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  • Chemical Engineering
  • 1965-1969  (1,448)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 10-17 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The use of heuristic structuring strategies in the development of computer programs for the synthesis of process designs is examined. By the employment of selection weights which are adjusted as experience is gained from past successes and failures, the computer is able to learn the sequence of structuring decisions which leads toward the optimal process design. The computer can develop competence in the synthesis of systems in a limited area of technology.
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  • 2
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 164-170 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theoretical study has been made on the effect of pulsations in the flow field on interphase mass transfer. The phenomenon is of interest in studies of the cardiovascular system as well as in traditional engineering applications. The physical situation studied corresponds to fully developed flow in a long conduit with a periodic pressure gradient. The mass transfer problem was solved analytically for low amplitude pulsations for the two limiting cases of very small and very large frequencies. In addition, several numerical solutions were developed in the intermediate region where the asymptotic solutions are least accurate. The solutions taken together give a good quantitative overall view of the phenomenon.One of the most interesting and unexpected results is that at very low frequencies it is possible for a pulsatile flow to yield a lower interphase mass flux than a steady Poiseuille flow with the same velocity.
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  • 3
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 171-177 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Liapunov's direct method is used to establish a finite region of asymptotic stability for nonlinear systems with an arbitrary number of state variables. The procedure is a geometric one in multidimensional space which uses the Fletcher-Powell minimization technique to find the maximum time derivative of the Liapunov function on the closed Liapunov hypersurface. Three detailed examples are presented, the first being the classical 2-variable CSTR with heat transfer and the third being a 32-variable 16-stage model of an adiabatic tubular reactor with axial diffusion.
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  • 4
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 276-281 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes a numerical procedure for optimizing a large set of interconnected systems with respect to a given index of performance. The method automatically constructs the vector differential equation of the complete system from (a) the vector differential equations describing the behavior of the components of the system and (b) the manner of their interconnection. A hill-climbing method is then used to select optimum values of the system's parameters to maximize a given index of performance. An example of the procedure applied to a high order system is included.
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 322-475 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 327-333 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The laminar boundary layers on a moving continuous flat surface in non-Newtonian fluids characterized by the power law model are investigated using exact and approximate methods. Both pseudoplastic and dilatant fluids are considered. Numerical solutions of the boundary-layer equations are obtained for values of the parameter n in the power law model ranging from 0.1 to 2.0. An integral solution of the momentum equation, which can be used to obtain values of the dimensionless shearing stress that are in good agreement with the exact values, is developed. An integral solution to the energy equation is also presented.
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 339-350 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: When a porous solid is penetrated by a reactive fluid which changes the pore geometry, the macroscopic properties of that porous material may be greatly changed. A model is proposed in which the matrix is visualized as being a number of short cylindrical pores dispersed randomly throughout the solid. The change in the distribution of these cylindrical pores is then represented by a integrodifferential equation which is solved for two special cases.The evolution of the pore size distribution is determined by the particular way in which the solid-liquid boundary takes place. The case considered here is that of a surface reaction which dissolves the solid thus continuously enlarging the pores. The rate of reaction is calculated theoretically using a laminar flow diffusion model and this growth rate expression is then taken as the basis for numerical calculations relating to the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on limestone.A comparison is made with experimental results and it is found that the model behaves in much the same way as the real system although the observed rate of pore growth was two to three times that predicted by the diffusion model. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are being tested.An exact solution of the integrodifferential equation for highly retarded reaction rates has been found with the change in permeability being given in terms of the change in porosity. This result will permit a prediction of the stimulation that can be achieved in acidizing oil wells with retarded acids.
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 367-370 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The steady, two-dimensional, incompressible laminar boundary-layer flow of power law fluids past a semi-infinite flat plate is studied analytically by the method of series expansion and the method of steepest descent (Meksyn's method). The shear stress of the fluids considered is proportional to the nth power of the velocity gradient. The solution obtained is a series of gamma function with the coefficient being a function of the material constant, n. The first ten terms of the series solution are then considered for the sum to determine the velocity gradient at the plate, fηη(0). The results obtained for fηη(0) and the coefficient of skin friction are in excellent agreement with the numerical solutions available in the range of 0.1 ≤ n ≤ 2.5.
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  • 9
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 383-386 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The breakup of a low speed horizontal jet is investigated. Weber's theory for the Newtonian jet is extended to a linear viscoelastic fluid. The theory predicts a dependence of breakup length on the elasticity number. Breakup lengths are measured for low concentration solutions of polyisobutylene in tetralin. Two molecular weights, several concentrations, and five capillary diameters were studied. A single correlation is obtained for all data which gives the breakup length as a function of the elasticity number, and the parameters of Weber's theory. At constant values of the Ohnesorge number and Weber number, the breakup length decreases with increasing elasticity number. The effect of the length of the capillary is studied. At large elasticity numbers short tubes give rise to slightly shorter breakup lengths than long tubes under identical flow conditions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of mass transfer on reaction kinetics, within the porous structure of a catalyst, was investigated during the hydrogenation of benzene. The temperature range for a nickel catalyst at atmospheric pressure was 99 to 160°C. The rate equation and the apparent activation energy on a cylindrical catalyst pellet (4.5 mm. in diameter and 5.5 mm. in height) and on the catalyst particles (0.5 to 0.63 mm. in diameter) were evaluated.The effect of internal diffusion on the dependence of the reaction rate, on the temperature, and on the partial pressures of benzene and hydrogen was satisfactorily explained by means of theoretical relations. The values of the effective diffusion coefficient of benzene were compared by calculating the kinetic data and temperature difference in the cylindrical pellet.
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 405-409 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The definition of filtration resistance is modified by considering relative solid-liquid velocity.The internal flow mechanism in a filter cake is reexamined in view of the movement of solids during compression. Under conditions of short filtrations involving highly concentrated slurries, the velocity of solids is shown to be comparable to the velocity of the liquid. A differential equation is proposed for the flow through compressible cakes in which the pressure gradient is assumed proportional to the difference in average velocities of the liquid and solid rather than to the average velocity of the liquid alone.An improved definition of the average filtration resistance is developed on the basis of the new flow equation.
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  • 12
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 419-425 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mass transfer to spheres suspended in an agitated liquid has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Finite-difference solutions are obtained for mass transfer from a sphere to a fluid flowing past it in steady viscous flow. The effects of a transpiration velocity at the surface of the sphere and of a continuously changing sphere diameter are included. A normalized presentation of these effects is quite insensitive to the bulk flow Peclet number. When these theoretical corrections for transpiring and shrinking spheres are applied to the mass transfer data for ice spheres that are melting in an agitated brine bath, the corrected mass transfer coefficients are brought into agreement with a generalized correlation published elsewhere. This agreement suggests that the theoretical results apply, with reasonable accuracy, to a shrinking and transpiring sphere that is suspended in a turbulent liquid.
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  • 13
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 450-454 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The onset of secondary motions between rotating concentric cylinders is related to the viscometric normal stress functions for a class of viscoelastic liquids which includes dilute polymer solutions. Both increased and decreased stability relative to a corresponding Newtonian liquid are possible for a given material, depending upon the particular relation between the viscometric functions and the geometric constants of the equipment. This predicted behavior is in agreement with experimental observations.
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  • 14
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 454-459 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The onset of rotational flow instability was determined experimentally for dilute solutions of six polymers. In general, the onset of secondary motions occurred later than for a Newtonian liquid of equal apparent viscosity, although, depending upon geometric ratios, some instabilities occurred earlier than in the Newtonian liquid. The stability theory of Ginn and Denn was used to calculate viscometric normal stress functions for ten solutions, with excellent agreement obtained with rheogoniometric measurements of the primary normal stress measurements in all but three cases. Torque measurements of the laminar secondary motion following instability showed some frictional drags significantly less than those observed in Newtonian liquids, a phenomenon analogous to the turbulent drag reduction observed previously in dilute polymer solutions.
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  • 15
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 466-466 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 16
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 19
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 334-338 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A finite-difference method is developed for numerical solution of parabolic partial differential equations. This technique is explicit and stable. It is shown that the present method is more accurate and faster, in terms of computer time, than the Crank-Nicholson method. A method of handling nonlinear problems is also presented. Two examples are given to illustrate the present technique. The first problem is a linear diffusion equation. The second problem deals with two simultaneous nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations with Neumann boundary conditions describing the steady state of a packed-bed catalytic reactor with radial mixing.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A rigorous and simple thermodynamic equation relating equilibrium vapor-liquid compositions and the phase enthalpy differences for a binary, isobaric system is extended to multicomponent systems. An analysis is made to indicate the potential applications of computing the latent heat of vaporization directly from the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrum data and testing the consistency of phase composition and enthalpy data.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An apparatus was constructed for making isochoric measurements of P-V-T properties. Experimental compressibility factors were obtained and are presented for methane, ethylene, and four intermediate mixtures at 60, 40, and 20°F., with pressures from 260 to 2,220 lb./sq.in.abs. Second and third virial coefficients and interaction virial coefficients were determined from the data. The compressibility factors and the virial coefficients are compared with the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state, applied in its original form and in a recent generalized form.
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  • 22
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 568-575 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this paper the concept of a mass transfer section is applied to problems involving packed distillation columns and packed absorbers. When this concept is employed, the resulting equations required to describe packed distillation columns and packed absorbers are identical in form to those required to describe distillation columns and absorbers with plates. Data from the results of two field tests are presented and analyzed.
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  • 23
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 410-414 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The necessary conditions for optimization of a system governed by a nonlinear vector first-order partial differential equation with two (space and time) independent variables, such as governs the unsteady behavior of tubular flow reactors, are derived. Rather general objective functionals and boundary conditions, such as the recycle of unconverted reactant with an appropriate time delay for separation and a free choice of final time, are allowed. A gradient technique in control space is formulated, and it is shown that distinct computational advantages can accrue from the use of the method of characteristics.
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  • 24
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 426-434 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An analysis based on the Townsend-Bakewell model of the eddies in the wall regions of turbulent shear flows shows that viscoelastic fluid properties must lead to significant reductions in the rate of production of turbulent energy. This analysis in turn leads to the proper form of the similarity laws for drag reducing fluids, heretofore deduced empirically.Measurements of the axial and radial turbulence intensities for flow through smooth round tubes are reported, as are measurements of the time-averaged velocity profiles and the drag coefficients. These indicate that for solutions exhibiting drag reduction at all Reynolds numbers the flow may be transitional to Reynolds numbers of the order of 105. This transitional flow consists of alternating patches of laminar and turbulent fluid, within each of which the flow characteristics are approximately similar to those of Newtonian fluids. At high Reynolds number conditions with the turbulent field fully developed the velocity profile in the core is flatter under drag-reducing conditions than for turbulent Newtonian fluids, a change dependent on the increased isotropy of the turbulent field of the drag-reducing fluid. These effects appear to be a result of increases in the time scales of the radial fluctuations caused by the fluid properties.Design calculations based upon the present results suggest that in large diameter pipelines, or in boundary layers on large objects, drag reduction may not be attainable under conditions of practical interest until fluids having relaxation times an order of magnitude larger than those presently available, but with comparable viscosity levels, are developed or, alternately, until fluids exhibiting Weissenberg numbers which do not change with deformation rate, can be found.
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  • 25
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 460-460 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 26
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 466-469 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 28
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 501-504 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Metal surfaces of titanium, aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc were irradiated by a 25 joules pulsed laser with an energy flux ranging from 106 to 108 cal./(sq.cm.) (sec.). The resulted cavities were sectioned, polished and measured to compare with the isotherms computed from several heat conduction models. Reasonable agreement was found between the experimental cavity diameters at the interface and those calculated from the disk source model. Also, a graphical correlation between the cavity depth and its interface diameter is presented.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental results for the adsorption of the binary gas mixtures oxygen-nitrogen, oxygen-carbon monoxide and nitrogen-carbon monoxide on two synthetic zeolites are reported. In all of these experiments the temperature was -200°F. and the total pressure was 1 atm. Also reported are the isotherms for the three pure gases on the two zeolites at -200°F. The results indicate that these zeolites have a surface selectivity which is independent of any sieving effect based on the size of the adsorbed molecules. It does not appear that the strong separations obtained can be explained in terms of the van der Waals forces which are generally believed to be dominant in physical adsorption. The available methods of predicting binary adsorption data from the pure gas isotherms have been examined.
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  • 30
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 707-711 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Red blood cell damage and destruction are important problems in the use of artificial valves, heart-lung machines, and other devices which pump or process blood. An experimental study has been made on the mechanism of cell damage. Damage was defined by three types of observations on blood which had been subjected to trauma: (a) release of hemoglobin from cells (hemolysis), (b) morphological changes observed microscopically, and (c) red cell life span studies in rabbits using a Cr51 tagging technique.Three types of physical forces which might be injurious to red cells were studied; shearing stress (of known, constant magnitudes from a concentric cylinder viscometer), pressure variations (from studies in a static pressure cell), and direct impact of solid surfaces (from studies in a device which simulates the seating action of artificial heart valves).The study shows that high shearing stress may be primarily responsible for mechanical cell damage under certain important circumstances. There is a critical shearing stress above which cell damage increases markedly. Much of the cell damage does not appear as an immediate release of hemoglobin. Many cells undergo morphological changes and exhibit shortened average life span in vivo. The morphological changes due to shearing stress are very similar to the changes observed in patients who have hemolytic anemia associated with artificial valves.
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  • 31
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 727-733 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Data are reported for heat transfer from water to melting ice spheres and for mass transfer in the case of dissolving spheres of pivalic acid suspended in water agitated in a stirred vessel. The transport coefficients are found to depend on agitator power input but not on agitator design, in agreement with the Kolmogoroff theory. These experimental results are used with others in the literature to develop a correlation involving Nusselt and Prandtl or Schmidt numbers together with a dimensionless group involving agitation power. The correlation is essentially independent of solid-liquid density ratio in the range 0.8 to 1.25, and in this range the gravity group also appears to be unimportant.
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  • 32
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 745-749 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theory has been developed for heat or mass transfer between phases which may have unsteady time dependent velocity fields. The configuration analyzed involves two concentric tubes, but the analysis can be extended to more than two phases, or streams, and to noncylindrical cross sections. For the configuration considered, the dispersion coefficient is found from first principles.It is noteworthy that the dispersion model given by Equation (15) or (63) and (64), which is consistent with the basic continuum model of Equations (8) and (9), is based on the superficial velocity rather than the interstitial velocity. This strongly suggests that experimental observations on packed beds, or other multiphase systems, should be interpreted on the basis of um, the superficial velocity, rather than the interstitial velocity which has been used often in the past.
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  • 33
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 764-771 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A step-by-step prediction procedure has been developed to predict the evaporation of a sodium nitrate spray consisting of small drops moving at terminal velocity through the drying air. The procedure accounts both for the existence of radial gradients as well as radial mixing in the dryer and is selfsustaining except for values of the local air velocity.Because the procedure can be applied only to the free-fall zone, at some distance below the nozzle, a method was developed for the indirect determination of the amount of water remaining in the partly evaporated droplets at the beginning of the free-fall zone. This procedure was then applied to experimental data on drop size distributions obtained at the beginning of this zone. Owing to uncertainties concerning the salt concentration in the drops, a number of assumptions had to be made and the procedure was only partially successful in describing the spray evaporation, although it did compute the radial spray transfer. It was possible, however, to indicate by means of a model drop distribution the general validity of the procedure.
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 780-782 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: No Abstracts.
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  • 35
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 785-785 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: No Abstracts.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: No Abstracts.
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  • 37
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 803-808 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An earlier study on interphase mass transfer in pulsating laminar flow has been extended to the case of a distensible tube. The physical situation studied corresponds to developed flow in a long tube with a traveling pressure wave of small amplitude impressed on the steady flow. The tube wall is free to expand radially. Asymptotic solutions are developed for large and small values of the frequency parameter. The interphase flux is much greater in distensible conduits than in the corresponding case in rigid conduits.
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  • 38
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 837-842 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The phenomenon of reversing axial flow in swirling incompressible flow through a tube has been investigated experimentally. The study was carried out in a 2 in. I.D. test section of plexiglass tubing 10 ft. long. The swirl was introduced by injection of the total fluid stream through two symmetric tangential inlets perpendicular to the tube. Measurements have been made with specially constructed stagnation and static pressure probes.Velocity and pressure profiles obtained for tests conducted at four Reynold's Numbers in one fixed geometrical configuration are presented and discussed in general terms. Swirl decay rate is characterized in a plot of weighted tangential velocity/inlet velocity ratio versus distance along the test section from the inlets. A model presented by a previous investigator to explain the flow reversal phenomenon is discussed in the light of present work. Finally the data is used in an order of magnitude analysis to reduce the turbulent Navier-Stokes equation describing the flow to simpler (though still indeterminate) form.
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  • 39
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 861-865 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The final stages of condensation polymerization are characterized by a rapid rise in molecular weight, as the condensation product is formed and diffuses out of the polymer. The process occurring is one of desorption accompanied by a chemical reaction. The penetration theory equations for a generalized condensation polymerization reaction have been solved and some solutions are presented. The penetration theory solution, obtained by finite-difference computations, is compared with an analytical solution for the special case of no diffusional resistance.
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  • 40
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  • 41
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 735-744 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A model is presented to account for reduced mass transfer to drops falling through a continuous phase which contains a surface active agent. The fluid flow patterns are essentially laminar. The reduction in mass transfer is said to be due to a reduction in available interfacial transfer area and to changes in both velocity and pattern of internal circulation. These are shown to be functions of contact time and can be characterized. Experimental values agreed with the theoretically predicted ones with a deviation of less than 10%.
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  • 42
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 507-514 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An expression is derived for the analysis of gas-phase mass transport in porous media in the presence of gradients in pressure and mole fraction. The behavior of porous media is contrasted with that of capillary tubes. A continuous-flow diffusion and permeation apparatus was employed for studies of mass transport in a fritted glass diaphragm. Measurements were obtained at varying levels of pressure and cover both isobaric binary diffusion and the permeation of pure gases and gas mixtures. These experimental results and previous data obtained by Hewitt and Sharratt and by Mason, et al. bear out the form of the equation and successfully provide independent checks of the three constants necessary to characterize a given porous medium.
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  • 43
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 527-532 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental values of the wave length and wave velocity have been obtained for dilute solutions of valeric and hexanoic acid for a vertical falling liquid film. The wave length was unaffected by the surfactants for Reynolds numbers in the range 5 to 100; however, the wave velocity was decreased for increased surface concentrations of the two acids. This is in direct contradiction to previous theoretical work, and the explanation for the anomaly is that the free surface velocity is greatly retarded by the adsorption of the surface active agents. In an effort to determine the extent of this retardation, an approximate form of the diffusion equation and the equations of motion were solved subject to boundary conditions describing the effect of the absorbed surfactant on the surface stress. The results indicate that the entrance length can be increased several orders of magnitude by the addition of small amounts of surfactant.
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  • 44
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theoretical analysis of the operation of a Schildknecht type of column crystallizer is presented and simplified to three special cases. Experimental determinations were made of concentration profiles established during the purification of benzene with cyclohexane as impurity under steady state, batch conditions of operation. Benzene containing 34 to 500 ppm. cyclohexane was obtained by processing feed material with 5,000 to 30,000 ppm. cyclohexane. It was found that experimental data obtained under conditions of normal operation are well correlated by theoretical expressions if it is assumed that the crystals are not pure but contain cyclohexane at the level of 34 to 100 ppm. It was further established that the resistance to mass transfer between the liquid which adheres to the crystals and the wash liquid is negligible in comparison to backmixing effects as represented in the model by an eddy diffusion term. Smooth operation of the column was obtained at crystal rates below a limiting upper value and at oscillation frequencies above a lower limit.
