with benzoic acid and 2-napthol showed an effect of driving force and hence flux on the JD values. Mass transfer did occur in saturated solutions having zero driving force. When one subtracted the amount of mass transfer at zero driving force from the values at other driving forces, the corrected JD values at different driving forces were the same for a given solute. Possible explanations may be the effect of extreme turbulence on crystallization or physical attrition.
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  • 35
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 223-224 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: To obtain numerical answers for the concentration distribution of solute on a chromatographic column or in the effluent, tables and charts of the Poisson distribution are used. Their use however is limited to a small number of theoretical plates. The transformation of the Poisson to the normal distribution enables the calculations to be performed for any number of theoretical plates through the use of the normal distribution tables.Equations derived previously for columns containing a large number of plates and employing elaborate mathematical procedures and approximations have been simply deduced by applying a limit property of the Poisson distribution to the exact equations.A relationship between the Poisson and normal distribution is derived, and charts are drawn which allow the rapid evaluation of the Poisson in terms of the normal values.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 225-234 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: An experimental technique for the determination of velocity distributions in two-dimensional laminar flow is described. The method utilizes the optical interference patterns observed in flowing doubly refracting liquids when viewed by transmitted polarized light. The fluid shear-stress distribution may be determined from these interference patterns by methods similar to those employed in solid photoelasticity. Methods are presented for the calculation of velocity distributions from the observed stress distributions. Experiments are described in which the technique was applied to determine velocity profiles in parallel-walled, converging and diverging channels and for flow about a cylindrical obstacle. The doubly-refracting liquids employed were aqueous solutions of an organic dye. Independent experimental checks were obtained in most instances, and these are in satisfactory agreement with the calculated results.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 397-402 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: In connection with a study of the mechanism of gas absorption the problem arose of predicting absorption rates into laminar liquid jets. A solution to the problem is presented in this paper, which provides an example of the application of fluid dynamics to the analysis of mass transfer in a complex flow system.The water jets considered here issued from circular nozzles of about 1.5-mm diameter, flowed intact downward through an atmosphere of solute gas at average velocities of from 75 to 550 cm./sec. over distances of 1 to 15 cm., and were collected in a receiver slightly larger in diameter than the nozzles. Equations describing the liquid flow near the jet surface are deduced from measurements of jet diameter and analogy to related flow situations. When one uses these equations, absorption rates are predicted from unsteady state diffusion theory with the assumption of interfacial equilibrium. The predicted rates for carbon dioxide at 25°C are in close agreement with experimental determinations over the observed range of contact time of the liquid with gas, namely 0.003 to 0.04 sec.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 403-406 
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    Notes: Heat transfer coefficients have been obtained for natural-convection film boiling of helium I on single wires with a diameter ranging from 5 to 50 μ. The measurements covered temperature differences of 30° to 1,000 °K. between the heating surface and the saturated liquid under atmospheric pressure. The results are correlated in dimensionless from (Nusselt number vs. the product of the Grashof and Prandtl numbers) and compared with data for nitrogen and measurements of other investigators on film boiling of liquefied gases.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 407-409 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 411-411 
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959) 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 43
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 277-284 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: The methods of relating parameters in the Arrhenius rate equation to fundamental molecular properties are briefly reviewed. The limited applicability of purely theoretical methods is noted, the use and limitations of the standard semiemprical method are surveyed, and recent work based on empirical molecular structure and spectroscopy is described in detail. The recent method makes no attempt to calculate activation energy, but within a limited range of cases it does provide a reliable method of estimating the preexponential factor in the Arrhenius equation and calculating the kinetic isotope effect. In this way the method provides a check on the credibility of experimental data and on the assignment of mechanism. If the mechanism is correct, it provides a method of estimating activation energy from rate data taken at only one temperature. Further developments of this method are anticipated.
