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  • AERODYNAMICS  (2,110)
  • 1975-1979  (2,110)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A Neumann solution for inviscid external flow was coupled to a modified Reshotko-Tucker integral boundary-layer technique, the control volume method of Presz for calculating flow in the separated region, and an inviscid one-dimensional solution for the jet exhaust flow in order to predict axisymmetric nozzle afterbody pressure distributions and drag. The viscous and inviscid flows are solved iteratively until convergence is obtained. A computer algorithm of this procedure was written and is called DONBOL. A description of the computer program and a guide to its use is given. Comparisons of the predictions of this method with experiments show that the method accurately predicts the pressure distributions of boattail afterbodies which have the jet exhaust flow simulated by solid bodies. For nozzle configurations which have the jet exhaust simulated by high-pressure air, the present method significantly underpredicts the magnitude of nozzle pressure drag. This deficiency results because the method neglects the effects of jet plume entrainment. This method is limited to subsonic free-stream Mach numbers below that for which the flow over the body of revolution becomes sonic.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78779 , L-12658
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a full-span leading-edge slat and part-span double-slotted trailing-edge flaps. This wide-body transport model was also equipped with spoiler and aileron control surfaces, flow-through nacelles, landing gear, movable horizontal tails, and interchangeable wing tips with aspect ratios of 10 and 12. The model was tested with leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap combinations representative of cruise, climb, takeoff, and landing wing configurations. The tests were conducted at free-stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds numbers (based on mean geometric chord) of 0.97 to 1.63 x 10 to the 6th power and corresponding Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20, through an angle-of-attack range of -2 deg to 24 deg and a sideslip-angle range of -10 deg to 5 deg.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13201 , NASA-TP-1580
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of pressure distribution tests conducted in a wind tunnel are presented without analysis. The data were obtained for trapezoidal aft tail control surfaces on a wingless missile model at Mach numbers of 1.60, 2.36, and 3.70 for angles of attack from -4 to 20 deg model roll angles from 0 to 90 deg and tail deflections of 0 and -15 deg. The test Reynolds number used was 6.6 million per meter.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-12993-VOL-1 , NASA-TM-80097
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Kinematic theory and flow visualization experiments were combined to examine the dynamic processes which control the evolution of vortex rings from very low to very high Reynolds numbers, and to assess the effects of the wall as a vortex ring travels up a tube. The kinematic relationships among the size, shape, speed, and strength of vortex rings in a tube were computed from the theory. Relatively simple flow visualization measurements were used to calculate the total circulation of a vortex rings at a given time. Using this method, the strength was computated and plotted as a function of time for experimentally produced vortex rings. Reynolds number relationships are established and quantitative differences among the three Reynolds number groups are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166185 , SU-JIAA-TR-26
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method was developed for predicting the potential flow velocity field at the plane of a propeller operating under the influence of a wing-fuselage-cowl or nacelle combination. A computer program was written which predicts the three dimensional potential flow field. The contents of the program, its input data, and its output results are described.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-162816 , PSU-AERO-R-79/80-5
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of pressure distribution tests are presented without analysis. The test Reynolds number used was 6.6. x 10 to the 6th power per meter.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80097-VOL-3 , L-12993-VOL-3
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter configuration (0.010 scale) and for the configuration modified to incorporate geometry changes in the wing planform fillet region. The modifications designed to extend the orbiter's longitudinal trim capability to more forward center-of-gravity locations, included reshaping of the baseline wing planform fillet and adding canards. The investigation was made in the high Mach number test section of the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 2.2 million based on fuselage reference length. The angle-of-attack range for the investigation extended from -1 deg to 31 deg. Data were obtained with the elevators and body flap deflected at appropriate negative and positive conditions to assess the trim limits.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-72661-VOL-5
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The sensitivity of several performance characteristics of a proposed design for a microwave-powered, remotely piloted, high-altitude sailplane to changes in independently varied design parameters was investigated. Results were expressed as variations from baseline values of range, final climb altitude and onboard storage of radiated energy. Calculated range decreased with increases in either gross weight or parasite drag coefficient; it also decreased with decreases in lift coefficient, propeller efficiency, or microwave beam density. The sensitivity trends for range and final climb altitude were very similar. The sensitivity trends for stored energy were reversed from those for range, except for decreasing microwave beam density. Some study results for single parameter variations were combined to estimate the effect of the simultaneous variation of several parameters: for two parameters, this appeared to give reasonably accurate results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-159089
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of the augmentor wing concept with hypermixing primary nozzles were investigated. A large-scale semispan model in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and Static Test Facility was used. The trailing edge, augmentor flap system occupied 65% of the span and consisted of two fixed pivot flaps. The nozzle system consisted of hypermixing, lobe primary nozzles, and BLC slot nozzles at the forward inlet, both sides and ends of the throat, and at the aft flap. The entire wing leading edge was fitted with a 10% chord slat and a blowing slot. Outboard of the flap was a blown aileron. The model was tested statically and at forward speed. Primary parameters and their ranges included angle of attack from -12 to 32 degrees, flap angles of 20, 30, 45, 60 and 70 degrees, and deflection and diffuser area ratios from 1.16 to 2.22. Thrust coefficients ranged from 0 to 2.73, while nozzle pressure ratios varied from 1.0 to 2.34. Reynolds number per foot varied from 0 to 1.4 million. Analysis of the data indicated a maximum static, gross augmentation of 1.53 at a flap angle of 45 degrees. Analysis also indicated that the configuration was an efficient powered lift device and that the net thrust was comparable with augmentor wings of similar static performance. Performance at forward speed was best at a diffuser area ratio of 1.37.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-7013 , NASA-TM-73236
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effect of a plastic coating on the profile drag of a practical-metal-construction sailplane airfoil was investigated. The model was tested with three surface configurations: (1) filled, painted, and sanded smooth; (2) rough bare metal; and (3) plastic-coated. The results are compared with data for the design airfoil (Wortmann FX 67-K-170/17) from another low-turbulence wind tunnel. The investigation was conducted at Reynolds numbers based on airfoil chord of 1.1 x 10 to the 6th power, 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power, and 3.3 x 10 to the 6th power at a Mach number of 0.10.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-11623 , NASA-TM-80092
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Flight data were obtained with an instrumented AH-16 helicopter having uninstrumented, standard main-rotor blades. The data are presented to facilitate the analysis of data taken when the same vehicle was flown with instrumented main-rotor blades built with new airfoils. Test results include data on performance, flight-state parameters, pitch-link loads and blade angles for level flight, descending turns and pull-ups. Flight test procedures and the effects of both trim variations and transient phenomena on the data are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80112
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Total pressure probes mounted in the test section of a 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel were used to detect the onset of condensation effects for free stream Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.75, 0.85, and 0.95 and for total pressure between one and five atmospheres. The amount of supercooling was found to be about 3 K and suggests that condensation was occurring on pre-existing liquid nitrogen droplets resulting from incomplete evaporation of the liquid nitrogen injected to cool the tunnel. The liquid nitrogen injection process presently being used for the 0.3 m tunnel was found to result in a wide spectrum of droplet sizes being injected into the flow. Since the relatively larger droplets took much more time to evaporate than the more numerous smaller droplets, the larger ones reached the test section first as the tunnel operating temperature was reduced. However, condensation effects in the test section were not immediately measurable because there was not a sufficient number of the larger droplets to have an influence on the thermodynamics of the flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80072
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The capability of conducting scale model experiments which involve the ejection of small particles into the wake of an aircraft close to the ground is developed. A set of relationships used to scale small-sized dispersion studies to full-size results are experimentally verified and, with some qualifications, basic deposition patterns are presented. In the process of validating these scaling laws, the basic experimental techniques used in conducting such studies, both with and without an operational propeller, were developed. The procedures that evolved are outlined. The envelope of test conditions that can be accommodated in the Langley Vortex Research Facility, which were developed theoretically, are verified using a series of vortex trajectory experiments that help to define the limitations due to wall interference effects for models of different sizes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ARL-79-1 , NASA-CR-158787
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Effects of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent, single-ramp expansion, and wedge nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to approximately 10. In addition, two different thrust-vectoring schemes were investigated with the wedge nozzle. The results indicated that as with conventional round nozzles, peak nonaxisymmetric nozzle, internal performance occurred near the nozzle pressure ratio required for fully expanded exhaust flow. Nozzle sidewall length or area generally had little effect on the internal performance of the nozzles investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1468 , L-12810
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel tests were conducted to examine various aspects of the drooped-leading edge airfoil which reduces the tendency for an airplane to enter a spin after stall occurs. Three baseline models were used for tests of two dimensional models: NACA 0015, 0014.6, and 0014.2. The 14.6% and 14.2% models were derived from NACA 0015 sections by increasing the chord and matching the profiles aft section. Force, balance data (lift, drag, pitching moment) were obtained for each model at a free-steam Reynold's number of 2.66 x 10 to the 6th power/m. In addition, oil flow visualization tests were performed at various angles of attack. An existing NACA 64 sub 1 A211 airfoil was used in a second series of tests. The leading edge flap was segmented in three parts which allowed various baseline/drooped leading edge configurations to be tested. Force balance and flow visualization tests were completer at chord Renolds numbers of 0.44 x 10 to the 6th power, 1.4 x 10 to the 6th power, and 2.11 x 10 to the 6th power. Test results are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-158717 , SR-1
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A theoretical method was developed for determining the optimum span load distribution for minimum induced drag for subsonic nonplanar configurations. The undistorted wing wake is assumed to have piecewise linear variation of shed vortex sheet strength, resulting in a quadratic variation of bound circulation and span load. The optimum loading is obtained either through a direct technique, whereby derivatives of the drag expression are calculated analytically in terms of the unknown wake vortex sheet strengths. Both techniques agree well with each other and with available exact solutions for minimum induced drag.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3154
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A transonic flow past a boattailed afterbody under a small angle of attack was examined. It is known that the viscous effect offers significant modifications of the pressure distribution on the afterbody. Thus, the formulation for the inviscid flow was based on the consideration of a flow past a nonaxisymmetric body. The full three dimensional potential equation was solved through numerical relaxation, and quasi-axisymmetric boundary layer calculations were performed to estimate the displacement effect. It was observed again that the viscous effects were not negligible. The trend of the final results agreed well with the experimental data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: UILU-ENG-79-4001 , ME-TN-395-6 , NASA-CR-158471
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Eighteen design concepts for a LFC wing cover, using various SPF/DB approaches, were developed. After evaluation of producibility, compatibility with LFC requirements, structural efficiency and fatigue requirements, three candidates were selected for fabrication of demonstration panels. Included were both sandwich and stiffened semi-sandwich panels with slotted and perforated surfaces. Subsequent to the evaluation of the three demonstration panels, one concept was selected for fabrication of a 0.3 x 1.0 meter (12 x 42 inch) feasibility panel. It was a stiffened, semi-sandwich panel with a slotted surface, designed to meet the requirements of the upper wing cover at the maximum wing bending moment of the baseline configuration.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NA-77-1142 , NASA-CR-158979
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A systematic wind tunnel study was conducted in the Langley 7 by 10 foot high speed tunnel to help establish a parametric data base of the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics for configurations incorporating strake-wing geometries indicative of current and proposed maneuvering aircraft. The configurations employed combinations of strakes with reflexed planforms having exposed spans of 10%, 20%, and 30% of the reference wing span and wings with trapezoidal planforms having leading edge sweep angles of approximately 30, 40, 44, 50, and 60 deg. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 and at angles of attack from approximately -4 to 48 deg at zero sideslip.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78642
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  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The base heating problem in the Jovian probe was examined. The entire wake flowfield is defined to calculate the radiative heating to the base region of the Jovian probe. Engineering tools for calculating the probe's wake flowfield are developed. The near and far viscous and inviscid flowfields for three entry conditions are calculated. The flowfields include pressure, temperature, and species concentration for radiation analysis. A mathematical model used in the calculations is described. The results obtained indicate that temperatures in the Jovian probe range from 4,000 to 10,00 K and pressures range from 10 to 1,000 times the free stream value.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-159021
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of spanwise blowing on the surface pressures of a 44 deg swept trapezoidal wing-strake configuration were measured. Wind tunnel data were obtained at a free stream Mach number of 0.26 for a range of model angle of attack, jet thrust coefficient, and nozzle chordwise location. Results showed that spanwise blowing delayed the leading edge vortex breakdown to larger span distances and increased the lifting pressures. Vortex lift was achieved at span stations immediately outboard of the strake-wing junction with no blowing, but spanwise blowing was necessary to achieve vortex lift at increased span distances. Blowing on the wing in the presence of the strake was not as effective as blowing on the wing alone. Spanwise blowing increased lift throughout the angle-of-attack range, improved the drag polars, and extended the linear pitching moment to higher values of lift. The leading edge suction analogy can be used to estimate the effects of spanwise blowing on the aerodynamic characteristics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-11641 , NASA-TP-1290
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Transonic wind-tunnel tests were performed on a flat plate with and without a cube-shaped cavity and antiresonance devices. Measurements were made of the optical propagation and aerodynamic properties of the boundary and shear layers. The model and its velocity profiles and pressures are described.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78487 , A-7450
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The canard had an exposed area of 28.0 percent of the wing reference area and was located in the chord plane of the wing or in a position 18.5 percent of the wing mean geometric chord above or below the wing chord plane. The canard leading edge sweep was 51.7 deg and the wing leading-edge sweep was 60 deg. The results indicated that the direct canard downwash effects on the wing loading are limited to the forward half of the wing directly behind the canard. The wing leading-edge vortex is located farther forward for the wing in the presence of the canard than for the wing-alone configuration. The wake, from the canard located below the wing chord plane, physically interacts with the wing inboard surface and produces a substantial loss of wing lift. For the Mach number 0.70 case, the presence of the wing increased the loading on the canard for the higher angles of attack. However, at Mach numbers of 0.95 and 1.20, the presence of the wing had the unexpected result of unloading the canard.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1355 , L-12491
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure which provides sonic-boom-minimizing equivalent area distributions for supersonic cruise conditions is described. This work extends previous analyses to permit relaxation of the extreme bluntness required by conventional low-boom shapes and includes propagation in a real atmosphere. The procedure provides area distributions which minimize either shock strength or overpressure.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1348 , L-12464
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Sufficient instructions are provided for interfacing the Mangler-Smith, leading edge vortex rollup program with a vortex lattice (POTFAN) method and an advanced higher order, singularity linear analysis for computing the vortex effects for simple canard wing combinations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78584 , NAS 1.15:78564 , A-7744
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The description of the modified code includes details of a doublet subpanel technique in which panels that are close to a velocity calculation point are replaced by a subpanel set. This treatment gives the effect of a higher panel density without increasing the number of unknowns. In particular, the technique removes the close approach problem of the earlier singularity model in which distortions occur in the detailed pressure calculation near panel corners. Removal of this problem allowed a complete wake relaxation and roll-up iterative procedure to be installed in the code. The geometry package developed for the new technique and also for the more general configurations is based on a multiple patch scheme. Each patch has a regular array of panels, but arbitrary relationships are allowed between neighboring panels at the edges of adjacent patches. This provides great versatility for treating general configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-152277
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analytical models were developed to study the effect of flow contraction and screening on inflow distortions to identify qualitative design criteria. Results of the study are that: (1) static testing distortions are due to atmospheric turbulence, nacelle boundary layer, exhaust flow reingestion, flow over stand, ground plane, and engine casing; (2) flow contraction suppresses, initially, turbulent axial velocity distortions and magnifies turbulent transverse velocity distortions; (3) perforated plate and gauze screens suppress axial components of velocity distortions to a degree determined by the screen pressure loss coefficient; (4) honeycomb screen suppress transverse components of velocity distortions to a degree determined by the length to diameter ratio of the honeycomb; (5) acoustic transmission loss of perforated plate is controlled by the reactance of its acoustic impedance; (6) acoustic transmission loss of honeycomb screens is negligible; and (7) a model for the direction change due to a corner between honeycomb panels compares favorably with measured data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-159189 , PWA-5580-32
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design and usage of a pilot program for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating airfoils in transonic flow are described. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equations for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, was required for input. The unsteady equation, as solved, is linear with spatially varying coefficients. Since sinusoidal motion was assumed, time was not a variable. The numerical solution was obtained through a finite difference formulation and either a line relaxation or an out of core direct solution method.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-159141 , D6-48837
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A formulation is given for calculating flutter frequency and flutter speed for a problem with two degrees of freedom. Two different solutions for evaluating the flutter determinant are presented and the results for each method are compared. A program flow diagram, partial program listing, and a sample problem with input and output for the two different methods are included. Although the method was developed for computing flutter characteristics of a pylon installed in the NASA Langley VSTOL tunnel, it is sufficiently general to solve any flutter system that can be characterized by two degrees of freedom.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80153
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The numerical computation of unsteady airloads acting upon thin airfoils with multiple leading and trailing-edge controls in two-dimensional ventilated subsonic wind tunnels is studied. The foundation of the computational method is strengthened with a new and more powerful mathematical existence and convergence theory for solving Cauchy singular integral equations of the first kind, and the method of convergence acceleration by extrapolation to the limit is introduced to analyze airfoils with flaps. New results are presented for steady and unsteady flow, including the effect of acoustic resonance between ventilated wind-tunnel walls and airfoils with oscillating flaps. The computer program TWODI is available for general use and a complete set of instructions is provided.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3210
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A large scale, tilt nacelle V/STOL propulsion system, with an attitude control vane assembly mounted in the exhaust, was tested. The effectiveness of the control vane as well as the aerodynamic characteristics of the entire propulsion system were determined. The results, in the form of tabulated coefficients, for both the vane forces and moments and the total forces and moments produced by the propulsion system are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81157 , A-8013
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Investigations of the low speed longitudinal characteristics of two powered close coupled wing-canard fighter configurations are discussed. Data obtained at angles of attack from -2 deg to 42 deg, Mach numbers from 0.12 to 0.20, nozzle and flap deflections from 0 deg to 40 deg, and thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.0, to represent both high angle of attack subsonic maneuvering characteristics and conventional takeoff and landing characteristics are examined. Data obtained with the nozzles deflected either 60 deg or 90 deg and the flaps deflected 60 deg to represent vertical or short takeoff and landing characteristics are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13157 , NASA-TP-1535
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aerodynamic predictions from supersonic linear theory and hypersonic impact theory were compared with experimental data for three hypersonic research airplane concepts over a Mach number range from 1.10 to 2.86. The linear theory gave good lift prediction and fair to good pitching-moment prediction over the Mach number (M) range. The tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone/tangent-wedge method gave the least accurate prediction of lift and pitching moment. The zero-lift drag was overestimated, especially for M less than 2.0. The linear theory drag prediction was generally poor, with areas of good agreement only for M less than or equal to 1.2. For M more than or equal to 2.), the tangent-cone method predicted the zero-lift drag most accurately.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13142 , NASA-TP-1539
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/5 scale, single-engine, low-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, sixteen wing leading-edge modifications and lateral-directional control settings. Data are presented for all configurations without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 35 deg and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2v range from 0 to 0.85. Also, data are presented above 35 deg of attack for some configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3102
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Afterbody pressure distribution data were obtained in flight from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet exhausts. The data were obtained in level flight at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.60 and at elevated load factors for Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The test altitude varied from 2300 meters (7500 feet) to 15,200 meters (50,000 feet) over a speed range that provided a matrix of constant Mach number and constant unit Reynolds number test conditions. The results of the full-scale flight afterbody pressure distribution program are presented in the form of plotted pressure distributions and tabulated pressure coefficients with Mach number, angle of attack, engine nozzle pressure ratio, and unit Reynolds number as controlled parameters.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1549 , H-1066
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Volume 2 of a two volume document is presented. A computer program, L222 (TEV 156), available for execution on the CDC 6600 computer is described. The program is capable of calculating steady-state solutions for linear second-order differential equations due to sinusoidal forcing functions. From this, steady-state solutions, generalized coordinates, and load frequency responses may be determined. Statistical characteristics of loads for the forcing function spectral shape may also be calculated using random harmonic analysis techniques. The particular field of application of the program is the analysis of airplane response and loads due to continuous random air turbulence.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2858 , D6-44467-VOL-2
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A theoretical study was conducted to determine the potential low-speed performance improvements which can be achieved by altering the position and orientation of the outboard vertical fins of low-aspect-ratio highly swept wings. Results show that the magnitude of the performance improvements is solely a function of the span-load distribution. Both the vertical-fin-chordwise position and toe angle provided effective means for adjusting the overall span-load distribution.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80142
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: JPL-PUB-79-77 , NASA-CR-162299
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The theoretical foundation and formulation of a numerical method for predicting the viscous flowfield in and about isolated three dimensional nozzles of geometrically complex configuration are presented. High Reynolds number turbulent flows are of primary interest for any combination of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow conditions inside or outside the nozzle. An alternating-direction implicit (ADI) numerical technique is employed to integrate the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations until an asymptotic steady-state solution is reached. Boundary conditions are computed with an implicit technique compatible with the ADI technique employed at interior points of the flow region. The equations are formulated and solved in a boundary-conforming curvilinear coordinate system. The curvilinear coordinate system and computational grid is generated numerically as the solution to an elliptic boundary value problem. A method is developed that automatically adjusts the elliptic system so that the interior grid spacing is controlled directly by the a priori selection of the grid spacing on the boundaries of the flow region.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: LMSC-D633457 , NASA-CR-3147
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in a spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6.5 scale, single engine, high wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various wing leading-edge devices, tail designs, and rudder control settings as well as airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range from 0 to 0.85.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3097
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical technique is presented for the design of two-dimensional supercritical wing sections with low wave drag. The method is a design mode of the analysis code H which gives excellent agreement with experimental results and is widely used in the aircraft industry. Topics covered include the partial differential equations of transonic flow, the computational procedure and results; the design procedure; a convergence theorem; and description of the code.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: COO-3077-158 , NASA-CR-158840
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of pressure distribution tests conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel are presented. The data were obtained for three sets of cruciform aft-tail control surfaces on a wingless missile model at Mach numbers of 1.60, 2.36, and 3.70 for angles of attack from -4 degrees to 20 degrees, model roll angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees, and tail deflections of 0 degrees and 15 degrees. The test Reynolds number used was 6.6 million per meter.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80097-VOL-1 , L-12993
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation conducted in the Langley 7 by 10 foot tunnel to determine the influence of an optimized leading-edge deflection on the low speed aerodynamic performance of a configuration with a low aspect ratio, highly swept wing. The sensitivity of the lateral stability derivative to geometric anhedral was also studied. The optimized leading edge deflection was developed by aligning the leading edge with the incoming flow along the entire span. Owing to spanwise variation of unwash, the resulting optimized leading edge was a smooth, continuously warped surface for which the deflection varied from 16 deg at the side of body to 50 deg at the wing tip. For the particular configuration studied, levels of leading-edge suction on the order of 90 percent were achieved. The results of tests conducted to determine the sensitivity of the lateral stability derivative to geometric anhedral indicate values which are in reasonable agreement with estimates provided by simple vortex-lattice theories.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80083
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Static force tests were conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel at a Reynolds number (based on the mean aerodynamic chord) of about 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power for an angle-of-attack range from about - 10 deg to 17 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 and + or - 5 deg. Limited flow visualization studies were also conducted in order to provide a qualitative assessment of leading-edge upwash characteristics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1434 , L-12784
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The tests were performed at a Mach number of 2.50 and at angles of attack from about -4 deg to 32 deg. The results indicate that increasing nose bluntness increases zero lift drag and decreases both the maximum lift-drag ratio and the level of directional stability. The center of pressure generally moves forward with increasing nose size; however, small nose radii on the modified elliptical configurations move the center of pressure rearward. The circular bodied configurations exhibit the greatest longitudinal stability and the least directional stability. Concepts with the variable geometry afterbody contour display the most directional stability and the greatest zero lift drag.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-12632 , NASA-TM-80055
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer programs to calculate the incompressible potential flow, corrected for compressibility, in two-dimensional nozzles at arbitrary operating conditions are presented. A statement of the problem to be solved, a description of each of the computer programs, and sufficient documentation, including a test case, to enable a user to run the program are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-79144 , E-9999
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The trailing-vortex-alleviation effectiveness of both a one- and a two-fin configuration (semicircular with a radius of 0.043 semispan) on a jumbo-jet transport airplane model in its landing configuration was investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel, by the trailing-wing sensor technique. The fins were located on the upper surface of the transport model wing along the 30-percent-chord line. The fin configurations were effective in reducing the vortex-induced rolling moment, by amounts varying from 28 to 60 percent, on the trailing wing model located at a distance of 7.8 transport model wing spans downstream of the transport model. The flow over the fins and over the transport airplane model wing downstream of the fins was observed to be separated and turbulent. All fin configurations caused a reduction in maximum lift coefficient, a positive increment in drag coefficient, and an increment in nose-up pitching-moment coefficient on the transport airplane model.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-12776 , NASA-TP-1453
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An analytical strake design procedure is investigated. A numerical solution to the governing strake design equation is used to generate a series of strakes which are tested in a water tunnel to study their vortex breakdown characteristics. The strakes are scaled for use on a half-scale model of the NASA-LaRC general research fuselage with a 44 degrees trapezoidal wing. An analytical solution to the governing design equation is obtained. The strake design procedure relates the potential-flow leading-edge suction and pressure distributions to vortex stability. Several suction distributions are studied and those which are more triangular and peak near the tip generate strakes that reach higher angles of attack before vortex breakdown occurs at the wing trailing edge. For the same suction distribution, a conical rather than three dimensional pressure specification results in a better strake shape as judged from its vortex breakdown characteristics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-158661
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new differencing scheme for the conservative full potential equation which effectively simulates rotated differencing is presented. The scheme was implemented by an appropriate upwind bias of the density coefficient along coordinate directions. A fast, fully implicit, approximate factorization iteration scheme was then used to solve the resulting difference equations. Solutions for a number of traditionally difficult transonic airfoil test cases are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78570
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Exact analytical solutions in terms of induced drag influence coefficients can be attained which define the spanwise loading with minimized induced drag, subject to specified constraint conditions, for any nonplanar wing shape or number of lift plus wing bending moment about a given wing span station. Example applications of the theory are made to a biplane, a wing in ground effect, a cruciform wing, a V-wing, a planar-wing winglet, and linked wingtips in formation flying. For minimal induced drag, the spanwise loading, relative to elliptic, is outboard for the biplane and is inboard for the wing in ground effect and for the planar-wing winglet. A spinoff of the triplane solution provides mathematically exact equations for downwash and sidewash about a planar vorticity sheet having an arbitrary loading distribution.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3140
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The forced mixing process of a turbulent boundary layer in an axisymmetric annular diffuser using conventional wing-like vortex generators was studied. Flow field measurements were made at four axial locations downstream of the vortex generators. At each axial location, a total of 25 equally spaced profiles were measured behind three consecutive vortex generators which formed two pairs of vortex generators. Hot film anemometry probes measured the boundary layer turbulence structure at the same locations where pressure measurements were made. Both single and cross film probes were used. The diffuser turbulence data was teken only for a nominal inlet Mach number of 0.3. Three vortex generator configurations were tested. The differences between configurations involved changes in size and relative vortex generator positions. All three vortex generator configurations tested provided increases in diffuser performance. Distinct differences in the boundary layer integral properties and skin friction levels were noted between configurations. The axial turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress profiles measured displayed similarities in trends but differences in levels for the three configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-79171 , E-9947
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An exploratory, experimental, and theoretical investigation was made of a cambered, twisted, and blended wing-body concept with and without integral canard surfaces. Theoretical calculations of the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-body configurations were compared with the characteristics obtained from tests of a model in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. Mach numbers of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.0 and a Reynolds number per meter of 6.56 million were used in the calculations and tests. Overall results suggest that planform selection is extremely important and that the supplemental application of new calculation techniques should provide a process for the design of supersonic wings in which spanwise distribution of upwash and leading-edge thrust might be rationally controlled and exploited.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-12727 , NASA-TP-1427
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analytical solutions are derived which incorporate additional physical effects as higher order terms for the case when the sonic line is very close to the wall. The functional form used for the undisturbed velocity profile is described to indicate how various parameters will be calculated for later comparison with experiment. The basic solutions for the pressure distribution are derived. Corrections are added for flow along a wall having longitudinal curvature and for flow in a circular pipe, and comparisons with available experimental data are shown.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-158541
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The users manual for the Discrete Vortex Cross flow Evaluator (DIVORCE) computer program is presented. DIVORCE was developed in FORTRAN 4 for the DCD 6600 and CDC 7600 machines. Optimal calls to a NASA vector subroutine package are provided for use with the CDC 7600.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: TRW-30584-6002-RU-00-PT-2 , NASA-CR-152271
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Tabulated surface pressure data for a series of forebodies which have analytically defined cross sections and are based on a 20 degs half-angle cone are presented without analysis. Five of the cross sections were ellipses having axis ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2, and 1/3. The sixth cross section was defined by a curve having a single lobe. The data generally cover angles of attack from -5 degs to 20 degs at angles of sideslip from 0 degs to 5 degs for Mach numbers of 1.70, 2.50, 3.95, and 4.50 at a constant Reynolds number.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78808
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Available flow field data which can be used in validating theoretical procedures for computing flow fields around supersonic missiles are presented. Tabulated test data are given which define the flow field around a conical-nosed cylindrical body in a crossflow plane corresponding to a likely tail location. The data were obtained at a Mach number of 2.0 for an angle of attack of 0 to 23 degrees. The data define the flow field for cases both with and without a forward wing present.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3115
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Individual wing panel aerodynamic characteristics are provided for rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 0.25, 0.75, and 1.00 each panel at Mach numbers if 1.5 and 2.0 for angles of attack to 23 degrees. Data plots produced from reports of wind tunnel tests show normal force coefficients, and the spanwise and chordwise center of pressure locations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3117
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three helicopter rotor airfoils designed analytically were investigated in a wind tunnel at Mach numbers from about 0.30 to 0.90 and Reynolds from about 0.8 to 2.3 x 10 to the 6th power. The airfoils had thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 with maximum thickness at 40 percent chord. The camber distribution of each section was the same with maximum camber at 35 percent chord. The 10-percent-thick airfoil was also investigated at Reynolds numbers from 4.8 to 9.4 x 10 to the 6th power. The drag divergence Mach number of the 10-percent-thick airfoil is about 0.83 at a normal-force coefficient of 0 and about 0.72 at a normal-force coefficient of 0.6 at Reynolds numbers near 9 x 10 to the 6th power. The maximum normal-force coefficient is slightly less than that of the NACA 0012 airfoil tested in the same facility. The results indicate that a qualitative evaluation of the drag divergence can be made at normal-force coefficients up to the onset of boundary-layer separation by analytically predicting the onset of sonic flow at the airfoil crest. The qualitative results are conservative with respect to experimental values with the experimental drag divergence Mach number up to 0.05 higher than that indicated by analysis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AVRADCOM-TR-79-11 , L-11703 , NASA-TP-1396
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A state-of-the-art finite difference boundary-layer program incorporated into the NYU Transonic Analysis Program is described. Some possible treatments for the trailing edge region were investigated. Findings indicate the trailing edge region, still within the scope of an iterative potential flow, boundary layer program, appears feasible.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-158480
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-158349 , CRINC-FRL-281-4
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  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The inertial dynamics of a fully articulated stiff rotor blade are derived with emphasis on equations that facilitate an organized programming approach for simulation applications. The model for the derivation includes hinge offset and six degrees of freedom for the rotor shaft. Results are compared with the flapping and lead-lag equations currently used in the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft simulation model and differences are analyzed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-7731 , NASA-TM-78557
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An efficient algorithm for airfoil optimization is presented. The algorithm utilizes approximation concepts to reduce the number of aerodynamic analyses required to reach the optimum design. Examples are presented and compared with previous results. Optimization efficiency improvements of more than a factor of 2 are demonstrated. Improvements in efficiency are demonstrated when analysis data obtained in previous designs are utilized. The method is a general optimization procedure and is not limited to this application. The method is intended for application to a wide range of engineering design problems.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1370 , A-7682
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure was developed for the design of transonic wings by the iterative use of three dimensional, inviscid, transonic analysis methods. The procedure was based on simple principles of supersonic flow and provided the designer with a set of guidelines for the systematic alteration of wing profile shapes to achieve some desired pressure distribution. The method was generally applicable to wing design at conditions involving a large region of supercriterical flow. To illustrate the method, it was applied to the design of a wing for a supercritical maneuvering fighter that operates at high lift and transonic Mach number. The wing profiles were altered to produce a large region of supercritical flow which was terminated by a weak shock wave. The spanwise variation of drag of this wing and some principles for selecting the streamwise pressure distribution are also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-12552 , NASA-TP-1400
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The supercritical flow about a biconvex circular-arc airfoil is being thoroughly documented at Ames Research Center in order to provide experimental test cases suitable for guiding and evaluating current and future computer codes. The effects of angle of attack, effects of leading and trailing-edge splitter plates, additional unsteady pressure fluctuation (buffeting) measurements and glow-field shadowgraphs, and application of an oil-film technique to display separated-wake streamlines were studied. Computed and measured pressure distributions for steady and unsteady flows, using a recent computer code representative of current methodology, are compared. It was found that the numerical solutions are often fundamentally incorrect in that only strong (shock-polar terminology) shocks are captured, whereas experimentally, both strong and weak shock waves appear.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-7693 , NASA-TM-78549
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A digital computer program was developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge and trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges were extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation of collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accomodated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-145354 , NAS 1.26:145354
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A formulation predicts the variation of circulation forces and jet reaction forces in ground proximity as a function of ground height. The predicted results agree well with available experimental data. It is shown that the wing-alone theory is not capable of predicting the ground effect for USB configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-159005 , CRINC/FRL-281-3
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel tests were conducted in a 14- inch wind tunnel with a 0.004 scale model of the space shuttle launch vehicle in order to (1) determine the cause and possible aerodynamic alterations required to eliminate the Orbiter rolling moment couple; (2) determine configuration alterations to alleviate the forward Orbiter external tank loads; and (3) provide data to verify previous data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-161427 , LMSC-HREC-TR-D697767
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A laser velocimeter was used to study the flow surrounding a 2.13 m diam. two-bladed, teetering model-scale helicopter rotor operating in the hover condition. The rotor system employed interchangeable blade tips over the outer 25% radius. A conventional rectangular planform and an experimental ogee tip shape were studied. The radial distribution of the blade circulation was obtained by measuring the velocity tangent to a closed rectangular contour around the airfoil section at a number of radial locations. A relationship between local circulation and bound vorticity was invoked to obtain the radial variations in the sectional lifting properties of the blade. The tip vortex-induced velocity was also measured immediately behind the generating blade and immediately before the encounter with the following blade. The mutual influence between blade loading, shed vorticity, and the structure of the encountered vortex are quantified by the results presented and are discussed comparatively for the rectangular and ogee planforms. The experimental loading for the rectangular tip is also compared with predictions of existing rotor analysis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78615 , A-7939
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In response to design requirements of the National Transonic Facility, aerodynamic tests were conducted to determine the pressure-drop, flow-uniformity, and turbulence characteristics of various heat-exchanger configurations as a function of Reynolds number. Data were obtained in air with an indraft flow apparatus operated at ambient temperature and pressure. The unit Reynolds number of the tests varied from about 0.06 x 10 to 6th power to about 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per meter. The test models were designed to represent segments of full-scale tube bundles and included bundles of round tubes with plate fins in both staggered and inline tube arrays, round tubes with spiral fins, elliptical tubes with plate fins, and an inline grouping of tubes with segmented fins.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13307 , NASA-TM-80188
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The behavior of two dimensional incompressible turbulent wall jets submerged in a boundary layer when they are used to prevent boundary layer separation on plane surfaces is investigated. The experimental set-up and instrumentation are described. Experimental results of zero pressure gradient flow and adverse pressure gradient flow are presented. Conclusions are given and discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-162512
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple vortex system, used to model unsteady aerodynamic effects into the rigid body longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft, is described. The equations are used in the development of a parameter extraction algorithm. Use of the two parameter-estimation modes, one including and the other omitting unsteady aerodynamic modeling, is discussed as a means of estimating some acceleration derivatives. Computer generated data and flight data, used to demonstrate the use of the parameter-extraction algorithm are studied.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13009 , NASA-TP-1536
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Woodward's panel method for subsonic and supersonic flow was improved by employing control points determined by exactly matching two-dimensional pressure at a finite number of points. The results show great improvement in the predicted pressure distribution of a flapped airfoil. With the paneling scheme of cosine law in both chordwise and spanwise directions, the method is shown to accurately predict leading edge and side edge suction forces of various configurations in subsonic and supersonic flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: CRINC-FRL-266-3 , NASA-CR-3205
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2853 , D6-44462-VOL-1
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Force and surface pressure distributions were measured for the 21% LS(1)-0421 modified airfoil fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 10% slot lip spoiler. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power and a Mach number of 0.13. The lift, drag, pitching moments, control surface normal force and hinge moments, and surface pressure distributions are included in the results. Incremental performance of flap and aileron are discussed and compared to the GA(W)-2 airfoil. Spoiler control which shows a slight reversal tendency at high alpha, is examined.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: WSU-AR-77-6 , NASA-CR-3081
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Static pressure coefficient distributions on the forebody, afterbody, and nozzles of a 1/12 scale F-15 propulsion model were determined. The effects of nozzle power setting and horizontal tail deflection angle on the pressure coefficient distributions were investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-12948 , NASA-TP-1521
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Low subsonic and incompressible wake flow downstream of lightly loaded rotor was studied. Measurements of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds stress, and static variations across the rotor wake at various axial and radial locations were investigated. Wakes were measured at various rotor blade incidences to discern the effect of blade loading on the rotor wake. Mean velocity and turbulence measurements were carried out with a triaxial hot wire probe both rotating with the rotor and stationary behind the rotor. Results indicate that increased loading slows the decay rates of axial and tangential mean velocity defects and radial velocities in the wake. The presence of large radial velocities in the rotor wake indicate the extent of the interactions between one radius and another. Appreciable static pressure variations across the rotor wake were found in the near wake region. Similarity in the profile shape was found for the axial and tangential components of the mean velocity and in the outer layer for axial, tangential, and radial turbulence intensities.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3188 , PSU-TURBO-R-78-4
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An oscillating SC1095 airfoil model was tested for its aerodynamic stability in a rigid body with a single degree of freedom pitch about its quarter chord, and also in a rigid body with single degree of freedom plunge. The ability of pitching data to model plunging motions was evaluated. A one to one correspondence was established between pairs of pitching and plunging motions according to the potential flow transformation formula alpha=ikh. The imposed variables of the experiment were mean incidence angle, amplitude of motion, free stream velocity, and oscillatory frequency. Results indicate that significant differences exist between the aerodynamic responses to the motions, particularly at high load conditions. At high load conditions, the normal force for equivalent pitch is significantly greater than that for true pitch at the geometric incidence angle.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3172
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80152
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A variable sweep bomber aircraft model was investigated to identify modifications for drag reduction. Modifications included simulated two dimensional nozzles, staggered and extended nozzles; short, long, and no interfairings between the nozzles; partial and complete wing-glove fairings; glove-fuselage sidefairing; fuselage underfairing; and wing pods. The variable wing sweep and variable exhaust nozzles of the scale model are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80129 , L-13043
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: BFD-0-79-001 , NASA-CR-3187
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Langley V/STOL tunnel was used to determine the effects of vectoring exhaust flow on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing configuration. Vectoring was accomplished by blowing from over-wing-mounted engines over a variable trailing-edge flap. Effects of varying canard geometry and wing leading-edge geometry were investigated. Wind-tunnel data were obtained at a Mach number of 0.186 for an angle-of-attack range from -20 deg to 24 deg and engine nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 3.75.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13108 , NASA-TP-1533
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A compressible time dependent solution of the Navier-Stokes equations including a transition turbulence model is obtained for the isolated airfoil flow field problem. The equations are solved by a consistently split linearized block implicit scheme. A nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate system is used which has maximum resolution near the airfoil surface and in the region of the airfoil leading edge. The transition turbulence model is based upon the turbulence kinetic energy equation and predicts regions of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Mean flow field and turbulence field results are presented for an NACA 0012 airfoil at zero and nonzero incidence angles of Reynolds number up to one million and low subsonic Mach numbers.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3183
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6 scale, single engine trainer airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various wing leading edge devices, elevator, aileron and rudder control settings as well as airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 degrees and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3099
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/5-scale, single-engine, high-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included various tail designs and fuselage shapes. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 degrees and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2 v range from 0 to 0.85.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AD-A073982 , NASA-CR-3101
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wing-in-ground effect configuration was investigated. The configuration used large diameter, low pressure ratio fans mounted about 0.76 wing chord ahead of the wing leading edge to achieve a power augmented ram wing during operation in ground effect. Tests of both in and out of ground effect aerodynamic transition characteristics from very low speeds to cruise speeds are described. The investigation provided a number of conclusions concerning the aerodynamic/propulsive performance interaction. While power augmented lift is required for low speed flight, there is a thrust loss when the efflux is trapped under the wing which reduced the effective thrust to weight available for acceleration by about a third of the installed thrust to weight ratio.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78793
    Format: application/pdf
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