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  • 1965-1969  (8)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A more accurate estimate of the relative positions of explosions in the U.S.S.R. and also in the Sahara have been obtained. The joint epicentre method used was verified by locating a number of explosions at the Nevada test site, where accurately known shot points were available. The results obtained are compared with other methods.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Spectral transfer functions are computed for a model consisting of one elastic layer over a homogeneous elastic half-space. Represented in the time domain, the transfer functions are compared with theoretical seismograms for various horizontal distances. The diagnostic diagrams show that the P̄ +--mode, the contribution of which is important in the generation of the PL-waves, is not the continuation of the first locked shear mode below the cut-off frequency.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Measurements of dT/dΔ across the Warramunga seismic array are perturbed by variations in the structure beneath the array. On the assumption that the structure consists of uniformly dipping interfaces, an estimate of the effect was obtained by combining data from opposite azimuths. The results were not entirely satisfactory, however, because of the over-simplicity of the model. It seems likely that accurate array determinations of dT/dΔ can only be obtained by ‘calibrating’ the array, using events at distances for which dT/dΔ is already well known.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Using Birch's development of finite-strain theory for the Earth, a simple formula is derived expressing the compression f in terms of the pressure and incompressibility at internal points of the Earth. The formula is free from certain limitations in an earlier formula used by Birch, and is not restricted to the mantle. The formula is applied to determining values of f for six representative Earth models, and preferred estimates of f are set down for the Earth. The results are compared with Birch's earlier estimates of f for the mantle. The computed values of f do not significantly exceed 0·13 in the mantle or 0·20 in the core. Across the mantle-core boundary, f is likely to be nearly continuous; any sudden change is likely to be less than about 5 per cent. The results are subject to the reliability of Birch's form of equation of state for the internal regions of the Earth and, as in Birch's method, neglect possible effects of phase changes.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The advantages to be gained from present techniques of recording seismic data by arrays of seismometers has prompted the development of a set of portable equipment designed primarily for linear arrays of the Eskdalemuir type. The equipment is described and details of its performance are given.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Thermodynamic considerations suggest the Curie temperature can be represented by means of differential thermal analysis. For this purpose, the heat capacity is used as parameter for the Curie-point range; the basic theoretical connections for this are reported.In passing, an account is given of some experimental results as well as of tests made to use magnetic substances with certain characteristic features instead of the usual inert ones.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A lunar semidiurnal variation (12·4206 h period) induced by tides in the deep ocean is demonstrated in (i) a month's observations of the horizontal electric field and magnetic declination at a sea floor site located 600 km off the California coast in 4·4 km of water, in (ii) a month's observations of the vertical magnetic field at a coastal site near Cambria, California, and in (iii) two years' observations of the vertical magnetic field at the island magnetic observatory on San Miguel, Azores. Comparison of the sea floor, coastal, and island observations with simultaneous continental magnetic observations permits an estimation of that part of the variation due to a lunar ionospheric oscillation.The observed oceanic induced variation at the sea floor and coastal sites are found to agree well with tidal induced fields computed for a model of the Earth's electrical conductivity and lunar semidiurnal tide. The model assumes (i) a flat semi-infinite ocean of uniform depth and conductivity, rotating at a uniform rate appropriate to the latitude of interest, (ii) non-conducting atmosphere, continent and upper mantle, and (iii) superconducting mantle at a uniform depth beneath the ocean.The observed oceanic induced vertical magnetic field at San Miguel is found to agree qualitatively with tidal induced fields computed for an island model. This model assumes (i) a uniformly conducting small circular island, (ii) a flat infinite ocean of uniform depth and conductivity, rotating at a uniform rate appropriate to the latitude of interest, (iii) a non-conducting atmosphere and upper mantle, and (iv) a superconducting mantle at a depth much greater than the size of the island.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An intensive study has been made of 30 samples from within, and two bakes samples from below a single Tertiary basalt in Eastern Iceland. The samples are spaced along a measured vertical traverse from bottom to top. The lava is 16·8 m thick, and is reversely magnetized.The quantities measured for each core were:〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉1Oxidation state as revealed by microscope studies in polished sections of the iron-titanium oxide.2Oxidation state of the whole rock as determined by FeO and Fe2O3 analyses.3Titanomagnetite and separate ilmenite grain sizes.4Magnetic susceptibility.5Saturation magnetization.6Curie points and total heating curve in a strong magnetic field.7Natural magnetization after demagnetization in several alternating fields.8Koenigsberger's Q factor, slightly modified.9A new measure of the resistance of the specimen to alternating field demagnetization, the ‘stability factor’.10The position of the core above the base of the lava.The above quantities vary greatly with position in the lava. The results of these measurements show the relationships of these variables to each other; in particular how the palaeomagnetic stability depends on oxidation state of the iron-titanium oxides. Stability is high in the lower two-thirds of this lava, and not just at the chilled margins.Two anomalous results are (1) that the Curie point is virtually constant regardless of oxidation state (unlike some other lavas), and (2) that the whole rock oxidation state measured by Fe2O3/(2FeO + Fe2O3) does not correlate simply with the oxidation state of the iron-titanium oxides as seen in the microscope.
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