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  • 45
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 285-289 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: In order to contribute to knowledge of the nature of the phase behavior of partially miscible liquid systems, a study of the benzene-water system was undertaken. The pressures at liquid- and vapor-phase boundaries of fifteen mixtures of benzene and water were determined within the temperature range of 200 to 357°C. Along with a complete numerical tabulation, these data are presented graphically as pressure-temperature, pressure-composition, and temperature-composition phase diagrams to show the nature of the boundaries.Up to the three-phase critical end point, the benzene-water system develops in a manner usually ascribed to a partially miscible system in which the vapor compositin at a point of univariance lies intermediate to the two liquid compositions. The three-phase critical end point occurs at 1,364 1b./sq. in. abs. and 268.3°C., and the composition of the critical phase is 25.8 weight % water, with the remaining liquid phase 92.8 weight % water.The pressure, temperature, and composition of the critical solution end point are deduced as 2,300 1b./sq. in. abs., 306.4°C., and 59 weight % water, respectively. At temperatures between these two critical points the phase behavior is likened to that of a dense gas or fluid dissolved in a liquid. Definite limiting values of temperature and pressure are assignable to this behavior by the extension of the three-phase curve up to the critical solution end point. This extended curve is not a phase boundary, but the temperature and pressure at a given point on the curve represents in a mixture of fixed composition the limit of mutual solubility of the benzene-rich fluid phase and the water-rich phase. At a temperature above or a pressure below the given point the liquid phase begins to vaporize.Above the critical solution end point the vapor-liquid phase boundaries are like those of a normal binary mixture.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 290-294 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: In a determination of the effect of solute concentration on gas-phase mass transfer rates carbon tetrachloride was vaporized at three different concentration levels in a short 4.0-in.-diameter column packed with 0.5-in. Raschig rings.The experimental data indicate that previous mass transfer correlations should be modified to include a term (PBM/PT)2/3 and that the Schmidt number should be evaluated at average film conditions.The correlation found is suitable for predicting gas-phase mass transfer coefficients which can be combined with effective interfacial areas reported previously to obtain volumetric mass transfer coefficients for any gas-liquid-solute system.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 524-532 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper illustrates the use of analytical methods for the design of a flow-control system. Linearized equations are derived and a complete analysis is made of the control of the system. The effect of controller modes and process time constants is investigated. The calculations show that there is an optimum value of the process time constant for optimum response.
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    Notes: Previous publications have shown that for solid spheres fluidized in water a unique relationship exists between the slip velocity and the system holdup. With this work as a model a method is now presented for estimating the behavior of the liquid-in-liquid spray column in which droplets of one phase move through a second quiescent phase.Combining the solids fluidization results with information on the single droplet terminal velocity one can obtain a design estimate of the holdup or interphase contact area for the liquid-liquid spray column. This design estimate includes the particular nature of the liquid droplet of being susceptible to internal circulation, oscillation, and distortion.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 539-544 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study has been made of the reaction rates of mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia over a doubly promoted iron catalyst at 400° and 450°C. and at pressures up to 1,000 atm. In this work particular care has been taken to obtain data representing the true kinetics of the reaction. The reactor used was essentially isothermal, and the effects of diffusion have been reduced to a minimum. The results have been correlated by the use of the mechanism proposed by Temkin and Pyschev (19) with moderate success.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 3-9 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: This work considers the importance of vapor-phase nonideal mixing in high-pressure equilibrium and rate-process calculations. New techniques are presented for calculating vapor-phase fugacity coefficients in nonideal mixtures.The equilibrium properties of gaseous mixtures are represented by a virial equation of state which is adequate for the vast majority of chemical engineering problems. Techniques based on an extension of the corresponding-states theory are given for estimating the various coefficients appearing in the equation of state; these estimates appear to be reliable for a large variety of nonpolar or weakly polar systems. Techniques based on the theory of intermolecular forces are also presented for polar systems and for a limited class of mixtures containing hydrogen-bonding components. The proposed methods of calculation are illustrated by a large variety of problems occurring in common chemical engineering calculations, and it is shown that failure to correct for vapor-phase nonideal mixing can, in some cases, lead to very large errors.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 26-28 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An improved method is presented for handling isomer groups in the calculation of chemical equilibria in complex hydrocarbon mixtures. The new method reduces the number of simulataneous equations involved and makes practical the rigorous calculation of any hydrocarbon system for which free-energy data are available, no matter how complex.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 29-30 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Although a considerable amount of work has been done on the compressibility of n-hexane, it has been impossible until now to compare or evaluate the work of the various investigators. There has also been a serious lack of information in the region above the critical temperature. It is the purpose of this work to make an extensive study of temperatures of 240° to 300°C. and of pressures up to 225 atm. in order to provide the lacking information and to overlap with the work of other investigators so that a proper evaluation of their work may be made.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 30-36 
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper illustrates the application of the root-locus method in the design of a control system for a theoretical stirred-tank reactor. The merits of control by measuring reactor concentration or temperature were considered at both an unstable and stable steady state reactor condition. The modes of control studied were proportional, proportional-integral, and proportional-integral-rate.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 37-46 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: It is proposed that measurements of reaction rate as a function of position within turbulent flames be the basis of an approach to the problem of turbulent-flame propagation. As a test of the method, measurements of static pressure, impact pressure, and chemical composition were made at several positions within the burning zones of two simulated ramjet combustion chambers. From these measurements a complete mapping of compositions, velocity components, densities, and static pressures could be carried out. By calculation of the appropriate derivatives of the latter quantities, the differential form of the equation of continuity for the species desired could be solved for net reaction rate as a function of position, turbulent diffusion being neglected. By a similar technique the equation of momentum was used to obtain eddy viscosities. The latter results were used to estimate the effect of turbulent diffusion by assuming a turbulent Schmidt number of unity.It is concluded that the method of attack used is a reasonable approach to the problem of turbulent flame propagation, having a special advantage in that it can be used to discover relationships between the rate of reaction and the patterns of the mean flow.
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  • 55
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    Notes: Experimental data are presented for three ternary systems and the quaternary at pressures of 500 and 1,000 1b./sq. in. abs. and at temperatures of -100° and -200°F. These data along with information in the literature were correlated to give charts of equilibrium ratios as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 51-54 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: Profiles of mean local velocities have been experimentally determined in a smooth, concentric, horizontal annulus having a radius ratio of 0.331. The test fluid was water at room temperature flowing steadily at Reynolds numbers in the viscous, transition, and lower turbulent ranges. The transitional profiles, obtained by means of an impact probe, are summarized and discussed. Limits of the transition zone are established, and variation of the radius of maximum velocity with Reynolds number is confirmed.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 54-60 
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Some characteristics are reported for the fluidization of an air-microspheroidal catalyst system in a 16-in.-diameter bed equipped with baffles. The back-mixing characteristics and retention-time distributions of gas and solids, allowable gas and solids velocities, entrainment rate, and bed density are studied as functions of baffle design.It is shown that the use of baffles narrows the retention-time spectrum and permits either concurrent or countercurrent flow while not seriously reducing gas or solids throughput or solids holdup.
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    Notes: An experimental investigation was performed on the mass transfer by sublimation from the outer surfaces of hollow naphthalene cylinders, 0.75 and 1.00 in. in diam., in parallel air streams at velocities between 20 and 120 ft./sec. Local mass transfer rates on the cylinders were obtained by a profilometric technique consisting of accurate determinations of changes in radii of the subliming surfaces at points along elements of the cylinders.Local coefficients of mass transfer obtained with laminar boundary layers for Reynolds numbers (based on axial length) between 12,000 and 100,000 were found to be up to 8% greater, because of surface curvature, than corresponding values for flat surfaces. Moreover comparison of the mass-transfer data with a theoretical prediction for laminar skin friction on circular cylinders indicates an effect of surface curvature on the Chilton-Colburn anology between momentum and mass transfer amounting to as much as 6% in the range of air velocity employed. For turbulent boundary layers obtained by artificial triggering of turbulence at the leading edges of the cylinders no effect of surface curvature was found. The results obtained for Reynolds numbers of 40,000 to 1,000,000 are lower than previously published correlations of turbulent heat, mass, and momentum transfer, when compared by the Boelter, Martinelli, and Jonassen form of the analogy.
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    Notes: Laminar forced-convection heat transfer in a parallel-plate channel (flat duct) with uniform heat flux at the walls is analyzed. The velocity and temperature distributions, both uniform at the entrance section, develop simultaneously as the fluid flows through the duct. The heat transfer results, obtained for the Prandtl-number range of 0.01 to 50, include the Nusselt-number variation along the channel and the wall-temperature variation corresponding to the prescribed uniform heat flux.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 69-72 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: Part A of this paper is essentially a continuation of a previous paper on the theoretical plate concept in chromatography (4). It deals with some special cases of eluting conditions and zone shapes. A more general equation, which combines both elution and deposition, is derived, and methods for approximating a continuous zone by means of a discontinuous one are discussed.Part B discusses the effect of the finite size of samples and the dead free volume at the bottom of the column on the shape of elution curves. The effect of representative sample volumes is calculated, and the deviation between the experimental and the true elution curves is illustrated.A simple expression for the number of theoretical plates utilizing the ratio between the maximum concentrations at the top and bottom of the column is derived and corrected for the effect of the finite size of samples.
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    Notes: Studies of the solvent extraction of cobalt and nickel nitrates from aqueous solution would add to the fundamental knowledge of extraction of metal salts. In experiments performed to determine the extractibility of these metals as nitrates from aqueous solutions by organic solvents, normal butanol was found to be the best solvent and gave equilibrium distribution coefficients K for cobalt or nickel nitrate of about 0.3. The presence of nitric acid tended to decrease these at high metal concentrations.In mixtures of the two metals the K value of either metal was found to depend on the total metal concentration. Low separation factors of about 1.3 were obtained. Very high K values of over 5 were obtained for the equilibrium extraction of the nitric acid in the presence of the metal nitrates by the n-butanol an indication of commercial possibilities.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 204-208 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Measurements of pressure drop and mean local fluid velocities have been made in a smooth rectangular duct of large aspect ratio. Data have been taken on the steady, isothermal flow of water at room temperature in the viscous, transition, and lower turbulent ranges of flow. Impact probes were installed in the center of the stream, where flow between infinitely broad parallel plates was closely approximated. The limits of the transition range are discussed, and mean local fluid velocities are correlated. Comparison is made with transitional behavior in smooth tubes.
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 212-222 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 209-212 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes general methods for the treatment of binary data which are both precise and convenient. In particular a new and accurate graphical method of determining partial molal quantities is presented.
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  • 65
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 240-244 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The present investigation is concerned with the dynamic characteristics of a 12-in. diameter continuous agitated-tank reactor vessel. Response of the vessel effiuent temperature to a change in coolant flow rate through an internal cooling surface is the subject of theoretical and experimental study. Experimental data were obtained through the use of frequency and transient response techniques. Studies were made for the passage of vessel-charge fluids with widely differing physical properties. Also data were taken for various conditions of fluid turbulence both inside and outside the internal heat transfer coils. Experimental and theoretical results are graphically compared. Recommendations are presented for the development of theoretical dynamic relationships.
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  • 66
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 245-248 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Photoggraphic methods have been used to study the behavior of water flowing freely down vertical surfaces under the influence of gravity at Reynolds numbers between 200 and 30,000. The physical appearances of the liquid layers in transitional and fully turbulent flow have been noted. Layer thicknesses have been obtained from high-speed photographs and correlated with liquid Reynolds numbers, the range of experimental data thus being extended into the fully turbulent region. A simple basis of comparison with flow between parallel plates has been developed.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The properties of vapor mixtures and liquid solutions which determine phase equilibria are of special importance in separation processes. They include the vapor-phase imperfections; the liquid-phase activity coefficents; and the excess heat, entropy, and free energy of mixing.Correlation of these properties in nonpolar mixtures is relatively simple, but in mixtures of polar and nonpolar compounds the molecular interactions lead to more complex relations. Semiempirical relations reported earlier (3, 4) have been used to calculate the vapor imperfections and to correlate the liquid-phase activity coefficients.Temperature variations of the activity coefficients can reflect the true heat and entropy effects in solution if sufficient vapor-liquid equilibria are available for a careful and consistent treatment. This is illustrated with binary mixtures of benzene and the n-aliphatic alcohols, methanol to pentanol. The results are compared with calorimetric data available in the literature.The consistent set of cross-correlated coefficients provides a basis for calculating both isothermal and isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria at various conditions for the binaries and for certain ternary and multicomponent mixtures without any additional data.
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  • 68
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 257-262 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Heat transfer and fluid dynamics were studied in columns in which hot mercury was sprayed into a rising stream of water. Volumetric and area heat transfer coefficients are presented which were found to be lower than those reported for heat transfer from fixed spheres.It was observed that considerable water bypassed the stream of drops, while some surrounding the drops flowed downward. This behavior resulted in water temperatures at the base of the column which were considerably higher than the inlet water temperatures. Consequently the outlet mercury temperature did not approach the inlet water temperature as a limit. The very unconventional flow pattern of the water was unexpected and is believed to be an important factor in spray-column heat transfer and mass transfer kinetics.
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    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 267-268 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: From time to time, A.I.Ch.E. Journal presents translations of certain technical articles written by our Japanese colleagues in their own language. These translations are made by Kenzi Etani, who received his B.S. in chemical engineering in 1953 at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and his M.S. in 1955 at M.I.T. He is associated with Stone & Webster and is an associate member of American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He is also a member of the Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan, and the Japan Oil Chemists' Society. His offer to help break down the language barrier is acknowledged.Abstracts, notation, literature cited, tables, and figure captions not published here appear in English in the original paper. No figure will be reproduced in these translations.The following article was published in Chemical Engineering (Japan), 21, pages 17-25 (1957).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource