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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 200-202 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 238-244 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A calculation procedure for multicomponent distillation has been developed that is directly applicable to design problems. It is based on successive approximation methods with adjustment of the number of equilibrium stages in each column section between iterations to meet given reflux flow and feed stage composition conditions while maintaining specified key component recoveries. This procedure has been applied to a number of representative distillation design problems. It converges readily to proper column designs from initial estimates based on a noniterative stage-to-stage calculation. Moreover, the procedure is markedly superior in computational efficiency to solution of design problems by repeated application of operating calculations to assumed column configurations.
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 250-255 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new objective function for estimating parameters in differential equations, based upon a weighted least squares criterion for the residuals of these equations, is presented. The use of Lobatto quadrature in combination with the collocation technique reduces the original problem to one of minimizing a simple algebraic expression with respect to a series of unknowns. The method can be applied to different types of differential equations as shwon by a series of examples and leads to very good estimates. It becomes particularly useful for systems which are linear in the parameters and for which all states are observable since in this case the usual convergence problem is avoided. The gain in computation time when compared with classical methods is significant.
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 279-284 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transient sorption rates of allene and methylacetylene in synthetic faujasite (Linde 13X) powder and self-bonded pellets are studied in a constant-volume, constant-pressure system at three temperatures. The intracrystalline diffusion coefficients are found to be in the order of 10-11 cm2/s and the activation energy for diffusion is 4.0 kcal/g-mole.A simple bipore distribution model for transient diffusion in macropores and micropores is presented. It agrees well with the experimental data and quantitatively predicts the macropore diffusion coefficients. The flow in the macropores is found to be in the Knudsen flow regime.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new measuring technique involving concurrent chemical absorption of carbon dioxide and desorption of oxygen is developed for simultaneously evaluating the liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient kL and the specific area a of sparingly-soluble gas dispersions in stirred tanks containing an aqueous solution of inorganic electrolytes. The method ensures that kL and a are evaluated under consistent hydrodynamic conditions.Results from three different nonviscous systems show that at high agitation power, such that the average bubble diameter is between 0.2 and 2 mm, kL decreases with increasing power input and is dependent on the bubble diameter. This behavior is in contrast to the results of others at lower agitation levels or in nonelectrolytic liquids, but in general agreement with previous results for bubbles of the same diameter range produced in viscous, nonelectrolytic solutions.
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  • 10
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 109-118 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The three-parameter correlation of Pitzer et al. for fugacity coefficients (f/P) has been extended to liquids in the 0.5 ≤ Tr ≤ 0.8 and 0.2 ≤ Pr ≤ 9.0 region. In addition, values of the derivative compressibility factors ZT and ZP have also been obtained in the same region. This extension is based on the generalized correlation of the compressibility factor Z recently reported. The isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility βT compiled by Rowlinson has been employed with the pressure effect on βT taken into consideration. The correlation for f/P obtained in this work is compared with that of Curl and Pitzer at Tr = 0.8, Chao et al. at Tr from 0.50 to 0.70, and that of Carruth and Kobayashi in the 0.50 ≤ Tr ≤ 0.64 region. Using the tabulated ZP and ZT values \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$ \frac{{H^* - H}}{{T_c }},{\rm }\left ({\frac{{\partial V}}{{\partial P}}} \right)_T $\end{document}, and \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$ \left ({\frac{{\partial V}}{{\partial T}}} \right)_P $\end{document} have been calculated and compared satisfactorily with the corresponding values derived from literature data. In addition, a correlation of vapor pressures of both hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons is also presented. The agreement between this correlation and those reported by Pitzer et al. and Carruth and Kobayashi is very satisfactory.
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 159-166 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new class of algorithms for the suboptimal feedback control of parabolic systems is presented. Three specific techniques within this class are developed and tested numerically using a linear example with three different types of boundary conditions. Performance of two of these techniques is found to compare favorably with that obtained by use of a rigorous open-loop optimal control computed by the gradient method. It is also shown for linear systems having quadratic performance criteria that the new algorithms are superior to the technique presented by Vermeychuk and Lapidus (1973) in cases where state deviation has a weighting coefficient much greater than that for control energy.
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  • 12
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 174-175 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 13
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 166-171 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The mixing characteristics of a vessel containing no moving parts have been studied theroretically and experimentally. The vessel consists of two chambers separated by a porous barrier. Mixing results because elements of fluid permeating the barrier at various distances from the inlet reside for different periods of time within the vessel and combine with other elements having entered earlier and later. An apparatus was designed a priori and experimentally verfied to give a residence-time distribution function the same as a completely mixed vessel. The method was extended to show that in principle a vessel exhibiting any residence-time distribution function can be designed by modifying the geometries of the chambers and the porous barrier.
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  • 14
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 180-182 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 15
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 185-188 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 16
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 194-197 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 202-204 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 18
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 205-205 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 19
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 207-207 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of changing platinum crystallite size from 2.7 to 15.5 nm on the specific catalytic activity in NO reduction by NH3, with and without added O2, was studied over alumina supported platinum catalysts between 423 and 473°K. In the NO-NH3 system both specific catalytic activity and selectivity to N2 are independent of crystallite size. In the NO-O2-NH3 system the specific catalytic activity of the 15.5 nm crystallites is about six times that of the 2.7 nm crystallites. The NO reduction rate shows dependence on NO to the first power and on NH3 to the one-half power.
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  • 21
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 245-250 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Using the Karman-Pohlhausen integral method, an analysis has been made for turbulent flow on a rotating hemispherical electrode mounted on an inert support rod of equal radius. The resulting friction coefficient is then substituted into the Chilton-Colburn relation to give a rate equation for mass transfer at high Schmidt numbers. Experiments with a diffusion-controlled electrolytic system over a range of Sc from 910 to 6,300 confirm the validity of the theory for Re 〉 40,000. A comparison with the results of previous heat and mass transfer measurements reveals that the turbulent flow on the present geometry is different from that on a rotating sphere and on a hemispherical electrode mounted on a support rod of larger radius.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Carrier-mediated transport in membranes as a globally nonreactive process is distinguished from film theory with chemical reaction and other facilitated diffusion phenomena. With the concept of stoichiometric and system invariants, an approach is developed for the analysis of carriersediated transport with multiple permeants involving multiple reactions in the membrane. Approximate solutions of the requisite differential equations according to the relative importance of diffusion and reaction rates are reviewed, as well as typical experimental studies. Criteria for evaluating whether a membrane is in the diffusion or equilibrium regime are given, and, in the latter case, the effects of some system parameters are given, for example, binding constants, competitive permeants.
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  • 23
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Theoretical investigations of viscous heating in the flow of fluids with an exponential dependence of viscosity on temperature have shown that, for a given shear stress, two shear rates are possible. Above a critical value, the stress decreases as the shear rate increases.The present work is an experimental study of this phenomenon in plane and circular Couette flows and in cylindrical Poiseuille flow. ArochlorR 1260, a high viscosity Newtonian fluid with an extremely sensitive viscosity-temperature dependence is used as the test fluid. The results clearly show that two shear rates for Couette flow exist for one measured wall shear stress. Because of the viscosity-pressure dependence of the fluid, the Poiseuille flow results are inconclusive.
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  • 24
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 503-510 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Lineweaver-Burk plots of reaction rate data obtained with immobilized enzymes need not be linear even when intrinsic enzyme kinetics follow the simple Michaelis-Menten rate expression. Theoretical calculations show that mass transfer effects may cause curvature which is concave or convex to the abscissa, depending upon experimental conditions. Consequently, graphical procedures commonly employed for analysis of soluble enzyme kinetics may yield misleading results when applied to immobilized enzymes. Three approaches which follow from the behavior of numerical and asymptotic solutions to the problem are proposed for extraction of intrinsic kinetic information.
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  • 25
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 522-529 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The apparent diffusivity for the binary liquid systems benzene-cumene and cyclohexane-cumene in H-mordenite crystals at 25°C to 44°C was increased by an order of magnitude or more after the zeolite was acid-leached to increase the silica-alumina mole ratio from the range of 14 to 18 to the range of 70 to 89. The calculated diffusivities, which range from 10-12 to 10-16 cm2/s, decrease with approach to sorption equilibrium and may be markedly reduced under some circumstances by adsorption of molecules from the bulk liquid, causing blockage of pores.Comparison of sorption capacities as a function of silica-alumina ratio as reported by various investigators indicates that considerable differences exist in the properties of acid-leached mordenites of the same silica-alumina ratio but of different origins.
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  • 26
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 551-555 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of nonionic surfactants on thin-film flow of pseudoplastic non-Newtonian liquids down a smooth vertical plate have been studied experimentally. For all liquids examined there was a surfactant concentration at which the stabilizing action of surfactants was maximized. Comparison with experimental data showed that an existing equation, developed for the stabilizing action of surfactants on thin-film flow of Newtonian fluids, may be used to predict the effect of surfactants on the stability of pseudoplastic thin-film flow by using the zero-shear rate apparent viscosity in place of the Newtonian viscosity.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental study has confirmed a theoretical prediction that, when an exothermic mass transfer limited chemical reaction occurs on a single catalytic wire for which the parameter a [Equation (11)] is large, temperature fluctuations (flickering) of large amplitude must be induced by concentration fluctuations. A simplified model is presented for predicting the magnitude of flickering in industrial convertors for which the parameter a is usually large. The model should be useful in estimating the influence of improved mixing of the reactants on the reduction in precious metal loss from the gauze.
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  • 28
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 581-591 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The growth rate of an ice crystal in the basal plane has been measured in subcooled water flowing at velocities of 0.04 to 1 cm/s to test a theory of Fernandez and Barduhn (1967). The theory fits the data in pure water at all velocities and subcoolings studied here and at velocities up to 46 cm/s studied previously. The interfacial tension between ice and water calculated from these data is 33 ± 6 ergs/cm2, a value in good agreement with those determined by others.Measured growth rates of ice from solution do not follow the theory and in fact are as much as 150% higher in 0.5 to 1% NaCl solution than in pure water. High subcoolings and low flow velocities accentuate this anomaly.
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  • 29
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 598-600 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 30
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 605-607 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 31
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 415-415 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 32
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 416-416 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 33
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 467-474 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nucleation and crystal growth processes involved in the batch precipitation of photographic emulsions by the addition of silver nitrate to an aqueous solution of bromide and gelatin have been reasonably successfully modeled. Simulation predicts the known increase in average crystal size with increased addition time, with increased temperature, and with increased halide levels. Solubility is related to crystal size by the Gibbs-Thomson equation. The predicted decrease in the number of crystals during the course of precipitation is similar to published data, but there are quantitative differences. The model is very sensitive to variations in the constant in the growth equation, but not to variations in the constants in the nucleation equation.
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 515-522 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new analysis is presented for the extraction of Arrhenius parameters from experimental measurements of ignition temperatures during catalytic oxidation over electrically-heated metal wires. Butane oxidation on high purity platinum wires has yielded reproducible experimental results for the reaction rate and has provided consistent estimates of the Arrhenius parameters. First-order kinetics was assumed. The present treatment contains explicit consideration of: (1) the ohmic heating term; and (2) the end conduction heat loss from the catalytic wire. The effects of wire length, diameter, and configuration are reconciled when the ignition phenomenon is refferred to the center-point temperature of the wire.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Microemulsions, which are optically transparent oil-water dispersions, were spontaneously produced upon mixing hexadecane, hexanol, potassium oleate, and water in specific proportions. The viscosity of the microemulsions was measured for several water/oil ratios including the phase-inversion region. The striking optical and viscosity changes observed at specific water/oil ratios were in agreement with the proposed mechanism of phase-inversion, namely, water spheres → water cylinders → water lammellae → continuous water phase, for this system. In the phase-inversion region, the dispersion exhibited birefringence and rheopectic properties. An extremely high viscosity (〉 100,000 cps) exhibited by the dispersions between water/oil ratios of 2.0 and 3.5 were explained in terms of ion-dipole association between oleate and hexanol molecules on adjacent droplets.
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  • 36
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 539-550 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mathematical models are developed to study the catalytic reduction of nitric oxide contained in automobile exhaust in which the temperature, flow rate, and concentrations of various species vary widely with time. The quasi-static approximation is compared to the fully dynamic model. In the quasi-static model all processes are steady state except for the solid temperature and inlet conditions. Suggestions are given for deciding a priori if the quasi-static model is appropriate. Suggestions are also given for integrating the quasi-static equations in order to minimize errors compared to the dynamic model. The performance of three different catalysts is examined with the mathematical model, when the inlet conditions correspond to typical values of temperature, flow rate, and concentration when the automobile is operated according to the Federal Test Procedure.
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  • 37
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 555-563 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Methods for the solution of linearly constrained optimization of a nonlinear objective function are presented and compared. The methods of Fletcher-Reeves, Fletcher, and Powell are used to generate search directions in the decision variable space. Generalized Kuhn-Tucker conditions are presented and used to check for a local minimum.
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  • 38
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 564-570 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A refractive index matching technique has been developed to study the behavior and coalescence phenomena of drops in closely packed dispersion bands. The frequency of drop-drop coalescence has been measured and correlated, and a mathematical model, based on film rupture thickness, has been written for solution by computer to predict dispersion band thickness as a function of inlet drop size, flow rate, and the physical properties of the system.
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  • 39
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 596-597 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 600-602 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 608-610 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 618-619 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 622-622 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 623-623 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 653-659 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of seed crystal size on the rate of nucleation in batch stirred-tank crystallizers. Experimental results confirm the existence of such an effect. Nucleation rate data are correlated with a second-order polynomial in seed crystal size; coefficients of the correlation are functions of the solute-solvent system, crystallizer geometry, and mixing conditions. The empirical correlation is incorporated into a population balance model for determining the nucleation rate in multi-seed crystallizers. The observed results are explained in terms of variations in impact energy, circulation frequency, and target efficiency.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 664-669 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A mathematical model and an iterative procedure to calculate holdup and pressure drop in horizontal gas-liquid flow is developed. The predictions of the model agree with well over a hundred data points collected with air-water and air-glycerine solutions in 0.0254-, 0.0381-, and 0.0508-m. diameter pilot pipelines. A design procedure using the verified model is presented.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 713-720 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The utility of a new dynamic experimental technique is illustrated for the specific case of the vapor phase dehydration of ethanol over a hydrogen ion exchange resin. Adsorbed phase composition data are obtained simultaneously with complete vapor phase information, providing new insight into the catalytic behavior. A mathematical model, based upon Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics, comprises simply five first-order ordinary differential equations. The model describes all of the important transient and equilibrium characteristics of the reacting system qualitatively and most quantitatively. Experimental data alone are used to show that the surface reaction is the rate controlling step.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 414-415 
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 445-453 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Procedures are developed for predicting liquid film controlled mass transfer in gas sparged contactors with and without mechanical agitation. Mass transfer is shown to depend on mean bubble size. Bubble shape, motion, and interface fluctuations are all properties that are associated with bubble size, which, in turn, can be determined from the physical characteristics of the contacting system.Experimental measurements were made on CO2 stripping from aqueous solution with air in 0.00252, 0.0252, and 0.252 m3 tanks. The vessels were geometrically similar, fully baffled, and equipped with four flat-blade impellers and spargers. These measurements are used to evaluate earlier correlations and to develop improved scale-up procedures.
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    Notes: The problem of synthesizing an optimal multicomponent separation system which is energy integrated is solved by a combined decomposition and dynamic programming technique.Dynamic programming is an optimization technique which allows the solution by decomposition of a multistage or serial optimization problem. Whenever the special serial structure is absent, again decomposition can be tried, but in this case it is by no means obvious how to decompose effectively the given problem into subproblems. In this paper the nonserial problem of synthesizing an energy integrated separation system is solved by decomposing the original problem so that a serial structure results.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 485-491 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: When ultrasound is applied to a liquid reacting system, the reaction rates are often increased. The application of ultrasonics, therefore, provides additional modes of accelerating the reaction rates which are usually not considered by conventional mechanisms. In an attempt to study the effect of ultrasonics on chemical reactions, experimental work was undertaken in which the reaction rates of the hydrolysis of methyl acetate were measured under the presence of ultrasound. The temperature, the vapor pressure with in the cavitating bubbles, the resonance characteristics, the volume of the reacting system, and the intensity and frequency of the ultrasound are all influencing parameters on the reaction rates.
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    Notes: A geometric model for an homogeneous swarm of spherical particles was introduced by us in an earlier paper and successfully employed in a theoretical investigation of diffusive transport processes occurring therein.The same geometric model is used here in a theoretical study of the hydrodynamic transport process occurring within a fixed swarm of spherical particles. The product of the application of this model to the problem of incompressible, creeping fluid flow within an homogeneous swarm of impermeable spherical particles may be regarded as a logical extension of the well-known Brinkman model; it permits physical representation and rigorous mathematical solution, yielding predictions which are in good agreement with experimental data throughout the entire porosity range. For porosities in excess of 0.7, the predictions agree closely with those obtained by means of Happel's free surface model.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 592-594 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Notes: The industrially important reaction of phenol and acetone to give bisphenol A and water was catalyzed by beads of ion-exchange resin (sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) suspended in a batch reactor containing liquid reactants. The data are summarized by a rate equation accounting for reaction in the resin competitively swollen by water, acetone, phenol, and methylcyclohexane.The catalyst is modeled as two phases, each in equilibrium with the liquid: a polar phase consisting of sulfonic acid groups with hydrogeb-nonded acetone and water and a nonpolar phase consisting of the hydrocarbon matrix swollen with organic components. The rate determining step is the electrophilic attack on phenol in the nonpolar phase by a carbonium ion intermediate in the polar phase.Resin cross-linked with 4% divinylbenzene initially catalyzed acetone conversion at a rate of 5 × 10-4 (moles)/(equiv of acid groups s) at 364°K. An 8% cross-linked resin was much less active because the rigid polymer matrix was only slightly swollen by phenol, but a more highly cross-linked resin with macropores and accessible internal surface catalyzed reaction almost as rapidly as the 4% cross-linked catalyst.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 966-974 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, salt concentration profiles were measured in a reverse osmosis system under natural convection with the membrane in a vertical position. The measured concentration profiles compared favorably with those predicted theoretically as long as the motion remained laminar. At large distances from the leading edge, however, the flow developed a wavy pattern, especially for bulk salt concentrations in excess of 0.1 moles/liter. As expected, whenever this motion became especially pronounced, the concentration of salt at the membrane surface was less and the production rate of fresh water greater than that predicted using the laminar analysis.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 989-995 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Extensive ternary ion-exchange rate data for cases where particle-diffusion is important are presented. Experimental rate data, using a single-particle radioactive-tracer technique, were obtained for the following systems in Dowex 50W-X8 resin: Mn-Cs-Na, Ba-Mn-Na, and Sr-Mn-Cs. Nernst-Planck equations have been used to describe the ternary ion-exchange kinetics. The Nernst-Planck model, when used for the correlation of binary and various types of ternary exchange data obtained under unfavorable equilibrium conditions, usually cannot afford to disregard liquid-film resistance. The model incorporating the film effects correlated satisfactorily most of the experimental data, and even in cases where the correlation was not good, it interpreted adequately the trend of the results.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1003-1009 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Extensive gas phase dispersion data are reported for extremely high liquid-gas ratios in a cylindrical packed absorption tower operated at atmospheric pressure under counterflow conditions.The dispersion data report gas Peclet numbers in terms of superficial liquid and gas Reynolds numbers over the range \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ \begin{array}{*{20}c} 0 & 〈 & {N{\mathop{\rm Re}\nolimits} _{\rm L} } & 〈 & {1500} \\ {15.0} & 〈 & {N{\mathop{\rm Re}\nolimits} _{\rm S} } & 〈 & {500} \\ \end{array} $$\end{document}An increase in Peclet number with increasing gas rate is observed at subloading conditions.Reverse gas flow was observed in the gas phase when the liquid Reynolds number exceeded 650. Dispersion in the gas phase at liquid rates for which NReL 〈 650 is consistent with previously recorded correlations but becomes independent of further increases of liquid rate when NReL is 〉 650.The dispersion coefficients obtained by dynamic testing under reverse gas flow conditions were consistent with those obtained from steady state absorption profiles and provide a quantitative explanation for the anomalies in plug-flow KLa at high water rates recorded by Sherwood and Holloway (1940).
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 695-706 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Waves on falling liquid film display certain random features. At least two classes of such random waves are shown to exist; large waves which carry the bulk of the fluid and small waves which cover a substrate film that exists between large waves. It is shown that the statistics of the substrate thicknes and its wave structure can be extracted from measurements of the variation of film thickness with time. A theory is presented for calculating the mean substrate thickness and the substrate flow rate. The statistics of the wave structure is presented and compared with existing theory. The importance of the substrate in controlling transfer processes is demonstrated.
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    Notes: The optimal temperature policy which will maximize the final catalyst activity that gives a fixed conversion of reactants in a specified time for batch operation was determined by the formulation of a calculus of variations problem following the technique of Szepé and Levenspiel (1968). The method was applied to the general case of first-order reversible reactions which occur in the presence of catalysts deactivating by an irreversible first-order mechanism. To reduce trial and error estimations and circumvent numerical instabilities, the two-point boundary value variational problem was reformulated in terms of an initial value problem with a parameter which includes the initial value of temperature. This initial value problem was solved by a regression technique.These techniques were applied to the industrially important enzymatic reaction of the isomerization of D-glucose to D-fructose catalyzed by glucose isomerase in solution. Kinetic and deactivation data are available for this endothermic reaction which obeys first-order reversible kinetics and for the isomerase denaturation which appears to be first order. The optimal temperature operational policy as stated above maximized final enzyme activity such that 10% less denaturation of glucose isomerase occurred when compared to final isomerase activity yielding the same conversion for the same reaction time when the reactor is operated at the optimal isothermal temperature.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 742-750 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper applies the principles of geometric programming to the optimization of the well-known Williams-Otto process. Following the trend of the articles published on this subject, two different objective functions are considered and the results are compared to those of other investigators.The dual geometric program is used to provide an answer to the question of why the optimal value of the objective function remains unchanged for perturbations in a certain variable.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 770-775 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Carbon dioxide was absorbed by aqueous Carbopol solutions in a turbine-agitated vessel for the cases of absorption across an unbroken interface and absorption with the gas bubbling through the liquid. The rheological behavior of the solutions was described by the non-Newtonian power law model with flow behavior indices varying from 0.92 to 0.59. An effective viscosity technique which had previously been developed to correlate agitated vessel rates of viscous dissipation and heat transfer with power law pseudoplastic fluids was used to correlate the data.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 795-803 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ice-crystal secondary nucleation kinetics are derived from thermal response experiments carried out with concentrated sugar solutions and fruit juices. Variables studied include the level of supersaturation, power input, sugar concentration, sugar type, and the presence of high-molecular-weight additives. The nucleation rate is indicated to have a low-order dependence upon subcooling (about 1.25 power) for subcoolings in the range 0.25 to 1.00°C. Fruit juices are well modeled by the corresponding synthetic sugar solution. The selection and improvement of processing approaches for freeze concentration of food liquids are discussed in light of the experimental results.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 817-818 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 823-824 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 829-829 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 833-840 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Choosing the type of laboratory reactor for evaluating process kinetics may be the most crucial step in an industrial process development program. Not only would a wrong choice result in expensive delays, but data may be obtained which would scale-up erroneously, leading to a disastrous commercial design. Some of the pitfalls and limitations of various laboratory reactors are discussed for some typically complex industrial reaction systems. A modus operandi is suggested for choosing from among the potential reactors those that have the best chance of supplying the desired data. As is typical of many complex industrial reaction systems, no one reactor turns out to be ideal and many times the building of two or more types is advantageous.
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    Notes: The kinetics of secondary nucleation have been determined from measurement of the supersaturation as a function of time following the addition of seed nuclei to a supercooled solution in a well-stirred batch crystallizer. Population balance mathematics have been used to show that the secondary nucleation kinetics may be inferred from the supersaturation-time curve. The method has been applied to the determination of the kinetics of the secondary nucleation of ice and found to give results in excellent agreement with those obtained from tedious particle counts. In addition, it has been shown that the moment of the particle size distribution that best correlates the nucleation rate data can be inferred from the initial transient of the supersaturation-time history.
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