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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (25,271)
  • 1980-1984  (20,446)
  • 1955-1959  (4,825)
  • 1
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 2
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The vigorous movement towards raising the levels of economic performance and consumption in the underdeveloped areas has become one of the central economic issues of our time. But so far no satisfactory theory has been constructed to explain this movement, its implications and effects.The starting-point for any attempt to construct a theory of development in underdeveloped countries must be an analysis of the major factors and conditions responsible for economic growth in Western countries. These are: (1) capital formation of an impressive magnitude, as a continuous process increasing in breadth and intensity and including the formation of intellectual capital. The introduction of mechanical means of production was of paramount importance in this process, because it radically changed the rate of progress; (2) operation of effective incentives either in the form of material rewards (profits) or spiritual inducements or both; (3) availability of an expanding market to absorb the rising flow of goods; (4) tendency for a balanced ratio to be maintained between population growth and economic growth; (5) a succession of scientific discoveries and a readiness on the part of entrepreneurs and technicians to utilise them for the continual improvement of techniques of production; (6) apolitical regime and a social order conducive to economic development. Since several of these factors either do not obtain at all in underdeveloped countries, or obtain only partially, a theory of economic development built on the cornerstones of economic growth in the West would not fit conditions in underdeveloped countries.The gradual change to an independent existence with higher standards of living and higher levels of economic performance is being brought about by a transfer of means and techniques of economic development from outside through a process of implantation. In place of the incentives which served in the Western world and which are not reproduced to the extent required to stimulate a comprehensive process of development in the immediate future, substitutes are in operation. Modern nationalism is one of the motive forces of economic development in underdeveloped countries. On the same plane is the acceptance of entrepreneurial functions by governmental agencies.The progress in transferability of modern techniques of production has immensely facilitated the promotion of up-to-date processes of production and distribution in underdeveloped countries also. Finally, a difference is to be noted in the economic mechanism by which the various elements of the socio-economic process are geared together and kept in motion.
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  • 3
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 4
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The classical theory of value and price comprises a real sector which determines relative prices and a monetary restriction (the Cambridge equation) which determines the absolute price level. Patinkin considers this system inconsistent because the supply and demand for real goods automatically defines a demand and a supply for money (the “mirror-image”). Patinkin's position is (a) that the system contains, without justification, two monetary equations and (b) that these two are contradictory.It is argued here that neither the mirror-image nor the Cambridge relations constitute market equations in the sense in which such equations apply to commodities. Commodity stocks or flows are desired for themselves and motivate exchange. In the classical system money is not so desired and it does not motivate exchange. The Cambridge equation is a technical restriction having no relation to the demands and supplies of real goods. The mirror-image equation, on the other hand, though it reflects real demands and supplies, is not a behavior restriction at all. Consequently it cannot be part of any monetary theory. Therefore the Cambridge restriction may be superimposed on the real sector without contradiction.,
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  • 5
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
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  • 7
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
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  • 8
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 9
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 10
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    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 11
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 12
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 13
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    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The fact has been widely recognized that the present stagnation of social sciences is fraught with dangers for the physical existence of humanity. This premise being accepted, the article sets out to discover the factors hampering the development of social sciences. These, it is here suggested, have three sources: (1) the nature of the subject of enquiry; (2) the nature of the empiric method and (3) the limited applicability of the present-day social sciences to the life of the private individual.The difficulties attributable to the first source are two: the high degree of differentiation in human psychology and the inventive capacity of the human mind. Both of them have the effect of creating a pattern of behaviour distinguished by great variety and rapidity of change. Ensuing, to some extent, from the other two is the third characteristic, namely the fact that some of our lines of behaviour are incapable of being measured quantitatively. Under such conditions, the task of scientific analysis is obviously extremely difficult, and this accounts for the strong “post-ante” bias inherent in most of our present-day social sciences.The empirical method of analysis, so much in vogue at present, has contributed two additional difficulties of its own. These are: taxonomic approach and anti-normative inclination. The former is another way of saying that, unlike their predecessors in the 18th and 19th centuries, which operated on the implied assumption of the perennial uniformity of human behaviour, the present-day social sciences have adopted the method of dealing with each situation as a unique case. Consequently, the “social laws” derived from this procedure have only a limited validity.It was the very simplicity of the social sciences of the preceding two centuries that made them popular and gave them an influence over the actual shaping of public life, and, incidentally, it is the lack of such simplicity that so effectually prevents the social sciences of today from winning popularity. For it is manifest that, in the present state of social knowledge, an extremely important aim of social science—probably the most important of all its aims—namely, to help the individual to form a comprehensive and consistent outlook on life, is a dream of the very distant future.But, however formidable the difficulties in this field may be, the need for the social sciences of our day to produce a coherent synthesis is most pressing. This is so because of (1) the decline in the influence of religion, (2) the increasing capacity of man for self-destruction and (3) the existence of sharp political conflict between the communist and non-communist worlds. This necessity being admitted, a further problem arises. It is a question of popularizing the social sciences. For, assuming that our social sciences are, or will shortly be, capable of serving as a guide to the understanding of social life, it is obvious that unless such knowledge is widely spread it will remain useless. Here the main stumbling-block is the low earning power of social sciences. Thus it would appear that the prospects of solving the problems connected with the relative underdevelopment of our social knowledge are by no means hopeful.
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  • 14
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    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 15
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    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 16
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    Kyklos 9 (1956), S. 0 
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  • 17
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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  • 18
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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  • 19
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Burnham Putnam Beckwith. Marginal-Cost Price-Output Control.Kenneth E. Boulding. Economic Analysis.W. H. B. Court. A Concise History of Britain from 1750 to Recent Times.Howard G. Diesslin. Agricultural Equipment Financing.Walter Eucken. Kapitaltheoretische Untersuchungen.Maxime Glansdorff. Théorie générate de la valeur et ses applications en esthétique et en économie. International Economic Papers, No. 4.Jean Labasse. Les capitaux et la région.AndrÉ Marchal. Méthode scientifique et science économiqueKurt B. Mayer. Class and Society.H. Theil. Linear Aggregation of Economic Relations.Knut Wicksell. Value, Capital and RentHerman Wold. A Study in the Analysis of Stationary Time Series.Barbara Wootton. The Social Foundations of Wage Policy.
