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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (3,763)
  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (3,679)
  • 1975-1979  (7,442)
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Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: The size, evolution and energetics of the earth's core and the probable central, metalic cores of Mercury, Venus, the moon and Mars are discussed. The cores of Mercury, Mars and the earth are considered likely to decrease in relative mass and volume with distance from the sun; the moon does not fit this sequence and data from Venus are insufficient. Core formation is concluded to have occurred early (prior to four billion years ago) on the earth and Mercury, while that on the moon would have occurred over a longer interval and the core of Mars would have formed much later. Of the possible energy sources in planetary cores able to maintain a molten state and drive magnetic dynamos, the energy of core formation was probably spent too early in planetary history to provide much present power, and the energy gained from freezing an inner core in the earth and Mercury are considered at best marginally able to match conductive heat loss. Future measurements proposed to improve the quantitative understanding of core properties include a better documentation of the magnetic fields of Venus and Mars and the seismometry of Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Observational evidence for solid-state convection in the interiors of the terrestrial planets is reviewed. For the earth, the motion of the lithospheric plates constitutes clear evidence of large-scale convection in the mantle. Although Mars has been found to lack evidence of plate tectonics, the morphology of the Tharsis uplift and the elevation dichotomy between the northern and southern hemispheres may be evidence of mantle convection at one time. Measurements of lunar heat flow and seismic Q imply a convective mechanism limited to the lower mantle. Evidence for internal convection on Mercury consists of its dipole magnetic field and the 3/2 resonance between its rotational motion and its orbital motion, both of which can also be explained by other processes. The limited radar imagery of Venus has not yet provided conclusive evidence of either the presence or absence of convection features. It is concluded that although interior convection in terrestrial planets is implied by rheological, energy and momentum considerations, only on earth is the lithosphere thin enough to provide conclusive evidence of convection.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 concerning the large scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere are highlighted. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction. This is much like Earth's magnetosphere but is a new configuration for Jupiter's magnetosphere not previously considered from earlier Pioneer data. Magnetic field perturbations associated with intense electrical currents (approximately 5 x 10 to the 6th power amps) flowing near or in the magnetic flux tube linking Jupiter with the satellite Io and induced by the relative motion between Io and the co-rotating Jovian magnetosphere are analyzed and interpreted. These currents may be an important source of heating the ionosphere and interior of Io through Joule dissipation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80288
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-158784
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The scientific rationale and requirements for a Mars surface sample return were examined and the experience gained from the analysis and study of the returned lunar samples were incorporated into the science requirements and engineering design for the Mars sample return mission. The necessary data sets for characterizing Mars are presented. If further analyses of surface samples are to be made, the best available method is for the analysis to be conducted in terrestrial laboratories.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-58213 , JSC-14864
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Charged particle-induced nuclear reactions were used in the following problems: the determination of elemental abundances of boron and fluorine in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites; the identification of products of lunar vulcanism; and the study of solar wind-implanted atoms in lunar materials. The technique was seen as an important supplement to other methods of elemental and isotopic analysis. This was especially true for cases involving light elements at very low concentrations or where high resolution depth distribution information was needed in non-destructive analysis.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-158698
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Chree (superposed epoch) analyses of Jupiter's decameter-wave radio emission taken from the new Thieman (1979) catalog show highly significant correlation with solar activity indicated by the geomagnetic Ap index. The correlation effects can be explained in terms of corotating interplanetary magnetic sector features. At times when the solar wind velocity is relatively low, about 300 to 350 km/s, a sector boundary can encounter the Earth and Jupiter almost simultaneously during the period immediately before opposition. After opposition this will not normally occur as the solar wind velocities necessary are too low. The correlation effects are much enhanced for the three apparitions of 1962-1964 during which a relatively stable and long-lived sector pattern was present. Chree analyses for this period indicate periodicities, approximately equal to half the solar rotation period, in the Jupiter data.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-79703
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A Monte Carlo simulation of the sputtering of the upper atmosphere of Mars by the solar wind was performed. The calculated sputtering yields imply loss rates (molecules/cm square - sec escaping the planet) for carbon dioxide, carbon, and oxygen of R(CO2) = 2.6 X 1000000/cm square - sec, R(C) = 6.6 X 1000000/cm square - sec, and R(O) = 7.7 X 1000000/cm - sec. The total mass loss by sputtering is only about 10% of that due to chemical and photo-chemical processes, but sputtering provides a major exospheric sink for carbon. The erosion process described here preferentially removes the lighter components of the atmosphere. Calculations based on a Monte Carlo simulation suggest that for a model atmosphere, 97% of the N2 and 33% of the CO2 originally present may have been sputtered away over 4.5 X 10 to the 9th power y. In the same length of time the (15)N/(14)N isotopic ratio for the bulk atmosphere would have increased by a factor 1.7.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: LIAP-28 , NASA-CR-157864
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ten volatile elements (and non-volatile Co) in co-existing light and dark portions of 5 gas-rich chondrites were studied. Patterns of distinct but non-uniform enrichment by dark admixing material are revealed. The dark admixing material is enriched in Cs; Bi and Tl covary in it. It is compositionally unique from known types of primitive materials and is apparently not derived by secondary processes from such materials.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-157837
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Images of Jupiter and its satellites are presented. The photographs were taken by the Voyager 1 Spacecraft and the Voyager 2 Spacecraft. A brief description of the Voyager project is given.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: JPL-400-24 , NASA-CR-163607
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Subscale (0.63 scale) penetrators impacted various sizes of volcanic rocks resting on and within compacted plays sediments. All penetrators were identical in size, shape, weight, and impact velocity. Although minor variations in impact angle were documented, the final orientation of the buried penetrators was primarily a consequence of the size, shape, and depth of the rocks encountered during impact. In situ measurements of impacted penetrators revealed that surface and buried layers of rocks having diameters up to 3 times the penetrator diameter caused only small ( 10 deg) angles of deflection. Only large single rocks greater than 10 times the penetrator diameter caused deflections appreciably greater than 10 deg. The large deflection angles followed by the penetrator were strongly influenced by fracture planes that developed in the rock as it broke apart. No catastrophic failure of the penetrator occurred during these tests. A cross section of the path of each penetrator through the ground is shown together with details on orientation before, during, and after the tests. Comparisons are made with results of previous subscale penetrator tests, and conclusions are drawn with respect to full-scale Mars penetrator performance.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-58222 , JSC-16221
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  • 12
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The X-ray diffraction experiments on shocked rock and mineral analogs of particular significance to lunar geology are described. Materials naturally shocked by meteorite impact, nuclear-shocked, or artificially shocked in a flat plate accelerator were utilized. Four areas were outlined for investigation: powder diffractometer studies of shocked single crystal silicate minerals (quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, pyroxene), powder diffractometer studies of shocked polycrystalline monomineralic samples (dunite), Debye-Scherrer studies of single grains of shocked granodiorite, and powder diffractometer studies of shocked whole rock samples. Quantitative interpretation of peak shock pressures experienced by materials found in lunar or terrestrial impact structures is presented.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162555
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of a general rock/soil model capable of simulating in a self consistent manner the mechanical and exposure history of an assemblage of solid and loose material from submicron to planetary size scales, applicable to lunar and other space exposed planetary surfaces is discussed. The model was incorporated into a computer code called MESS.2 (model for the evolution of space exposed surfaces). MESS.2, which represents a considerable increase in sophistication and scope over previous soil and rock surface models, is described. The capabilities of previous models for near surface soil and rock surfaces are compared with the rock/soil model, MESS.2.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-160363
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  • 14
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The mathematical theory of the nutation of Mars is derived by classical rigid-body dynamics. The effect of nutation is to produce a 26-m maximum horizontal amplitude oscillation (at the surface of Mars) with a period of half a Martian year. This effect should be detectable in the Viking-Lander data.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162300 , JPL-PUB-79-85
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The major photochemistry consisted of solar EUV and photoelectrons comprising 70 percent and 30 percent respectively, of the initial source of CO2(+) and O(+). The energetic O2(+) provided a substantial source of energy to the ambient ions, distributing of the order of 1.6 x 10 to the -7 power W/sq m at an average of 160 km. This input can be compared to that from the ambient electrons of 1.3 x 10 to the -7 power W/sq m with average deposition at 145 km and from the calculated thermal conduction of 1 x 10 to the -9 power W/sq m at 270 km and 1 x 10 to the -8 power at 230 km for assumed dip angles of 2 deg and 12 deg respectively, for a 10nT magnetic field. At altitudes above 250 km upward, vertical fluxes of the order 6 x 10 to the 10th power/sq m/sec for the thermal ions were calculated. The net ionization of O(+) and CO2(+) by charge exchange with incoming solar wind protons varied from 5 x 10 to the 8th power to 5 x 10 to the 12th power /sq m/sec for assumed field strengths of 50nT to 2nT on the dayside of the planet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162141 , PSU-IRL-SCI-463
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80287
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  • 17
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is a totally unique planetary body which is certain to yield exciting new phenomena. Current information is lacking in detail to distinguish between a thin methane rich atmosphere and a thick nitrogen rich atmosphere. Therefore, both the thin and thick atmospheric models were used for the study of various Titan probe classes described in this report. The technical requirements, conceptual design, science return, schedule, cost and mission implications of three probe classes that could be used for exploration of Titan are defined. The three probe classes were based on a wide range of exploration mission possibilities.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: MCR-79-512 , NASA-CR-152275
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: By comparing RAE-1 and IMP-6 satellite measurements of Jupiter's radio emission near 1MHz with recent Voyager-1 and 2 observations in the same frequency range, the properties of the low frequency radiation pattern over a 10 deg range of latitudes with respect to the Jovian rotation equator can be studied. These observations, which cover a wider latitudinal range than is possible from the earth, are consistent with many aspects of earlier ground-based measurements used to infer a sharp beaming pattern for the decameter wavelength emissions. Marked, systematic changes are found in the statistical occurrence probability distributions with system 3 central meridian longitude as the jovigraphic latitude of the observer changes over this range. Simultaneous observations by the two Voyager spacecraft suggest that the instantaneous beam width may be no more than a few degrees at times. The new hectometer-wave results can be interpreted in terms of a narrow, curved sheet at a fixed magnetic latitude into which the emission is beamed to escape the planet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-79728
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data are reported for volatile/mobile Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, T1 and Zn in exterior and/or interior samples of four Antarctic meteorites: 77005 (unique achondrite); 77257 (unreilite); 77278 (L3); 77299 (H3). Exterior samples reflect contamination and/or leaching by weathering but trace element (ppm-ppt) contents in interior samples seem reasonable for representatives of these rare meteoritic types. The 77005 achondrite seems related to shergottites; other samples extend compositional ranges previously known for their types. With suitable precautions, Antarctic meteorite finds yield trace element data as reliable as those obtained from previously known falls.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-158583
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Based on the suggestion that elemental sulfur is responsible for the yellow color of Venus, calculations are compared at 3.4 microns of the reflectivity phase function of two sulfur containing inhomogeneous cloud models with that of a homogeneous model. Assuming reflectivity observations with 25% or less total error, comparison of the model calculations leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur equal to 7% of the mass of sulfuric acid for the inhomogeneous drop model. For the inhomogeneous cloud model the comparison leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur between 17% and 38% of the mass of the acid drops, depending upon the actual size of the large particles. It is concluded that moderately accurate 3.4 microns reflectivity observations are capable of detecting quite small amounts of elemental sulfur at the top of the Venus clouds.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: A-7701 , NASA-TM-78558
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet spectra fo the comet West obtained by sounding rocket experiments in 1976 are reproduced and interpreted in order to estimate the expected brightness of the emission features and determine the spatial extent of these features for the proposed Halley Flyby/Tempel 2 rendezvous and the possible Halley or Encke flybys close to perihelion. A coma model was constructed and evaluated for the physical condition of candidate targets such as heliocentric distance, gas production, and composition. In addition to brightness profiles, the neutral and ion densities of the principal species are also dervied. The brightness profiles can be used to determine the feasibility of utilizing the space telescope to provide supporting observations during the mission. Basic parameters identified are spectral range, wavelength resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range, rejection of scattered light, and integration or accumulation time.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-158492
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80240
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Basic petrographic, chemical and age data for a representative suite of lunar breccias are presented for students and potential lunar sample investigators. Emphasis is on sample description and data presentation. Samples are listed, together with a classification scheme based on matrix texture and mineralogy and the nature and abundance of glass present both in the matrix and as clasts. A calculus of the classification scheme, describes the characteristic features of each of the breccia groups. The cratering process which describes the sequence of events immediately following an impact event is discussed, especially the thermal and material transport processes affecting the two major components of lunar breccias (clastic debris and fused material).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162559
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wolff's computer model of a rough planetary surface was simplified and revised. Close adherence to the actual geometry of a pitted surface and the inclusion of a function for diffuse light resulted in a quantitative model comparable to observations by planetary satellites and asteroids. A function is also derived to describe diffuse light emitted from a particulate surface. The function is in terms of the indices of refraction of the surface material, particle size, and viewing angles. Computer-generated plots describe the observable and theoretical light components for the Moon, Mercury, Mars and a spectrum of asteroids. Other plots describe the effects of changing surface material properties. Mathematical results are generated to relate the parameters of the negative polarization branch to the properties of surface pitting. An explanation is offered for the polarization of the rings of Saturn, and the average diameter of ring objects is found to be 30 to 40 centimeters.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162514
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Voyager 2 magnetic field experiment is described and compared to the Voyager 1 experiment and data. The magnetosphere, the bow shock, the magnetopause, and the extended magnetic tail of Jupiter are discussed. Two crossings of the near equatorial current sheet were observed in the magnetosphere and its tail every 10 hour rotation period of the planet. A definitive mapping of the geometry and character of these enhanced plasma and depressed magnetic field regions is discussed. The interaction of the satellite Ganymede with the Jovian magnetosphere, which leads to disturbances as the Jovian magnetosphere corotates with the planet past the satellite is analyzed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80556
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Quantitative models of Comet Tempel 2 at various heliocentric distances were created using a semi-empirical theory which ties gas production rates to the light curve. Physical properties of the nucleus and gas and dust densities are supplied for a nominal case and two extreme cases at each distance, the extreme cases being based upon a sum-of-negative-tolerances approach.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: JPL-PUB-79-60 , NASA-CR-162292
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  • 27
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of the Voyager is presented along with samples of the nearly 19,000 photographs returned by Voyager 1 spacecraft at the midpoint of its 38-month mission to Jupiter and Saturn. Particular emphasis is given to color photographs of the Great Red Spot, and the surface features of the Gallilean satellites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162721 , JPL-400-11
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. Critical aspects of the development of this system are determining the ionization efficiencies for various atomic species and achieving adequate mass resolution. A technique called energy-time focus, which utilizes static electric fields to alter the length of the ion flight path in proportion to the ion initial energy, was used which results in a corresponding compression to the range of ion flight times which effectively improves the inherent resolution. Sufficient data were acquired to develop preliminary specifications for a flight experiment.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: TRW-32126-6001-RU-00 , NASA-CR-158705
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Apollo lunar seismic station network gathered data continuously at a rate of 3 x 10 to the 8th power bits per day for nearly eight years until the termination in September, 1977. The data were processed and analyzed using a PDP-15 minicomputer. On the average, 1500 long-period seismic events were detected yearly. Automatic event detection and identification schemes proved unsuccessful because of occasional high noise levels and, above all, the risk of overlooking unusual natural events. The processing procedures finally settled on consist of first plotting all the data on a compressed time scale, visually picking events from the plots, transferring event data to separate sets of tapes and performing detailed analyses using the latter. Many problems remain especially for automatically processing extraterrestrial seismic signals.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-160141
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Mariner 10 revealed evidence for 40 impact basins having diameters greater than or equal to 200 km on the portion of Mercury imaged at sufficient resolution. A log (cumulative number/unit area) vs. log (diameter) plot for the mercurian basins has a least squares slope of -2. Mercury has (in cumulative number/unit area) only 37 percent as many basins as does the Moon over the entire range of diameters greater than or equal to 300 km. If both the Moon and Mercury have had similar preservation times for craters and if common populations of impactors are involved, then Mars crossers may have been a dominant contribution to the basin forming objects.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80317
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Observations of Jupiter's sporadic decameter wavelength radio emissions were obtained between November 1978 and March 1979. A multistation, global network of monitoring instruments were utilized in order to obtain nearly continuous, synoptic observations of the planet. Observations were obtained daily at frequencies of 16.7 and 22.2 MHz using five element Yagi antennas at each end of a two element interferometer.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80549
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Early time two dimensional finite difference calculations of laboratory scale hypervelocity impact of 0.3 g spherical 2024 aluminum projectiles into homogeneous plasticene clay targets were performed. Analysis of resulting material motions showed that energy and momentum were coupled quickly from the aluminum projectile to the target material. In the process of coupling, some of the plasticene clay target was vaporized while the projectile become severely deformed. The velocity flow field developed within the target was shown to have features similar to those found in calculations of near surface explosion cratering. Specific application of Maxwell's analytic Z-Model showed that this model can be used to describe the early time flow fields resulting from the impact cratering calculations as well, provided the flow field centers are located beneath the target surface and most of the projectile momentum is dissipated before the model is applied.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162148 , PIFR-1220
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  • 33
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: The acquisition, processing, and interpretation of radar from Mars are reported with emphasis on the facilities of the Arecibo observatory. The project is now essentially complete. Results include scattering law studies in the Syrtis Major, Elysium, and Chryse areas of that planet and reflectivity measurements. Software for general use in the radar program at Arecibo was developed. Participation in acquisition and reduction of data from Venus and Mercury is detailed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-158002
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Fragmentation characteristics for four artificial meteoroids of high density and high tensile strength with varying size, velocity, and material are investigated. The meteoroids analyzed were lifted to natural meteor altitude by a rocket vehicle system. The meteoroids were then accelerated back into the Earth's atmosphere at natural meteor velocities. Anomalous deceleration of high density meteors was studied. It is shown that anomalies in the deceleration are due to progressive fragmentation of the meteoroids. These anomalies in the deceleration of high density meteoroids are similar to the anomalies that occur in the deceleration of natural meteors, which are generally assumed to be porous and of weak structure.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TP-1333 , L-12508
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A program of cometary missions is proposed. The nature and size of interstellar dust, its origin and evolution; identification of new interstellar molecules; clarification of interstellar chemistry; accretion of grains into protosolar cometesimals; role of a T Tauri wind in the dissipation of the protosolar nebula; record of isotopic anomalies, better preserved in comets than in meteorites; cosmogenic and radiogenic dating of comets; cosmochronology and mineralogy of meteorites, as compared with that of cometary samples; origin of the earth's biosphere, and the origin of life are topics discussed in relation to comet exploration.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 139-178
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The ions, radicals, and molecules observed in comets may be derived intact or by partial decomposition from parent compounds of the sort found either in the interstellar medium or in carbonaceous meteorites. The early loss of highly reducing primitive atmosphere and its replacement by a secondary atmosphere dominated by H2O, CO2, and N2, as depicted in current models of the earth's evolution, pose a dilemma for the origin of life: the synthesis of organic compounds necessary for life from components of the secondary atmosphere appears to be difficult, and plausible mechanisms have not been evaluated. Both comets and carbonaceous meteorites are implicated as sources for the earth's atmophilic and organogenic elements. A mass balance argument involving the estimated ratios of hydrogen to carbon in carbonaceous meteorites, comets, and the crust and upper mantle suggests that comets supplied the earth with a large fraction of its volatiles. The probability that comets contributed significantly to the earth's volatile inventory suggests a chemical evolutionary link between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 59-111
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-03-08
    Description: The functional and performance requirements for support of multimission radio science are established. The classes of radio science investigation are described and the needed data is discussed. This document is for a sliding ten year period and will be iterated as the mission set evolves.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-162306 , JPL-PUB-79-74
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A history of Halley's Comet is presented. Comets Kohoutek and Ikeya-Seki are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 179-196
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  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The dynamical processes in the cometary system represent unusual examples of very important, widespread natural phenomena. Topics covered include: (1) the comet as an obstacle in the solar wind; (2) the nature of the plasma flow; (3) collisionless shocks; and (4) plasma processes in the comet tail.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 33-58
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Cometary rendezvous missions using ion propulsion is considered. The characteristics of the ion engine are discussed including the fuel efficiency and acceleration, and the design of the ion engine is described. The operation of the ion drive engine and an overview of its applications are presented.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 197-214
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Comets, carbonaceous chondrites, and interstellar clouds are discussed in relation to information on interstellar dust. The formation and presence of carbon in stars, comets, and meteorites is investigated. The existence of graphite in the interstellar medium, though it is predicted from thermodynamic calculations, is questioned and the form of carbon contained in comets is considered.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 113-137
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Known facts about comets are reviewed including their organic and inorganic content. Photographs are used to show the differences in the physical appearances of the three types of comets. Space missions will provide the opportunity to determine the sequence of events that led to their formation and that of the solar system; how volatiles arrived on earth; and the basis for the existence of life on earth; and the source of the outer planetary system.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Space Missions to Comets; p 1-31
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Magnetic field observations by the Voyager 1 spacecraft during the outbound traversal of the Jovian magnetosphere in March 1979 suggest the detection of an extended magnetic tail, which has been formed by the solar wind interaction with the planetary field. The apparent diameter of the tail is 300-400 times the radius of Jupiter but its length is not measured. When combined with the GSFC O4 model of the planetary field, this magnetosphere topology leads to polar cap auroral zones approximately 20 deg in diameter, considerably smaller than earth's. The northern zone is found to be highly eccentric, encircling neither the rotational pole nor the magnetic pole of Jupiter, and limited to System III (1965) longitudes approximately 133 deg to 190 deg and latitudes approximately 62 deg to 82 deg.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80316
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-03-30
    Description: Review papers and specific contributions on the subject of convection in the solid interiors of the terrestrial planets and planetary evolution are presented. Geophysical observations of solid-state convection in the terrestrial planets are reviewed, along with the theory of convection in a layer with a high Prandtl number and numerical approaches to the calculation of convection in planetary interiors. Other papers treat the formation, history and energetics of terrestrial planet cores, the effects of convection on lunar thermal history and the relation between the height of mountains on Venus and the creep properties of Venusian rocks.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors (ISSN 0031-9201); 19; 2; 107-207
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Untersuchung an katalytisch aktiven Oberflächenverbindungen. III. ESR-Untersuchungen zur Bildung von Sauerstoffradikalen auf der Oberfläche von V2O5—P2O5-AufschichtkatalysatorenAn Vanadium-Phosphor-Katalysatoren, die SiO2 als Träger enthalten, wurde mit Hilfe der ESR-Methode die Bildung von O-- und O2--Radikalen untersucht. Durch Variation des Phosphor-Zusatzes konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Fähigkeit zur Bildung von O- und O2- durch steigenden Phosphor-Gehalt verringert wird. Zunehmende Mengen Phosphor erhöhen offensichtlich auch die Reduzierbarkeit der Katalysatoren und stabilisieren die quadratisch-pyramidale Koordination der V4+-Ionen.Durch einen Vergleich dieser Ergebnisse mit katalytischen Parametern, wie Aktivität und Selektivität der Oxydation von Buten zu Maleinsäureanhydrid wird deutlich, daß sowohl die katalytischen Eigenschaften als auch die für die Bildung von Sauerstoffradikalen erforderlichen Katalysatoreigenschaften durch die gleichen Strukturveränderungen beeinflußt werden.
    Notes: Using the ESR method the formation of O- and O2- on silica supported vanadiumphosphorus catalysts has been investigated. Studying catalysts with varying phosphorus contents it was found that the concentration of O- and O2- can be related to the contents of phosphate ions. The admixture of increasing amounts of phosphorus obviously increases the reducibility of the catalysts and stabilizes the square-pyramidical coordination of V4+ ions.Comparing these results with activity and selectivity of the catalytic butene oxidation to maleic anhydride we point out that both the changed catalytic properties and the formation of oxygen radicals may be influenced by the same structural effects.
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 448 (1979), S. 35-39 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Trifluoromethylselenyl Compounds of N, P, and AsThe reaction of CF3SeBr with NH3 leads, depending on conditions, to (CF3Se)nNH3-n, where n = 1, 2 or 3. CF3SNCO reacts with CF3SeNH2 to give CF3SNHCONHSeCF3, and (CF3Se)3N with P(C6H5)3 provides CF3SeN =P(C6H5)3. (CF3Se)3E (where E = P, As) is formed by the reaction of Hg(SeCF3)2 with EBr3 in CS2. Analogously, from Hg(SeCF3)2 and P2J4 in CS2 (CF3Se)2PP(SeCF3)2 is obtained that contains (CF3Se)3P as a contamination. While reacting C6H5PJ2 or C6H5P(J)(J)C6H5 with Hg(seCF3)2 respectiverly C6H5P(SeCF3)2 is formed. The latter can be also obtained from (C6H5P)5 and CF3SeSeCF3. IR, 19F, 31P, 77Se NMR, and MS data are given.
    Notes: Umsetzungen von CF3SeBr mit NH3 führen je nach Reaktionsbedingungen zu (CF3Se)nNH3-n (n = 1, 2 und 3). Mit CF3SNCO reagiert CF3SNH2 zu CF3SNH · CO · NHSeCF3; (CF3Se)3N setzt sich mit P(C6H5)3 zu CF3SeN — P(C6H5)3 um. Die Synthese von (CF3Se)3E (E = P, As) erfolgt aus Hg(SeCF3)2 und EBr3 in CS2. Analog erhält man aus Hg(SeCF3)2 und P2J4 in CS2 ein (CF3Se)2PP(SeCF3)2, das mit (CF3Se)3P verunreinigt ist. C6H5P(SeCF3)2 entsteht aus C6H5PJ2 bzw. C6H5P(J)(J)C6H5 und Hg(SeCF3)2 oder aber durch Umsetzung von (C6H5P)5 mit CF3SeSeCF3. IR-, 1H-, 19F-, 31P-, 77Se-NMR und Massenspektren werden angegeben.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Formation of Organosilicon Compounds. 73. Reactions of C-chlorinated 1,3-Disilapropanes with CH3MgCl(Cl3Si)2CCl2 reacts with an excess of meMgCl (me = CH3) in Et2O (diethylether) forming (me3Si)22C=CH2 mainly besides Si-methylated 1,3-disilapropanes with CmeCl, CHCl, CH2 groups [6]. For investigating the mechanism of formation of the methylidengroup reactions were carried out with differently Si-methylated and Si-chlorinated 2-methyl-1-2-chloro-1,3-disilapropanes and 2,2-dichloro-1,3-disilapropanes. Whereas (me3Si)2CmeCl reacts neither with meMgCl nor with Lime. it forms (me3Si)2C=CH2 and (me3Si)2CmeH with Li or Mg resp. The reaction starts with the metallation to (me3Si)2CmeLi and (me3Si)2Cme(MgCl) resp., followed by elimination of LiH and HMgCl resp. with formation of (me3Si)2C=CH2. LiH and HMgCl resp. reduces (me3Si)2CmeCl to (me3Si)2CmeH. This mechanism is supported by the reactions of (me3Si)2CCl(CD3).The Si-chlorination increases the reactivity of the CmeCl group and the created C=CH2 group favours Si-methylation. The CCl2 group is more reactive than the CmeCl group; (me3Si)2CCl2 already forms the methyliden group with meMgCl in Et2O via the not isolated intermediate (me3Si)2CCl(MgCl). which prefers the methylation to (me3Si)2Cme(MgCl).The n.m.r. data of the investigated compounds are given.
    Notes: (Cl3Si)2CCl2 bildet mit überschüssigem meMgCl (me = CH3) in Et2O (Diäthyläther) (me3Si)2C=CH2 neben Si-methylierten 1,3-Disilapropanen mit CmeCl-, CHCl-, CH2-Gruppen [6]. Zur Klärung des Bildungsmechanismus der Methylidengruppe wurden Umsetzungen an verschieden Si-methylierten und Si-chlorierten 2-Methyl-2-chloro-1,3-disilapropanen und 2,2-Dichloro-1,3-disilapropanen durchgeführt. (me2Si)2CmeCl reagiert weder mit meMgCl noch mit Limebildet aber mit Li bzw. Mg (me3Si)2C=CH2 und (me3Si)2CmeH. Die Reaktion beginnt mit der Metallierung zum (me3Si)2CmeLi bzw. (me3Si)2Cme(MgCl). der sich die Eliminierung von LiH bzw. HMgCl unter Bildung von (me3Si)2C=CH2 anschließt. LiH bzw. HMgCl reduzieren (me3Si)2CmeCl zu (me3Si)2CmeH. Dieser Mechanismus wird durch die Umsetzungen am (me3Si)2CCl(CD3) gestützt. Die Si-Chlorierung erhöht die Reaktionsfähigkeit der CmeCl-Gruppe, und die gebildete C=CH2-Gruppe begünstigt die Si-Methylierung. Die CCl2-Gruppe ist reaktionsfähiger als die CmeCl-Gruppe; (me3Si)2CCl2 bildet bereits mit meMgCl in Et2O die Methylidengruppe über die nicht gefaßte Zwischenstufe (me3Si)2CCl(MgCl). die bevorzugt zum (me3Si)2Cme(MgCl) methyliert wird.Es werden die NMR-Spektren der untersuchten Verbindungen angegeben.
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  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 448 (1979), S. 89-92 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthesis of Bis(diorganodithiocarbamato)organobismuthinesSome bis(diorganodithiocarbamato)organobismuthines of the general formula were synthesized by simple metathesis reactions from organobismuthine dibromid and sodium dithiocarbamates. Some properties and the 1H n.m.r. spectra of these compounds are described.
    Notes: Eine Reihe Bis(diorganodithiocarbamato)organobismutine der allgemeinen Formel wurde durch einfache Austauschreaktionen aus Organobismutdibromiden und Natriumdithiocarbamaten synthetisiert. Eigenschaften und 1H-NMR-Spektren der Verbindungen werden beschrieben.
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 448 (1979), S. 135-142 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: About the Crystal Structure of BaFexAl2-xO4BaFe1.5Al0.5O4 was investigated by modern X-ray single crystal work. It crystallizes with hexagonal symmetry: a = 1081 and c = 870.7 pm; Space group: C66 - P63. The structure is especially discussed with regard to a block structure which can be resolved like a microtwinning.
    Notes: BaFe1,5Al0,5O4 wurde an Einkristallen mit modernen röntgenographischen Methoden untersucht. Diese Verbindung kristallisiert hexagonal mit den Gitterkonstanten a = 1 081 und c = 870,7 pm, Raumgruppe C66 - P63. Der Aufbau wird insbesondere unter Berücksichtigung einer Blockstruktur, die bis zur Mikroverzwillingung aufgelöst werden kann, wiedergegeben.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: On the System Ba2Zn1-xCuxUO6. A Vibrational Spectroscopic Proof of the Jahn Teller EffectThe ordered perovskites Ba2ZnUO6 (cubic, space group Fm3m) and Ba2CuUO6 (tetragonal, space group I4/mmm) form solid solutions. For small Cu content the lattice symmetry is cubic, with x ≥ 0.25 an increasing tetragonal distortion (c/a √2 〉 1) is observed.From the vibrational spectra and in accordance with the factor group analysis the symmetry of the UO6 octahedra is for small Cu content Oh and on the Cu-rich side D4h.In the region of the lattice vibrations (T2 field) the lifting of the degeneracy  -  due to the Jahn Teller effect of Cu2+  -  leads to a band separation, which decreases with sinking copper content. Therefore the Jahn Teller effect is easily noticeable with vibrational spectroscopic methods.In the corresponding series with WVI the vibrational spectroscopic investigations lead qualitatively to the same results as in the UVI system.As further examples the stacking polytypes Ba2ZnTeO6 and Ba2CuTeO6 are considered. The vibrational spectra show, that the Jahn Teller effect in this lattice, which is strengthened by partial face-sharing of octahedra, is less pronounced than in the perovskites in which only corner-sharing is present.
    Notes: Die geordneten Perowskite Ba2ZnUO6 (kubisch, R.G. Fm3m) und Ba2CuUO6 (tetragonal, R.G. I4/mmm) bilden Mischkristalle. Die Gittersymmetrie bleibt für kleine Cu-Gehalte kubisch, für x ≥ 0,25 wird eine wachsende tetragonale Deformation (c/a √2 〉 1) beobachtet.Nach den Schwingungsspektren besitzen die UO6-Oktaeder  -  entsprechend der Faktorgruppenanalyse  -  auf der Cu-armen Seite die Symmetrie Oh und auf der Cu-reichen die Symmetrie D4h.Im Gitterschwingungsbereich (T2-Gebiet) führt die durch den Jahn-Teller-Effekt von Cu2+ bedingte Aufhebung der Entartung zu einer Bandenaufspaltung, die mit sinkendem Cu-Gehalt zurückgeht. Der Jahn-Teller-Effekt erweist sich daher als schwingungsspektroskopischen leicht faßbar.Für die entsprechende Reihe mit WVI ergeben die schwingungsspektroskopischen Untersuchungen qualitativ den gleichen Gang wie im UVI-System.Als weitere Beispiele werden die Stapelvarianten Ba2ZnTeO6 und Ba2CuTeO6 diskutiert. Die Schwingungsspektren zeigen, daß der Jahn-Teller-Effekt in dem durch partielle Flächenverknüpfung versteiften Gitter gegenüber den Perowskiten mit ausschließlicher Eckenverknüpfung weniger ausgeprägt ist.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Mangan(II)-AlkoxideEine Reihe neuer, sauerstoffempfindlicher Alkoxide des Mangan(II), darunter Derivate sterisch außerordentlich stark gehinderter Alkohole, wurde durch Alkoholyse von Mn{N(SiMe3)2}2 · (THF) hergestellt. Die Produkte, charakterisiert durch Elementaranalyse, Reflexionsspektroskopie und ihr chemisches Verhalten, fallen entweder als amorphe Koordinationspolymere, als gelartige Fibern, oder als (wahrscheinlich monomere) in organischen Lösungsmitteln lösliche Kristalle an. Angaben über Mangan(II)-Alkoxide in früheren Veröffentlichungen werden berichtigt. Die Ergebnisse einiger Oxydationsreaktionen werden diskutiert.
    Notes: A series of novel, air sensitive alkoxides of Mn(II) were prepared by alcoholysis reaction of Mn{N(SiMe3)2}2 · (THF), including sterically highly hindered derivatives soluble in organic solvents. The products, characterized by elemental analysis, reflectance spectroscopy and chemical behavior, range from amorphous coordination polymers and gelatinous fibers to (probably monomeric) crystals. Earlier literature descriptions of several Mn(II) alkoxides is corrected. Some oxidation results are discussed.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Herstellung, Eigenschaften und ESCA-Charakterisierung von sauerstoffempfindlichen Mangan-Oberflächenverbindungen und Dispersionen auf SilicagelSauerstoffempfindliche MnO-, MnO/SiO2-Dispersionen, „ein-“ und „zweibeing“ an Silicagel gebundene Mangan(II)-Oberflächenverbindungen wurden systematisch dargestellt und ihre Oberflächenzustände anhand der Verschiebungen des Mn 2p3/2-Bindungsenergieniveaus ermittelt.Mit Hilfe von ESCA ist eine Unterscheidung zwischen sehr fein verteilten MnO/SiO2-Oberflächendispersionen und den erwähnten „wahren“ Oberflächenverbindungen möglich. Wäßrige Imprägnierungen mit Mn(NO3)2 ergaben oberhalb eines Konzentrationsbereiches von 1,2-1,5 Gew.-% Mn hauptsächlich grüne MnO/SiO2-Dispersionen und nicht Oberflächenverbindungen, wie ursprünglich in einer früheren Publikation [11] vorgeschlagen wurde.Die chemisch an Mangan gebundene -Einheit übt einen elektronenziehenden Effekt von der Größenordnung der funktionalen Gruppe —Cl aus, der sich in einer Oberflächenverbindung nahezu linear addiert. Der Träger erweist sich somit als „electron sink“. Die Mn-Resultate bestätigen, ergänzen und erweitern bisher veröffentlichte ESCA-Ergebnisse von anderen Übergangsmetall-Oberflächenverbindungen.Die Beobachtungen zeigen eine Abnahme der Sauerstoffempfindlichkeit und eine Zunahme der Olefin-Polymerisationsaktivität bei einer Verringerung der Elektronendichte am zentralen Manganatom. Mögliche Reaktionsmechanismen einiger Mangan-Sauerstoffabsorber werden diskutiert.
    Notes: Oxygen sensitive MnO, MnO/SiO2 dispersions, and manganese(II) surface compounds on silica gel with “one” and “two legged” surface attachments were systematically prepared and their surface states ascertained by considering variations in the Mn 2p3/2 binding energy levels.A differentiation by ESCA between very finely divided MnO/SiO2 surface dispersions and the cited “true” surface compounds was possible. Aqueous impregnations with Mn(NO3)2 above 1.2-1.5 wt.% Mn concentration range were found to give predominantly green MnO/SiO2 dispersions and not real surface compounds as was originally suggested in a previous paper [11].The — unit chemically attached to manganese has an electron withdrawing effect (comparable in magnitude to the —Cl functional group) which is an almost linearly additive function in a surface compound. The support behaves therefore as a “quasi electron sink”. The results with Mn confirm as well as complement and extend published ESCA findings for other transition metal surface compound systems.Oxygen sensitivity was observed to decrease and olefin polymerization ability to increase with removal of electron density from the central manganese atom. The possible mode of action of some manganese based oxygen absorbers is discussed.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Reaction of Metal and Metalloid Compounds with Polyfunctional Molecules. XXI. Substitution Reactions of 1,5-Dichloro-2,6,9-trioxa-4,8-diaza-1,5-dibora-bicyclo[3,3,1]nonadiene System1,5-Dichloro-2,6,9-trioxa-4,8-diaza-1,5-dibora-bicyclo[3,3,1]nonadiene compounds react with silver cyanide, silver cyanate and sodium azide resp. to the double substituted compounds, in which both chlorine atoms are replaced by pseudohalogeno groups. In the case of silver thiocynate the reaction is not complete. The compounds were characterized analytically and spectroscopically (n.m.r.: 1H, 11B, 19F; m.s.; i.r.).
    Notes: 1,5-Dichlor-2,6,9-trioxa-4,8-diaza-1,5-dibora-bicyclo[3,3,1]-nonadienderivate reagieren mit Silbercyanid, Silbercyanat bzw. Natriumazid zu den doppelt, durch Pseudohalogenreste substitutierten Verbindungen. Mit Silberthiocyanat verläuft die Reaktion nicht vollständig. Die Verbindungen wurden analytisch und spektroskopisch (NMR: 1H, 11B, 19F; MS; IR) charakterisiert.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 449 (1979), S. 102-104 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Crystal Structure of Li8PbO6The crystal structure of Li8PbO6 (Li8TbO6 structure, space group R3—C3i2, hexagonal lattice constants a = 554.3, c = 1 563 pm) has been refined by profile analysis of a neutron diffraction pattern. Deviations from ideal tetrahedral and octahedral coordination of lithium atoms are similar to those described for Li8SnO6.
    Notes: Die Kristallstruktur von Li8PbO6 (Li8TbO6-Typ, Raumgruppe R3—C3i2, hexagonale Gitterkonstanten a = 554,3, c = 1 563 pm) wurde durch Profilanalyse einer Neutronen-Pulveraufnahme verfeinert. Die Koordinationen der Lithiumatome zeigen ähnliche Abweichungen von der idealen tetraedrischen bzw. oktaedrischen Geometrie, wie sie für Li8SnO6 beschrieben worden sind.
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  • 55
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 449 (1979), S. 135-144 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Tri- and Tetramethylammonium Chloroantimonates(III)Tri- and tetramethylammonium chlorides react in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents with antimony(III) chloride to yield different chloroantimonates(III). The vibrational spectra of these compounds are discussed. The structure of trimethylammonium nonachlorodiantimonate(III) (I) was determined by X-ray analysis.
    Notes: Tri- und Tetramethylammonium-chloride bilden mit Antimon(III)-chlorid in Abhängigkeit von den Molverhältnissen der Reaktionspartner und vom Lösungsmittel unterschiedliche Chloroantimonate(III), deren Schwingungsspektren diskutiert werden. Vom Trimethylammonium-nonachlorodiantimonat(III) (I) wurde die Struktur röntgenographisch ermittelt.
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  • 56
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    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 449 (1979), S. 127-134 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: On Silicate Apatites Containing Bismuth. Unusual Oxide ApatitesThe compositions Ca3,2Bi6,8(SiO4)6O1,4 □0,6 and Sr2,8Bi7,2 (SiO4)6O1,6□0,4 have been ascertained for the thermally formed oxide apatites. The metastable apatite phase with a homogeneity range from Pb5,2Bi4,8(SiO4)6O0,4 □1,6 to Pb6Bi4(SiO4)6□2 crystallizes from the glassy state below 600°C. The vacancies □ correspond to the unoccupied halide positions. Ca3,2Bi6,8(SiO4)6O0,8 (OH)1,2 (hydrothermal synthesis) and Pb4Bi6(SiO4)6F2 show the usual stoichiometry, however. The peculiar electron configuration of Bi3+ and Pb2+ is considered responsible for the differences from apatites of La3+ and of the alkaline earth ions.
    Notes: Für die thermisch entstandenen Oxidapatite wurde die Zusammensetzung Ca3,2Bi6,8(SiO4)6O1,4 □0,6 bzw. Sr2,8Sr2,8Bi7,2 (SiO4)6O1,6□0,4 ermittelt. Die metastabile Apatitphase mit dem Homogenitätsbereich von Pb5,2Bi4,8(SiO4)6O0,4 □1,6 bis Pb6Bi4(SiO4)6 □2 kristallisiert unterhalb 600°C aus dem Glaszustand. Die Lücken □ entsprechen den unbesetzten Halogenidlagen. Dagegen weisen Ca3,2Bi6,8(SiO4)6O0,8 (OH)1,2 (Hydrothermalsynthese) sowie Pb4Bi6(SiO4)6F2 die übliche Stöchiometrie auf. Die besondere Elektronenkonfiguration von Bi3+ und Pb2+ wird für die Unterschiede gegenüber den Apatiten des La3+ und der Erdalkaliionen verantwortlich gemacht.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Preparation, Isolation, and Characterization of Mixed Thiocyanato(ethylenediamine)rhodium(III) ComplexesThe complexes Na[Rh(SCN)4(en)] and trans-[Rh(SCN)2(en)2]SCN are prepared for the first time. They are isolated from the mixture by column chromatography on aluminia and characterized by the spectra and the CHN analysis.
    Notes: Die Komplexe Na[Rh(SCN)4(en)] und trans-[Rh(SCN)2(en)2]SCN werden erstmals dargestellt. Ihre Isolierung aus dem Reaktionsgemisch geschieht durch Säulenchromatographie an Aluminiumoxid. Zur Charakterisierung dienen die Spektren im UV- und IR-Bereich sowie die CHN-Analyse.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Nitrosylkomplexe von Molybdän. IIn saurer, wäßriger Lösung wurden durch Einwirkung von NO(g) Verbindungen des Typs Mo(NO)2Cl2(H2O)2, [Mo(NO)2Cl]2-, Mo(NO)2Cl2X2 (X = dipy, phen) und [Mo(NO)2(OH)4]2-. dargestellt und isoliert. Sie sind in saurer, wäßriger Lösung beständig; ihre Eigenschaften werden beschrieben.
    Notes: A new method of synthesis of nitrosyl-molybdenum complexes involving nitrosylation of molybdenum in aqueous acidic medium is described. The isolated compounds are of the types Mo(NO)2Cl2(H2O)2, [Mo(NO)2Cl]2-, Mo(NO)2Cl2X2 (X = dipy, phen) and [Mo(NO)2(OH)4]2-. They are stable in aqueous solution. Their properties have been described have been described using u.v.-visible and i.r. spectra, magnetic moment, conductance measurements and pH titrations.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations of the Condensation Reactions of Mono-, Di-, and Trisilicic Acid by Trimethylsilylation and 29Si N.M.R. SpectroscopyThe condensation reactions of mono-, di- and trisilicic acid in acidic aqueous solution (CSiO2 = 0.5 m; pH = 2; T = - 2°C), obtained by hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane, hexamethoxydisiloxane and octamethoxytrisiloxane resp., were quantitatively investigated in dependence of time. It could be shown that the monosilicic acid reacts across a mixture of di-, tri-, tetra-, cyclotetra- and bicyclohexasilicic acids to highpolymer products. In the solution of di- and trisilicic acid a partial hydrolysis to mono- and disilicic acid resp. occur simultaneous to the condensation reactions. By this way after short reaction times (about 20 min) in these solutions the same reaction products are present as in the monosilicic acid. The hydrolysis and condensation of the low molecular weight silicic acids were determined by equilibrium reactions which lead after about 6 h to constant mole ratios of the reaction products, independently of the type of silicic acid used in the initial solution. In all solutions no condensation products of uniform structure or molecular weight could be observed but always mixtures of silicic acids with a wide distribution of molecular weights. Even after 96 h of reaction time small amounts of mono-, di-, and trisilicic acid could be estimated.
    Notes: Die Kondensationsreaktionen der Mono-, Di- bzw. Trikieselsäure in saurerwäßriger Lösung (CSiO2 = 0,5 m; pH = 2; T = -2°C), hergestellt durch Hydrolyse von Tetramethoxysilan, Hexamethoxydisiloxan bzw. Octamethoxytrisiloxan, wurden in Abhängigkeit von der Zeit quantitative untersucht. Es wird gezeigt, daß die Monokieselsäure über ein Gemisch aus Di-, Tri-, Tetra-, Cyclotetra- und Bicyclohexakieselsäuren zu höhermolekularen Kieselsäuren reagiert. In, Di- und Trikieselsäurelösungen läuft parallel zu den Kondensationsreaktionen eine teilweise Hydrolyse unter Bildung von Mono- bzw. Dikieselsäure ab, so daß bereits nach kurzer Zeit die gleichen Reaktionsprodukte wie in der Monokieselsäurelösung auftreten. Die Hydrolyse und Kondensation der niedermolekularen Kieselsäuren werden durch Gleichgewichtsreaktionen bestimmt, die nach längeren Reaktionszeiten (etwa 6 h) zu konstanten Konzentrationsverhältnissen führen, die unabhängig von der Art der Ausgangskieselsäure sind. In allen Fällen werden keine molekulareinheitlichen Kondensationsprodukte, sondern stets Gemische von Kieselsäuren mit unterschiedlichem Kondensationsgrad beobachtet, in denen auch nach 96 h noch geringe Mengen Mono-, Di- und Trikieselsäure nachweisbar sind.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Komplexchemie von Niob und Tantal. XVIII. Peroxo-EDTA Niobate(V) und Tantalate(V)Darstellung und Eigenschaften von Peroxo-Ethylendiamintetraacetatoniobat(V) und -tantalat(V) werden beschrieben. Diese stabilen und kristallinen Komplexe kann man aus Wasser und Wasserstoffperoxid rekristallisieren. Die chemischen und spektralen Untersuchungen stimmen mit der Formel M3I[MV (O2)3EDTA] nH2O2, MI = K, NH4; MV = Nb, Ta; m ≤ 1, überein. Niob und Tantal Verbindungen sind isomorph.
    Notes: Preparation and Properties of peroxoethylenediaminetetraacetato niobates(V) and tantalates(V) are reported. These stable, crystalline complexes can be recrystallized from aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions. According to chemical and spectral evidence the complexes correspond to the formula M3I[MV (O2)3EDTA] nH2O2, MI = K, NH4; MV = Nb, Ta; n ≤ 1. Niobium and tantalum compounds are isomorphous.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: 2-Halogeno-1,3,2λ3- and 2,2,2-Trihalogeno-1,3,2λ5-dioxaphospholanesThe reaction of dilithium perfluoropinacolate with phosphorus trihalides gives rise to 1,3,2λ3-dioxaphospholanes, XP[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] (X = F, Cl, Br). Oxidation with chlorine and bromine furnishes the 1,3,2λ5-dioxaphospholanes, XY2P[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] (X = F, Cl, Br; Y = Cl, Br). The phosphory Ihalides. POX3 (X = F, Br) react with Li2[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] to give 1,3,2λ5-dioxaphospholanes, X3P[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] and the diphosphate ester, O{P(:O)[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O]}2.
    Notes: Die Reaktion des Dilithium-perfluorpinakolats mit Phosphortrihalogeniden führt zu 1,3,2λ3-Dioxaphospholanen XP[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] (X = F, Cl, Br). Durch oxidative Addition von Chlor bzw. Brom entstehen daraus 1,3,2λ5-Dioxaphospholane XY2P[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] (X = F, Cl, Br; Y = Cl, Br). Die Phosphoroxyhalogenide POX3 (X = F, Br) ergeben mit Li2[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] die 1,3,2λ5-Dioxaphospholane X3P[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O] und den Diphorphorsäureester O{P(:O)[OC(CF3)2C(CF3)2O]}2.
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  • 62
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 450 (1979), S. 107-114 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Gas Complexes in the System NaCl/ScCl3Mass spectroscopic investigations with the condensed phases NaCl or NaCl + ScCl3 resp. lead for homogeneous gas equilibria to the data given in „Inhaltsübersicht“.Besides the main complex NaScCl4 small concentrations of Na2ScCl5 and Na2Sc2Cl8 also exist.
    Notes: Massenspektroskopische Untersuchungen mit NaCl bzw. NaCl + ScCl3 als Bodenkörper führten zu folgenden Ergebnissen (homogene Gasgleichgewichte; 298 K): .
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  • 63
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 450 (1979), S. 88-102 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Gaseous Complexes in the System LiCl/ScCl3Equilibrium gases, emerging from Knudsen cells, which contained LiCl, ScCl3 or LiCl + ScCl3 respectively, have been analysed by means of a mass spectrometer. The T-dependence leabs to the ΔH°-data. The relation of the fragments to the parent molecules LiCl, Li2Cl2, Li3Cl3, ScCl3, Sc2Cl6, Sc3Cl9, LiScCl4, Li2Sc2Cl8 (and LiSc2Cl7) leads to fragmentation factors. By means of these factors the ΔS°-data for the gaseous homogenous reactions given in „Inhaltsübersicht“ could be calculated.
    Notes: Gleichgewichtsgase, die aus Knudsenzellen mit LiCl, ScCl3 oder LiCl + ScCl3 austraten, wurden mit dem Massenspektrometer analysiert. Die T-Abhängigkeit führte zu den ΔH°-Werten. Nach Zuordnung der Fragmente zu den Muttermolekeln LiCl, Li2Cl2, Li3Cl3, ScCl3, Sc2Cl6, Sc3Cl9, LiScCl4, Li2Sc2Cl8 (und LiSc2Cl7) mit Hilfe besonders ermittelter Fragmentierungsfaktoren konnten die ΔS°-Werte gewonnen werden. Für die homogenen Gasgleichgewichte gilt bei 298 K: .
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Die Lichtabsorption des 3wertigen Chroms in zwei Wirtsgittern vom Pyroxen- und Spinell-TypEs wurde die Lichtabsorption des Cr3+-haltigen Diopside CaMgSi2O6 und Spinells ZnGaAlO4 spektralphotometrisch gemessen. Zwei Absorptionsbanden wurden nach den Elektronenübergängen erhalten: 4A2g → 4T2g (niedriges Frequenzband) und 4A2g → 4T1g (hohes Frequenzband). Generell zeigten die Werte des Ligandenfeldparameters Δ und B, daß die Cr—O-Bindung in den zwei untersuchten Strukturen von unterschiedlichem Charakter ist.
    Notes: The light absorption of Cr3+ - doped diopside CaMgSi2O6 and spinel ZnGaAlO4 was measured spectrophotometrically. Two absorption bands corresponding to the electron transition: 4A2g → 4T2g (low frequency band) and 4A2g → 4T1g (high frequency band) were obtained. Generally, the value of the estimated ligand field parameters Δ and B showed that the Cr—O bond in the studied two structures is of different character.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 66
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    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 451 (1979), S. 31-34 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: About the New Compound Sr2CrMnO6Sr2CrMnO6 was prepared and investigated by X-ray single crystal data (a = 541.6; c = 664.0 pm; space group C3i1-P3). The structure is related to the distorted perovskites, the differences to SrCrO3 and SrMnO3 are discussed.
    Notes: Sr2CrMnO6 wurde erstmals dargestellt und an Einkristallen röntgenographisch untersucht (a = 541,6; c = 664,0 pm; Raumgruppe C3i1-P3). Der Aufbau entspricht den verzerrten Perowskitstrukturen, es bestehen jedoch Unterschiede zu SrCrO3 und SrMnO3.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Phase Relations and Crystal Structures in the System Se—BrThe system Se—Br contains two intermediate phases with congruent melting behaviour: α-SeBr (+5°C) and α-SeBr4 (+123°C). β-SeBr and β-SeBr4 are metastable with respect to the phase diagram and are irreversibly transformed to the α-modifications by annealing. Phase relations in the Se—Br system are discussed in detail. Single crystals of α- and β-SeBr4 are obtained by vapour phase transport. β-SeBr4 is monoclinic, space group C2/c, z = 16, a = 17.02, b = 10.39, c = 15.49 Å, β = 117°, and is an isotype of TeCl4. α-SeBr4 is trigonal, space group P31c, z = 16, with a = 10.200(7), c = 30.351(18) Å. In both modifications tetrameric cubane-like molecules [SeBr4]4 are present, but with different spatial arrangement. The crystal structure of α-SeBr4 is discussed in terms of packing aspects.
    Notes: Das System Se—Br enthält die thermodynamisch stabilen kongruent schmelzenden Phasen α-SeBr (+5°C) und α-SeBr4 (+123°C). β-SeBr und β-SeBr4 sind metastabil in Bezug auf das Phasendiagramm und werden durch Tempern irreversibel in die entsprechende α-Modifikation überführt. Phasenbeziehungen im System werden ausführlich diskutiert. Einkristalle von α- und β-SeBr4 sind selektiv durch Gasphasentransport zu erhalten. β-SeBr4 kristallisiert monoklin, Raumgruppe C2/c, z = 16, a = 17,02, b = 10,39, c = 15,49 Å, β = 117°, und ist isotyp mit TeCl4. α-SeBr4 kristallisiert trigonal, Raumgruppe P31c, z = 16, mit a = 10,200(7), c = 30,351(18) Å und enthält wie β-SeBr4 tetramere Cubanmolekeln [SeBr4]4, jedoch in unterschiedlicher räumlicher Anordnung. Die Kristallstruktur von α-SeBr4 wird unter Packungsaspektren diskutiert.
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  • 68
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    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 451 (1979), S. 57-60 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Gas Complexes in the System RbCl/ScCl3Homogeneous gas equilibria in the presence of RbCl or RbCl + ScCl3 respectively have been measured by mass spectroscopy. Results see “Inhaltsübersicht”. Small intensities of the fragment Rb2ScCl4+ show the existence of small concentrations of larger molecules.
    Notes: Homogene Gasgleichgewichte mit RbCl bzw. RbCl + ScCl3 als Bodenkörper wurden massenspektrokopisch gemessen. Für 298 K ergab sich 2 RbCl = Rb2Cl2; ΔH° = -41,6 kcal; ΔS° = -30,3 cl; 0,5 Rb2Cl2 + 0,5 Sc2Cl6 = RbScCl4; ΔH° = -10,8 kcal; ΔS° = -0,6 cl. Geringe Intensitäten des Fragements Rb2ScCl4+ deuten auf kleine Konzentrationen größerer Komplexe hin.
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  • 69
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    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 451 (1979), S. 73-81 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Refinement of the Crystal Structures of YbFCl, SmFCl, SrFBr, and BaFBrIn the course of our studies on the crystal chemistry of MXY compounds we have refined the structures of YbFCl, SmFCl, SrFBr, and BaFBr with single crystal data. The analysis of the structural parameters shows the influence of different types of bonding on the geometry of the PbFCl-type structure.
    Notes: Im Rahmen unserer Untersuchungen zur Kristallchemie von Verbindungen des Formeltyps MXY wurden die Strukturen der Verbindungen YbFCl, SmFCl, SrFBr und BaFBr mit Einkristalldaten verfeinert. Die Analyse der Parameter gibt die Einflüsse verschiedener Bindungswechselwirkungen auf die Geometrie der PbFCl-Struktur zu erkennen.
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  • 70
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    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 451 (1979), S. 67-72 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Magnesium Chloride: Sublimation Pressures and Association of the Gas MoleculesThe mass spectroscopic investigation of the vapour which is in equilibrium with solid MgCl2 leads to the data given in “Inhaltsübersicht”.Also small amounts of Mg4Cl8 have been observed and its stability is estimated.
    Notes: Die Analyse des mit festem MgCl2 im Gleichgewicht stehenden Dampfes (Knudsenzelle, Massenspektrometer) führte zu folgenden Ergebnissen (298 K): \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ \begin{array}{l}{\rm MgCl}_{{\rm 2,f}} = {\rm MgCl}_{{\rm 2,g}};\,\,\Delta{\rm H}^\circ = 60,1\,{\rm Kcal};\,\Delta{\rm S}^\circ = 45,6\,{\rm cl}\\2{\rm MgCl}_{2,{\rm f}} = {\rm Mg}_2 {\rm Cl}_{4,{\rm g}};\,\Delta{\rm H}^\circ = 78,5\,{\rm Kcal};\,\,\Delta{\rm S}^\circ = 61,2\,{\rm cl}\\2{\rm MgCl}_{2,{\rm g}} = {\rm Mg}_2 {\rm Cl}_{4,{\rm g}};\,\Delta{\rm H}^\circ = - 41,7{\rm Kcal};\,\Delta{\rm S}^\circ = - 30,0\,{\rm cl}\\{\rm MgCl}_{2,{\rm g}} + {\rm Mg}_{\rm 2} {\rm Cl}_{4,{\rm g}} = {\rm Mg}_3 {\rm Cl}_{6,{\rm g}};\,\,\Delta{\rm H}^\circ = - 45,8\,{\rm Kcal};\,\,\Delta{\rm S}^\circ = - 37,1{\rm cl}.\end{array} $$\end{document} Auch Mg4Cl8 wurde (in sehr kleiner Konzentration) beobachtet und seine Stabilität abgeschätzt.
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  • 71
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    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 451 (1979), S. 103-108 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: I.R. Spectra of Some Alkali Salts of Oxo-acids at High PressuresThe I.R. spectra of KNO3, K2CO3, CaCO3, KClO3, KBrO3, KJO3, NaHCO2, NaCH3CO2, und Na2C2O4 under pressures up to 48 kbar are presented and the pressure induced variations are discussed.
    Notes: Die IR-Spektren von KNO3, K2CO3, CaCO3, KClO3, KBrO3, KJO3, NaHCO2, NaCH3CO2 und Na2C2O4 unter Drücken bis zu 48 kbar werden mitgeteilt und die druckinduzierten Änderungen der Spektren werden diskutiert.
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  • 72
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: S4N4 and its Derivatives: Structure of the Reaction Product from Ni(HN2S2)2, Formaldehyde, and MethanolThe nickel(II) complex NiC2H6N4OS4 which is formed during the reaction of Ni(HN2S2)2 with formaldehyde in methanol has been shown by an X-ray analysis to possess the structure formula D. The two planar NiN2S2 rings are almost parallel. The solid state structure is characterized by parallel stacking of the Ni(N2S2)2 groups. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P1 with a = 8.433(5), b = 8.610(4), c = 7.716(5) Å, α = 114.64(6), β = 75.16(5), γ = 112.51(4)° and Z = 2.
    Notes: Eine Röntgenstrukturanalyse ergibt, daß der Nickel(II)-Komplex NiC2H6N4OS4, der bei der Umsetzung von Ni(HN2S2)2 mit Formaldehyd in Methanol entsteht, die struktur D besitzt. Die beiden ebenen NiN2S2-Ringe sind nahezu parallel. Im Kristall sind die Ni(N2S2)2-Bereiche der Moleküle parallel gepackt. Die Kristalle sind monoklin, Raumgruppe P1 mit a = 8,433(5), b = 8,610(4), c = 7,716(5) Å, α = 114,64(6), β = 75,16(5), γ = 112.51(4)° and Z = 2.
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  • 73
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Mutual Influence of Ligands and Redox Reactions in the Systems CuII-Piperidine-Benzene-X (X = Cl-, Br-, NO3-, ClO4-)The influence of the anionic ligands on the rate of CuII reduction in the systems of CuII-piperidine-benzene-X (X = Cl-, Br-, NO3- and ClO4-) was spectrophotometrically studied. While in the presence of Cl- anions only no redox processes leading to CuI were observed, the reduction of CuII to CuI takes place with perceivable rate when another of the studied ions was present in the system. The results were interpreted with respect to the mutual influence of ligands with different s̰-donor and π-acceptor properties in the coordination sphere of CuII complexes.
    Notes: Der Einfluß der Anionen-Liganden auf die Geschwindigkeit der Reduktion von CuII in den Systemen CuII-Piperidin-Benzol-X (X = Cl-, Br-, NO3- und ClO4-) wird spektrophotometrisch untersucht. Während in Anwesenheit von Cl--Anionen allein im System keine Redox-Prozesse unter Bildung von CuI beobachtet wurden, verläuft die Reduktion von CuII zu CuI mit erkennbarer Geschwindigkeit, wenn noch eins der anderen angeführten Ionen im System vorhanden ist. Die Ergebnisse werden vom Standpunkt der gegenseitigen Beeinflussung von Liganden mit unterschiedlichen s̰-Donor- bzw. π-Akzeptor-Eigenschaften in der Koordinationssphäre von CuII-Komplexen interpretiert.
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  • 74
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Bor-Stickstoff-Verbindungen. 80. Die elektronische Struktur von 1,8,10,9-TriazaboradekalinDas Elektronenspektrum von 1,8,10,9-Triazaboradekalin wurde aufgenommen, und weitere Moleküleigenschaften wurden experimentell bestimmt. Die Befunde stehen in gutem Einklang mit den Ergebnissen einer modifizierten INDO-Berechnung.
    Notes: The electronic spectrum of 1,8,10,9-triazaboradecalin has been recorded and some additional molecular properties have been determined experimentally. The data compare favorably with results obtained by a modified INDO calculation.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 75
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: On Hexagonal Perovskites with Cationic Vacancies. VI. Structure Determination on Ba8Re2W3□3O24 - the First Hexagonal Stacking Polytype with 24 LayersFor the hexagonal stacking polytype of rhomboedral 24 L type, Ba8Re2W3□3O24, eight sequences are possible: (6)(2); (4)1(2)1; (5)1(1)1; (5)(3); (3)11(1)11; (1)21(1)12 (all space group R3m) and 4211; 3221 (all space group R3m). By vibrational spectroscopic investigations the sequences (6)(2); (5)(3) and 4211 could be eliminated. By means of intensity calculations the sequence (1)21(1)12 or chhhhchh respectively can be selected out of the remaining five.The structure contains groups of three and five face-connected octahedra which are linked with another by common corners. In the ideal structure, vacant lattice sites are found in the centres of the second and fourth octahedra of the block of five face-sharing octahedra and in the central octahedron of the block of three face-sharing octahedra. The remaining positions are occupied by the Re and W atoms. According to this distribution an direct contact of occupied face-sharing octahedra is absent.In the real structure, lattice defects are introduced by partial redistribution of atoms between occupied and vacant lattice positions in the blocks of three and five face-sharing octahedra. The occupation factor of one vacancy is about 8%.The refined, intensity related R′ value is 15.2%.
    Notes: Für die hexagonale Perowskitstapelvariante vom rhomboedrischen 24 L-Typ, Ba8Re2W3□3O24, sind acht Stapelfolgen möglich: (6)(2); (4)1(2)1; (5)1(1)1; (5)(3); (3)11(1)11; (1)21(1)12 (jeweils R. G. R3m) sowie 4211 und 3221 (jeweils R.G. R3m). Hiervon konnten durch schwingungsspektroskopische Untersuchungen die Sequenzen (6)(2); (5)(3) und 4211 ausgeschieden werden. Nach Intensitätsberechnungen trifft von den fünf restlichen Folgen die Sequenz (1)21(1)12 bzw. chhhhchh zu.Die Struktur besteht aus Fünfer- und Dreierblöcken von flächenverknüpften Oktaedern, die untereinander über Ecken verbunden sind. In der idealen Struktur ist im Fünferblock das zweite und vierte Oktaederzentrum und im Dreierblock die zentrale Oktaederlücke nicht besetzt, während sich die Re- und W-Atome in den übrigen Positionen befinden. Mit dieser Verteilung wird ein direkter Kationenkontakt in untereinander flächenverknüpften Oktaedern vermieden.In die Realstruktur werden durch eine teilweise Umverteilung zwischen besetzten und leeren Gitterpositionen des Dreier- und Fünferblocks Gitterfehler eingeführt. Der Besetzungsfaktor liegt pro Fehlstelle bei etwa 8%.Der verfeinerte, auf die Intensitäten bezogene Zuverlässigkeitsfaktor R′ beträgt 15,2%.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 76
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 451 (1979), S. 158-174 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Dialkylphosphinic Azides. IIThe title compounds with X = O, Se, Se and R = Phenyl, Ethyl, and Methyl[2H3] were prepared and recorded by mass, vibrational and n.m.r. spectroscopy. The spectra are discussed in relation to the parent compounds [(CH3)2PS]2 and R2PXCl, which are also recorded.
    Notes: Die Dialkylphosphinsäureazide des Typs R2PXN3 wurden mit X = O, S, Se bzw. R = Phenyl, Ethyl und Methyl[2H3] dargestellt. Die Eigenschaften, Massenspektren, Schwingungsspektren und NMR-Daten werden mitgeteilt und diskutiert. Zusätzlich wurden die entsprechenden Ausgangsverbindungen [(CH3)2PS]2 und R2PXCl aufgenommen.
    Additional Material: 11 Tab.
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