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  • 45
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 564-567 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Drag reduction data for five concentrations of a water-soluble polymer and three tube diameters are presented. The data are correlated by a single curve relating two dimensionless parameters; these have been obtained from a phenomenological analysis of the mechanism of drag reduction.
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  • 46
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Heat transfer and pressure drop data were taken on commercial plate heat exchange equipment. Nusselt and Euler correlations were determined for each of the six commercial heat exchangers investigated. These correlations were combined to establish a single heat transfer-pressure drop relationship for any plate type of heat exchanger channel.The results of this investigation were tested by using the correlations developed in Part I of this series to predict pressure drop data for the commercial unit based on their channel geometries. These predicted pressure drops were then used with the results of this part of the series to predict and compare heat transfer data.The correlations developed in this work allow one to determine the heat transfer characteristics in a ribbed rectangular channel from the pressure drop characteristics of the channel in question.
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  • 47
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    Notes: Plexiglas models of rectangular channels were fabricated with various rib shapes to determine the effects of rib and channel geometry on the pressure drop. Pressure drops in twenty-four individual variations of channel geometry were investigated using plexiglas models.From this investigation, an empirical correlation for the pressure drop across the ribbed section of the channel was determined as a function of the linear fluid velocity and the geometric characteristics of the channels. This empirical correlation involves functions of seven geometric parameters of rib pattern and channel geometry.Ribbed section pressure drops for commercial plate heat exchanger channels were predicted using the geometric characteristics of the commercial plates with the empirical correlations developed from the plexiglas channel studies. The total pressure drop for commercial channels was predicted by adding an average entrance and exit pressure drop to the predicted ribbed section pressure drop.The correlations developed in this work allow one to determine the pressure drop in a ribbed rectangular channel from the geometric characteristics of the ribs and the channel in question.
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  • 48
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 604-611 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study has been made of the mechanics of flow of low viscosity liquids through swirl spray nozzles. Discharge coefficients and spray angles have been measured for a series of nozzles designed to systematically determine dimensional effects not predicted by frictionless theory, in particular the effect of the ratios of swirl chamber diameter to orifice diameter and of orifice length to orifice diameter. It was found that a unique relationship exists between discharge coefficient and spray angle dependent only upon the value of the orifice length/diameter ratio. This result has been explained on the basis of an ideal flow theory extended to take into account the frictional decay of the vortex motion. A general expression has been derived which permits correlation of the flow characteristics of nozzles covering a wide range of designs.
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 617-619 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 624-626 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 631-634 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 793-794 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: No Abstracts.
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 654-659 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Gas absorption, pressure drop, liquid holdup, and loading behavior in a packed column have been investigated using packing materials almost geometrically identical but fabricated from three different materials (ceramics, Saran, and polyethylene). For the absorption of oxygen into sodium sulfite solution, observed values of the liquid-side, composite, overall mass transfer coefficient, KLa, were about 25% larger for the ceramic packing than for the polymeric packings. It was also observed that liquid loading occurs more readily in the case of the polymeric packing materials and it appears that the usual type of correlation is inadequate for predicting loading when polymeric packings are employed. In the case of liquid operating holdup no differences were observed from packing to packing. These observations are discussed in terms of the nature of the interaction between liquid and packing surface and it is pointed out how these phenomena may be fundamentally different from those of previous investigations, which relied upon surface-active agents added to the liquid.
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  • 54
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    Notes: Experimental froth heights occurring on a perforated distillation tray were correlated with the determining system physical properties under distillation conditions. A photographic technique was used to measure accurately the foam and froth heights, produced in the 4 in. square test section of a laboratory distillation column, for several points in the composition range of five binary systems. Plate design parameters and operating vapor and liquid rates were held constant throughout the experimental study.The froth height results from this investigation (11), as well as those from studies (17) of a 6 in. distillation column, show a linear relation with the expression, UA2 ρv/(ρL  -  ρV), the frothing factor, for the ranges of the physical properties investigated.The foam height results of this study indicate that the mass transfer surface tension gradient, the heat transfer gradient, and the absolute value of surface tension all contribute to foam formation and stability. Because of the complex relation between the surface tension gradient and the frothing factor in relation to the degree of foaming, as well as the effects of other influencing variables, a unique correlation of the foam height data resulting from mass transture of the effect for several of the data points.This investigation was conducted to obtain experimental data which could provide a basis for correlation of the foam and froth heights occuring on an operating perforated distillation tray with system physical properties.
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    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 758-763 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Graetz-Nusselt problem for polymeric flow in a constant wall temperature tube was studied, using a temperature-dependent power law rheological model and temperature dependent fluid properties. Theoretical results compare within 6% of experimental results. The fluid model predicts an experimentally observed temperature maxima at a reduced radius between 0.7 and 0.8 for cooling at low flow rates.
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 57
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 1-10 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A previously proposed but further modified theoretical model for melting in plasticating extruders, in the form of a computer program, which predicts the amount of unmelted polymer at any point in the extruder, was used to simulate the effect of geometrical and operating variables on the melting performance of the extruder. The results indicate in increasing screw length required to complete melting with increasing throughput and a decreasing length of melting with increasing frequency of screw rotation. They further indicate the existence of an optimum barrel temperature for a maximum rate of melting, an optimum number of threads for a maximum melting rate, and a significant decrease in the rate of melting with increasing flight clearance. The effect of other geometrical variables and of operating conditions on the rate of melting and power consumption are also discussed.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 22-26 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Molten polymer was pumped through an isothermal-wall heat exchanger and the temperature at four radial positions was measured with a hypodermic thermocouple. Temperature profiles were obtained for heating, cooling, and isothermal flow of polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene at Graetz numbers from 1.7 to 9.2. The results show large viscous heating effects, particularly for cooling.
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  • 59
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    Notes: This paper is the third in a series describing work done under Air Force sponsorship to develop high temperature polyimide laminates for radomes and other parts for supersonic aircraft.Twelve resin compositions are described and evaluated. Most were prepared from benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and one or more aromatic diamines. Modifying linkages such as amide, ether, benzimidazole, and oxadiazole were present in some cases.A variety of precure and pressing conditions were studied, best results being obtained with a fully cured prepreg pressed at about 700°F and 200-1000 psi. Most of the laminates were made with E glass cloth, but some work was done also with S glass, Refrasil, and carbon cloth.Initial flexural strengths on E glass of 35-60,000 psi at room temperature, and 20-40,000 psi at 600°F were observed for the better resins. On S glass, slightly higher strengths were observed together with values of about 10,000 psi at 700-1000°F. Aging data on E glass laminates show retention of at least 10,000 psi flexural strength at temperature for about 250 hrs. at 650°F, 1000 hrs. at 600°F, 5000 hrs. at 527°F, and 30,000 hrs. at 482°F.Dielectric constant and dissipation factor at 10 Gc were found to be nearly constant at 3.5-4.4 and 0.005-0.01, respectively, for temperatures up to 662°F and for aging up to 1000 hrs. at 600°F. At frequencies of 60 c and 1 Kc, an increase of dissipation factor with temperature was found and was used as a measure of Tg.
