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  • Articles  (1,166)
  • Chemical Engineering  (1,166)
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  • 1960-1964  (1,166)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 759-763 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Equations in terms of a pulse Reynolds number and dimensionless pulse velocity are presented for mass transfer coefficients in pulsed flow in a packed bed. Mass transfer from the wall and from the particles is considered. The development, applicable up to a particle Reynolds number of 40, is based upon a previous study of pulsed laminar flow in an empty tube.The experimental measurements consisted of rates of dissolution of β-naphthol from the wall and from the particles within the bed. From these data time-average mass transfer coefficients kp were computed. The improvement in kp increased with frequency and decreased with average flow rate, although the increase was always less than in an empty tube at equivalent conditions.Steady flow measurements indicated that the coefficient for mass transfer from the tube wall was influenced by the degree of settling of the bed. This effect could be related to the change in porosity accompanying the settling process. A new empirical correlation is proposed to account for the effect of porosity changes.
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  • 2
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 83-88 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 3
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 98-105 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 4
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 125-129 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 61-67 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The definition of filtration resistance is re-examined in view of the new theory (12) of the variation of flow rate with respect to distance through a filter cake. In the new definition it is shown that the filtration resistance depends upon slurry concentration as well as applied pressure. A correction factor modifying the specific filtration resistance previously defined by Ruth (5, 6) is developed.Where the hydraulic pressure variation within a cake is known, methods are presented for calculating the variation of flow rate with respect to distance and the change of filtration resistance in relation to slurry concentration.
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 79-82 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 91-97 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 110-114 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 9
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 130-144 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 10
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 147-147 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Four different flow regimes may be identified during transport of dilute suspensions of solid particles through horizontal pipes by liquids in turbulent flow as the velocity is varied. The regimes may be characterized by the distribution of solids in the channel. In two of the regimes the bulk of the material is immediately adjacent to the bottom of the channel and is clumped up either into transverse waves (dunes or islands) with a reproducible periodicity or into longitudinal waves (long stria). The definition of the other two regimes is somewhat more arbitrary but may qualitatively be described as heterogeneous or homogeneous flow. Extensive studies of the conditions under which transverse and longitudinal waves occurred, when combined with results of previous studies, showed that all four of these flow regimes may be conveniently represented on a single diagram in which the terminal-settling velocity divided by the friction velocity and the Reynolds number on particle diameter and friction velocity are the coordinates. Because the particle Reynolds number based on the terminal-settling velocity can be uniquely defined as an additional parametre on such a diagram the particular flow behavior for any given combination of system and particle characteristics can be readily determined.
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  • 14
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 315-322 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The object of much experimentation is to build or discover a suitable model for a given system. Unfortunately very little work has been published on what constitutes good strategies in these situations. This paper is an attempt to formulate an approach to this important problem of iteratively improving models in the area of chemical engineering kinetics. In this technique a statistical analysis is applied to the estimated parameters of a tentatively entertained theroretical model in such a way as to pinpoint its inadequacies, if they exist, so that it is possible to proceed in a logical manner to an appropriate modification of this model. This modified model is then analyzed in a similar way, and further modifications are suggested. In general the cycle is repeated as often as is necessary to reach an adequate model. This sequential method is illustrated by finding an adequate reaction model for the total catalytic oxidation of methane.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Significant changes in heat and momentum transfer rates can be caused by finite interfacial velocities and external field forces. This study considers the nonlinear problem of combined free and forced convection in vertical and horizontal two-dimensional conduits with finite transverse velocity.Similarity transformations for the temperature function have been found which reduce the energy, momentum, continuity, and state equations for these configurations to nonlinear systems of two coupled ordianary differential euqations. These equations are solved by approximate methods to give Nusselt numbers and friction factors as well as velocity and temperature profiles.Stream to wall temperature differences increase with suction and decrease with injection. The effects of interfacial velocity on temperature profiles and heat transfer increase dramatically with Prandtl number. Because blowing and suction strongly affect temperature profiles they substantially modify natural convection effects in vertical flows. Suction creates steeper transverse temperature gradients and accentuates buoyancy effects in vertical flows. Conversely injection flattens temperature profiles and thus decreases the influence of buoyancy on the velocity field.
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  • 16
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 364-368 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 383-388 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 18
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 417-432 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 19
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 430-430 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 21
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 435-435 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 22
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 448-455 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The linearized equations of diffusion in a multicomponent system with flow and chemical reaction are shown to reduce to a set of equivalent binary diffusion equations.The concentrations and fluxes in a multicomponent system are described by linear combinations of appropriate solutions to the binary diffusion equation for steady and unsteady diffusion and convective mass transfer, laminar or turbulent.The rate of transfer of each component in a nonreacting n component system is a linear combination of the n-1 independent driving forces with proportionality constants which depend upon the multicomponent diffusion coefficients and appropriate binary mass transfer coefficients, while the concentration profile of each component is a linear combination of appropriate binary concentration profiles with proportionality constants which depend upon the multicomponent diffusion coefficients and the characteristic displacement from equilibrium of each component.The linearized theory is exact for small changes in concentration but needs further testing when the concentration changes and fluxes are large.
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  • 23
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 475-482 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 24
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 496-501 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 25
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 517-523 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the absence of turbulent fluctuations the main effect of a velocity gradient on the floc properties is a rearrangement of particles within the floc producing a more dense floc structure. When the suspension is sufficiently dilute that floc-floc collisions are negligible, the limits on the floc diameter are (1 + α)5/3 〈 (Df/Dp) ≤ (1 + α)2, where α is the ratio of the volume of fluid immobilized in the floc structure to volume of solids in the floc structure as determined from hindred-settling measurements. These results set an upper limit on the floc size.Under turbulent flow conditions the principle mechanism leading to floc rupture is pressure differences on opposite sides of the floc which cause bulgy deformation and rupture. The breakup of the floc is resisted by the yield stress τy and is promoted by an increase in the energy dissipation per unit mass of fluid ∊. Because the energy dissipation per unit mass is at a maximum near the pipe wall, the floc size is at a minimum in this same region.By application of the concepts of local isotropy, the floc size is found to be proportional to (τy9/∊5)1/2once the turbulent intensity is sufficient to overcome the yield stress. In the wall region the floc diameter is proportional to (du/dr)3 (τy9/∊8)1/2.
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  • 26
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 540-544 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 27
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 551-557 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To test the importance of visco-elastic properties of non-Newtonian fluids in an oscillatory system of low frequency the dynamic characteristics of a series of non-Newtonian fluids were studied in oscillating manometers. The manometer fluid behavior was simulated on a digital computer by numerically integrating the axial component of the equation of motion. In the simulation cone and plate steady state rheological data were represented mathematically with the Sisko rheological model. Good agreement between simulation and experimental data was obtained. This agreement implies that steady state rheological models can be utilized in the description of unsteady state non-Newtonian systems where the characteristic period of the system is many times greater than the relaxation and retardation times of the fluid. When this characteristic period approaches these times, then rheological models which incorporate viscoelastic terms explicitly probably should be used.
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  • 28
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 584-592 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 29
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 574-580 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A kinetic study was made of the homogeneous reactions in the sulfur dioxide-sodium bisulfite-water system, with a radioactive tracer technique. By operating this system at chemical equilibrium but at isotopic disequilibrium the influence of the diffusion of sulfur dioxide into and out of the aqueous solution could be divorced from the kinetic effects of the chemical reaction. It was then possible to follow the rate of reaction of this system by analyzing the radioactive sulfur-35 in the form of gaseous sulfur dioxide, with the Bernstein-Ballentine technique.Data were collected at temperatures of 0° to 20°C. and at pH ranges from 1.25 to 4.3. Analysis and correlation of the experimental data by different kinetic models demonstrated that the classical reaction SO2 + H2O ⇌ H+ + HSO3- represented the experimental data best from a macroscopic viewpoint. Because of the low pH conditions employed it was not possible to obtain rate data for the reaction SO2 + OH- ⇌ HSO3.Forward and reverse rate constants are reported for the first time for this system.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 31
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 460-465 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Solutions to the equations of multicomponent mass transfer may be written as matrix generalizations of the solution to the equivalent binary mass transfer equation when intial and boundary concentrations are constant, there are no homogeneous reactions, and all physical properties including the diffusion coefficient matrix are concentration independent.The analogue of the binary mass transfer coefficient is a multicomponent mass transfer coefficient matrix which depends only upon the mass transfer coefficients of the equivalent binary system and the diffusion coefficient matrix of the multicomponent system.When interphase transfer takes place, the inverse multicomponent mass transfer coefficient matrices of each phase are additive. Their sum yields an overall resistance to mass transfer which is the inverse of the overall multicomponent mass transfer coefficient matrix.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 33
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 509-517 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study was made of nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated distilled water for various reduced gravity fields. The nucleation occurred on a very smooth horizontal nickel surface at low heat fluxes. Since because of the smooth surface finish only a few nucleation sites were active, it was possible to photograph individual bubbles that were not interfered with by adjacent bubble columns. Data were taken at seven different gravity fields in the range from 1.4 to 100% of earth gravity by placing the apparatus on a counterwieghted falling platform. Measurements were made of bubble departure diameters and frequencies, growth rates, contact angles, base circle diameters, and rise velocities. Comparisons were made to determine whether the measured gravity dependence of these quantities was in agreement with that predicted by correlations in the literature.
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 502-508 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The inherent uncertainty of the critical heat flux in saturated pool boiling has been inconclusively debated for some time. In an effort to ascertain this uncertainty a series of 234 tests was conducted at atmospheric pressure with saturated water outside horizontal, a.c. heated, 0.234-in. O.D., A-nickel tubes in an open 6 × 6 × 9-in. deep pool. Approximately fifty tests were conducted with each of four test sections which were protected from physical burnout by a detector circuit which terminated the applied current before the wall temperature exceeded approximately 450°F. The maximum relative uncertainty in the derived values of critical heat flux was ±3%.For all the tests the minimum, average, and maximum critical fluxes were 0.201 × 106, 0.436 × 106, and 0.596 × 106 B.t.u./hr. sq. ft., respectively, and the average critical wall superheat was 41°F. The surface roughness of the test sections remained essentially unchanged during the program. The data show that there is an inherent uncertainty or scatter band in the critical heat flux under conditions of minimum surface variability, and that solely hydrodynamic theories of burnout do not fully represent the phenomenon, since surface condition can constitute a significant influence.
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  • 35
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 747-752 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The radial components of the turbulence energy and intensity spectra within a stirred, baffled tank are measured with a transducer probe of the type developed by Eagleson et al. (9). The spectra are normalized because absolute levels of the intensity in these high intensity velocity fields cannot be measured with the present technique. Average velocities are also measured with Pitot and Prandtl tubes.Range of measured energy and intensity spectra was 19 to 1,100 cycles/sec. The measured energy spectra show a k-5/3-relation in the low wave number range where the wave number k is less than 100 ft.-1 and a k-10/3-relation in the wave number range of 100 to 1,000 ft.-1. This behavior is found regardless of impeller size, motor speed, and position in tank, in particular radial distance, indicating that the decay of energy spectra is self-preserving. Increasing the viscosity from 0.80 to 103 centipoises results in a progressively steeper slope in the high wave number range. The shape of the intensity spectra is the same as that of the concentration spectra measured by Manning (26, 27).
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  • 36
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 766-773 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sternling and Scriven have shown that the derivative of interfacial tension with respect to solute concentration is an important parameter influencing the hydrodynamic stability at an interface across which mass transfer is taking place. This work is concerned with a molecular thermodynamic study of that derivative.With surface thermodynamics and an extension of the solution theory of Schuchowitzky, an expression is derived which relates the interfacial tension to the solute concentration in terms of physically meaningful parameters. These in turn are related to molecular properties of the solute and solvent species.New experimental data are reported for the interfacial tension of nine ternary systems; these consist of an aqueous phase and an organic phase where both phases are dilute solutions of an alcohol. The organic phases are hexane, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride and the alcohols are methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol.The theoretical equations predict interfacial tensions which are in good agreement with the new experimental results and with experimental data of Vignes on aqueous-organic systems which are dilute solutions of organic acids.
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  • 37
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 776-792 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The measurement of vapor-solid distribution coefficients or K values of a solute distributed between a gas phase and an adsorbed phase at essentially infinite dilutions has been investigated. Gas-solid chromatography is the technique employed in which the solute of interest is eluted through a tube packed with a solid adsorbent by a flowing gas phase which may or may not be appreciably adsorbed. The data taken for the eluted solute samples were then related to the K value and isobaric heat of adsorption for the solutes in the vapor-solid system.A previous mathematical solution describing the chromatographic process is extended to include the case of an appreciably adsorbed pure component elution gas. This theory allows the calculation of solute K values and heats of adsorption for a solute at essentially infinite dilution in the vapor-solid system. It is necessary to have adsorption data for the elution gas covering the range of interest. For this reason the necessary elution gas adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically for the temperature and pressure range of the study.For comparison purposes a single ethylene adsorption isotherm at 25°C. was obtained along with retention volume data for methane, ethane, and propane at essentially infinite dilution in the ethylene-silica gel system at 25°C. Agreement of the data of this study and the literature was thought to be sufficiently good to warrant further use of the technique.Methane adsorption isotherms on silica gel were gravimetrically measured at -40°, -20°, 0°, 20°, and 40°C. from 100 to 2,000 lb./sq.in.abs. Retention volume data over the same pressure and temperature ranges were taken for ethane, propane, and n-butane at essentially infinite dilution in the methane-silica gel system.
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  • 39
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    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 102-106 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The basic requirements for optimization of filament-wound pressure vessels are a high strength-to-density ratio of the fiberglass-resin composite and an arrangement of the glass fibers in such fashion that each fiber carries, at a given pressure, the same constant load throughout the cylindrical portion as well as the end closures. The basic relations governing the isotensoidal design are derived, and the ideal shape of the end closure is defined. The relative merits of geodesic and “in-plane” wrapping are discussed. Structrual efficiencies accomplished in several practical applications are reviewed.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 107-112 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Studies of capillary extrusion measurements using an Instron rheometer show that certain types of high density polyethylene exhibit a discontinuity in the shear stress/shear rate curve. This behavior which is separate and distinct from the phenomenon of melt fracture is caused by a change in the flow regime. It is manifested by oscillation of the recorded load while the rheometer piston is operated at a constant rate. Therefore, this behavior has been termed “oscillating shear phenomenon”. The location and magnitude of the fluctuations are functions of the molecular parameters of the polymer as well as the melt temperature, capillary geometry, and other rheometer variables. Evidence is presented which indicates that the change in flow regime could result from the orientation of the melt as it enters the capillary.
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  • 41
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 113-119 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Solution-grown crystals of polyethylene may reach lateral dimensions large enough for optical microscopy. Interference microscopy represents, in this case, a suitable method of observation of morphology and defects as well as quantitative determinations. The double-beam interference method used in the Baker type microscope has been applied to determine refractive indices and lamellar thicknesses. The Nomarski double-beam interferometer has been used for hot-stage experiments. Multiple-beam techniques involving silvering of crystal surfaces and using an ordinary light microscope for observation have been developed. The applicability of the different types of interference microscopy to polymer research is illustrated in a series of representative photomicrographs of polyethylene.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 127-128 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 43
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 120-127 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Carefully controlled experimental techniques were used to study the effect of variations in bulk E glass surfaces on bound life and wetting. Bond life (stability of the bound in the presence of moisture) was determined visually as the time required for hot water to remove an epoxy resin coating from the glass surface. Wetting was determined by the captive bubble technique. Both properties were significantly affected by variations of the glass surface. The bound life studies emphasized the importance of the coupling agent in promoting bound stability in a hot water environment. The only example of the glass surface not treated with a coupling agent that had a satisfactory bound life was the alkali-deficient glass surface prepared by acid leaching. The surprisingly poor bound lives of the degassed and freshly cleaved (high energy) glass surfaces indicated that the wet strength retention of laminates would be poor when prepared by instantaneously applying epoxy resin without a coupling agent to the glass fibers directly as the fibers are formed. Cleanliness and surface and surface roughness were the only two variables found that promoted wetting. This discrepancy with respect to cleanliness indicated that wetting was not the controlling factor for bond life.
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    Notes: The melt flow properties of PVC Resins have been investigated. The Effects of molecular weight, temperature, and plasticizer (DOP) concentration on the Melt rheology have been examined and correlated with molecular properties of polymers.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 133-136 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Unstable flow involving extrudate distortion have been observed in the extrusion of PVC. Two types of distortion have been isolated and the factors which are operative have been examined. These Factors are discussed in the light of existing knowledge of “melt fracture”.
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    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 187-192 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Oxidation of many polymers occurs by a free-radical, chain mechanism similar to that developed for the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons. The rate at which various polymers oxidize and the extent of the reaction is influenced both by the physical and by the chemical structure of the particular polymer. Important morphological changes may also occur as a result of oxidation. Polymer degradation by oxidative reactions can be inhibited effectively at several stages in the over-all reaction. Synergistic combinations in which each component of a stabilizer system inhibits primarily at one of these stages are particularly effective.
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    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 49
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 229-235 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The current status of weathering of plastics is reviewed. As a better understanding of the effective degradative parameters of weather are obtained, it is aparent that complex interactions occur. Present laboratory exposure tests do not simulate natural conditions sufficiently to provide the much neede reliable short term exposure test for predicting long term durability. While a major step forward occurred with the introduction of filtered xwnon lamps, which simulate terrestrial sunlight both in intensity and distribution, industry-wide support of fundamental studies of degradation is necessary if weathering studies are to be conducted scientifically.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 236-240 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The work carried out at Picatinny Arsenal on the weathering of plastics over the lat 15 years is briefly described. Although the perid of work was 15 years, individual systems were exposed for only three years. The need for running parallel tests on materials stored indoors for the three years is pointed out as a means of separating the effects of daging from weathering. Also brielfy discussed is the influence which the test method chosen can have on the judgment reached. The requirements of the application are as important as the inherent durability of the material. Improved compounds are becoming available and complete reporting of both favorable and unfavorable resuts is urged as a means of lending guidance in the search for still better compounds.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 224-228 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Expanding interst in using plastics for structural pruposes immediately focuses attention on their poermanence. This desired quality is broadly defined as the persistence of a specific set of properties of a given asembly or manufactured product, in its appropriate environment, for an economically justified duration. Analysis of existing test methods, primarily those standardized by ASTM, shows no really applicable techniques for measuring permanence. By contrast, more advanced thinking presented by recent ASTM stmposia indicates two general routes to the porediction of performances. Whether a rigorous “micromechanistic” technique is used, or the empirical “macroanalytical” approach, or some combination of the two, is considered irrelevant. What is important is that experimental programs be started to provide better measures of permanence.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 242-244 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 251-255 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Toluene diisocyanate was partially replaced by monobrominated toluene diisocyanate in conventional rigid polyurethane foam formulations, producing self-extinguishing foams for thermal insulation, with only moderate sacrifce of compressive strength, and with no significant effects upon reactivity, odor, density, cell structure, or resistance to aging.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 245-250 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid has been isolated in quantities sufficient for characterization and evaluation of mechanical properties from both Bacillus megaterium and a special strain of Rhizobium. Its presence in a larger variety of bacteria than previously suspected has been demonstrated by a screening method based on density-gradient centrifugation. The intrinsic viscosity of the isolated polymer has been shown to depend on the technique of isolation; basic solvents facilitate hydrolytic cleavage of the polyester. Mechanical properties of the polymer are based on the high crystallinity and polarity of the material; in a highly crystallized state, it is quite brittle, but its rigidity exceeds that of polypropylene. Thermal degradation of molecular weight, due to beta-eliminatin of the carboxyl group from the polyester structure, severely limits processing of the polymer in the melt.
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    Notes: The thickness of the adsorbed layer of two glass finishes, vinyl tris (2-methoxyethoxy) silane and gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, was measured by ellipsometry. The vinyl silane was adsorbed on glass from solutions in water and in methyl ethyl ketone. The adsorption from water resulted in a film initially at least 50 Å thick, which increased in thickness with time. Adsorption from methyl ethyl ketone solution resulted in a film of about 10 Å. The amino silane was adsorbed on glass and on chrome from soutions in water. Adsorption on glass resulted in a film at least 60 Å in thickness, which remained constant over a period of about 5 hours. Adsorption on chrome resulted in a film about 10 Å in thickness. From the results it appears that a polymer, rather that small molecules of glass finish, is adsorbed from the water solution on glass and that small unpolymerized “finish” molecules are adsorbed from the methyl ethyl ketone solution.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 263-266 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The combination fo dicyandiamide and diaminodiphenyl sulfone in the presence of a tertiary amine, like 2,4,6-tris (dimethyl amino methyl) phenol, will crosslink liquid epoxy resins (E.E.W. 180-200) of diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A type, or brominated resins, and if used to impregnate glass cloth will produce printed circuit laminated boards combining interlaminar bond and flexural strength retention of NEMA-G-10 and G-11 grades.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 267-276 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The moduli of elasticity of reinforced plastics with uni-directional filaments either parallel or normal to an applied force are evaluated in terms of the material composition. Expressions are then derived which relate its moduli of elasticity and Poisson's ratios for an arbitrary filament orientation with its material properties in the direction of and normal to the unifilament orientation with its material properties in the direction of and normal to the unidirectional filaments. Filaments. The stress-strain relations of filament reinforced plastics are also derived.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 282-289 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Creep experiments under variable loading conditions are reported for tubular specimens of cellulose acetate butyrate. Experiments include the application of torque loading that corresponded to various loading programs. Results indicate that the material response in creep is nonlinear. The character of the results is described reasonably by assuming the behavior as linear and using the Botzmann superposition principle. However, the interpretation of the data based upon a non-liner creep law and modified superposition principle yields better agreement with experiments in certain cases.
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    Notes: Bueche and Harding [J. Polymer Sci. 32 177 (1958)] obtained an empirical “standard flow curve” to relate viscosity and shear rate by using a particular poly(styrene) solution and positioning the flow curve on a dimensionless rate of shear axis via the viscosity average molecular weight, MV and Bueche's expression for the relation time, τ, where \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ \tau = 12\eta _{\rm o} {\rm M}_{\rm R} /\pi ^2 {\rm RTC} $$\end{document} Here R is the gas constant, ηo is the low rate of shear Newtonian viscosity, T is the absolute temperature, C is the Concentration in grams per cubic centimeter, and MR is te molecular weight which determines the relaxation time. Bueche implies by his standard curve that MV correlates with MR. In Gereral, it was found that: 1) MR does not equal MV but it is usually significantly lower than MV or MW; (2) the value of MR increases with increasing polymer concentration and temperature; and (3) the shapes of the flow curves are slightly different from the shape of the standard curve. A survey of the data available in the lon the flow of polymer melts supports these conclusions. Thus, the Bueche-Harding method can only give semi-quantitative help I predicting the flow behavior of polymeric melts.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 295-305 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that a standard screw-extruder with a little modification is very useful for the measurement of flow properities of various plastics melt over a wide range. Results obtained are very interesting and it is expected that they have applicability to polymer processing. A range of flow rates covering both extrusion and injection molding applications were considered.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 290-294 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Dupre's theory that work of rupture equals increase in surface energy, and Griffith's hypothesis (based upon Dupre's that a crack propagates when strain energy decrease equals or exceeds work required to creat two new surfaces are shown to be incorrect. Work is required for deformation to repture, not for the actual rupture.An alternative criterion, i. e., that crack propagation occurs when strain energy decrease exceeds the increase required for elastic deformation of the “critical domain” to the breaking point, offers the following advantages: (1) continuity between macro- and micro-effects, (2) avoidance of surface energy (unmeasurable for solids), (3) accounting for heat effect, (4) reasonable explanation of unexpectedly high “surface energy” values.
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    Notes: Solid compositons studied included PTFE, PCFE, polyimides, both filled and unfilled, and fluorocarbon telomers. Evaporation experiments were conducted at ambient temperatures to fluorocarbon telomers. Evaporaton experiments were conducted at ambient temperatures to 1100°F and pressures to 10-8 mm Hg. Various molecular weights of different polymers were examined. Results indicate that evaporation rates in vacuum for polymers vary with molecular weight. Friction and wear experiments were conducted with a 3-16-inch-radius rider hemisphere (usually polymer) sliding on a flat disk (various materials) at speeds to 1480 feet per minute with a 1000-gram load on the rider specimen and at an ambient pressure of 10-9 mm Hg. Fillers were found to influence markedly the wear of PTFE and PCFE in vacuum as a result of changes in heat dissipation properties, but they showed little or no influence on friction.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 315-362 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The Theory of Crystallization of bulk linear polymers with chain folding is discussed in terms of recent developments. Specific topics covered are: (a) Rate of crystal growth and size of folded nuclei, (b) theoretical and experimental estimates of the fold surface free energy, and estimates of the surface free energy of “friged micelle” and “switchbord” type crystals, (c) basic causes of essentially regular folding in bulk, (d) rejection of short chain species during crystallization, (e) melting behavior of thin chain-folded lamellae, (f) gradual thickening of lamellae on isothermal storage, (g) homogeneous, pseudohomogeneous, and heterogeneous nucleation, (h) voids and included point defects as a paret of the concept of the degree of crystallinity, and (i) phenomena occurring in stage 1 and stage 2 of bulk crystallization isotherms (annealing). A comparison of theory and experiment is carried out using data, some previously unpublished, on polyethylene and polychlorotrifluoroethylene. The theory with essentially regular golding is found to be satisfactory.
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 585-590 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 260-265 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The point of inversion of a water-in-oil type of dispersion to an oil-in-water type is investigated for several water-oil systems by studying the volume ratios of the phases in relation to their physical properties. The point of inversion for each system of an immiscible organic liquid and water and organic liquid mixture and water is obtained by varying the phase-volume ratios and determining the type of dispersion after complete mixing. The effects of temprature, interfacial tension, and density are found to have no correlation generally applicable to the systems studied. A volume-viscosity relationship is found to exist within limits. This correlation is that the phase-volume ratio at the point of inversion is equal to the square root of the ratio of teh viscosities of the respective phases at the interface. The theoretical aspects of this relationship are studied along with its limitations.
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 274-275 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 277-281 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 10 (1964), S. 278-284 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000