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  • 20
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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  • 21
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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  • 22
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The historian assumes the obligation to make a synthesis of all of man's activities and has therefore a larger responsability than the social scientists in their various fields of knowledge. It is difficult to identify a social science approach to history or a distinctive social science method or procedure. At least the report of the Committee on Historiography which contains a lengthy discussion of the proper method in the social sciences does not successfully differentiate it from the method of the so-called exact sciences. One of the serious problems confronting the historian is how to acquire the best current knowledge available in the social sciences. Indeed to do so necessitates learning the technical languages which have been developed in these complex and rapidly expanding fields of knowledge, especially since one of the languages now regularly employed is mathematics on a higher level than is normally reached by historians. There also remains the more fundamental problem of whether or not the findings and procedures in one highly developed branch of knowledge can be fruitfully or justifiably applied in another field. Disastrous examples to the contrary are easy to locate.Two types of historical problem on which the historian needs and would welcome assistance from the social scientist are (I) what has been the effect in history of the change in psychological experience that occurred when so large a proportion of the population grew up in a one or two child family instead of a five or six child family? (2) What are the changes in political and social history resulting from the fact that so large a proportion of the population are now employees instead of being independent economic units? The danger of social science history is that if abused or distorted it may dehumanize history. There is poetry in life. And the history, or science, that omits the poetry from life is both untrue and dangerous.
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  • 23
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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    Kyklos 8 (1955), S. 0 
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    Notes: Glerhard Albrecht. Sozialpolitik.Pierre Dieterlen. Quelques enseignements de l'évolution monétaire française de 1948 à 1952. Wirtschaft und Kultursystem.Leonhard Gleske. Die Liquidität in der Kreditwirtschaft.Eduard Heimann. Vernunftglaube und Religion in der modernen Gesellschaft; Liberalismus, Marxismus und Demokratie. The Economic Development of Nigeria.Hans Neisser and Franco Modigliani. National Incomes and International Trade.Hans Peter. Gutachten zu Grundfragen eines Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen.B. Schrieke. Indonesian Sociological Studies.Salahaddin Sözeri. Der Wirtschaftsaufbau der Türkei nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.H.M.H.A. Van Der Valk. The Economic Future of Canada.Walter G. Waffenschmidt. Technik und Wirtschaft der Gegenwart.John P. Windmuller. American Labor and the International Labor Movement, 1940 to 1953.Edward Nevin. The Problem of the National Debt.
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  • 25
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Implications of inefficiency in theories of market failure reveal a flawed methodology. Behavior which is apparently inefficient is actually the symptom of an inappropriate analytical model. The standard examples of market failure, monopoly power and external effects, are forthcoming only from models which omit transactions costs as explanatory variables. The unfortunate consequence of this conclusion is that complete and appropriate economic models, which incorporate all relevant variables, will always certify any behavior as efficient. This poses the ‘Panglossian dilemma’, that whatever is, is optimal. This dilemma is resolved by an analytical approach which compares behavior under alternative economic institutions. This analysis depends on two propositions: that transactions costs are affected by alternative institutional environments; and that institutions are themselves responses to the existence of transactions costs. These propositions are used to predict behavior under alternative institutions, and to explain the long run evolution of the institutions.
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Notes: Empirical evidence does not agree with the investment-model of the demand for education: out of pocket costs have another impact than earnings foregone. This difference can be explained by consumption motives. The demand for education is then greater, the full price of education exceeds discounted future incremental earnings, net discounted wealth is not maximum and the rate of return to marginal investments in education is smaller than the interest rate.
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  • 27
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Notes: BADE, KLAUS J. (Hrsg.): Auswanderer - Wanderarbeiter - Gastarbeiter.CARLSTEIN, TOMMY: Time Resources, Society and Economy.CAVES, RICHARD E.: Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis.CIMPA, FRANZ: Arbeitslehre für Entwicklungshilfeprojekte.ECKSTEIN, OTTO: The DRI Model of the U. S. EconomyELIASSON, GUNNAR; SHAREFKIN, MARK and YSANDER, BENGT-CHRISTER (eds.): Policy Making in a Disorderly World EconomyFRIEDMAN, JAMES: Oligopoly TheoryGARNAUT, ROSS and CLUNIES-ROSS, ANTHONY: Taxation of Mineral RentsHICKS, JOHN: Money, Interest and Wages.KALECKI, MICHA: Theorie des Wachstums und der Planung in der sozialistischen VolkswirtschaftKILLINGSWORTH, MARK R.: Labor SupplyKLEIN, LAWRENCE R.: Lectures in EconometricsLAVERGNE, RÉAL P.: The Political Economy of U. S. Tariffs: An Empirical AnalysisLEISINGER, KLAUS M.: Health Policy for Least Developed CountriesMCKENZIE, GEORGE W.: Measuring Economic Welfare: New MethodsMELMAN, SEYMOUR: Profits without ProductionMOHR, JENS-UWE: Soziologische Aspekte der Anpassung an die Industria-lisierung in einem Entwicklungsland, dargestellt am Beispiel von NigeriaPREMCHAND, A.: Government Budgeting and Expenditure Controls.QUADRIO-CURZIO, ALBERTO (ed.): The Gold Problem: Economic Perspectives.REICH, UTZ-PETER und STAHMER, CARSTEN (Hrsg.): Gesamtwirtschaftliche Wohlfahrtsmessung und Umweltqualität.REITER, KLAUS: Regionale wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit von Staaten der Dritten WeltRIEBEL, VOLKER: Die Schwarzarbeit als Problem der ZeitallokationRIKER, WILLIAM H.: Liberalism Against Populism.SCHARPF, FRITZ W. und BROCKMANN, MARLENE (Hrsg.): Institutionelle Bedingungen der Arbeitsmarkt - und Beschäftigungspolitik.SCHMIDBERGER, WOLF-DIETER: Fiskalpolitik in kleinen offenen Volkswirtschaften.SPRAOS, JOHN: Inequalising Trade?STIGUM, BERNT P. and WENSTØP, FRED (eds.): Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory with ApplicationsSTREETEN, PAUL: First Things First.STRØM, STEINAR (ed.): Measurement in Public ChoiceWELLS, LOUIS T. Jr.: Third World Multinationals.WILLIAMSON, JOHN (ed.): IMF ConditionalityWORSWICK, DAVID and TREVITHICK, JAMES(eds.): Keynes and the Modern World
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: At the turn of this century WESLEY C. MITCHELL argued that the velocity of money could be influenced by a noneconomic variable that he called ‘confidence’; but the idea has received little attention since then. This study uses events in the long Vietnam war for statistically demonstrating the MITCHELL hypothesis. U. S. troop presence in South Vietnam boosted the peoples' confidence in their country's future thereby stabilizing the demand for fiat money and income velocity. Only two variables - the previous year's rate of inflation and U. S. troop strength, which serves as a proxy for battlefield victories - are needed to explain movements in velocity.
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Notes: According to Malthusian growth theory the wage rate may be maintained constant on the path to the stationary state, at a level above ‘subsistence’ by appropriate reductions in the population growth rate. In this paper we document J. S. MILL'S version of the Malthusian model and various applications thereof.
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    Kyklos 36 (1983), S. 0 
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Notes: The paper analyses the growth and profitability of the world's largest firms by reference to their size, degree of multinationality, main industry of operation, nationality of ownership and research intensity. The influence of size of firm on growth is stable but weak, its influence on profitability is negligible. Industry of operation has generally strongly influenced growth but the effect on profitability is not consistent amongst different time periods and samples. Division by research intensities of firms is significant in analysing growth, less in the analysis of profitability. Degree of multinationality does not contribute consistently to the explanatory power of the full equation for either dependent variable but nationality of ownership is a consistently powerful explanatory factor.
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Notes: Does externality theory provide a basis for the government's monopoly in the production of base money? Money, as has been shown, is not a public good because it does not satisfy the non-rivalness criterion (nor the non-excludability criterion). Like any public decision, political agreement on a common money or unit of account (i. e., exchange rate fixity) passes the non-rivalness test. However, whether the imposition of a common money or monetary unit is a public good or a public bad depends on whether money is a natural-monopoly good or not. Hence, there is no independent public-good justification for the government's money monopoly. The public good argument is redundant. Whether money is a natural monopoly good cannot be determined a priori, but only on the basis of experience. If governments are natural money monopolists, they should have gained their monopoly position by prevailing in the market. Historically, this is not the case. The only valid test of the natural monopoly argument is to abolish all barriers to entry and to admit free currency competition from private issuers on equal terms. An international cross-section estimate of money demand functions reveals only weak evidence of social economies of scale in the use of money. By contrast, choice among currencies is shown to be strongly affected by restrictions of convertibility.
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    Kyklos 37 (1984), S. 0 
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    Notes: Voluntary export restraint agreements (VERs) have emerged as a popular alternative to traditional protectionist devices, whose use is severely limited by trade agreements. Aimed at ‘disruptive’ suppliers, VERs tend to shift the source of imports away from the most efficient producers. Yet such negotiated agreements are attractive to exporters because they are preferable to the alternative of unilateral import barriers, especially since they allow exporters to control the trade restriction and thereby raise the export price. In fact all effective participants gain from the VER agreement, while consumers and others hurt by it are excluded from the negotiating process. Among the inherent problems of VERs, however, is their tendency to divert exports towards third markets, spreading protectionism worldwide and destabilizing trade relations. Continuing protectionist pressure in such an environment encourages the development of more sophisticated and comprehensive methods of induced export restraint.
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    Notes: Abele, Hanns; Nowotny, Ewald; Schleicher, Stefan und Winckler, Georg (Hrsg.): Handbuch der österreichischen WirtschaftspolitikBalassa, Bela and Associates: Development strategies in semi-industrial economiesBaumol, William J.; Panzar, John C. and Willig, Robert D.: Contestable Markets and The Theory of Industry Structure.Begg, David K. H.: The Rational Expectations Revolution in Macroeconomics.Ben-Porath, Yoram (ed.): Income Distribution and the Family.Bennett, James T. and Di Lorenzo, Thomas J.: Underground Government: The Off-Budget Public SectorBrandt, A.; Horisberger, B. and Von Wartburg, W. P.(eds.): Cost-Sharing in Health Care. van Duijn, J. J.: The Long Wave in Economic LifeFrisch, Helmut (ed.): Schumpeterian EconomicsFujimori, Y.: Modern Analysis of Value TheoryIngram, James C.: International EconomicssJones, Leroy P. (ed.): Public enterprise in less-developed countriesKindleberger, Charles and Di Tella, G. (eds.): Economics in the Long View.Kirzner, Israel M. (ed.): Method, Process and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von MisesKornai, János: Growth, Shortage and Efficiency.Kozma, Ferenc: Economic Integration and Economic StrategyKrueger, Anne O.: Exchange-Rate DeterminationKülp, Bernhard: FreizeitökonomieMüller-Godeffroy, H. et al.: Der neue Protektionismus.Nezeys, Bertrand: Les relations économiques extérieures de la France.Ordeshook, Peter C. and Shepsle, Kenneth A. (eds.): Political EquilibriumPatinkin, Don: Anticipations of the General Theory?Rugman, Alan M. (ed.): New Theories of the Multinational EnterpriseRydén, Bengt and Bergström, Villy (eds.): Sweden: Choices for Economic and Social Policy in the 1980sSeurot, François: Inflation et emploi duns les pays socialistesSheffrin, Steven M.: Rational ExpectationsStegmuller, W.; Balzer, W. and Spohn, W. (eds.): Philosophy of Economics.Stewart, Frances and Sengupta, Arjun: International Financial Cooperation.Sundrum, R. M.: Development Economics.Tullock, Gordon: Economics of Income RedistributionU. S. Gold Commission: Report to the Congress of the Commission on the Role of Gold in the Domestic and International Monetary System
