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  • General Chemistry  (9,374)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (3,632)
  • SPACE RADIATION
  • 1980-1984  (7,873)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The cosmic ray-produced nuclides in the interiors of very large bodies are mainly due to secondary particle reactions. The records of low-energy products, specifically the neutron capture products in meteorites, may provide new information regarding multi-stage irradiation and parent body break-ups. Noble gas nuclides, in general, are the best candidates for these investigations. The troilite nodules of iron meteorites contain very low amounts of trapped gas and, because of their elemental abundance systematics of suitable target elements for low energy production of noble gas nuclides, they are ideal candidates for this purposes. Results of a study of noble gases and nitrogen in a troilite nodule of the Cape York iron are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Iron meteorites contain the record of the galactic cosmic ray intensity over a 100 to 1000 Myr time scale. A method was developed to calculate the cosmic ray exposure ages of iron meteorites. Discrepanices between exposure ages are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is proposed that the fireballs invoked to explain the Centauro events are bubbles of a metastable superdense state of nuclear matter, created in high energy (E is approximately 10 to the 15th power eV) cosmic ray collisions at the top of the atmosphere. If these bubbles are created with a Lorentz factor gamma approximately = 10 at their CM frame, the objections against the origin of these events in cosmic ray interactions are overcome. Assuming further, that the Centauro events are to the explosive decay of these metastable bubbles, a relationship between their lifetime, tau, and the threshold energy for bubble formation, E sub th, is derived. The minimum lifetime consistent with such an interpretation in tau is approximately 10 to the -8th power sec, while the E sub th appears to be insensitive to the value of tau and always close to E sub th is approximately 10 to the 15th power eV. Finally it is speculated that if the available CM energy is thermalized in such collisions, these bubbles might be manifestations of excitations of the SU(2) x U(1) false vacuum. The absence of neutral pions in the Centauro events is then explained by the decay of these excitations.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86082 , NASA-TM-86082
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnetic field measurements from Voyager and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes in the outer heliosphere are reviewed. A bibliography of the experimental and theoretical work concerning magnetic fields and plasmas observed in the outer heliosphere is given. Emphasis in this review is on basic concepts and dynamical processes involving the magnetic field. The theory that serves to explain and unify the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma observations is magnetohydrodynamics. Basic physical processes and observations that relate directly to solutions of the MHD equations are emphasized, but obtaining solutions of this complex system of equations involves various assumptions and approximations. The spatial and temporal complexity of the outer heliosphere and some approaches for dealing with this complexity are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86137 , NASA-TM-86137
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The precise source regions of three moderately intense gamma ray bursts are derived. These events were observed with the first interplanetary burst sensor network. The optimum locations of the detectors, widely separated throughout the inner solar system, allowed for high accuracy, over-determined source fields of size 0.7 to 7.0 arc-min(2). All three locations are at fairly high galactic latitude in regions of low source confusion; none can be identified with a steady source object. Archived photographs were searched for optical transients that are able to be associated with these source fields; one such association was made.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86132 , NASA-TM-86132
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnetospheres of three planets, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are known to be sources of intense, nonthermal radio bursts. The emissions from these sources undergo pronounced long term intensity fluctuations that are caused by the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of each planet. Determinations by spacecraft of the low frequency radio spectra and radiation beam geometry now permit a reliable assessment of the overall efficiency of the solar wind in stimulating these emissions. Earlier estimates of how magnetospheric radio output scales with the solar wind energy input must be revised greatly, with the result that, while the efficiency is much lower than previously thought, it is remarkably uniform from planet to planet. The formulation of a radiometric Bode's Law from which a planet's magnetic moment is estimated from its radio emission output is presented. Applying the radiometric scaling law to Uranus, the low-frequency radio power is likely to be measured by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it approaches this planet.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86074 , NAS 1.15:86074
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The basic model of Lindhard and Scharff, known as the local plasma model, is used to study the effects on stopping power of the chemical and physical state of the medium. Unlike previous work with the local plasma model, in which individual electron shifts in the plasma frequency were estimated empirically, he Pines correction derived for a degenerate Fermi gas is shown herein to provide a reasonable estimate, even on the atomic scale. Thus, the model is moved to a complete theoretical base requiring no empirical adjustments, as characteristic of past applications. The principal remaining error is in the overestimation of the low-energy absorption properties that are characteristic of the plasma model in the region of the atomic discrete spectrum, although higher-energy phenomena are accurately represented, and even excitation-to-ionization ratios are given to fair accuracy. Mean excitation energies for covalent-bonded gases and solids, for ionic gases and crystals, and for metals are calculated using first-order models of the bonded states.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: L-15731 , NAS 1.60:2271 , NASA-TP-2271
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radial distribution of gamma ray emissivity in the Galaxy was derived from flux longitude profiles, using both the final SAS-2 results and the recently corrected COS-B results and analyzing the northern and southern galactic regions separately. The recent CO surveys of the Southern Hemisphere, were used in conjunction with the Northern Hemisphere data, to derive the radial distribution of cosmic rays on both sides of the galactic plane. In addition to the 5 kpc ring, there is evidence from the radial asymmetry for spiral features which are consistent with those derived from the distribution of bright HII regions. Positive evidence was also found for a strong increase in the cosmic ray flux in the inner Galaxy, particularly in the 5 kpc region in both halves of the plane.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86173 , NAS 1.15:86173
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three interplanetary type II radio bursts which show two prominent and long duration bands in their dynamic spectra were analyzed in detail and compared to similar bands in meter wavelength type II events. These bands, which differ by a factor of about two in frequency, were interpreted in terms of fundamental and harmonic emission. The fundamental component has a greater average intensity than the harmonic, due largely to short intense brightenings. The fundamental spectral profile is more narrow than that of the harmonic, with harmonic band typically exhibiting a larger bandwidth to frequency ratio than the fundamental by a factor of two. The fundamental has a larger source size than the harmonic, 160 degrees versus 110 degrees, on average, as viewed from the Sun. Two of the events have source positions which correlate well with the associated flare positions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86099 , NAS 1.15:86099
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The elemental composition of the cosmic-ray source is different from that which has been generally taken as the composition of the solar system. No general enrichment of products of either r-process or s-process nucleosynthesis accounts for the differences over the entire range of ultraheavy (Z 30) elements; specific determination of nucleosynthetic contributions to the differences depends upon an understanding of the nature of any acceleration fractionation. Comparison between the cosmic-ray source abundances and the abundances of C1 and C2 chondritic meteorites suggests that differences between the cosmic-ray source and the standard (C1) solar system may not be due to acceleration fractionation of the cosmic rays, but rather to a fractionation of the C1 abundances with respect to the interstellar abundances.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173650 , NASA-CR-173650
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects that the synchrotron emitting relativistic electrons could have on the emission line regions which characterize active nuclei are discussed. Detailed models of both the inner, dense, broad line region and the outer, lower density, narrow line region are presented, together with the first models of the optically emitting gas often found within extended radio lobes. If the relativistic gas which produces the synchrotron radio emission is mixed with the emission line region gas then significant changes in the emission line spectrum will result. The effects of the synchrotron emitting electrons on filaments in the Crab Nebula are discussed in an appendix, along with a comparison between the experimental calculations, which employ the mean escape probability formalism, and recent Hubbard and Puetter models.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86110 , NAS 1.15:86110
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg* and (16)O* in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86109 , NASA-TM-86109
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The standard model for extragalactic variable radio sources comprises an isotropically expanding plasmoid with frozen magnetic flux and an electron distribution which evolves adiabatically. This model leads to the following relaton between the peak luminosity L (sub nu, m) and the relevant frequency nu(sub m) which are functions of time: L(sub nu,m) is proportional to nu(sub m)(n) where N = (7n + 5)/(4n + 5). In this expression, n is the spectral index in the optically thin part of the spectrum, where L (sub nu) is proportional to nu (-n). For n in the range 0.5 to 1.5, the standard model yields N in the range 1.2 to 1.4. By contrast, analysis of observational data yields estimates of N in a small range about the mean value 0.4, in clear contradiction with the standard model.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: CSSA-ASTRO-84-04 , NASA-CR-173606 , NAS 1.26:173606
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High resolution hard X-ray observations of a large solar flare and the Crab Nebula were obtained during balloon flights using an array of cooled germanium planar detectors. In addition, high time resolution high sensitivity measurements were obtained with a 300 square cm NaI/CsI phoswich scintillator. The Crab spectrum from both flights was searched without finding evidence of line emission below 200 keV. In particular, for the 73 keV line previously reported a 3 sigma upper limit for a narrow (1 keV FWHM) line .0019 and .0014 ph square cm/sec for the 1979 and 1980 flights, respectively was obtained.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-173561 , NAS 1.26:173561
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy data collected over 30-day intervals centered on the two close encounters with Jupiter were utilized to study the characteristics of millisecond-duration radio bursts (s-bursts) at frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz. In this frequency range, s-bursts are found to occur almost independently of Central Meridian Longitude and to depend entirely on the phase of Io with respect to the observer's planetocentric line of sight. Individual bursts typically cover a total frequency range of about 1.5 to 3 MHz, and they are usually strongly circularly polarized. Most bursts in a particular s-burst storm will exhibit the same polarization sense (either right-hand or left-hand), and there is some evidence for a systematic pattern in which one polarizations sense is preferred over the other as a function of Io phase and Central Meridian Longitude. These data are all suggestive of a radio source that is located along the instantaneous Io flux tube and that extends over a linear dimension of 5000 km along the field lines in both the northern and southern Hemispheres.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86052 , NASA-TM-86052
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The presence of an excess of low energy antiprotons in the primary cosmic radiation has given rise to a number of possible explanations. The possibility that these are extragalactic in origin is considered and it is shown that there are interesting implications for the bulk of the cosmic radiation at higher energies. In particular, it may be possible to account for a previously puzzling feature, a bump in the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the energy range 10(14) to 10(15) eV, with this primary extragalactic origin hypothesis. A method for testing this hypothesis experimentally is also described.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86070 , NASA-TM-86070
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observed limits on diffuse X-ray emission from M101 require that the temperature of any coronal or matrix hot gas which is radiating an appreciable part ( 10%) of the average supernova power be less than 10(5.7)K. Furthermore, the fraction of the galactic plane occupied by hot buttles similar to the one which apparently surrounds the Sun is at most 25% in the region between 10 kpc and 20 kpc from the galactic center.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-170978 , NAS 1.26:170978
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three optical transients have been found which are associated with gamma-ray bursters (GRBs). The deduced recurrence timescale for these optical transients (tau sub opt) will depend on the minimum brightness for which a flash would be detected. A detailed analysis using all available data of tau sub opt as a function of E(gamma)/E(opt) is given. For flashes similar to those found in the Harvard archives, the best estimate of tau sub opt is 0.74 years, with a 99% confidence interval from 0.23 years to 4.7 years. It is currently unclear whether the optical transients from GRBs also give rise to gamma-ray events. One way to test this association is to measure the recurrence timescale of gamma-ray events tau sub gamma. A total of 210 gamma-ray error boxes were examined and it was found that the number of observed overlaps is not significantly different from the number expected from chance coincidence. This observation can be used to place limits on tau sub gamma for an assumed luminosity function. It was found that tau sub gamma is approx. 10 yr if bursts are monoenergetic. However, if GRBs have a power law luminosity function with a wide dynamic range, then the limit is tau sub gamma 0.5 yr. Hence, the gamma-ray data do not require tau sub gamma and tau sub opt to be different.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86157 , NASA-TM-86157
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Although heavy ion transport theory is developed to a relatively advanced stage, the present limitation in biomedical and electronic applications is the uncertainty in nuclear fragmentation parameters. The present status on Ne-20 beams is discussed and useful formulae are presented for future use in analysis of beam transport experiments.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86312 , NAS 1.15:86312
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The high energy cosmic ray instrument built for the International Sun-Earth Explorer is described. Some aspects of that system are critically renewed so that the experience gained in the design, construction and operation of this experiment can serve as a guide in designing future cosmic ray particle identification systems.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:175266 , NASA-CR-175266
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is suggested that a ring of HI gas lying in the galactic plane is part of a supershell which formed some 3 x to the 7th power years ago. The consequences of a closed magnetic supershell for cosmic ray propagation are examined and it is concluded that there is no evidence which precludes the production and trapping of cosmic rays in such a region. A consequence of superbubble confinement is that the mean age of cosmic rays would be independent of energy. This can be tested by high energy observations of the isotopic composition of Be.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85030 , NAS 1.15:85030
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of the feedback of e(+)-e(-) pair reinjection in a plasma due to photon-photon absorption of its own radiation was examined. Under the assumption of continuous electron injection with a power law spectrum E to the minus gamma power and Compton losses only, it is shown that for gamma 2 the steady state electron distribution function has a unique form independent of the primary injection spectrum. This electron distribution function can, by synchrotron emission, reproduce the general characteristics of the observed radio to optical active galactic nuclei spectra. Inverse Compton scattering of the synchrotron photons by the same electron distribution can account for their X-ray spectra, and also implies gamma ray emission from these objects. This result is invoked to account for the similarity of these spectra, and it is consistent with observations of the diffuse gamma ray background.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86117 , NAS 1.15:86117
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two images on archival photographic plates which are most likely records of optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) were examined. One of these images appears on a 1901 plate in the field of the 5 Nov. 1979 GRB, while the other is in the field of the 13 Jan. 1979 GRB on a plate exposed in 1944. The 1901 optical transient image is circular in shape, while all normal star images are trailed by 8 in. No optical transients are found in a control region which is 34.3 times larger than the GRB error regions examined. Independent limits on the optical flash rate from the sky yield a probability of less than 0.0001 that any one of the optical transients is due to a background flash. A total exposure of 2.7 years was examined for GRB flashes at known GRB locations on the Harvard plates and a total of three GRB flashes were seen, that the average recurrence time scale for optical flashes is roughly one year. The optical fluence of these optical flashes was measured. For the three currently known GRB optical flashes, the ratio of gamma-ray fluence (from a modern burst) to the optical fluence (from a archival burst) were measured to be 800, 900, and 900.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86126 , NAS 1.15:86126
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  • 24
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The space radiation environment of the TOPEX spacecraft is investigated. A single trajectory was considered. The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the satellite, is determined by orbital flux integration for the specified trajectory. The latest standard models of the environment are used in the calculations. The evaluation is performed for solar maximum conditions. The spacecraft exposure to cosmic rays of galactic origin is evaluated over its flight path through the magnetosphere in terms of geomagnetic shielding effects, both for surface incident heavy ions and for particles emerging behind different material thickness. Limited shielding and dose evaluations are performed for simple infinite slab and spherical geometries. Results, given in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are presented and commented on.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85447 , NAS 1.15:85447 , X-601-84-10
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  • 25
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An in depth analysis of data (and comparison with observation) from SMM and Hinotori on the Hard X-ray and Microwave Morphology of the flares was conducted.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-173568 , SU-CSSA-ASTRO-84-08 , NAS 1.26:173568
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The all-sky soft X-ray data of McCammon et al. and the new N sub H survey (Stark et al. was used to place limits on the amount of the soft X-ray diffuse background that can originate beyond the neutral gas of the galactic disk. The X-ray data for two regions of the sky near the galactic poles are shown to be uncorrelated with 21 cm column densities. Most of the observed x-ray flux must therefore originate on the near side of the most distant neutral gas. The results from these regions are consistent with X-ray emission from a locally isotropic, unabsorbed source, but require large variations in the emission of the local region over large angular scales.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173591 , NASA-CR-173591
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The observed diffuse galactic gamma radiation is compared to that predicted from galactic cosmic ray interactions with galactic matter and photons, assuming that on a broad scale the galactic cosmic rays in the plane are correlated with matter density. Recent considerations of the galactic diffuse matter distribution, particularly the molecular hydrogen, the galactic photon density, and a revised cosmic ray galactic scale height, are included. The predictions are compared to the observational gamma ray longitude distributions, the latitude distribution, and energy spectrum, including the COS-B satellite results, and the COS-B background estimate. Considering the uncertainties, the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the gamma ray data seems generally reasonable, suggesting that the general concepts are likely to be correct. Both the results determined here alone and in conjunction with other work calculating source functions assuming only cosmic ray matter contributions indicate no necessity for a significant point source contribution to the diffuse gamma radiation in the energy range being considered (E(gamma)10 MeV).
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86055 , NAS 1.15:86055
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; power output ; muscle ; flagella ; cytokinetic furrow ; mitotic spindle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular motile systems as diverse as muscle and the mitotic spindle have been compared by their specific power output: the maximum power they develop per unit of engine volume. Striated muscles and flagella have high specific output; their performance is comparable to that of typical automobile engines. The cytokinetic furrow and the mitotic spindle have very much lower specific power output. The furrow's output is 7,000 times lower than muscle and the spindle's is 300,000 times lower. Different macromolecules have been used to generate power in systems with similar output (muscles and flagella) and, conversely, the same macromolecular motor has been used in systems with very different output (muscles and cytokinetic furrows). The common feature amid this diversity is adaptation to a particular biological role, which specific power output reflects very well. High values are found where a powerful, compact engine should be advantageous, while low values are found where precision, not power, matters most.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 41-55 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Leptodiscinae ; Dinoflagellates ; contractility ; non-actin filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Leptodiscinae, a group of marine Dinoflagellates, are good material for the study of contraction though they cannot be collected in abundance. Their cell bodies are flattened anteroposteriorly (Leptodiscus, Leptophyllus, and Leptospathium) and are able to contract suddenly when the surrounding water is disturbed.Electron microscopical observations have shown that the structures responsible for the contraction consist of a layer of parallel filaments located beneath the cell membrane of some specialized parts of the body. These filaments seem to be nonactin (NAF) because of their diameter (2.5-3 nm) and because they are not decorated by heavy meromyosin (HMM). They appear helically coiled and doubly twisted, and form tubular structures when contracted.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fast axonal transport ; mitochondria ; membrane receptors ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In living tissue, membrane-bound organelles, including mitochondria, move along parallel cytoplasmic pathways. Motion is directed and tends to be confined to a single path. Deviations from this single path motion are rare. When present, however, they tend to occur at points of intersection of cytoskeletal linear elements (LE). Such intersections are relatively uncommon in intact axons and extruded axoplasm. However, we have found that such intersections can be produced in extruded preparations by shear forces directed tangential to the axoplasmic surface.We have studied the detailed behavior of mitochondria in extruded squid axoplasm. Special attention was directed to the relationship between mitochondrial shape changes and orientation of cytoskeletal LE. The most striking of these changes in shape is branching. In this process, the mitochondrion transiently assumes a triradial (three-ended) shape. This appearance may be maintained for seconds to minutes before the normal cylindrical shape is resumed by absorption of either the newly formed end or, more commonly, one of the original ends. The frequency of branching appears to be dependent on the degree of cytoskeletal organization. It becomes more common as the number of apparent intersections between cytoskeletal LE increases. Further, the formation of new ends seems to occur along paths defined by cytoskeletal elements.These observations suggest that the mitochondrial membrane is multivalent. That is, it contains multiple sites capable of interacting with the axonal force generation apparatus. Furthermore, LE in the cytoskeleton may indicate the paths along which these interactions are permissible.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonal transport ; ATP ; nucleotides ; saltatory movement ; dynein ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a permeabilized axon model, exogenous ATP can reactivate intraaxonal saltatory organelle movements (microscopically visible manifestations of fast axonal transport). We have studied the dependence of the reactivated movements on the ATP concentration and have also examined the nucleotide specificity of the reactivation. Organelle transport was visualized in isolated lobster giant motor axons using Nomarski optics and video microscopy. The axons were permeabilized with saponin, and movement was reactivated with ATP or other nucleotides. Some slight movement was seen with ATP concentrations as low as 10 μM. The velocity and frequency of the reactivated transport increased with increasing ATP concentrations up to about 5 mM. Movement was also reactivated by deoxyadenosine triphosphate, but not by AMP-PNP (a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue), ADP, or AMP. Although other nucleotides (CTP, GTP, UTP, ITP) could reactivate transport, movement equivalent to that produced by 0.1 mM ATP was only seen with tenfold or greater concentrations of the other nucleotides. This pattern of specificity is consistent with the hypothesis that a dynein-like ATPase, rather than a myosin, is involved in fast axonal transport.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; motility ; cell spreading ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Reorganization of intermediate filaments during cell spreading is examined by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and time-lapse video microscopy. A juxtanuclear cap, believed to correspond to the intermediate filament distribution center, was observed to be spatially related to the organization of the intermediate filament network as cells spread. A keratin cap was observed, which appeared spontaneously in motile PtK1 cells. Cap formation may be a consequence of retraction of intermediate filaments from the cytoplasm as cells move. The position of this juxtanuclear cap is related to the direction of movement, located on the side of the nucleus near the advancing edge of the cell. As the cell spreads, the cap disappears as the keratin filament network returns to the cytoplasm. Evidence presented here is consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution center mediates keratin filament organization during cell shape change.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; flagellum ; axoneme ; microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Iontophoretic application of ATP to the flagellum of the demembranated hamster spermatozoon produced a planar pair of bends at the two ends of the stimulated site. During bend propagation, torsion appeared in the vicinity of the interbend in some responses such that the distal bend was twisted clockwise when viewed from the base of the flagellum. This pattern of propagation is consistent with the instantaneous configurations of free-swimming cells previously described. The technique used here establishes that the three dimensionality arises from propagation per se, and does not depend on forces developed during swimming. The rolling of both free-swimming intact and demembranated spermatozoa was examined by two-color darkground videomicroscopy and the direction of rotation was, as predicted, always anticlockwise. A hypothetical mechanism, involving differential speeds of propagation of active sliding within the active microtubule subset, is proposed to account for the observed waveforms.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; centrosome ; tonofilaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present observations on the relative location of the centriole and keratin filament cap in motile PtK1 cells. Subconfluent cells were double labeled with anticentriole and antikeratin sera. These preparations revealed that the centriole is separate from, but neighboring, the keratin filament cap. Serial ultrathin sections confirm this observation. These observations are consistent with the idea that the microtubule organizing center and intermediate filament distribution center are not identical or concentric in PtK1 cells.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilaments ; microtubules ; contraction ; collagen gel ; fibroblasts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In vitro models have been developed recently to study the ability of fibroblasts to generate tensile force within collagen gels. The present study was initiated to assess the role of the cytoskeleton in the cell shape changes and force generation in one such model system. Porcine periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PPLF) were cultured within three-dimensional collagen gels attached to glass coverslips. Fluorescence microscopy, using nitrobenzooxadizole (NBD)-phallacidin labeling for microfilaments and tubulin antibody staining for microtubules, was combined with phase and Nomarski optics to determine the intra- and extracellular architecture of the cells and collagen fibers. Samples were observed from 30 minutes to 24 hours after initiation of cell attachment. During attachment and spreading, NBD-phallacidin staining changed dramatically until large microfilament bundles became prominent. Collagen fiber alignment, compaction, and finally tearing from the coverslip occurred during this time. After release of tension, microfilament bundles were no longer evident. The change in microtubule distribution during these processes was less dramatic, appearing to follow the change in cell shape. These results indicate that microfilaments play an essential role in generating force to align and compact collagen, while microtubules may have a secondary role only.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; flagella ; cell surface ; adhesion ; glycoproteins ; iodination ; lactoperoxidase ; Iodogen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Chlamydomonas flagellar surface exhibits interesting adhesive properties that are associated with flagellar surface motility. This dynamic surface property can be exhibited as the binding and movement of small polystyrene microspheres or as the interaction of the flagellar surface with a solid substrate followed by whole cell locomotion, termed “gliding.” In order to identify flagellar surface proteins that mediate substrate interaction during flagellar surface motility, two immobilized iodination systems were employed that mimic the conditions for flagellar surface motility: small polystyrene microspheres derivatized with lactoperoxidase, and large glass beads derivatized with Iodogen. Use of these iodination conditions resulted in preferential iodination of a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein with apparent molecular weight of 300,000-350,000. These results suggest this glycoprotein as a major candidate for the surface-exposed adhesive component that directly interacts with the substrate and couples the substrate to a system of force transduction presumed to be located within the flagellum.
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  • 40
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol stabilizes or promotes the assembly of microtubules. In this report we characterize the rate, extent, and reversibility of taxol stabilization of calciumlabile microtubules in isolated mitotic spindles, principally from embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma. The intense depolymerizing action of 100 μM Ca2+ was used to assess the extent of stabilization by taxol. Changes in spindle microtubule assembly were evaluated and recorded by measuring changes in spindle birefringent retardation (BR). Membrane-free mitotic spindles, isolated with a calcium-chelating, nonionic detergent buffer, were stored in an EGTA-gylcerol storage buffer to prevent microtubule depolymerization. When perfused with an EGTA-buffer without glycerol, microtubules in these isolated spindles depolymerized gradually over 60-120 min; but in isolated spindles perfused with buffer that contained 100 μM Ca2+, BR decreased by 90% within 2-5 sec. In contrast, spindles that were pretreated for 3 min with 1 μM taxol, or for about 30 sec with 10 μM taxol, lost less than 10% of their initial BR when perfused with buffer containing 100 μM Ca2+. The rate and extent of microtubule stabilization by taxol depended on both the concentration and the duration of exposure to taxol. Taxol stabilization was reversible. After a 15 min preincubation with 1 μM or 10 μM taxol then washout, stability of spindle BR to 100 μM Ca2+ decreased exponentially with a time constant of 30-60 min. Thus taxol dissociates from spindle microtubules at significant rates; taxol-stabilized microtubules are not “fixed.”
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; assembly ; mitotic apparatus ; bimane ; fluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent derivatives of cellular proteins that retain their native characteristics have become useful probes to investigate the dynamics of specific cytoskeletal proteins. In the experiments reported here, a previously characterized fluorescent derivative of tubulin, bimane-tubulin [Wadsworth and Sloboda, 1982a], was used to investigate microtubule assembly in vitro. The results demonstrate that bimanetubulin was competent to assemble onto a variety of organizing centers in vitro, including microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) present in homogenates of sea urchin eggs, isolated mitotic apparatuses (MAs), and lysed mitotic cells. When homogenates of fertilized sea urchin eggs containing MTOCs were incubated with bimane-tubulin at 37°C, discrete areas of linear fluorescence were observed. Only diffuse fluorescence was observed when calcium or colchicine was added to the homogenate or if the temperature was maintained at 0°C. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the fluorescent arrays revealed morphologically normal microtubules radiating from electron dense regions. When mitotic spindles, isolated in glycerol containing buffers and therefore cold stable, were incubated with bimane-tubulin, linear fluorescence was observed emanating from the spindle poles but not from the region occupied by the kinetochores. MAs incubated with bimane-labeled bovine serum albumin or bimane-labeled microtubule-associated proteins showed only diffuse fluorescence. However, when mitotic cells which were hypotonically lysed in the absence of detergents or microtubule stabilizing solvents, were perfused with bimane-tubulin intense fluorescence was observed in the asters and throughout the spindle. Two experiments suggested that the fluorescence observed in the results outlined above was due to the assembly of normal microtubules from the fluorescent subunits. First, the observed fluorescence was sensitive to cold temperataure, which is known to disassemble microtubules. Second, when the isolated, fluorescent MAs were examined by thin section electron microscopy, microtubules of normal diameter were seen. No aggregated material appeared associated with the walls of the microtubules, which might have been expected if the fluorescent protein was nonspecifically adsorbed to the microtubules. The results of these experiments demonstrate that isolated, stabilized MAs support the growth of new microtubules from the spindle poles while labile spindles, present in lysed cells, incorporate fluorescent tubulin throughout the spindle and asters. The significance of these results for hypotheses concerning microtubule assembly and disassembly during mitosis is discussed.
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  • 43
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonemal mutants ; Ca++ response ; ciliary reversal ; electrophysiology ; models ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Six mutants of Paramecium tetraurelia, which display altered axonemal responses to Ca++, are described. The mutants, designated atalantas, are impaired in their ability to swim backward when stimulated by ions or heat; instead they spin very rapidly in one place. Three mutants, ataA1-3, are completely unable to swim backward. The three lines, however, can be distinguished from one another by their forward swimming velocities. The remaining three mutants are leaky. ataB swims backward briefly when stimulated, then stops and spins in place. ataC and ataD are extremely leaky and only display the spinning phenotype at elevated temperatures. An electrophysiological analysis reveals that all six mutants have normal membrane properties, including the Ca++ inward current under voltage clamp. When the membrane is disrupted so as to allow the axoneme free access to Ca++, wild-type cells swim backward, but the mutants do not. These data indicate the site(s) of lesion in the mutants is in the axoneme or in some step linking Ca++ influx and the axoneme, not within the ciliary membrane. These mutants may be useful in investigating the role of Ca++ in the regulation of axonemal motion.
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  • 45
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 305-314 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell surface motility ; axopodia ; reticulopodia ; Allogromia ; Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum ; surf-riding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism responsible for the energy-dependent movement of membrane components (ie, surface motility) is unknown. Recently a potentially unifying model, termed “surf-riding” [Hewitt, 1979] or “surf-boarding” [Berlin and Oliver, 1982], has been proposed to explain surface motility. Using phase-contrast light microscopy and membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres), we have tested the surf-riding/surf-boarding hypothesis on two protozoan systems: the axopodia of the heliozoan Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and the reticulopodial networks of the allogromiid foraminiferans Allogromia laticollaris and Allogromia sp, strain NF. Our evidence indicates that surface motility, as displayed by these organisms, does not occur by a surf-riding/surf-boarding mechanism. Previouś observations on surface motility associated with the Chlamydomonas flagellum indicate that this system is also incompatible with the surf-boarding/surf-riding hypothesis.
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  • 46
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 403-404 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 47
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 469-503 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytogel ; actomyosin ; Physarum ; oscillations ; mechanics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The contractility of actomyosin gels is the basis for a variety of cellular motility phenomena. We present here a mechanical analysis of contractile gels. By making certain hypotheses on the chemical regulation of cytogel contraction we formulate a model for the rhythmic contractions of plasmodia in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is in accord with a number of experimental observations.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cilia ; metachrony ; serum immunoglobulins ; IgM ; Mytilus edulis ; cystic fibrosis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human IgM and a bovine, IgM-enriched serum fraction isolated from normal adult serum at concentrations of 0.25-1 mg/ml protein induced a pronounced increase in the metachronal wavelength of the lateral (L) cilia of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis without altering their beat frequency. This change in activity was indistinguishable from that induced by 50% adult human or bovine serum. At protein concentrations ranging from 1-9 mg/ml, human IgG or a bovine, IgG-enriched serum fraction had no or little effect on the activity of the L cilia. Similarly, neither monomeric (8S) human IgM (0.25 mg/ml) nor monospecific pentameric IgM (1 mg/ml) isolated from Waldenström's macroglobulinemia patients altered the metachrony of the L cilia. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that both bovine and human IgM became attached almost exclusively to the L cilia, while very little bovine or human IgG was found to associate with these cilia.The results of this study suggest that serum IgM specifically binds to the L cilia of Mytilus in an antigen-antibody manner and agglutinates adjacent cilia into blocks or bundles, thereby increasing the coupling between cilia. As a result, the wavelength of the metachronal coordination is increased. The origin of these ciliary antibodies and their significance to ciliary bioassays used to monitor serum for the detection of cystic fibrosis are discussed.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axoplasm ; elastic modulus ; viscosity ; motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A magnetic sphere viscoelastometer has been developed to peform rheological experiments in living axoplasm of Loligo pealei. The technique includes the use of a calibrated magnetic sphere viscoelastometer on surgically implanted ferro-magnetic spheres in intact squid giant axons. The axoplasm was discerned to be “living” by the biological criterion of tubulovesicular organelle motility, which was observed before and after experimentation. From these in vivo experiments, new structural characteristics of the axoplasm have been identified. First, analysis of magnetic sphere trajectories has shown the axoplasm to be a complex viscoelastic fluid. Directional experimentation showed that this material is structurally anisotropic, with a greater elastic modulus in the direction parallel to the axon long axis. Second, both magnetic sphere and in vivo capillary experiments suggested that the axoplasm is tenaciously anchored to the axolemma. Third, it was found that axoplasm could be modelled as a linear viscoelastic material in the low shear rate range of 0.0001 to 0.004 s-1. The simplest mechanical model incorporating the discovered properties of the material in this range is Burger's model.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Paramecium ; trifluoperazine ; cilia ; calmodulin ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Trifluoperazine (TFP), a drug that binds to Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) complexes, altered swimming behavior not only in living paramecia, but also in reactivated, Triton-extracted “models” of the ciliate. By comparing the responses of living cells and models, we have ascertained that two sites of drug action exist in paramecium cilia. Swimming movements were recorded in darkfield stroboscopic flash photomicrographs; this permitted accurate quantitation of velocities and body-shape parameters. When living paramecia were incubated in a standard buffer containing 10 μM TFP, their speed of forward swimming fell over several minutes and their bodies shortened. Untreated paramecia backed up repeatedly and frequently upon transfer to a solution containing barium ions (the “barium dance”), but cells preincubated in TFP did not “dance.” Instead they swam forward slowly for long periods of time without reversing and occasionally then exhibited abnormally prolonged reversals. W7 effects on swimming mimicked low doses of TFP, and the analog W5 did not visibly alter normal swimming patterns. These results suggest that TFP induces a decrease in the intracellular pCa of living paramecia, perhaps by reducing the efficiency of a calmodulin-activated calcium pump in the cell membrane. Paramecia extracted with Triton X-100 and reactivated to swim forward (7 ≥ pCa ≥ 6) were not affected by addition of up to 40 μM TFP to the reactivation medium. We conclude that the main drug effect in living cells is probably not at the axoneme. However, at low pCa, TFP directly affected the ciliary axoneme to shift its behavior to one characteristic of a higher pCa: TFP inhibited backward swimming in models reactivated at pCa 〈 6; instead they swam forward or rocked in place. The mechanism of ciliary reversal in paramecium may therefore depend on an axonemal Ca+-sensor, possibly bound CaM, which is affected by TFP only at low pCa, as has been postulated for other types of cilia.
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  • 51
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 52
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 351-370 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axon ; rate ; nervous system ; tissue culture ; cell growth ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A new formula calculates rates of directed axonal growth (elongation or retraction) using measurements of growth cone movements. By explicitly separating changes in axonal length from other nonelongational growth cone movements, the calculated rates reflect the detailed cellular growth mechanisms more directly than previous growth measures. In addition, the formula produces three distinct parameters of axonal elongation: n, a growth step rate; s, a growth step size; and P, a probability that a growth step leads to axonal elongation. For normal and regenerating individual chick and frog axons in culture, the formula has quantitated the following differences: the axon itself can elongate more rapidly in the chick, and the axon elongates in smaller steps in the chick. The underlying dynamics of growth of regenerating axons are quite similar to normal axons, but, in the short term, regenerating axons elongate in larger steps and at a slower rate. The distribution of these new rate measurements suggests that the elongation of axons can be usefully modelled as a one-dimensional stochastic walk.
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  • 53
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 371-385 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; dynein ; tubulin ; cilia and flagella ; microtubule associated proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Dynein, obtained from axonemes of Chlamydomonas, binds by both its A and B ends to microtubules assembled from twice cycled (2 ×) and purified (6S) brain tubulin as well as to microtubules in native spindles, thereby inducing microtubule crossbridging. The two ends of the dynein arm exhibit distinct binding characteristics for the different microtubule preparations. Greater than 99% of the dynein arms are bound exclusively by their B ends to microtubules assembled from 6S tubulin in the presence of dynein and decorated to saturation. In contrast, greater than 80% of the dynein arms are bound by both their A and B ends to and, therefore, crossbridge 6S microtubules that are only partially dynein decorated. Binding of the A end of the dynein arm to saturated 6S microtubules can be enhanced by destabilizing the binding of the B end upon addition of ATP and vanadate. These observations suggest that Chlamydomonas dynein arms can bind by their A ends to microtubules assembled from 6S tubulin only when the B ends of the arms either are not bound or are bound but do not occupy all available dynein binding sites. Dynein exhibits a slight preference for binding by its A end to microtubules assembled from 2 × tubulin and containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Approximately 90% of the dynein arms crossbridge adjacent 2 × microtubles that are only partially decorated. But as saturation of these microtubules with dynein is approached, the majority of the arms are bound solely by their A ends, while a smaller percentage are bound by their B ends or by both their A and B ends. These studies indicate that the type of microtubule as well as the degree of saturation of the microtubule with dynein can determine whether microtubule crossbridging occurs.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; microfilaments ; HMM ; phagocytosis ; cytochalasin ; Paramecium ; fluorescence microscopy ; electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using heavy meromyosin (HMM) or the fragment S1 of myosin as probes for actin microfilaments, we studied their organization in Paramecium both by fluorescence and electron microscopy.In interphasic cells, HMM decorates (a) most prominently the periphery of nascent and young food vacuoles and their route during the early phase of their intracellular transit; (b) a thin meshwork radiating from the gullet throughout the cytoplasm; (c) a small area beneath the pore of contractile vacuoles and beneath the cytoproct when open to release food residues. Most of these HMM-decorated structures are in close contact with microtubular arrays. All HMM decoration disappears in dividing cells and in cytochalasin-treated cells. In vivo, the drug immediately blocks food vacuole formation but does not affect cytokinesis, cyclosis, contractile vacuole pulsation, defecation, or nuclear movements.The data show that, as in the cells of other organisms, actin microfilaments form defined arrays that undergo physiologically controlled cycles of assembly/disassembly. These arrays contribute (at least in the phagocytotic process) to diverse types of movement: constriction, membrane fusion, and migration of food vacuoles. However, aside from their massive concentration along the phagocytotic tractus, actin microfilaments are neither major structural components of Paramecium cytoplasm nor the only cytoskeletal components ensuring motility or contractility processes.
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  • 55
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 431-441 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: dynein ; chromatophores ; permeabilization ; melanosomes ; motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Teleost chromatophores are filled with individual pigment granules that rapidly aggregate to the cell center or become dispersed throughout the cytoplasm in response to environmental stimuli. Microtubules appear to be required for pigment aggregation (movement toward the cell center), and recent findings have suggested that a dynein-like ATPase may participate in force production. Based on previous studies, however, it has been argued that pigment aggregation does not require energy directly, a view that supports the involvement of an elastic component in granule movement. To examine this point further, we have reinvestigated the energy requirements for pigment aggregation using both intact cells and detergent-permeabilized cell models of Fundulus melanophores. Poisons of oxidative phosphorylation, namely, 2,4 dinitrophenol and NaCN, reversibly inhibit melanosome aggregation in response to adrenaline. Inhibition of movement results directly from depletion of intracellular ATP, since pigment translocation can be reactivated in permeabilized cells by the addition of exogenous ATP to the lysis buffer. Non-hydrolyzable analogues, including β,γ-imidoadenosine-5′-triphosphate (AMPPNP), β,γ-methylene adenosine-5′-triphosphate (AMPPCP), and ATPγS, will not substitute for ATP in reactivation of movement. Similarly, other nucleotides such as ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, and ITP, have limited ability to support melanosome aggregation in metabolically poisoned cells subjected to detergent lysis. ATP itself has no effect on intact cells. These results indicate that melanosome aggregation is ATP-dependent and energy-driven, and are consistent with a role for a force-transducing ATPase in particle movement.
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  • 56
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 57
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 76-76 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; calcium ; coelomocytes ; ionophore ; pH ; shape transformation ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the ability of the Ca+ + ionophore A23187 to induce the transformation of petaloid sea urchin coleomocytes to the filopodial form. The response of individual cells to different media was observed with time-lapse phasecontrast video microscopy. In the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, isotonic medium containing 1-5 μM A23187 produces a similar shape transformation to that caused by hypotonic shock. Higher concentrations of ionophore (10-20 μM) induce the formation of filopodia that are thinner and less rigid than those generated by hypotonic shock or low doses of ionophore. A23187 also induces shape transformation in highly flattened cells that do not respond fully to hypotonic shock. The induction of cytoplasmic alkalinization by NH4Cl, methylamine-HCl, or the Na+ ionophore monensin does not induce shape transformation, suggesting that increased intracellular pH is not the stimulus for this process. Ultrastructural changes in cytoskeletal organization were examined in negatively stained detergent-extracted cells. Low doses of ionophore produce filopodia that are indistin-guishable from those of hypotonically shocked cells, with actin filament bundles that are straight and cohesive along their entire length. High concentrations of ionophore produce filopodia with filament bundles that branch repeatedly and splay apart near their tips, forming loops and irregular curves. These results suggest that an increase in intracellular free Ca+ + concentration acts as the trigger that stimulates coelomocyte shape transformation, but that abnormally high concentrations of intracellular Ca+ +, produced by high doses of ionophore, interfere with actin filament bundling.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: gelation ; actin ; filamin ; cytoplasm ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have compared the meniscus depletion assay and falling ball viscometry, two means of assessing the extent of gelation in actin-based systems using mixtures of actin and the actin-binding protein filamin. We examined the effect of varying the concentrations of actin and filamin in both assays. The interaction of actin and filamin was detected only above a threshold concentration of filamin. This threshold concentration was lower for falling ball viscometry than for the meniscus depletion assay at equal actin concentrations. At constant concentrations of filamin, an increase in actin concentration caused an increase in apparent viscosity measured by the falling ball assay, but a decrease in sedimentability detected by the meniscus depletion assay. The rate of sedimentation of actin was dependent on the molar ratio of actin to filamin. At each molar ratio, the sedimentation of actin was not dependent on the specific concentrations of actin and filamin used. The apparent viscosity was dependent on both the molar ratio and the specific concentrations of actin and filamin. To relate the present results to earlier studies, we examined mixtures of actin and filamin using a macroscopic assay of gelation (tube tipping assay), and polarized light microscopy. The effect of increasing filamin concentration in the four assays was compared at three actin concentrations. Mixtures of actin and filamin whose apparent viscosities were low enough to be estimated by falling ball viscometry were optically isotropic fluids that flowed out of inverted test tubes. Mixtures of actin and filamin in the range of sensitivity of the meniscus depletion assay were either viscous fluids or gels, and were either optically isotropic or anisotropic. Thus, the four assays provide different estimates of gelation. Both the meniscus depletion assay and falling ball viscometry can be used to determine relative gelation activity, but neither can be used as a quantitative assay of gelation.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; microfilaments ; filopodia ; cell spreading ; coelomocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sea urchin coelomocytes were used as a model system to investigate the distribution and role of microtubules and microfilaments in cell spreading and filopodial formation. By using immunoblot characterized antisera to tubulin and actin coupled with immunofluorescence techniques, cellular protrusions were seen to contain actin filaments but no microtubules. Cells depleted of MT's by cold and colcemid treatments could attach, spread, and transform to the filopodial morphology normally.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: pseudostereoscopy ; particle speed distribution ; velocity distribution ; fast axonal transport ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We describe a simple method for direct visualization of the velocity distribution of particles moving against an immobile background. The technique involves pseudostereoscopic viewing of image pairs separated by an appropriate time interval in a sequential recording of the subject. Under these conditions, the positive or negative parallax arising from particle motion results in the binocular image of a particle being perceived as raised or lowered relative to an immobile background plane depending on its direction of movement, and with the degree of perceived elevation being proportional to its speed. In effect, the binocular optic axis becomes a velocity (speed) axis under these conditions. The technique is illustrated with examples of image pair sequences showing fast axonal transport in lobster and squid axons using video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy. However, the pseudostereoscopic method is quite generally applicable to both microscopic and macroscopic time-dependent phenomena. Particle speeds can be quantitated using standard procedures for measuring frame-to-frame particle displacements, or alternatively, by determination of parallax using stereogrammatic methods. It should be also readily adaptable for on-line monitoring of particle velocity distribution, particularly in video systems where frame buffers can be utilized to extract and present serial image pairs having any desired time separation from video-taped sequences.
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  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 304-305 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; Protein A-Gold ; Lowicryl ; Glycolmethacrylate ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The postembedding protein A-gold immunocytochemical approach has been introduced as an alternative to other techniques for the ultrastructural localization of antigenic sites. The present review deals with the development, the theoretical background, and technical approach of the protein A-gold method as well as the different modifications introduced in order to enhance the resolution of the results and to perform double labelings on the same section. Various examples demonstrate the reliability and the wide range of application of this technique. In addition, some problems, pitfalls, and limitations particular to this method are reported.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Vascular cell cultures ; Transmission electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: A method is described for obtaining optimal, reproducible ultrastructure of vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells in culture. Routinely grown cultures are prepared for TEM with a precise regimen of fixation, postfixation, en bloc staining, dehydration, and embedment. The most important aspects of this procedure are the following: (1) fixation with a percentage-gradient series of glutaraldehyde solutions at 37°C, (2) immediate postfixation with osmium tetroxide solution, and (3) block-staining with uranyl acetate solution to eliminate any extraction of constituents during subsequent processing.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Monolayer cells ; preparation for SEM ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Monolayers of PtK-1 and HeLa cells grown on glass or plastic supports are extremely susceptible to lacerations, e.g., splits and cracks caused mainly by shrinkage when prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We find that a four-step fixation procedure including glutaraldehyde, OsO4, tannic acid, and uranylacetate application, in combination with critical point drying, drastically reduces these structural damages. In addition, the conductivity of the specimens is enhanced, so that they can be investigated without gold coating. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of perpendicular sections in the area of lacerations provides evidence that the subcortical cytoskeletal elements are of crucial importance in maintaining cell membrane stability during the preparations. Our relatively quick and simple procedure results in an improved structural appearance of the cells.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Opioids ; Receptors ; Brain ; Radioautography ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Two met-enkephalin analogs (FK 33-824 and FW 34-569, Sandoz) were utilized for in vitro labeling of opioid binding sites in the rat central nervous system. Binding kinetics determined in 20-μm-thick frozen tissue sections of the striatum revealed that both pentapeptides bind to a single population of sites at 20°C with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 1-2 nM and a maximum capacity (B max) of 65-170 fmoles/mg protein. Radioautographic data suggest that this population is the same for iodinated and tritiated forms of the FK compound and the iodinated FW analog. Fixation of labeled sections with high concentrations of glutaraldehyde allowed proportional retention of more than 50% of specifically bound 125I-FK molecules in all brain regions after histological processing for high-resolution radioautography. In contrast, glutaraldehyde fixation did not prevent the loss of bound 125I-FW molecules. These differences are attributed to the presence in FK, but not in FW molecules, of a free primary amino group considered essential for cross-link formation between aldehydes and proteins, and imply that a majority of FK-receptor complexes may be stabilized by glutaraldehyde. Consistent with this observation is the fact that the radioautographic distribution of specifically bound 125I-FK was unchanged after fixation and dehydration. In electron microscopic radioautographs prepared from prefixed, vibratome-cut striatal sections that were incubated with 125I-FK and fixed with glutaraldehyde, silver grains were found to be mostly associated with neuronal plasma membrane interfaces. The present methodological approach thus appears to be compatible with electron microscopic localization of opioid binding sites in the central nervous system and might be applicable to the localization of other types of binding sites using radioligand molecules that contain a free primary amino group.
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  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell