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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (3,763)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (1,486)
  • 1975-1979  (5,249)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 17-27 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Eggs of Chelydra serpentina were shifted during incubation between the female producing temperatures of 20°C or 30°C and the male producing temperature of 26°C. In the 20°C and 26°C combination, the stages during which incubation temperature determined sex were stage 14 through stage 16 (stages of normal series, Yntema, '68). In the 30°C and 26°C combination, the temperature sensitive stages for sex determination were stage 14 through stage 19. Incubation at 26°C throughout this period was needed to produce all males. Incubation at 30°C during either the first or second half of the period produced nearly all females; shorter periods of incubation at 30°C were more effective in producing females during the second half of the sensitive period. In the 20°C and 26°C combination, incubation at 20°C or 26°C for parts of the sensitive period produced both males and females. In three of the 57 clutches of eggs used in the experiments, incidence of females was atypically high.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The distribution and morphology of phagocytic (Type II) supraependymal cells residing within the third ventricle of the guinea pig were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Type II supraependymal cells were restricted to nonciliated regions of the ventricle. They were most numerous on the choroid plexus, abundant within the infundibular recess and were present on the ventricular floor in the region of the median eminence. Morphologically, they were characterized by a soma from which pseudopodia-like processes extended to the subjacent ependyma. Type II cells varied in configuration according to their location. Those residing on the choroid plexus typically had irregular somas and possessed processes that generally terminated in finger-like extensions. In contrast, cells on the ventricular floor and within the infundibular recess were stellate and possessed processes that terminated in fan-like cytoplasmic expansions. There were no differences noted in the frequency, distribution or morphology of Type II supraependymal cells in male and female animals. Furthermore, cell frequency did not appear to vary in relation to the estrous cycle. The data suggest that the pleomorphism exhibited by Type II supraependymal cells may reflect adaptations to diverse environmental conditions present within different regions of the third ventricle.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 81-87 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Study of the fine structure of the macronucleus in Euplotes eurystomus, a ciliate protozoon, during various stages of the cell division cycle has yielded new information about intranuclear helices. They are frequently observed at the periphery of chromatin bodies or next to the nuclear envelope, and they appear to be a constituent of nucleoli. The fibril that forms a helix is about 11-15 nm thick, and torus profiles of helices cut in cross section are about 35 nm in diameter. In substructure the helix is composed of a thin strand 3-5 nm thick which is coiled to form the 11-15 nm fibril; so the helix is a super-coiled structure. The intranuclear helices are present in the macronucleus throughout the cell cycle. They do not show obvious changes of relative abundance nor changes of relative localization in the nucleus, with one exception: they were never observed in the diffuse zone of replication bands. Evidence is presented indicating that nuclear helices migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores. Although the chemical composition of the Euplotes intranuclear helices is unknown, information in the literature on similar helices in Amoeba indicates that they contain RNA and not DNA. The observations on Euplotes helices are consistent with a concept of “packaged” RNA for transport to the cytoplasm.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The retina and optic nerve of Strombus luhuanus were examined by transmission electron microscopy in order to provide an ultrastructural basis for their electrophysiological responses, described elsewhere. The retina exhibits a distinct rhabdomeric layer and layers of cell nuclei and neuropile. These layers are comprised predominantly of three cell types that can be readily distinguished on the basis of their shape, their nuclei and cytoplasmic inclusions such as vesicles and filaments. One type of cell, apparently a photoreceptor that depolarizes in response to photic stimulation, possesses a long distal segment with microvilli; such distal segments comprise the bulk of the rhabdomeric layer. A second cell type, which appears to be supportive in function, contains a bundle of tightly packed tonofilaments that extend across the retina from the capsule to the vitreous body; this cell is quite narrow except in the region near the rhabdomeric layer, where it is expanded and wraps around the other cell types. A third type of cell possesses many short microvilli that project from its apical end into the rhabdomeric layer; it may be a second type of photoreceptor or another type of neuron. The retina also contains bundles of cilia that appear to project from a possible fourth type of cell. The layer of neuropile contains numerous processes that exhibit a variety of vesicle types and structures generally associated with synapses; these appear to play a role in mediating inhibitory and excitatory interactions between the retinal neurons. The optic nerve exhibits two populations of fiber distinguishable on the basis of mean diameter. Fibers in these two populations apparently yield “on” and “off” discharges in response to photic stimulation of the eye.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The unusual lymphogranulopoietic bone marrow of the large lungless salamander Plethodon glutinosus was examined by light and electron microscopy. Developing neutrophils, eosinophils, and fat cells were found in large numbers, while lymphocytes of various sizes, plasma cells, plasmablasts, macrophages, pigment cells, and fibroblasts were present in more moderate numbers. Basophils were observed only rarely. Macrophages were found in extravascular locations and did not appear to be associated directly with the walls of the blood vessels supplying the marrow. Both neutrophils and eosinophils seemed to arise from small precursor cells whose ultrastructural features bore a resemblance in some ways to those of mammalian myeloblasts described by Bainton and Farquhar ('66). Developing neutrophils and eosinophils seemed to produce only single populations of specific cytoplasmic granules, rather than both primary (azurophilic) and secondary (specific) inclusions, as are produced typically by mammalian granulocytes. Both eosinophilic and neutrophilic granules were formed in association with Golgi complexes; and eosinophilic granules were much larger, more densely stained, and more regularly rounded in shape than the inclusions of developing neutrophils. Peroxidase activity was associated with the specific granules of neutrophils but seemed to be lacking in the granules of eosinophils. The specific granules of eosinophils were especially unusual because they contained irregularly shaped, lightly stained cores which occasionally displayed a distinctly crystalline substructural organization. The specific granules of basophils also possessed a prominent crystalline organization. The overall appearance of the marrow of Plethodon suggests that it functions not only as a valuable source of neutrophils, eosinophils, and cells of the lymphoid series, but also as a part of the phagocytic system of the animals and as an important repository for fat.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The three major salivary glands of the monotreme echidna are described. The parotid is a typical serous gland with tubulo-acinar secretory endpieces and a well-developed system of striated ducts. The mandibular gland, although light microscopically resembling a mucous gland, secretes very little glycoprotein. Its cells are packed instead with serous granules, resembling in fine structure the “bull's eye” granules in the mandibular gland of the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. The sublingual glands secrete an extremely viscous mucous saliva. Expulsion of this saliva through the narrow ducts is probably aided by contraction of the extensive myoepithelial sheaths surrounding the secretory tubules. Application of the glyoxylic acid induced fluorescence method failed to demonstrate adrenergic innervation in any of the glands.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When Aedes aegypti females first emerge as adults, their oocytes possess no yolk. The abdominal fat body cells contain large quantities of lipid, protein, and glycogen, and possess many free ribosomes, but have very little rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). When the females are starved for four days, their oocytes form fine lipid and protein yolk endogenously, the latter being located mainly around the nucleus. The adipocytes in these fasted mosquitoes have greatly reduced amounts of lipid, protein and glycogen and contain many cytolysosomes. Seven hours after 4-day-starved females had fed on blood, their oocytes begin filling with exogenous protein yolk at the oolemma, and lipid arises endogenously throughout the ooplasm. At this hour, the fat cells have synthesized more RER than is seen in unfed controls. Twenty-four hours post blood meal, the follicle cells have secreted discrete endochorionic plaques onto the oolemma. At this period, the adipocytes are densely filled with RER, and show for the first time many Golgi bodies and protein inclusions. They have noticeably less glycogen than at seven hours. Within 48 hours after mosquitoes have fed on blood, the endochorion forms a continuous layer around the steadily enlarging egg which is synthesizing additional protein and lipid yolk. Concurrently, the adipocytes show a greatly increased amount of glycogen and a significant reduction of RER. By the sixtieth hour after the blood meal, the follicle cells are attenuated, and the fat cells have less RER and more glycogen than at 48 hours. The nurse cells steadily decrease in size during vitellogenesis and release material onto the micropyle.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 221-232 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The electron microscopical structure of the type “B” cells in the rectal pad epithelium of Locusta is described. The type “B” cells occur singly in the distal region of the rectal pad epithelium. They are characteristically goblet shaped and join with contiguous type “A” or rectal pad cells, near the apical surface by means of a restricted region of septate desmosomes. Type “B” cells possess a microvillate apical membrane, with the villi arranged as a rosette overlying the apical inaginations of adjacent type “A” cells.Large numbers of microtubules and vacuoles of various sizes containing an assortment of inclusions are present in the apical region of the type “B” cells. Many of the microtubules insert distally on hemidesmosomes located in the apical plasma membrane. Rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria are also present but neither are abundant. The possible significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 169-175 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The vascular anatomy of five beavers (Castor canadensis) was studied by dissection and injection of arteries and veins with vinyl acetate. There is extensive countercurrent arrangement of arteries and veins distal to and including the common iliac artery and veins. Two types of countercurrent vessels occur (1) a venae comitantes type in which two or three veins surround a central artery, and (2) a modified rete type. The retia are located proximal to the large flat tail and the webbed hind feet. Two bypass veins are described for the feet and tail and the significance of these structures in temperature regulation is stressed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the parathyroid glands of adult Japanese lizards (Takydromus tachydromoides) in the spring and summer season was examined. The parenchyma of the gland consists of chief cells arranged in cords or solid masses. Many chief cells contain numerous free ribosomes and mitochondria, well-developed Golgi complexes, a few lysosome-like bodies, some multivesicular bodies and relatively numerous lipid droplets. The endoplasmic reticulum is mainly smooth-surfaced. Cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are distributed randomly in the cytoplasm. Small coated vesicles of 700-800 Å in diameter are found occasionally in the cytoplasm, especially in the Golgi region. The chief cells contain occasional secretory granules of 150-300 nm in diameter that are distributed randomly in the cytoplasm and lie close to the plasma membrane. Electron dense material similar to the contents of the secretory granules is observed in the enlarged intercellular space. These findings suggest that the secretory granules may be discharged into the intercellular space by an eruptocrine type of secretion. Coated vesicles (invaginations) connected to the plasma membrane and smooth vesicles arranged in a row near the plasma membrane are observed. It is suggested that such coated vesicles may take up extracellular proteins. The accumulation of microfilaments is sometimes recognized. Morphological evidence of synthetic and secretory activities in the chief cells suggests active parathyroid function in the Japanese lizard during the spring and summer season.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 177-183 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of a sex pheromone-producing gland found in the abdomen of Drosophila grimshawi males was studied by light and electron microscopy. This gland, consisting of two intra-anal lobes, contains cells that resemble those of other insect pheromone glands. However, in contrast to many other insect pheromone glands that release pheromone through the cuticle, cells of the intra-anal lobes secrete into a canaliculi-duct system that empties into the anal region. The liquid secretory product flows along the surface of the intra-anal lobes and is brushed onto the substrate by fingerlike projections on the lobes' surfaces.
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  • 12
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 211-219 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nucleoli of rat liver cells duplicate in great detail the lifelong series of reorganizational changes encountered in kidney and intestinal epithelial cells. The ultrastructural components of the large, loosely organized polymorphous nucleoli, which are dominant in the rapidly multiplying stem cells of embryos, are readily accessible for chemical activities. Smaller, more compact amphinucleoli are dominant in more mature cells, which were characterized by Smetana ('70) as “idling” cells, showing slowly continuing ribosome formation and RNP synthesis. In older cells bipartite nucleoli become dominant and are reorganized in increasing numbers from the younger amphinucleoli. These, however, are not replaced in equal numbers from the shrinking pool of polymorphs of young cells which have greatly reduced mitotic potential. Paralleling the shifts in dominant nucleolar types, the high level of protein synthesis declines in older cells not only in the quantity of proteins synthesized but also in kinds of enzymes produced. These fail to meet the structural and functional requirements of aging cells leading ultimately to the onset of age-related degenerative changes. Again it is noted that separation of the karyosomal DNA from the plasmosomal RNA-protein complex of the nucleolus may lead to possible breakdown of the DNA-dependent RNA-protein transcription system ultimately bringing protein synthesis to a very low level in the senescent animal.
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  • 13
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 185-210 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cellular populations present in dorsomedial cortex in the snakes Constrictor constrictor, Natrix sipendon and Thamnophis sirtalis are described at the light microscopic level using Nissl and Golgi preparations as well as at the ultrastructural level. This area plays a central role in cortical organization in snakes by participating in major commissural and association projections.Systematic analyses of Golgi preparations indicate that five populations of neurons are present in dorsomedial area and have a preferential laminar distribution. Layer 1 stellate cells have somata positioned in the center of the outermost cortical layer, layer 1. Their dendrites are confined to this layer. Double pyramidal cells have their somata loosely packed in layer 2. Their dendrites bear a moderate population of spines, ascending through layer 1 to the pial surface and descending partially through layer 3. Some double pyramidal cells have somata displaced downwards into the upper third of layer 3. These neurons closely resemble the layer 2 double pryamidal cells. Layer 3 stellate cells have somata positioned in the middle third of layer 3. Their dendrites extend in all directions throughout layer 3 and through layer 2 into layer 1. Finally, horizontal cells have their somata positioned deep in layer 3, near the ventricle, and dendrites aligned concentric with the ventricle.Comparison of the organization of the known afferents to dorsomedial area with the distribution of the five cell types suggests that the laminations of both afferent fibers and dorsomedial neurons places specific neuronal populations in synaptic contact with specific sets of afferents.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The heart of Crocodylus porosus is described, and deemed to be typical of living crocodilians after examination of the hearts of Alligator mississippiensis, Caiman crocodilus ssp., Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus n. novaeguineae. Some inconsistencies between the anatomy and supposed patterns of blood flow are discussed. The crocodilian heart is compared with, and seen as an advancement of, the heart of non-crocodilian reptiles. The varanid ventricle is re-examined, as it appeared to contain many crocodilian features, along with the ophidian characteristics described previously. The broad similarities within the three groups are interpreted as adaptations towards a high pressure systemic circulation. Consequently varanids and snakes show the same left and right ventricles, as do crocodilians and birds. The evolution of the complete interventricular septum of crocodilians and birds appears to have involved three major trends: firstly, the development of a high pressure left ventricle and the fusion of most of the combined atrio-ventricular valve to the ostium of the right systemic artery; secondly, a line in which right to left shunting became gradually redundant and the vertical septum was completed to the aortico-pulmonary septum (giving rise to the avian ventricle); and thirdly, a line in which right to left shunting became increasingly important, and the vertical septum completed to the interaortic septum (giving rise to the crocodilian ventricle). Perhaps the crocodilian ancestry included a crocodile that was far more aquatic than any extant species.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 241-256 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the sacculus and lagena of a moray eel, Gymnothorax sp., was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Particular emphasis was placed on the orientation of the sensory hair cells and on the ultrastructure of the sensory cells. The ciliary bundles on the sensory hair cells are of several types, each having a different size relationship between the kinocilium and stereocilia. The cell bodies of the sensory cells are similar to the mammalian type II sensory cell. There were no apparent differences in the cell bodies between sensory cells with different ciliary bundles.Hair cell orientation patterns on the saccular and lagenar maculae differ from patterns found in other fishes. The posterior side of the saccular macula in Gymnothorax has cells oriented dorsally and ventrally, as is typical in other non-ostariophysan species. The anterior end of the saccular macula has alternating groups of anteriorly and posteriorly oriented cells, a situation that differs from the more typical pattern in which anteriorly oriented cells are found on the ventral side of the macula while posteriorly oriented cells cover the dorsal side of the macula. The orientation of cells on the lagena includes ventral cells that are located above a group of dorsally oriented cells. In many other non-ostariophysans, ventrally oriented cells are generally posterior to the dorsally oriented cells.
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  • 17
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 309-321 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rhabdomeric microvilli of the housefly were freeze-fractured (FF) and thin sectioned (TS) for ultrastructural examination. Ordered files of closely packed membrane particles (82 Å wide, 250 Å long) were seen (FF) on the microvillar membrane (usually E face). The long axis of each particle was canted about 45° to that of the microvillus. Occasionally particles in this array appeared on the P face. It is hypothesized that ordered particles may represent either a photopigment precursor stock, a second photolabile pigment, or the newly discovered sensitizing, UV-absorbing, photostable visual pigment. In the underlying membrane leaflet (P face) were found spherical (85 Å diameter) unoriented particles in a concentration of about 6,000/μm2. The size, shape and density of these structures are compatible with those of rhodopsin particles. These particles also covered the basal area of each microvillus. The findings from TS material were difficult to correlate with those from FF replicas. At high magnification the former showed that the plasma membrane of the transected microvillus is composed of spherical, hollow subunits (averaging 43 Å diameter), sometimes fused to form double, 86 Å units. These substructures were closely packed and continuous around the microvillus. This beaded plasma membrane, in rare cases, was doubled around the microvillus. In other instances the plasma membranes were continuous between neighboring microvilli. The physiological implications of these ultrastructural features are discussed.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Exocrine dermal glands, comparable to the class 3 glandular units of insects, are found in the gills of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. The dermal glands are composed of three cells: secretory cell, hillock cell and canal cell. Originating as a complex invagination of the apical cytoplasm of the granular secretory cell, a duct ascends through the hillock and canal cells to the cuticular surface. The duct is divisible into four regions: the secretory apparatus in the granular secretory cell, the locular complex, the hillock region within the hillock cell and the canal within the canal cell. A tubular ductule is contained within the latter two regions. As the ductule ascends to the cuticular surface, its constitution gradually changes from one of a fibrous material to one which possesses layers of epicuticle. During the proecdysial period, the ductule is extruded into the ecdysial space and this is followed by the secretion of a new ductule. Temporary ciliary structures, located near the secretory apparatus of the secretory cell, are associated with the extrusion and reformation of the ductule. Characterized only by a basal body and rootlets throughout most of the intermolt cycle, the ciliary organelles give rise to temporary axonemic processes which ascend through the ductule toward the ecdysial space at the onset of proecdysis. Subsequently, the old ductule is sloughed off and a new ductule is reformed around the ciliary axonemes. Following this reformation, the ciliary axonemes degenerate. The function of cytoplasmic processes, derived from the apical cytoplasm of the secretory cell, is also discussed.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The combined techniques of light microscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy were used for the first time to study the structure of unicameral lungs of a Tegu lizard (Tupinambis nigropunctatus). The lungs are prolate spheroid bags with blood supplied by superficial branches of a dorsal pulmonary artery and returned by diffuse, more deeply located veins. The primary bronchus enters the medial aspect near the apex of the lung. The lung wall is composed of trabeculae: (1) arranged in a faviform pattern, (2) forming individual faveoli (gas exchange chambers) which appear deepest in the cranial one-half of the lung, (3) all of which have a smooth muscle core overlain by either a ciliated or nonciliated epithelium. A ciliated epithelium lines the luminal surfaces of the large primary trabeculae and parts of smaller secondary trabeculae; it is composed of cone-shaped cells with ciliated-microvillous surfaces, and of columnar serous secreting cells. Nonciliated epithelium covers the luminal surface of portions of some secondary trabeculae, abluminal surfaces of primary and secondary trabeculae and all surfaces of the small tertiary trabeculae forming the faveoli. The nonciliated epithelium overlies an extensive superficial capillary network. The blood-gas barrier (0.7-1.0 μm thick) is composed of a thin cytoplasmic flange of Type I pneumonocytes, a thick homogeneous basal lamina and an attenuated endothelial cytoplasm. Numerous surfactant-producing Type II pneumonocytes are closely associated with the Type I pneumonocytes. The nonrespiratory ciliated epithelium may function in humidification of air and clearing of the lungs.
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  • 20
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 323-335 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The blood supply of muscle spindles was studied in serial cross sections in macaque, cat, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse and pigeon muscles which had been incubated in a medium containing 3,3′ diaminobenzidine. Lumina of blood vessels were recognized by the reaction product that was localized within erythrocytes. The outer capsule was well vascularized, but few or no capillaries were seen in the periaxial space. The inner spindle capsule, which closely invests the axial bundle, was rarely contacted by periaxial capillaries at the equator and juxtequator. Capillaries occurred more frequently adjacent to intrafusal fibers at the polar region and beyond the end of the outer capsule. Shorter diffusion distances and, usually, higher capillary densities were found at the polar region than at the spindle midsection. This suggests that transcapillary exchange at the polar segment is nearer to conditions prevalent in extrafusal muscle than elsewhere in the spindle, provided the inner and outer capsules are not less permeable at the poles than at the midsection. Differences in blood supply among mammalian species appear to be related to receptor size.
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  • 21
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pineal complexes of the two closely related deep-sea fishes Cyclothone signata and C. acclinidens were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Photoreceptor and supportive cells were identified in both species. The deeper-dwelling species, C. acclinidens, had a significantly greater number of photoreceptor-cell outer segment saccules and a higher ratio of receptor cells to nerve fibers in the pineal stalk. It was suggested that these indicate increased photosensitivity of the pineal. Supportive cells were sometimes seen to contain arrays of undulating tubules. The functional significance of these tubules is not understood. A prominent dorsal sac is closely associated with the pineal end-vesicle. Both structures appear to have a common vascular supply suggesting that they are functionally related. Dorsal sac cells contained abundant mitochondria, glycogen, and large filament-like inclusions.
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  • 23
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    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 337-345 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In considering primate and hominoid phylogeny, the fundamental position assigned to opossums is explained partially by the characteristic morphology of their hands and feet. One of the main functional features of the human hand is the ability to make a stabilized arch of the finger. Because the extensor assembly plays a key role in establishing an arched finger, the extensor systems of the digits of both the hands and feet were studied in two species of opossum, Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis.In the foot, two extensor tendons join in each toe to form one tendinous plate, which inserts onto the base of the second phalanx. Lumbricals join this plate along the tibial side, and interosseus insertions are found, although a true interosseus wing is lacking. At the proximal interphalangeal level, a terminal tendon takes its origin from this tendinous plate. This terminal tendon is oval in cross-section and contains elastic structures. Oblique bands arise from this terminal tendon and run proximally along the proximal interphalangeal joint inserting onto the base of the first phalanx. There are elastic structures in the flexor tendon on the dorsal side near its site of insertion.In the hand, the main extensor tendons are arranged differently and the interossei contribute substantially to the extensor assembly. Otherwise, the extensor assembly of the hands and feet are quite similar. The function of the so-called paratendinous intravaginal flexors is discussed as are evolutionary aspects of the extensor assembly.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The optic tectum is a major subdivision of the visual system in reptiles. Previous studies have characterized the laminar pattern, the neuronal populations, and the afferent and efferent connections of the optic tectum in a variety of reptiles. However, little is known about the interactions that occur between neurons within the tectum. This study describes two kinds of interactions that occur between one major class of neurons, the radial cells, in the optic tectum of Pseudemys using Nissl, Golgi and electron microscopic preparations.Radial cells have somata which bear long, radially oriented apical dendrites from their upper poles and short, basal dendrites from their lower poles. They are divided into two populations on the basis of the distribution of their somata in the tectum. Deep radial cells have somata densely packed in the stratum griseum periventriculare. Their plasma membranes form casual appositions. Middle radial cells have somata scattered throughout the stratum griseum centrale and stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale and do not contact each other. The apical dendrites of both populations of radial cells participate in vertically oriented, dendritic bundles. The plasma membranes of the dendrites in these bundles form casual appositions in the deeper tectal layers and chemical, dendrodenritic synapses within the stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale. The synapses have clear, round synaptic vesicles and slightly asymmetric membrane densities. Thus, radial cells interact via both casual appositions and chemical synapses.These interactions suggest that radial cells may form a basic framework in the tectum. Because both populations of radial cells extend into the stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale and stratum opticum, they may receive input from some of the same tectal afferent systems. Because the deep radial cells alone have somata and dendrites in the deep tectal layers, they may receive additional inputs that the middle radial cells do not. Neurons in the two populations interact via chemical dendrodendritic synapses, thereby forming vertically oriented modules in the tectum.
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  • 25
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 77-91 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Diploid tadpoles of the discoglossid frog, Bombina orientalis, possess a distinctive rectangular network of epidermal melanophores. The ontogeny of this network was examined and utilized as a model for the comparison of tissue integrity and cellular interactions in diploid and haploid embryos.During the process of network formation in diploids, a variety of melano-phore-melanophore interactions was observed. These included temporary contacts between neighboring melanophore processes, deviations of processes toward neighboring melanophores, and lateral extensions between closely situated, parallel processes originating from different cell bodies. None of these intercellular interactions were seen in haploid embryos. Haploid melanophores displayed fewer cytoplasmic extensions, appeared to be randomly oriented, and failed to establish the ordered network seen in diploid embryos. It was also discovered that, in comparison with diploid tissues, relative densities of melanophores and epithelial cells were not uniformly regulated in haploid embryos.These findings are interpreted as indicating that haploid embryos possess fundamental cell and tissue defects, and that the “haploid syndrome” is likely based on more than one or a few defective physiological functions.
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  • 26
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 37-65 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sialis flavilatera L. (Sialidae, Megaloptera) has telotrophic-meroistic ovarioles. The germ cells of the tropharium are organized into two distinct tissues, the central syncytium and the germ cell tapetum. The central syncytium consists of nurse cell nuclei embedded in a common cytoplasm which is rich in ribosomes and mitochondria. Cell membranes are totally absent. The germ cell tapetum surrounds the syncytium and consists of a monolayer of cells, each of which is connected with the central syncytium by an intercellular bridge. The oocytes differentiate from basal tapetum cells by previtellogenic growth. Their nutritive cords remain connected to the central syncytium by the intercellular bridge.Ovariole development starts soon after hatching with the immigration of germ cells into the ovariole-anlagen and is finished during pupal stages 23 months later. In apical regions of each tropharium, mitoses occur throughout larval life. The descendants enter the prophase of meiosis which lasts until pre-vitellogenesis; thus, a differential gradient of position and time is established. About 12 months after hatching, the central syncytium arises at the base of the tropharium from a membrane labyrinth in which intercellular bridges are entangled. Evidence is presented that endopolyploidization does not occur during germ cell differentiation.Finally, the results are compared with those found in Hemiptera and polyphage Coleoptera. The great diversities are interpreted as an indication for a polyphyletic origin of the telotrophic ovary.
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  • 27
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 67-75 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of dying cells in the optic stalk in relation to retinal fiber migration was investigated in the chick embryo. Cell death was analysed at various stages of development by counting pycnotic nuclei and also by the Gomori acid phosphatase reaction, while nerve fibers were visualised by the Bodian method. A wave of cell death, beginning in the neural retina at stage 18 and advancing with time through the stalk towards the diencephalon, occurred simultaneously or slightly prior to differentiation and migration of ganglion cell axons. Cell death stopped and gliogenesis occurred in the stalk after penetration by retinal fibers. Cell death occurred in the stalk even when fiber penetration was prevented by optic cup ablation. In this case, necrosis ensued until almost complete degeneration of the stalk, usually within three days after the operation, and gliogenesis did not occur. As the stalk degenerated, its cells became heavily pigmented. These observations suggest that the onset of cell death in the optic stalk is determined prior to and independently of retinal fiber penetration. On the other hand, cessation of cell death and subsequent gliogenesis occur only in the presence of ingrowing optic fibers.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A β-keratin pattern, consisting of 30 Å filaments embedded in an amorphous matrix, is formed by fusion of membrane-bound packets with the 70 Å filaments of immature cells. This pattern occurs in the Oberhäutchen and the β-layer. When completely mature, these two components show no cell boundaries. It is suggested that this feature is associated with the process that leads to the separation of outer and inner epidermal generation. Filaments of 100-150 Å embedded in an amorphous matrix form the α-keratin pattern, which occurs in the α-layer only. The lacunar tissue is regarded as consisting of cells resembling immature α-cells, whereas mesos and clear layer show a keratin-like material consisting of 100-150 Å filaments without matrix. This is regarded as a modification of α-keratin. The cells of all components synthesizing α-keratin (α, mesos and clear layer) have the following features in common: (1) the plasma membrane is modified in that its inner leaflet is obscured by the deposition of a marginal layer, and (2) the cells have 0.06-0.1 μm mucous granules containing mucopolysaccharides, which release their content into the intercellular space.Protective and barrier functions of the epidermis are provided by the following features: (1) Oberhäutchen and β-layer merge during final maturation to a homogenous stratum of β-keratin without intercellular spaces. Their function seems to be mechanical protection. (2) The marginal layer of α-keratin containing cells, which decreases in thickness from without inwards, is highly resistant to physical and chemical influences. (3) Mesos granules contain phos-pholipid-lamellae, which are partly discharged into the intercellular space and partly remain within the mesos cells. These lipid lamellae are believed to contribute to the establishment of the permeability barrier. (4) The content of mucous granules may play a role in immunological processes. (5) Tight junctions seal off the intercellular space between the uppermost living cells of the epidermis and contribute to the permeability barrier.
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  • 29
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 30
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Five different types of sense organs were found on the antennal flagellum of Homadaula anisocentra. These were (1) tactile hairs; (2) thick-walled chemoreceptors; (3) thin-walled chemoreceptors of several kinds; (4) styloconic chemoreceptors and (5) small chemoreceptor pegs in shallow depressions. No coeloconic sense organs were seen.
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  • 31
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 221-247 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The light and electron microscopic structure of the pineal complex of the domestic goose was studied. The complex is tubulofollicular but there is no direct connection between the constituent system of ducts and the third ventricle of the brain. Within the pineal, blood vessels accompanied by sympathetic nerve bundles are confined to the connective tissue. Other nerve fibers and occasional nerve cell bodies, however, do occur among the pineal cells.Three basic pineal cell types were distinguished: (1) elongate epithelial cells which are arranged around follicles and ducts and resemble degenerate photo-receptor cells; (2) intramural supportive cells which are interspersed with elongate epithelial and intramural supportive cells; and (3) small supportive cells which lie between the bases of the elongate epithelial and intramural supportive cells. The follicular structure, vascularization, presence of secretory granules, and the nature of the elongate epithelial cells indicate that the pineal complex is primarily endocrine though a possible photoreceptive function cannot be ignored. Vesicles, 100-300 and 40-100 nm wide, were found within nerves and intramural supportive cells. The larger vesicles, present in pineals collected in the night, probably contain peptidic hormones. The smaller vesicles present in both day and night samples probably contain aminergic hormones.
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 33
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 249-273 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To gain insight into the multiple functions of a complex biological structure, the morphology of the pharynx of the larva (ammocoete) of the lamprey Petromyzon marinus was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and histochemistry (PAS and Alcian blue). Features studied include the gills, the parabranchial chambers external to the gills, intrapharyngeal ciliary tracts, the ridged pharyngeal roof, the floor, and the intrapharyngeal taste buds. Significant findings are: (1) All (nonciliated) cells lining these structures are covered with microvilli or microridges. The pattern and packing density of these membrane features vary among different pharyngeal structures. The lumenar membranes of pharyngeal lining cells overlie a mucous prosecretion in the apical cytoplasm, suggesting that the microvilli/ridges on these membranes function to anchor mucus. (2) Patterns of microvilli/ridges on the gill respiratory lamellae differ among ammocoetes of different species. (3) Pharyngeal osmo-regulatory cells (“chloride cells”) could not be identified on the basis of the microvillus/ridge pattern. (4) Two types of ciliary tracts are present within the pharynx. One has tall (x= 13 μm) and densely packed cilia, whereas the other has shorter (x= 7 μm) and less densely packed ones. Because mucus covers both types of tracts their function appears to involve the transport of mucus. (5) Food particles were found on the lateral surfaces of the gill filaments and on the surfaces of the parabranchial chambers. It appears that goblet cells in the epithelia of these regions secrete mucus in which the particles are trapped.
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  • 34
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 311-311 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 35
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 275-309 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In order to provide an ontogenetic basis for the establishment of tetrapod muscle homologies and for the analysis of complex mammalian muscle states, a descriptive analysis of the morphogenesis of the thigh of Mus musculus has been made. The pattern and sequence of muscle cleavage and the migrations of individual muscle primordia are characterized from the eleventh day of gestation, when cleavage begins, through early neonatal stages. Observations on skeletal differentiation and lumbosacral plexus formation are also included. Thigh muscle morphogenesis is compared to that in the lizard, Lacerta, (Romer, '42) and the chick (Romer, '27) and homologies identified. An ontogenetic basis for the definition of ancestral and derived muscle states is provided in muscles that are morphologically variable in mammals. These include the gluteus minimus, gracilis, adductor brevis and several hamstring muscles. Certain muscles that show variable innervation patterns in adult mammals, i.e., pectineus, quadratus and adductor magnus, typically develop from premuscle regions that separate muscle anlagen innervated by different nerves. Two muscle anlagen appear in the embryonic mouse thigh and then disappear late in prenatal or early postnatal development. Comparisons with other mammals, especially the marsupial, Marmosa, reveal that these muscles are phylogenetic vestiges that degenerate before maturity. A sartorius vestige is identifiable through the thirteenth day of gestation. A tenuissimus anlage is present until shortly after birth and is clearly innervated by a branch of the peroneal nerve.
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  • 36
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cell surface coats are important in adhesion and other cellular activities. The lamprey egg possesses a surface coat that has been divided into two morphologically and functionally distinct regions. The amorphous apical tuft forms a cap over the animal pole, while the elaborately-textured adhesive coat covers the ventral two-thirds of the egg. This latter area is composed of saccules that form rosettes over the egg surface and is derived from the remains of specialized follicular cells which break down during ovulation. The adhesive qualities of these coats may be inhibited or abolished by various proteins and sulphydryl-blocking agents, thereby implicating, as a possible source of this adhesion, classes of acid and sulphated glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans which occur on the egg surface.
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  • 37
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 327-341 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The structure of ankylotic teeth in Xenopus laevis was studied by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy as well as by microradiography in decalcified and undecalcified specimens.The mature teeth of Xenopus laevis are calcified from the crown to the base, fused to the jaw bone, and have no uncalcified area, such as a fibrous ring separating the tooth into the crown and pedicle. Microradiography shows that the mature tooth and jaw bone appear as an X-ray opaque area, except for the basal region of the dentine. This region is composed of an X-ray translucent area and an X-ray opaque thin layer on the lingual side of the translucent area. The mature tooth is composed of two differently calcified areas: (1) a highly calcified area, which makes up almost all of the tooth and contains a thin layer of the basal dentine on the lingual side, and (2) a lowly calcified basal dentine, which is fused to the jaw bone. Therefore, the lowly calcified area does not completely separate the dentine and jaw bone.Repeating banding patterns among the collagen fibrils differ among the dentine-forming area and the matrices of dentine and jaw bone. During the formation of ankylosis of the tooth germ, collagen bundles in the dentine-forming area accumulate directly on the surface of the jaw bone. Consequently, the mature teeth of Xenopus laevis fuse to the jaw bone directly without the mediation of the other structures.
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  • 38
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    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 39
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: Early spermatids of the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis are spherical cells with a centrally located nucleus, numerous mitochondria, Golgi complexes, microtubules and two centrioles. During spermiogenesis, Golgi vesicles migrate to one side of the cell where they form a tight aggregate, which is later shed. The mature spermatozoon has no acrosome. Several mitochondria fuse to form a middle piece containing three large mitochondria. Nucleus and middle-piece elongate, presumably under the influence of helically twisted microtubules. Outside this set of microtubules a continuous layer of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae is formed which separates the interior portion of the cell from an external cytoplasmic rim, which is later shed. Outside the 9 + 2 complex, the tail presents nine accessory microtubules, and a peripheral layer of microtubules beneath the plasma membrane. The enforcement of the tail structure may be related to the fertilization biology of this animal, which is by “hypodermal” impregnation.
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  • 40
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    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 41
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    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979) 
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  • 42
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: Single-element and/or rosette strain gages were bonded to mandibular cortical bone in Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fascicularis. Five galago and eleven macaque bone strain experiments were performed and analyzed. In vivo bone strain was recorded from the lateral surface of the mandibular corpus below the postcanine tooth row during transducer biting and during mastication and ingestion of food objects.In macaques and galagos, the mandibular corpus on the balancing side is primarily bent in the sagittal plane during mastication and is both twisted about its long axis and bent in the sagittal plane during transducer biting. On the working side, it is primarily twisted about its long axis and directly sheared perpendicular to its long axis, and portions of it are bent in the sagittal plane during mastication and molar transducer biting. In macaques, the mandibular corpus on each side is primarily bent in the sagittal plane and twisted during incisal transducer biting and ingestion of food objects, and it is transversely bent and slightly twisted during jaw opening. Since galagos usually refused to bite the transducer or food objects with their incisors, an adequate characterization of mandibular stress patterns during these behaviors was not possible. In galagos the mandibular corpus experiences very little transverse bending stress during jaw opening, perhaps in part due to its unfused mandibular symphysis.Marked differences in the patterns of mandibular bone strain were present between galagos and macaques during the masticatory power stroke and during transducer biting. Galagos consistently had much more strain on the working side of the mandibular corpus than on the balancing side. These experiments support the hypothesis that galagos, in contrast to macaques, employ a larger amount of working-side muscle force relative to the balancing-side muscle force during unilateral biting and mastication, and that the fused mandibular symphysis is an adaption to use a maximal amount of balancing-side muscle force during unilateral biting and mastication.These experiments also demonstrate the effects that rosette position, bite force magnitudes, and types of food eaten have on recorded mandibular strain patterns.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 331-341 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of tooth crowns is variable inter-specifically among caecilians. Cusp number and shape, crown dimensions, and crown curvature characterize various species and have both functional and phylogenetic implications. Ichthyophis, Uraeotyphlus, Hypogeophis, and Geotrypetes have bicuspid teeth; Dermophis, Gymnopis, Caecilia, and Typhlonectes monocuspid. Crown morphology as revealed by scanning electron microscopy is associated with prey grasping and, in one case, possible specialization of prey type.
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  • 44
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Although a number of recent studies describe the facilitation of limb regeneration by electrical and other forms of stimulation, little is known of innate regenerative capacity in the mammalian limb. The present report describes spontaneous regenerative responses following subtotal forelimb amputation in the young white rat. In one group of animals the forelimb was amputated through the lower humerus and the skin sutured closed. In a second group, adjacent muscle tissue still attached to bone at its origin(s) was interposed between the cut surface of the humerus and the skin. Among animals of the first group (skin closure only) bone growth and limb regenerative responses were generally not observed. Animals of the second group displayed significant elaborations of cartilage and bone at the limb terminus. The appearance and subsequent modification of these tissues suggest that some capacity for limb regeneration exists innately in the young rat and can be more readily evoked than has been recognized heretofore. It is concluded that extant and forthcoming reports of electrically stimulated skeletal tissue growth, repair and regeneration among eutherial mammals should be examined to determine whether reported responses to stimulation represent advances beyond what might be expected from innate replacement processes alone.
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  • 45
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    Notes: Five regions are recognized in the accessory glands of the Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), on the basis of cellular morphology and aggregates of secretory material in the lumen. Some variation is found in each of the posterior four regions, especially the third one. In the most anterior region (region 1) the epithelium is composed of a single type of cell, while in each of the other regions there are two classes of cells. The cells of region 1 and one class in each of the other four regions are fairly typical exocrine cells with extensive rough endoplasmic reticula. Secretion is primarily via Golgi-derived vesicles. Apocrine secretion in the form of sloughing off of the apical cytoplasm probably also occurs in all regions but is most prominent in the posterior two regions. One class of cells is very similar in morphology in each of the posterior four regions though their secretory products form characteristic aggregates in the lumen. The second class of cells (foliate cells) occurring in the posterior four segments is most notably characterized by elongate apical projections that extend out into the lumen. The apical projections contain large quantities of glycogen, some microtubules, and, in some cases, many minute mitochondria. The membrane content of the projections is also very high. In the anterior regions, the membranes are mostly fused in pairs and typically form multilayered whorls. Fusion and whorl formation decrease in the posterior regions. The cytoplasm of the foliate cells has a high organelle content including many lysosomes and mitochondria. The latter exhibit considerable polymorphism, with particular forms occurring in the different regions of the glands. The apical projections of the foliate cells are detached during copulation, presumably as the result of nervous stimulation, and become a part of the ejaculate. Replenishment of all secretory material, including the apical projections, occurs after copulation.
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  • 46
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    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 393-425 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Branchial food traps are regions of specialized secretory tissue in the tadpole pharynx, where suspended food particles are trapped in mucus.Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study branchial food traps from larvae of ten anuran families (36 species). Most anuran larvae from “advanced” (suborder Neobatrachia) families (e.g., Hylidae, Ranidae, Bufonidae) have distinct secretory pits at the posterior margins of the branchial food traps and secretory ridges elsewhere on these surfaces. The apices of columnar PAS-positive, secretory cells are exposed on the floors of the secretory pits or in rows at the tops of the secretory ridges (secretory zone).Tadpoles from most “archaic” (suborder Archaeobatrachia) families (Ascaphidae, Discoglossidae and Pelobatidae) either lack secretory pits, or have them poorly defined. They also lack secretory ridges but have columnar, mucus-secreting cells whose apices are exposed in a seemingly random fashion in the branchial food traps. Rhinophrynus (Archaeobatrachia: Rhinophrynidae) has secretory ridges, but the apices of secretory cells are not arranged in rows at the tops of the ridges; instead they erupt singly or in small clusters on the epithelial surface, in a pattern similar to that in Ascaphus, the discoglossids and the pelobatids. It is proposed that the generalized condition for the branchial food trap mucosa is one where the apices of secretory cells are exposed haphazardly on a flat epithelium and the derived condition is one where the surface is organized into ridges. The morphology of the branchial food traps in Rhinophrynus suggests that, phylogenetically, ridges preceded the coalescing of secretory cell apices into distinct rows.Pipidae and Microhylidae have unique patterns in the gross and microanatomy of their branchial food traps specific to their families.Branchial food trap morphology relates to diets of tadpoles as well as to taxonomy. Obligate macrophagous (e.g., carnivorous) tadpoles, irrespective of family, tend to have reduced branchial food traps, regularly lack secretory ridges and, in extreme cases, lack columnar mucus-secreting cells. Obligate microphagous forms (midwater suspension feeding of Xenopus, microhylids and Agalychnis), have straight parallel secretory ridges with narrow secretory zones and shallow troughs between the ridges.Secretory ridges may help to form mucus strands in which food particles are trapped, but they are not essential for planktonic entrapment. The hydrodynamic implications of the various topographic patterns remain unclear.
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  • 47
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 48
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Tactile hairs, small chemoreceptor pegs, thick-walled chemoreceptors, thin-walled chemoreceptors of several types, coeloconic sense organs and campaniform sense organs are present on the flagellum of a stonefly, Allocapnia recta (Claassen).
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  • 49
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This investigation was undertaken to examine the observations of Becker ('72) pertaining to the electrical facilitation of partial limb regenerative responses by means of Ag-Pt wire couples applied to the limb stumps of young, forelimb-amputated white rats. Additionally, in order to examine the possible role of mechanical effects of such device implantations, we have employed uncoupled devices delivering no current or potential difference. In the present experiments, in response to coupled device implantation, cartilage and bone were actively formed in the vicinity of the Pt electrode tip. These tissues contributed to the lengthwise extension of the limb and to the partial restoration of the distal humeral extremity. In limbs bearing the uncoupled electrical devices, qualitatively similar responses were noted, but osteogenesis was diminished in extent compared to that seen in limbs bearing the active or coupled devices. It is therefore necessary to consider the role of mechanical factors in the elicitation of the observed regenerative responses. Myogenesis was enhanced in electrically stimulated limbs, but not in those rats bearing uncoupled devices.
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  • 50
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: The structure of contact chemoreceptors in the cibariopharyngeal pump of the moth Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is described. Two types of receptors designated A and B are located on the floor of the pump. Two groups of 9-12 A receptors are located in the anterior part of the pump, and two groups of two B receptors are in the posterior part of the pump. Five sensory dendrites extend to the tip of each A receptor and four to each B receptors. Available evidence indicates that these receptors are contact chemoreceptors and do not serve as mechanoreceptors. The receptors are compared to those of other insects.
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  • 51
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: The minimum number of secretion products used by the spiders Araneus trifolium and Argiope trifasciata to construct their orb webs has been established by selective enzyme digestion and histochemical staining, as well as differential isotope localization in these webs. Three fiber types are present in the webs: (a) a major fiber found throughout the web, (b) a minor fiber found only in radial threads, and (c) the core fibers of the sticky spiral thread. Three nonfibrous secretions are found on these fibers. These include a water soluble viscid coating of the sticky spiral and two adhesives which fasten the threads of the web together; one found only at junctions of sticky spiral and radial threads and the other at all other thread connections. The possible glandular sources of these secretions are discussed.
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  • 52
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979), S. 33-73 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The most complete account of the hind leg muscles of the kiwi was published a century ago by Sir Richard Owen, in his seventy-fifth year. This extensively-cited work has several omissions and errors, and while certain of these were corrected by subsequent authors, sufficient uncertainty remains to warrant a reinvestigation. In the present study a detailed description of the hind leg musculature is given, based upon dissections of two frozen specimens. An indication of the possible function of each muscle is given by assessing its size, action, and fiber-arrangement, together with tentative data on the relative abundance of twitch and tonus fibers.The correlation between surface features of bones and muscle attachments is investigated with a view to interpreting palaeontological material. Although the limb and pelvic bones are marked by numerous features which suggest muscle attachments, relatively few can be positively identified with specific muscles. Only 23% of the muscle origins and insertions can be identified, and, with three possible exceptions, no indication of relative size is given by the scars. The possibility of being able to reconstruct the musculature of the kiwi from its skeletal anatomy, much less that of its extinct relatives, is remote.
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  • 53
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 54
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979), S. 75-101 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The tesserate pattern of endoskeletal calcification has been investigated in jaws, gill arches, vertebral arches and fins of the sharks Carcharhinus menisorrah, Triaenodon obesus and Negaprion brevirostris by techniques of light and electron microscopy. Individual tesserae develop peripherally at the boundary between cartilage and perichondrium. An inner zone, the body, is composed of calcified cartilage containing viable chondrocytes separated by basophilic contour lines which have been called Liesegang waves or rings. The outer zone of tesserae, the cap, is composed of calcified tissue which appears to be produced by perichondrial fibroblasts more directly, i.e., without first differentiating as chondroblasts. Furthermore, the cap zone is penetrated by acidophilic Sharpey fibers of collagen. It is suggested that scleroblasts of the cap zone could be classified as osteoblasts. If so, the cap could be considered a thin veneer of bone atop the calcified cartilage of the body of a tessera. By scanning electron microscopy it was observed that outer and inner surfaces of tesserae differ in appearance. Calcospherites and hydroxyapatite crystals similar to those commonly seen on the surface of bone are present on the outer surface of the tessera adjacent to the perichondrium. On the inner surface adjoining hyaline cartilage, however, calcospherites of variable size are the predominant surface feature. Transmission electron microscopy shows calcification in close association with coarse collagen fibrils on the outer side of a tessera, but such fibrils are absent from the cartilaginous matrix along the under side of tesserae. Calcified cartilage as a tissue type in the endoskeleton of sharks is a primitive vertebrate characteristic. Calcification in the tesserate pattern occurring in modern Chondrichthyes may be derived from an ancestral pattern of a continuous bed of calcified cartilage underlying a layer of perichondral bone, as theorized by Ørvig (1951); or the tesserate pattern in these fish may itself be primitive.
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  • 55
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    Notes: Classical light microscopic studies on pigmentation of Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) indicated that there are three groups of light reflecting cells; one group on the surface of scales reflects white light, while two other deeper groups (the melaniridophores and the stratum argenteum) are iridescent. The results presented here show that: (1) The scale leucophores reflect white light by a Tyndall light-scattering mechanism, by virtue of the presence of randomly oriented organelles of “novel” morphology. (2) The iridophores of the melaniridophores contain stacks of irregularly-spaced, large reflecting platelets which function as an imperfect multiple thin layer interference system. (3) The stratum argenteum consists of a continuous layer(s) of iridophores with reflecting platelets which are so regularly packed as to approach an ideal multiple thin layer interference system. (4) In all three types of light reflecting cells, the dimensions and packing (orientation) of the reflecting organelles satisfactorily account for the chromogenic properties of the cells, including colors as viewed under transmitted, reflected, or polarized light. (5) The spacial relationships between these light reflecting cells and adjoining melanophores are different for each type of light reflecting cell. Furthermore, we propose to replace the term reflecting platelet with refractosome.
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  • 56
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979), S. 165-168 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A biomechanical model of the jaw mechanism in some reptiles is presented. Symmetrical muscle activity that produces equal forces on both sides of the head is assumed. The model predicts the position of the most posterior bite point and offers a functional explanation for this prediction. Turtles are used to illustrate the idea.
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  • 57
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979), S. 121-141 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study consists of a detailed cytoarchitectonic and Golgi analysis of a major tectofugal thalamic nucleus in the red-eared turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans. Neurons in nucleus rotundus have a unimodal soma size distribution and a common dendritic branching pattern. They have long dendrites which undergo sparse, dichotomous branchings and contribute to dendritic fields that cover a third to half the dimensions of the nucleus. Spicules, 1-2 μ long, and complex appendages, 5-20 μ long, are found with low density on many dendrites in Golgi-Kopsch material. A few cells have beaded dendritic processes. Three cytoarchitectural regions can be differentiated in nucleus rotundus: a shell, a cell-poor region and a core. The shell is a monolayer of somata forming the peripheral boundary of most of the nucleus. The cell-poor region forms a thin zone concentric with and internal to the shell. Shell cells send some of their dendrites concentrically within this zone and others radially into the core region. Core neurons are dispersed within the neuropil of the nucleus and usually have spherical dendritic fields. However, peripheral core neurons have asymmetrical fields, so their dendrites do not extend beyond the shell. Caudomedial and central subregions of the core can be defined on the basis of neuronal density and cytology. Somata in the caudomedial area of the core are densely packed and have slightly darker staining cytoplasm than those in the central subregion. However, their dendrites are similar to those of the central core neurons. There is extensive dendritic overlap between the two subregions.
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  • 58
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    Notes: The chloride cells in the interlamellar areas of the gills of young adult, anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L., captured in fresh water undergo structural modification during the adaptation of these animals to sea water. In fresh water the chloride cells are partially overlapped by mucus-secreting superficial cells and contain an extensive reticulum of cytoplasmic tubules, which are confluent with both lateral and basal plasma membranes, numerous mitochondria, a Golgi complex of moderate size, and numerous apical vesicles. Adaptation to sea water results in a retraction of the superficial cells, exposing the entire apical surface of the chloride cells, and a proliferation of both cytoplasmic tubules and mitochondria. Extensive enlargement of the Golgi complex in the chloride cells of these animals suggests the involvement of this organelle in the proliferation of cytoplasmic tubules. The extracellular tracer, ruthenium red, enters the tubules from the lateral or basal intercellular spaces in both freshwater- and seawater-adapted animals but never enters either tubules or vesicles from the apical surfaces, indicating that these are not confluent. The presence of dividing basal cells and newly-forming chloride cells, combined with evidence of degeneration of chloride cells, suggests that there is a turnover of this cell type. Both superficial and basal cells are phagocytic and involved in heterophagy of degenerating chloride cells. This phenomenon occurs in both fresh water and sea water indicating that the chloride cells may be functional in both environments.
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  • 59
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    Journal of Morphology 160 (1979), S. 169-193 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A detailed account is given of the structure of the gills of Clarias batrachus, Heteropneustes (= Saccobranchus) fossilis, Channa punctata, Monopterus (= Amphipnous) cuchia and Boleophthalmus boddaerti, based upon light and electron microscopy. In all five species the basic organization into primary and secondary lamellae is apparent but the latter are very much more modified in Monopterus.Three main layers separate the water and blood on the surface of the secondary lamellae. The outer epithelium is usually two layered but may be multilayered close to the origin of the secondary lamellae from the gill filament. The basement membrane is relatively thin and a middle dense layer containing collagen fibrils separates two clear layers. The pillar cells, so characteristic of secondary lamellae, are present in all except Monopterus and flanges from these cells surround the blood channels with the exception of the marginal channels. The latter are lined by endothelial cells which line all the blood channels of Monopterus.The overall thickness of the three layers comprising the water/blood barrier ranges from 1.5 to 13 microns. A number of modifications to this basic organization can be related to the degree of dependence of the different species on air-breathing.Boleophthalmus is the only species commonly found in brackish water and its secondary lamellae have well developed lymphoid spaces between two layers of the epithelium. Special densely-stained regions of the pillar cell flanges were also present in this fish and may have a supporting function.
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  • 60
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    Notes: Serial coronal sections of the teeth and their surrounding tissues in the agamid lizard, Uromastix aegyptius, were examined with the light microscope in order to determine how these structures change as the teeth wear. Because new teeth are added only at the posterior end of the tooth row and older teeth are not replaced, the series of sections included the youngest as well as the oldest teeth. Two types of changes occur as the teeth become older: bone under the teeth changes from cancellous to compact, and the pulp chamber of the tooth is obliterated. Although the labial surface of the dentary lacks a periosteal covering and some of the bone lacks any covering at all, it remains functional throughout the life of the animal.
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  • 61
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    Notes: In D. melanogaster the cross-sectioned nerve of the leg-like antenna in the homeotic mutant Antennapedia was ultrastructurally compared with the nerves of the morphologically related second leg and the wild-type antenna. The nerves of the normal antenna and the second leg differ from one another in both the numbers and arrangement of axons. According to these criteria the nerve of the homeotic appendage was structurally identified as a leg nerve.Most of the antennal nerves studied showed a consistent grouping of axons in the profile. This suggests that the assemblage of the axons does not occur randomly, but in an ordered fashion.
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  • 62
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  • 63
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    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 64
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A detailed morphometric study of the basilar membrane was made from serial sections and graphic reconstructions of the cochlea of three little brown bats. Four distinct morphometric changes were observed within the basilar membrane. First, between 0-1.4 mm from the basal end of the cochlea, there is a rapid increase in width and cross-sectional area of the basilar membrane. Secondly, between 1.4-2.5 mm, there is little change in width of the basilar membrane (its cross-sectional area is at its greatest in this region). Thirdly, between 2.7-3.1 mm, there is a sudden decrease in cross-sectional area concomitant with an increase in the width of the basilar membrane. Finally, between 3.1 mm and the apex, there is a gradual decrease in cross-sectional area concomitant with an increase in the width of the basilar membrane. The magnitudes of the cross-sectional areas of the scalae media and vestibuli decrease from base to apex, but this is not true for the scala tympani. The cross-sectional area of the scala tympani appears to decrease from the base to 0.7 mm, then it increases up to 1.4 mm, and then it decreases to the apex. These morphometric changes in the basilar membrane of the little brown bat are compared to those in other echolocating and non-echolocating mammals. The significance of these changes is discussed in relation to the range of hearing in the little brown bat.
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  • 65
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The afferent and efferent components of the facial nerve were traced within the brain stem of Rana catesbeiana, using three different neuroanatomical techniques. Primary afferent fibers could be traced to the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve and to fasciculus solitarius as far caudally as the first or second spinal segment, using silver degeneration methods. Cobalt filling of the entire nerve showed the same distribution of afferent fibers, as well as the filling of the cells within the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal, indicating the origin of a proprioceptive component of the facial nerve. Cobalt iontophoresis and horseradish peroxidase experiments showed that the motor nucleus of the facial nerve was located just ventral to the fourth ventricle, and caudal to the motor nucleus of trigeminal. The distribution of afferent fibers to fasciculus solitarius and the spinal tract of trigeminal is similar in some respects to the distribution of afferent fibers from the trigeminal and vagal nerves in the bullfrog. The afferent fibers from the three cranial nerves are found as far caudally in the brain stem as the second spinal segment.
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  • 66
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    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 311-329 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Normal development of the urostyle is described during late stages of metamorphosis in five species of anurans: Xenopus laevis (Daudin), Bufo americanus Holbrook, Pseudacris triseriata (Wied), Hyla chrysoscelis Cope, and Rana pipiens Schreber. The developing urostyle of all five species is composed of essentially the same cartilaginous elements: one pair of basidorsals above the notochord and the subtended hypochord. Among the five species there is variation in such details as the number of spinal nerve foramina and the degree of fusion of the basidorsals; however, both the hypochord and basidorsals are very similar in all five genera examined. Consideration of the literature suggests that contradictory descriptions of the developing urostyle result from (1) varied methods of study (alizarin-staining of whole specimens or serial cross-sections), (2) the variety of species examined, and (3) the particular stage of development of the tadpole described by an investigator.
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  • 67
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of germanium on the secretion of siliceous spicules by the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris was investigated by exposing germinating and hatching gemmules to varying concentrations of germanium (Ge) in the presence of silicon (Si). Results were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and demonstrate that a [Ge]/[Si] (= molar ratio) of 1.0 completely inhibits silicon deposition. Intermediate ratios (0.5, 0.1, 0.01) which are permissive to spicule appearance result in fewer, shorter, and thinner spicules, in proportionately fewer microscleres, and in short bulbous megascleres. The size of the bulb increases with increasing [Ge]/[Si], while the length of the bulbous megascleres decreases with increasing [Ge]/[Si]. Microscleres do not demonstrate these graded responses suggesting that they are secreted in an all or none manner. Swellings produced in pond water and bulbs produced in germanium appear to decrease in size with time indicating a spreading of the accumulated silica. The effect of germanium on spicule secretion can be partially explained by its ability to uncouple the growth in length of the axial filament from the growth of the surrounding silicalemma. Under these conditions excess silicalemma is produced in which silica accumulates as bulbs in short spicules. Continuous exposure to Ge is necessary to produce this altered morphology. It is conjectured that the bulbs may be retained due to an inhibition of spreading. which in turn may be caused by the incorporation of germanium into the silica.
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  • 68
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 413-424 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Two-toed sloths have evolved a wrist complex that includes the following traits: (1) diminution and distal migration of the pisiform, with a loss of contact with the ulna; (2) reduction of the distal end of the ulna to a styloid process; and (3) extremely reduced contact between the ulna and triquetrum. These traits were proposed by Lewis ('65, '74) to be indicative of brachiating habits and to be a unique adaptation of the Hominoidea. Cartmill and Milton ('77) recently found a similar complex in the wrists of the lorisines. Very similar adaptations of the wrist among the Hominoidea, lorisines, and two-toed sloths clearly refute contentions of Lewis and strengthen the hypothesis of Cartmill and Milton that the traits common to those animals are due to similar slow, cautious, but acrobatic locomotion.