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    Notes: ‘[The] power [to alter the quantity of money] should neither be entrusted to the state itself, nor to anybody in it; as there can be no security for the uniformity in the value of currency, when its augmentation or diminuation depends solely on the will of the issuers.’ David Ricardo [1816; in 1962, vol. 4, p. 691
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    Notes: Apps, Patricia: A theory of inequality and taxation, CambridgeDE Boer, Paul, M. C.: Price Effects in Input-Output RelationsCairncross, Frances (ed.): Changing Perceptions of Economic Policy.Caldwell, Bruce: Beyond Positivism.Copeland, Morris A.: Essays in Socioeconomic EvolutionEckstein, Otto: Core Inflation, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.Eliasson, Gunnar; Holmlund, Bertil and Stafford, Frank P. (eds.)Folkerts-Landau, David Fokke Ihno: Intertemporal planning, exchange, and macro-economicsHallwirth, Volker: Die Beschäftigung in Abhängigkeit von Preisen und Löhnen.Hartley, Keith and Tisdell, Clem: Micro-Economic PolicyHerman, Edward S.: Corporate Control, Corporate PowerVON Hippel, Eike: Der Schutz des SchwächerenKiluck, Tony (ed.): Adjustment and Financing in the Developing World.Kindleberger, Charles P. and Laffargue, Jean-Pierre (eds.): Financial crises.Kramer, Helmut und Butschek, Felix (Hrsg.): Entindustrialisierung?Lucas, Robert E.: Studies in Business-Cycle TheoryMcGuire, Chester C.: International Housing Policies.Menges, G.; Schelbert, H. und Zweifel, P. (Hrsg.): Stochastische Unschärfe in den WirtschaftswissenschaftenMettelsiefen, Bernd: Technischer Wandel und Beschäftigung.Munting, Roger: The Economic Development of the USSROlson, Robert K.: U. S. Foreign Policy and the New International Economic OrderPearce, D. W. and Nash, C. A.: The Social Appraisal of Projects.Rothschild, Kurt W.: Einführung in die UngleichgewichtstheorieSingh, Paramanand: Financing of University EducationTisdell, C. A.: Microeconomics of MarketsYuill, Douglas; Allen, Kevin und Hull, Christopher (Hrsg.): Regionale Wirtschaftsfürderung in der EG
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    Notes: Considerable controversy surrounds the COASE theorem despite the fact that it is generally accepted as valid both in the theory of externalities and the economic analysis of law. A major source of the controversy is the fact that there are a number of versions of the COASE theorem and definitions of transactions costs. It is argued that a proper understanding both of the competitive market model and transaction costs reveals that the COASE theorem is invalid and not part of standard market theory. It is further argued that transaction costs and information costs arising from market uncertainty provide a key to resolving many of the controversies that the theorem has given rise to and following from this that the primary economic function of law in bargaining situations is to increase transaction costs in order to reduce market uncertainty and strategic behaviour.
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    Notes: In this paper, three aspects of the potential gains form trade in an imperfect competition framework are considered in the light of recent research: the presumption that free trade reduces the monopolistic distorsions of imperfect domestic markets; the role of international openness as a way of making room for more efficient-size sellers in the domestic market; its effect upon the appearance of new products and increase in the total number of products. Theoretical and empirical research suggest that trade is indeed likely to improve allocative as well as technical efficiency and often to promote more product varieties.
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    Notes: The KALDOR model of economic growth and distribution has been subjected to two different strands of criticism: in 1962, PASINETTI claimed that KALDOR had slipped over the simple truism that people who save accumulate capital; subsequently, MANESCHI, GUPTA, and MÜCKL pointed out that, allowing the workers to own capital, and assuming that both workers and capitalists coexist, the KALDOR model would only be satisfied by assuming a ‘classical’ saving function. The purpose of this paper is to show that, by dropping the unnecessary assumption that the rate of interest received by the workers on their loans to the capitalists is equal to the rate of profit which the capitalists get from their investments, both criticisms are unfounded, and the KALDOR model is perfectly consistent. In a neo-Kcynesian model, there is no need to assume that in the long-run the rate of profit equals the rate of interest, as would obviously be the case in a neoclassical model. The paper also shows that the assumption made by most authors, and by KALDOR himself, that the capital-output ratio be constant is unnecessary; it is argued that any technological relationship between the capital-output ratio and the rate of profit is consistent with the KALDOR model. Finally, the paper shows that in KALDOR'S model there is no ‘dual’ of the kind found in PASINETTI-like models by MEADE, SAMUELSON and MODIGLIANI.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGKALDORS Wachstums- und Verteilungsmodell war von zwei Seiten der Kritik ausgesetzt: PASINETTI behauptete 1962, KALDOR sei über den einfachen Gemein-platz gcstolpert, dass Leute die sparen auch Kapital akkumulieren; spater zeigten MANESCHI, GUPTA und MÜCKL, indem sie den Arbeitern die Möglichkeit des Kapitalbesitzes einräumten und Arbeiter sowie Unternehmer als gleichzeitig vorhanden annahmen, dass das KALDOR-Modell nur unter Annahme einer “klassischen” Sparfunktion haltbar ist. Der Zweck dieses Aufsatzes ist aufzuzeigen, dass beide Kritiken ungerechtfertigt sind, wenn die unnötige Annahme fallengelassen wild, dass der Zinssatz, den die Arbeiter für ihre Darlehen erhalten, gleich der Profitratc der Unternehmer ist, die diese aus ihren Invcstitionen erhalten. In diesem Falle ist das KALDOR-Modell durchaus konsistent. In einem neo-keynesianischen Modell besteht keine Notwendigkeit anzunchmen, dass die Profitrate dem Zinssatz entspricht, anch nicht auf lange Frist, wie dies in einem neoklassischen Modell offensichtlich der Fall wäre. Die Arbeit zeigt auch die Überflüssigkeit der Annahme (die von den mcisten Autorcn, inklusivc KALDOR selbst, getroffen wurde), dass die “capital-out put ration konstant zu sein hat. Es wild argumentiert, dass jede tcchnologische Beziehung zwischen der “capital-output ration und der Profitrate mit dem KALDOR-Modell vereinbar ist. Der Beitrag legt schliesslich dar, dass das KALDOR-Modell kein “Dual” der Art der PASINETTI-ähnlichcn Modelle von MEADE, SAMUELSON und MODIGLIANI aufweist.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RÉSUMÉLe modèle de KALDOR sur la croissance et la distribution économique a étć l'‘object de critiques émanant de deux sources principales: en 1962, PASINETTI déclara que le simple fait que les gens qui souscrivent à l'éparque se constituent par la un capital avait échappéà KALDOR; par la suite MANESCHI, GUPTA, et MÜCKL firent ressortir que měme si Ton procurait aux travailleurs la possibilityé de posséder un capital et en supposant que travailleurs et capitalistes continuent à coexistir, le modèle de KALDOR ne serait exact que dans le contexte d’ une fonction d’éparque dite “classique”. Le but de cet article est de montrer que ces deux écoles de critiques sont sans fondement et que le modèle de KALDOR est parfaitement logique si on écarte l'hypothèse, pas nécessaire, que le taux d’ intérět perçu par les travailleurs sur leurs prěts aux capitalistes est le měme que le taux de profit que les capitalistes obtiennent de leurs investissements. Dans un modèle néo-keynésien, il n'est pas besoin d’ assumer qu‘à long terme le taux de profit soit égal au taux d'intérět comme eut évidemment été le cas dans un modèle néo-classique. Cet article démontre aussi que le concept d’ invariabilityé du rapport capital-production cher à la plupart des auteurs, dont KALDOR, n'est pas nécessaire; car il est soutenu que toute relation technologique entre le rapport capital-production et le taux de profit est compatible avec le modèle de KALDOR. Enfin cet article veut prouver que dans le modèle de KALDOR il n'y a pas de “dualité” semblable à celle que l’ on trouve dans les modèles du genre PASINETTI, de MEADE, SAMUELSON et MODIGLIANI.
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    Notes: BERGMANN, BARBARA; ELIASSON, GUNNAR and ORCUTT, GUY (Eds.): Micro Simulation - Models, Methods and Applications. Proceedings of a Symposium on Micro Simulation Methods in Stockholm, September 19-22, 1977. Stockholm 1980. Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research. 409 pp. Skr. 150.-BLANKART, CHARLES BEAT: Ökonomie cier öffenilichen Unternehmen. Eine institutioncllc Analyse dcr Staatswirtschaft. WiSo-Kurzlehrbiicher: Rcihc Volkswirtschaft, München 1980. Vahlcn. 205 S. SFr. 29.80BRAEUER, WALTER: Urahnen der Ökonomie. Von dcr Volkswirtschaftslehre dcs Altertums und des Mittelalters. München 1981. Ölschlager Verlag. 216 S. DM 39.-, SFr. 44.-, öS 320.- (P/b)BRAHMANANDA, P. R.: Growthless Inflation by Means of Stockless Money. A New Classical Treatise on Rising Prices. Bombay 1980. Himalaya Publishing House. 471 pp. Rs. 95.-BURKOLTER-TRACHSEL, VERENA: Zur Theorie sozialer Macht. (Res publica helvetica, 14.) Bern/Stuttgart 1981. Paul Haupt. 258 S. Fr. 34.-, DM 38.50DEUTSCH, KARL W. und FRITSCH, BRUNO: Zur Theorie der Verein-fachung: Reduktion von Komplexitat in der Datenverarbeitung für Weltmodelle. (Sozialwissenschaft und Praxis, Buchreihe des Wissenschafts-zentrum Berlin, Band 8.) Königstein 1980. Athenäum. 72 S. DM 19.80FOSTER, CD.; JAGKMAN, R. and PERLMAN, M.: Local Government Finance in a Unitary State. London 1980. George Allen & Unwin. 643 pp. £27.50GRAVELLE, HUGH and REES, RAY: Microeconomics. (Modern economics.) London/New York 1981. Longman. 620 pp. £9.95HIRSCHHAUSER, KARL-FRIEDRICH : Konjunktur analyse mit Hilfe von System Dynamics-Simulationsmodellen. Gottingen 1981. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 284 S. DM 68.- (kart.)INTERFUTURES : Facing the Future, Mastering the probable and managing the unpredictable. OECD. Paris 1979. 425 S.JHA, PREM SHANKAR: India: A Political Economy of Stagnation. Bombay 1980. Oxford University Press. 311 pp. £6.75KARRENBERG, M.; FRITSCHE, B.; KITTERER, W. u.a. (Hrsg.): Die Umverteilungswirkungen der Staatstätigkeit bei den wichtigsten Haushaltstypen. (Schriftcnreihe des Rheinisch-Westfälischen Instituts fur Wirt-schaftsforschung, N.F., Heft 43.) Berlin/München 1980. Duncker & Humblot. 215 S. DM 76.-KELLER, WOUTER J.: Tax Incidence. A General Equilibrium Approach. (Contributions to Economic Analysis, 134.) Amsterdam/ New York/Oxford 1980. North-Holland Publishing Company. 348 pp. $53.75, Dfl. 110.-KRAUS, WILLY: Wirtschaftsentwicklung undsorjaler Wandel in der Volks-republik China. Bcrlin/Hcidclbcrg/Ncw York 1979. Springer. 738 S. DM 148.-KUIPERS, S.K. and LANJOUW, G.J. (Eds.): Prospects of Economic Growth. Amsterdam/New York/Oxford 1980. North-Holland. 287 pp. 5546.25, Dfl. 95.00LANGHAMMER, ROLF J. und STECHER, BERND: Der Nord-Sud-Konflikt. Die Spiclrcgcln dcr Wcltwirtschaft im Brennpunkt. Wiirzburg/Wien 1980. Physika-Verlag. 156 S. DM 17.80VON LOEFFELHOLZ, HANS DIETRICH : Die personale Inzidenz des Sozialhaushalts. Eine theoretische und empirische Studie. Gottingen 1979 Ynndrnhoerk & Rimnrecht. 373 S.VAN MEERHAEGHE, M.A.G.: A Handbook of International Economic Institutions. The Hague Boston London 1980. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 441 pp. Dfl. 145.-MEIER, GERALD M.: International Economics. The Theory of Policy. (Oxford Student Edition.) New York/Oxford 1980. Oxford University Press. 371 pp. £6.95 (paper, also available in hardback)NELL, EDWARD J.: Growth, Profits, and Property. Essays in the Revival of Political Economy. Cambridge 1980. Cambridge University Press. 304 pp. £19.50OSERS, JAN : Sozinalistischr Wirtschaftsmodelle Frankfurt. York 1980. Campus. 205 S.PASINETTI, LUIGI L. (Ed.): Essays on the Theory of Joint Production. London/Basingstoke 1980. Macmillan. 243 pp. £20.00ROBINSON, JOAN: Aspects of Development and Underdevelopment. New Delhi 1980. Vikas. 146 pp. Rs. 75.00SEIDEL, HANS und KRAMER, HELMUT (Hrsg.): Die österreichische Wirtschqft in den achtziger Jahren. Überlegungen zu den Entwicklungstendenzen. (Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.) Stuttgart 1980. Gustav Fischer. 252 S. DM 45.- (kart.)Diesc Leserschar mi In- unci Ausland sci dcm Unci) inständig gewünscht.SHINZAWA, YUICHI : The Generalized Reproduction Scheme. A Theoretical Analysis. Tokyo 1980. Waseda University Press. 300 pp. $25.00TAYLOR, LANCE: Macro Models for Developing Countries. New York 1979. MacGraw-Hill: Economics Handbook Series. XII+271 pp.TOLLISON, ROGER D. (Ed.): The Political Economy of Antitrust. Principal Paper by WILLIAM BAXTER. Lexington, Mass. 1980. D. C. Heath. IX, 160 pp. £11.00, $25.50TURBAN, MANFRED : Alarxsche Reproduktionsschemata und Wirtschafts-theorie. Die Diskussion ihres analytischen Gehalts in verschiecienen wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Forschungstraditionen. (Osteuropa-Institut an der Freien Universität Berlin, Wirtschaftswissenschaft-liche Veröffentlichungen, Band 40.) Berlin 1980. Duncker & Hum-blot. 554 S. DM 112.30VERNON, RAYMOND and AHARONI, YAIR (Eds.): State-Owned Enterprise in the Western Economies. London 1981. Croom Helm. 203 pp. £11.95WUST, HERBERT F.: Föderalismus. Grundlage für Effizienz in der Staatswirtschaft. (Abhandlungen zu den Wirtschaftlichen Staats-wisscnschaftcn, Bd.20.) Göttingen 1981. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. XX, 281 S. DM 76.- (kart.)
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    Notes: This paper examines the effects of rising oil prices and dependence upon imported oil on inflation. For the United States, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Australia, it is found that the price of imported oil is a significant cause of inflation. Dependence upon imported oil also is an important cause of inflation in Japan, the United States, and West Germany.
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    Notes: Für drei zentrale Ansätze der ökonomischen Theorie, den der walrasianischen Gleichgewichtstheorie, den der walrasianischen Unglcichgewichtstheorie und den der Neuen Mikroökonomie, werden die Komponenten der disziplinären Matrix, wie sie in dem von T. S. KUHN entwickelten wissenschaftstheoretischen Raster definiert sind, identifiziert. Ein exakter Vergleich dieser einzelnen Komponenten (das heisst der symbolischen Verallgemeinerungen, der metaphysischen Bestandteile, der Wertvorstellungen und der Beispiele) zeigt, dass sie sich so grundsatzlich unterscheiden, dass man von drei verschiedenen Paradigmata sprechen muss. In KuHNscher Terminologie zeichnen sich die Wirtschaftswissenschaften also (noch?) aus durch verschiedene Schulen, wie dies charakteristisch ist fur eine relativ friihe Phase der wissenschaftlichen Entwicklung.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉SUMMARYFor three central branches of economic theory, the walrasian equilibrium theory, the walrasian disequilibrium theory and the New Microeconomics, the components of the disciplinary matrix, as they have been defined by the epistemological screen developed hy T. S. KUHN, are identified. An exact comparison of these specific components (i.e. the symbolic generalizations, the metaphysicaI parts, the values and the exemplars) shows that they differ so fundamentally that we must speak of three different paradigms. In KuHNian terminology, economics (still?) is featured by distinct schools, as it is characteristic for a relatively early staze of scientific development.
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    Notes: The paper argues that shortcomings with respect to regional allocation are often due to misconstructions of fiscal adjustment and therefore must not be looked upon as market failures. The main argument is based on Buchanan's principle of fiscal equity as a guide to fiscal adjustment, which usually is not applied in existing fiscal systems. It is argued, that the common interpretation of Buchanan's principle in terms of benefits is misleading. Thus an interpretation in terms of costs is presented the essence of which is to provide a ‘right to generate public costs’ which is equal for ‘equals’ in any of a state's regions. Finally it is shown that on certain conditions a system of fiscal decentralization will generate exactly those results to be desired with respect to efficient regional adjustment. It is concluded therefore, that there is no general trade off concerning regional efficiency and fiscal federalism respectively; rather the opposite seems to be the case.
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    Notes: Bizien, Yves: Population and Economic Development.Black, John and Hindley, Brian (Eds.): Current Issues in Commercial Policy and Diplomacy.Brams, S. J.; Scmotter, A. and SchwÖdiauer, G. (Eds.): Applied Game Theory.Bruder, Wolfgang: Sozialwissenschaften und Politikberatung — Zur Nutzung sozialwissenschafthcher Informationen in der Ministerialorganisation.Clarkson, Kenneth W. and Martin, Donald L. (Eds.): The Economics of Nonproprietary Organizations.Dixon, P. B.; Bowles, S. and Kendrick, D.: Notes and Problems in Microeconomic Theory.Dobias, Peter: Wirtschaftspolitik.El Mallakh, Ragaei and Dorothea H. (Eds.): New Policy Imperatives for Energy Producers.Frey, RenÉ L.: Wachstumspolitik.Gollnick, Heinz und Thiel, Norbert : Ökonometrie.Gordon, Wendell: Institutional Economics.Gram, Harvey and Walsh, Vivian : Classical and Neoclassical Theories of General Equilibrium.Hacche, Graham: The Theory of Economic Growth. An Introduction.Hesse, Helmut (Hrsg.): Arbeitsbuch Angewandte Mikroökonomik.Hirsch, Werner Z.: Law And Economics: An Introductory Analysis.Kanemoto, Yoshitsugu: Theories of Urban Externalities.Klein, Lawrence R. and Young, Richard M.: An Introduction to Econometric Forecasting and Forecasting Models.Lavigne, Marie : Stratégies des pays socialistes dans l'echange international.Lindbeck, Assar (Ed.): Inflation and Employment in Open Economies.Lippman, S. A. and McCall, J. J. (Eds.): Studies in the Economics of Search.Lowe, Julian and Lewis, David : The Economics of Environmental Management.Peacock, Alan: The Economic Analysis of Government.Rao, C. H. Hanumantha and Joshi, P. C. (Eds.): Reflections on Economic Development and Social Change.Rossier, Edouard:.Economie structurale.Siebert, Horst and Antal, Ariane Berthoin : The Political Economy of Environmental Protection.Smith, Vernon L. (Ed.): Research in Experimental Economics. A Research Annual. Vol. 1.Uhlir, Helmut: Überprüfung der Random-Walk-Hypothese auf dem österreichischen Aktienmarkt.United Nations Industrial Development Organization: Industrial Priorities in Developing Countries.
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    Notes: The paper develops and renders plausible the hypothesis that modern man is developing an ever greater tolerance and desire for excitement and violence, because scientific and economic progress has so greatly diminished the hardships and hazards of everyday work and existence and of the fight for survival that most people are left with a stimulus deficit, which they try to eliminate. The various sources of deliberately sought-for stimulation, ranging from dangerous sports and gambling to violence, crime and participation in collective hazardous action, are listed and discussed, and the available statistics of their use or incidence compared and analyzed.
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    Notes: This paper employs several methods to estimate the trade creation and diversion effects of EC enlargement. Treating the original EEC and EFTA each as one country it compares total and external imports and the ratios of these imports to consumption between 1970/71 and 1977/78. The comparable figures for U. S., Canada and Japan are used as a ‘normalizer’. Based on several approaches, 1978 trade creation is estimated at $28 billion and diversion at $5 billion, with an implied substitution elasticity between European and non-European sources of 3.2. The results are consistent with independent estimates constructed for the period 1959/60 to 1977/78; namely, the two stages of integration combined.
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    Notes: In diesem Aufsatz werden Laborexperimente und Feldversuche in der ökonomie mit der Vorstellung von der Geschichte als einer Art Laboratorium von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Verbindung gebracht. Diese Verknüpfung ist keineswegs willkürlich. Die Wirtschaftsgeschichte bringt nämlich von Zeit zu Zeit Situationen hervor, die durch die mehr oder weniger isolierte Variation einer Grösse Zusammenhänge wie von selbst transparent machen und damit Experimenten recht ähnlich sehen. Ist auch die Kontrolle der ≪Versuchsbedingungen≫ in wirtschaftshistorischen Quasiexperimenten weniger gut möglich als in der experimentellen Wirtschaftsforschung, so hält demgegenüber die Wirtschafts geschichte die realitätsnäheren Aufschlüsse bereit. Die betrachteten methodischen Ansätze werden jeweils durch empirische Fallstudien illustriert – etwa zum Thema ≪Kollektivgut und Trittbrettfahrerverhalten≫.
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    Notes: Assuming a radicalized Weberian position, religious beliefs and their structuring dogmas are construed as independent variables. Within that frame Calvinism (Puritanism) is ‘ideal-typically’ compared with Catholicism, sketchily also with Lutheranism and Marxism. The dependent variables arc productivity, propensity to save and invest, a profit-making and calculating orientation, the perceived legitimacy of manipulating consumer choices. Though there are references to other national cultures the principal target is the American economy; its meteoric rise to wealth and economic predominance. Applying Weber's hypothesis as to the invariable bureaucratization of charismatic systems to the decreasing rate of economic progress of the American and other calvinistically influenced economies some macro- and micro problems are singled out for further analysis.
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    Notes: Allen T. Harrell: New Methods in Social Science Research.Bawa Vijay S., Brown Stephen J., and Klein Roger W.: Estimation Risk and Optimal Portfolio Choice.Bigksler James L. (Ed.): Handbook of Financial Economics.BlÜmle Gerold: Wirtschaftskreislauf, Beschäftigung und Inflation.Buomberger Peter : Theorie und Strategic der Geldpolitik in einer kleinen offenen Volkswirtschaft.Cipolla C. M. und Borchardt K. (Hrsg.): Sechzehntes und Siebzehnles Jahrhundert.CsikÓs-Nagy B.: Towards a New Price Revolution.Fine Ben and Harris Laurence: Rereading Marx.Hey John D.: Uncertainty in Microeconomics.Hunt E. K.: History of Economic Thought: A Critical Perspective.Lavigne Marie: Les relations économiquesMÜller JÜrgen und Vogelsang Ingo: Staatliche Regulierung.Mulvey Charles : The Economic Analysis of Trade Unions.Negishi Takashi : Microeconornic Foundations of Keynesian Macroeconomics.Paul Ellen Frankelm:Mo ral Revolution and Economic Science.Sargent Thomas J.: Macroeconomic Theory.SchÖnbÄck Wilfried : Subjektive Unsicherheit als Gegenstand staatlicher Intervention.Schrenk Martin, Ardalan Cyrus, and EL Tataway NawaL A.: Yugoslavia—Self-Management Socialism and the Challenge of Development.Siebert Horst: Ökonomische Theorie der Umwelt.Spatz Heinrich: Die Allgemeine Gleichgewichtstheorie.Whynes David K.: The Economics of Third World Military Expenditure.Wolfson Dirk J.: Public Finance and Development Strategy.
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    Notes: This paper examines the Friedman-Phelps‘expectational (dis)equilibrium’ and the Clower-Leijonhufvud‘non-market-clearing’ paradigms as alternative disequilibrium theories, and draws their respective policy implications. Then, these paradigms are taken as complementary to each other, as containing necessary ingredients for a synthetic disequilibrium theory, whose policy implications can only tentatively be explored. A general disequilibrium theory is founded on the notion of ‘disequilibrium consciousness’ and on a detailed characterization of ‘conjectural’ price and/or quantity responses to non-market-clearing, whose quasi-equilibrium outcome is conditioned by both expectations and the intra-market spillover effect.
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    Notes: In recent years female participation rates in the labour force have increased considerably in most developed countries. This is partly due to generally changed attitudes among women, partly to changing proportions among women with different attitudes towards labour force participation. The article focuses on this latter idea and tries to present a typology of different groups and their ‘typical’ labour supply attitudes. Using the traditional model of choice between (paid) working time and ‘leisure’ (including unpaid work) some typical attitudes are illustrated for single women (primary workers), married women with children, the ‘target-oriented’ additional worker, and the ‘emancipated’ woman. Certain conclusions are drawn under the additional assumptions that working hours cannot be freely chosen and that (desired) part-time work or overtime may not be available.
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    Notes: Interindustrial wage differences in West Germany are explained by trade unions’ pressure (unionism, strike intensity), sellers’ market power (concentration, profits, vertical integration, cartels, and international trade), and fluctuations among labour force. The inverse relationship between concentration and wages can, theoretically, be traced back to monopoly and it is suggested that concentration should primarily be considered as an indicator of monopoly power. Vertical integration of successive stages of production within a single firm appears to entail efficiency gains on balance whereas in the case of cartels of the kind permitted in West Germany, monopolizing and efficiency raising effects appear to just cancel.
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    Notes: This paper reports on technical studies of the determinants of inflation which were undertaken for the seven major industrial countries and Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland in two distinct expectational frameworks. Both are designed to account for the empirical fact that changes in the rate of growth of the money supply (M2) affect both actual and expected inflation with a lag distributed over several years. It is found that M2 velocity is strongly procyclical. Furthermore, the underlying course of inflation since 1960 was influenced not only by money supply growth, but also by the changed longrun behavior of velocity and potential output imparting additional inflationary bias in most countries.
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    Notes: Three alternative definitions of equity are presented, which coincide under special conditions only. The author prefers the definition that equity means equality of welfare. This presupposes measurability of welfare (or utility). Two methods of measurement are discussed, called revealed or indirect and direct measurement. Concrete applications of both are shown, together with their shortcomings. In both cases equitable distribution is found to be less unequal than actual distribution in the Netherlands. Further research needed, on additional relevant determinants of utility and on learnability of some capabilities are formulated.
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    Notes: Arrow Kenneth J. and Hurwigz Leonid (Eds.): Studies in Resource Allocation Processes.Dornbusch Rudiger and Frenkel Jacob A. (Eds.): International Economic Policy - Theory and Evidence.Dubbelman G.: Disturbances in the linear model, estimation and hypothesis testing.DÜrr Ernst (Hrsg.): Wachstumstheorie.Hutchison T. W.: On Revolutions and Progress in Economic Knowledge.Johnson Elizabeth S. and Johnson Harry G.: The Shadow of Keynes: Understanding Keynes, Cambridge and Keynesian Economics.Kreuzer Arthur: Jugend - Rauschdrogen - Kriminalität.Kuyvenhoven Arie : Planning with the semi-input-output method.Lampert Heinz (Hrsg.): Arbeitsmarktpolitik.Lipp Ernst-Moritz : Parallelwährung für Europa.Miller Ervin with Lonie Alasdair : Microeconomic Effects of Monetary Policy.Mitchell Bridger M., Manning Willard G., Jr., and Acton Jan Paul: Peak-Load Pricing.MÜller Johann Baptist : Liberalismus und Demokratie.Oates W. E. (Ed.): The Political Economy of Fiscal Federalism.Pearson Charles (Hauptverfasser) und Pryor Anthony : Environment: North and South.Ribhegge Hermann: Rationale Einkommenspolitik aus der Sicht der Neuen Politischen Ökonomie.Roncaglia Alessandro : Sraffa and the Theory of Prices.Rose-Ackerman Susan: Corruption.Sahlins Marshall : The Use and Abuse of Biology - An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology.Spengler Joseph J.: Facing Zero Population Growth: Reactions and Interpretations, Past and Present.Streit Max : Ökonomische Modelle für Ausbildung und Arbeitsmarkt.Thomson J. Michael: Grundlagen der Verkehrspolitik.
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