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    Notes: Salts of polyacrylic acid can be fabricated in heated molds using mixed powders of polyacrylic acid and metal oxides. Because of the strong intermolecular forces in these polyelectrolyte salts, they have elastic moduli several times greater than the moduli of conventional plastics. They also have very low coefficients of expansion and high compression strengths. Composites containing metallic and inorganic fillers have also been made and their mechanical properties measured.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 360-364 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Equations have been derived to convert Brabender flow curves to Instron flow curves for practical application purposes. The technique involved is simple and has been described and discussed in detail. Nine pairs of Brabender and Instron flow curves of three different high polymers, each at three operating temperatures, have been found to fit each other quite well. The converted Brabender flow curves overlap a part of the Instron curves and extend the shear range toward the Newtonian flow region. An important consequence of this work is that the Brabender Plastograph can now be regarded as a formal viscometer while still functioning as a miniature of the Banbury mixers used in industry. More work is being done to take advantage of this consequence.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 388-392 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The stress concentration and effective flexure stiffness of an ASTM V-notch Izod specimen is excessive for most cases of plastics use. A more typical stiffness is that of a thin plate in two dimensional bending. Such can be approached with a larger radius and deeper V-notch. Instead of a V-notch, however, a double edge notch with the same radius and thickness at the root is recommended. The special advantage of the double edge notch is that the notch at the back edge reduces the energy loss due to the clamp.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 286-294 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Empirical test data on low-density polyethylenes exposed to the elements for very long times are compared with results on samples of the same materials subjected to artificial “weathering” in a modified carbon arc machine.The test results conform to the expression \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ t_a = B + t_n^k $$\end{document} where ta is hours of accelerated weathering, tn years of natural exposure, and the constants B and k have values of 150 and 2.4, respectively, for the materials and test conditions involved.Earlier results are confirmed in that optimum weather resistance is found to depend on good dispersion of a fine-particle black. Protection improves with concentration up to the limit of about 5% by weight imposed by degenerative effects on mechanical properties from higher loadings of the fine channel blacks. Dependence of weatherability on molecular weight (melt index) is noted.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 282-285 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Work at Stanford Research Institute on the deterioration of polymers is based on the assumption that aging in the light is the most serious problem and that it has at least three components that must be separated if we are to understand the overall process. We have started by measuring the production of free radicals on the polymer when pairs of t-butoxy radicals are generated from thermal decomposition of di-t-butylperoxy oxalate (DBPO) in bulk atactic polypropylene at temperatures approximating service conditions, 35-50°C. Our preliminary experiments have brought out experimental difficulties and have raised more theoretical questions than they have answered. Nevertheless, they show that the efficiency of production of polymer radicals is low and sensitive to the mobilities of the polymer chains. They also suggest that two kinetically different oxidation processes, with different dependencies on rates of initiation and with different susceptibilities to inhibitors, are proceeding simultaneously. The implications of these findings for results of some previous work and for design of improved accelerated tests is considered.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 319-319 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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    Notes: Starting with specific constitutive equations, methods of evaluating material properties from experimental data are outlined and then illustrated for some polymeric materials; these equations have been derived from thermodynamic principles, and are very similar to the Boltzmann superposition integral form of linear theory. The experimental basis for two equations under uniaxial loading and the influence of environmental factors on the properties are first examined. It is then shown that creep and recovery data can be conveiently used to evaluate properties in one equation, while two-step relaxation data serve the same purpose for the second equation. Methods of reducing data to accomplish this characterization and to determine the accuracy of the theory are illustrated using existing data on nitrocellulose film, fiber-reinforced phenolic resin, and polyisobutylene. Finally, a set of three-dimensional constitutive equations is proposed which is consistent with nonlinear behavior of some metals and plastics, and which enables all properties to be evaluated from uniaxial creep and recovery data.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Existing theory of polymer flow has been applied to a definition of shift factors which reduce the widely different melt viscosity/shear rate diagrams of plasticized PVC compounds to well-defined master curves. The master curves are temperature dependent and also define the flow properties of the unplasticized polymer on which a group of plasticized compounds is based. For given plasticizers, the value of the shift factor was found to depend on melt temperature and plasticizer volume fraction. Explicit relationships have been generated for three plasticizer systems; for these, melt viscosity/shear rate data can be precalculated over several decades of shear, and in the temperature range of 150-200°C. Absolute values of the shift factors depend on the type of plasticizer, and a correlation with polymer/diluent interaction parameters has been attempted. Initial results, valid only at high plasticizer volumes and near the reduced melt temperature of a polymer/plasticizer mixture, support the existence of such a correlation.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 69
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 9 (1969), S. 331-338 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A useful concept in polymer science is the degree of crystallinity - the fraction of the polymer that exists in a relatively ordered state. Methods of determination of the degree of crystallinity using density, infrared, thermal, N.M.R. and X-ray measurements are examined in light of modern notions of the structure of semi-crystalline polymers.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 70
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ;