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  • Chemical Engineering  (2,596)
  • 1980-1984  (2,596)
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Years
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 30-37 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An integral method including the entrainment hypothesis of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969) is used to predict the concentration of product formed in a buoyant jet in a crossflow. The analysis is restricted to a slow, irreversible, second-order reaction with premixed reactants. Reliable laboratory data are presented for the oxidation of nitric oxide by the reaction 2NO + O2 → 2NO2 with excess O2 and these results are correlated with the theory. Additional measurements are recorded to provide information on the magnitude of the turbulent parameters necessary for proper closure of the rate expressions.
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  • 2
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 50-55 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Intermediate phases and reactions occurring on decomposing diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium para molybdate, sodium tungstate dihydrate and ammonium meta vanadate were established by thermal analysis and X-ray examination.These salts promote fabric degradation at low temperatures but are effective at high temperatures. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate produced maximum amount of gases, absorbed the highest amount of heat and gave the highest fire retardation above 350°C.
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  • 3
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 69-78 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A design synthesis procedure is developed for preliminary design of utility systems. Given known steam sources (waste heat and auxiliary boilers) and sinks (heating, process injection, and driver horsepower needs), the algorithm determines the optimal header pressure levels, the distribution of steam turbines in the network, and the steam flows between all devices so as to maximize the real work recovered from the sources. Any number of pressure levels can be accommodated at only modest increase in computational effort.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Kinetics of hydration of propylene oxide using an ion-exchange resin catalyst in a slurry reactor was studied. The kinetics of homogeneous, uncatalyzed reaction was studied separately and used to obtain heterogeneous reaction kinetics. The homogeneous reaction was found to be 0.43 order with respect to propylene oxide concentration. The heterogeneous reaction was found to have intraparticle diffusional resistance under certain conditions. The intrinsic kinetic parameters and effective diffusivity were obtained from these data. The heterogeneous reaction was found to be 0.55 order with respect to propylene oxide concentration. The activation energies obtained for homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were 51.5 and 53.4 kJ/mol, respectively. A theoretical model incorporating all the mass transfer resistances has been proposed.
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 7-14 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The potential energy between two interacting colloidal particles is derived by a knowledge of the energy of interaction of two parallel flat plates. The proposed method maps pairs of infinitesimal surface elements from the two interacting bodies to parallel plate-like elements. The results obtained from this theory are compared with the Derjaquin approximation for large kR and the Levine and Dube approximation for small kR.
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 15-20 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Calculations for nonequilibrium stages were systematized via material balances for multicomponent mixing, which is applicable in the absence of sorption.The resulting treatment is quite complex with unequal stages but much simpler when the stages are equal. It allows solving complex solid/liquid washing problems from experimental simple washing data obtained with solute-free wash liquor.
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 37-44 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The bubble formation process at small, single, circular orifices at low gas flow rates is modified when the system is vertically vibrated in a sinusoidal fashion.For systems with significant gas chamber volume, bubble volume in the vibrated case is smaller than in the nonvibrated case. The vibrations increase the amount of liquid weeping through the orifice into the gas chamber. A simple inviscid model adequately predicts bubble formation in the medium-chamber-volume region at low values of amplitude and frequency of vibration and low viscosities. The boundaries of the transition from the FR ≫ 1 to the FR = 1 regions are described in terms of “the acceleration number/Eötvös number”.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The performance of spherical catalyst pellets with radially nonuniform distributions of activity is simulated under parallel reaction networks closely resembling hydrocarbon oxidation reactions. Both reaction paths are assumed to be exothermic with the desired path exhibiting lower activation energy requirements than the undesired one. It is shown that nonuniform activity distributions enhance effectiveness and selectivity over a large range of values of the Thiele modulus. Multiple steady states in effectiveness and selectivity are observed for certain values of the heat of reaction parameter.
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  • 10
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 62-69 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Hydrogen sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur by ferric ion chelated with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) in aqueous solution at pH 3.5 to 4.5. The reaction appears to be fast relative to gas- and liquid-phase diffusion, and the transfer of H2S from a gas stream is correlated well by the theory of absorption with instantaneous chemical reaction. The ferrous ion formed in this reaction may be reoxidized with oxygen absorbed from a stream of air. The presence of NTA catalyzes the reaction of O2 and Fe2+ in the same pH range, and diffusion is again controlling. Design calculations based on laboratory data for both absorption steps show that cocurrent gas-liquid contactors are advantageous for achieving high reaction rates (e.g., ∼99.99% H2S removal), high gas velocities (10 to 20 m/s), low pressure drops [1 to 3 kPa (10 to 30 cm H2O)], and moderate column heights (10 to 15 m).
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 92-99 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new method for decomposing irreducible subsets, in the solution of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations, is presented. This method consists of two steps: (1) elimination of the nonlinearity from some of the equations by replacing nonlinear expressions by new variables; and (2) formulation of a problem of smaller dimension by tearing the linear subset of equations. It is shown that these modifications do not change considerably the convergence rate of the Newton-Raphson and Broyden's methods while reducing the problem's dimension. Computer time reduction up to 80% is demonstrated in the examples solved. An algorithm for elimination of nonlinear expressions, which uses Boolean matrices instead of formula manipulation, is also presented.
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  • 12
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 99-110 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Solid tracer particles were fed pneumatically through a jet into a fluidized bed to simulate the feeding of solids via a pneumatic transport line into a fluidized-bed reactor operating in the slugging-bed mode. The fluidized bed was defluidized instantaneously at different times after the initiation of the tracer particle injection. The bed was then sampled layer by layer to provide the radial and axial concentration profiles of the tracer. Regular and high-speed movies (1,000 frames per second) were taken to study the operation of the fluidized bed and the phenomena of the gas-solid two-phase jet.Experimental results on solid mixing, jet constriction and slugging frequencies, slugging bed height, slug length, jet penetration, and jet half-angle at three nominal jet velocities of 52, 37, and 25 m/s and corresponding solids loadings are presented. Additional experimental results on jet constriction and slugging frequencies, and slug volume (axial slug size) obtained for a wider range of jet velocities confirm the hydrodynamic trends observed during the tracer particle injection experiments. The results indicate that solids mixing increases, and well-mixed conditions are reached earlier, with an increase in jet injection velocity. The obtained mixing times were correlated successfully in terms of the excess gas velocity. The experimental data on jet penetration and slug motion were satisfactorily correlated by modified versions of existing theoretical relations. The modifications included the effect of the injected solids on jet penetration and jet half-angle and also the effect of our semicircular column geometry and single wall-slug configuration on the observed slug motion.
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  • 13
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 143-150 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A physical model for the very strong intermolecular forces in liquid metal mixtures is proposed, involving the combined effects of ion-ion, ion-electron, and electron-electron interactions plus the charge density effects on the electron kinetic energy. The resulting excess Gibbs energy expression contains a single cross-energy parameter which must be evaluated either from the eutectic point or from one mixture datum. The applicability of the model is limited to systems without strong specific solvation, but it does effectively predict both negative and positive deviations from Raoult's law, including the asymmetry arising from size differences. Applications are shown for vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria.
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  • 14
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 151-155 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Moment analysis is a powerful tool in reactor bed analysis. Weighted moments is a technique which has been introduced to increase the accuracy of moment estimation. The supposed advantage of weighted moments is reevaluated utilizing an optimum truncation point. The resulting coefficient of variation in the moment estimates is shown to be superior to an arbitrary truncation point for all weighting factors. When an optimum truncation point is used, little advantage is observed for weighted moments.
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  • 15
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 172-172 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 16
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 175-175 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Cyclic regeneration of activated carbon containing adsorbed sodium dodecyl-benzene sulfonate (DBS) was studied in fluidized beds at 1119 K and 101.3 kPa. Optimum restoration of adsorption capacity (97.2% per cycle) resulted when gasification with 21.5% steam was continued for 200 s. At that time, about 85% of the DBS added to the carbon during the adsorption process had been removed. Because of the adsorbed inorganic residue from DBS, these results are somewhat different from earlier studies with the sucrose-carbon system. With sucrose, maximum restoration of adsorption capacity was achieved when a weight equivalent to 100% of the adsorbed sucrose was removed by thermal decomposition and steam gasification.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Preferential adsorption of organic compounds onto activated carbon from dilute aqueous solutions is studied to develop a comprehensive theoretical basis for predicting the adsorption of structurally different isomers for different homologous series. The fundamental multidimensional approachof the solvophobic (cφ) thermodynamic theory is further refined and used to correlate the extent of adsorption for the comprehensive theory with the overall standard net free energy change (ΔGnet/RT) for the association-adsorption reaction in solution, and for the simplified theory with the cavity surface area of the solute (TSA).Experimental adsorption isotherms of two homologous series (12 aliphatic alcohols and 21 aliphatic ketones) were measured and used to test and compare the cφ theory with seven independent parameters characterizing the sorbates. Several experimental innovations for measuring equilibrium adsorption isotherms are introduced to reduce the possible loss of sorbate during the procedure and to provide reproducible and reliable results.Comparing the coefficients of linear correlation (r), the results for 12 aliphatic alcohols give greater than 99% confidence that the r-values are different for ΔGnet/RT and molecular weight (MW). For the 15 aliphatic ketones, greater than 90% confidence interval is obtained for different r-values for TSA and MW.These results support the contention that simple structural modifications of aliphatic homologous compounds can be used to predict the effect of solute-solvent-sorbent interactions on adsorption. The cφ theory can thus be used to rank-order adsorption intensity of these compounds from the aqueous phase onto activated carbon.
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  • 19
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 504-507 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 20
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 507-509 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 21
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 526-528 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 22
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The transient combustion of porous char particles is modelled. The model takes into account the reactions of carbon with CO2 and O2 and the oxidation of CO in the gas phase. It reveals strong effects of the intraparticle thermal gradients and of the pore structure evolution scheme on the burning time and predicts an optimum particle size that gives minimum burning time.
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  • 24
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 280-287 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A mathematical model for prediction of the crystal size distribution from a continuous crystallizer is presented. The kinetic data used for the model were obtained from batch contact nucleation experiments with citric acid monohydrate. In these experiments, the distribution of growth rates as well as the initial size distribution were estimated. Results from the model indicate that the excess number of crystals usually present at small sizes in continuous crystallizers is due to growth rate dispersion (where crystals of the same size may have different growth rates) and not size dependent growth.
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  • 25
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 583-593 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple particle model is used to interpret differential thermogravimetric data taken on the gasification of coal/char with CO2, H2 and H2O. The model takes into account the major physical factors which influence the gasification rate, viz., the changing magnitudes of surface area, porosity, activation energy and effective diffusivity during gasification. Specific reaction rate constants based on surface area and activation energies are extracted from the data. Practical criteria for regimes of reaction rate and diffusion control and for particle isothermality are developed. For isothermal particles at low classical Thiele moduli, the data can be correlated with only one parameter, which has a simple physical interpretation.
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  • 26
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 432-441 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Droplet coalescence and breakage rats in a pulsed-plate extraction column have been measured using the colorimetric method of Hamilton and Pratt (1980). The results were interpreted in terms of rate constants, defined appropriately for the mixer-settler and emulsion regions of operation respectively, using a discrete population balance model. It is shown that the resulting values of these constants can be used to predict accurately the steady-state droplet-size distribution and apparent coalescence rate. Computations for a typical extraction system indicated that the effect of polydispersivity on performance is surprisingly small for the pulsed plate column.
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  • 27
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 442-450 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Coalescence rates for MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) droplets in water in a packed column have been measured directly using a novel colorimetric technique. Second-order coalescence and first-order breakage rate constants were derived from the results using a discrete population balance model and were correlated in terms of droplet diameter and dispersed-phase holdup. It is shown that the rate constants can be used to predict the steady-state droplet-size distribution and coalescence rates. They were also used in a theoretical study of mass transfer for a typical polydisperse system, which showed that repeated droplet coalescence and breakage leads to some reduction in column height.
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  • 28
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 622-630 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: When a small drop or bubble is driven through a liquid phase to a fluid-fluid interface, a thin liquid film which forms between them drains, until an instability forms and coalescence occurs. Lin and Slattery (1982b) developed a hydrodynamic theory for the first portion of this coalescence process: the drainage of the thin liquid film which occurs while it is sufficiently thick that the effects of London-van der Waals forces and electrostatic forces can be ignored. Here we extend their theory to include the effects of the London-van der Waals forces. To simplify the analysis, we follow the suggestion of Buevich and Lipkina (1975, 1978) in developing an expression for the rate of thinning at the rim or barrier ring of the draining film. A linear stability analysis permits us to determie the coalescence time or the elapsed time between the formation of a dimpled film and its rupture at the rim.For comparison, this same linear stability analysis is applied to the thinning equations developed by MacKay and Mason (1963) for the plane parallel disc model and by Hodgson and Woods (1969) for the cylindrical drop model.For all three models, our linear stability estimate for the coalescence time tc is in better agreement with the available experimental data than is the elapsed time t∞ between the formation of a dimpled film and its drainage to zero thickness at the rim in the absence of instabilities.
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  • 29
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 641-642 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 31
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 660-662 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 32
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 529-536 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A hydrodynamic model of fluidization was developed that computes void fractions, pressure and solid and gas velocities in cylindrical fluidized beds. Cmputed time-averaged gas velocity distributions of a jet compared well with Westinghouse experimental data without the use of any fitted parameters. The main empirical input was a drag correlation from the literature.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The diffusion and reaction model developed in a previous paper is extended allowing for shrinkage of the char particles. It is shown that possible shrinkage, arising from disintegration of the solid structure at a certain conversion level, modifies severely the extinction behavior of the reacting particles. Specifically, the region of ambient temperature and particle radius in which the predictions of the nonisothermal and of the isothermal versions of the model differ significantly becomes smaller. However, the particle shrinkage does not affect the ignition phenomena observed since a particle usually ignites at low conversion levels where the radius change is still negligible.
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 494-496 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 35
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 502-504 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 37
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 520-522 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 38
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 522-525 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 557-563 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A mechanism is proposed for the dehydration-rehydration process in solid inorganic salts, and model rate equations are derived and applied to the observed behavior of potassium carbonate. Quantitative expressions for the effect of pressure on the reaction rates are derived using basic principles from nucleation and heterogeneous phase transformation theory. Model equation predictions agree with experimental dehydration and rehydration rate data at all but extreme pressures. The basic rate equation is also used to interpret the data of Eckhardt and Flanagan (1964) for the effect of pressure on the dehydration of manganous formate dihydrate. The mechanism on which the model equations are based is also consistent with the observed effects of cycling and of high temperature pretreatment on the K2CO3 rehydration rate.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 686-688 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 41
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    Notes: An analytical solution for a two resistance mass transfer model explaining the adsorption of Astrazone Blue dye (Basic Blue 69) onto Sorbsil silica has been developed. The model includes a film mass transfer coefficient, kf1 = 80 × 10-6cm·s-1, and an internal effective diffusivity, Deff = 18×10-9cm2·s-1 which controls the internal mass transport processes based on a pore diffusion mechanism.
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  • 43
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 705-710 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Preparative, multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular sorbent bed with fixed multiple feed points and fixed product withdrawal locations. The cation exchange separation of copper, nickel, and two cobalt complexes has been extensively used to study the effects of rotation rate, eluent rate, bed loading, and column size on separation performance. Experimental results have been compared with three theoretical models: plate theory, an analytical solution which incorporates multicomponent Langmuir isotherms, and an extension of the analytical solution to include dispersion effects.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 725-732 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In a system that is close to chemical equilibrium, the relaxation of each elementary step toward equilibrium obeys the linear laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For a series reaction in which the concentration of the intermediate species are low or do not change with time, the relaxation can be characterized by one time constant, which can be associated with an overall equilibrium exchange rate for the overall reaction. The relationship between the overall equilibrium exchange rate and the equilibrium exchange rates of the individual steps is analogous to that between the overall conductance and the individual conductances of a network of electrical resistors in series. A numerical example is presented to show the range of validity of this relationship. Finally, a condition for the determinability of exchange rates is presented. Exchange rates are independently determinable if and only if the determinant of the matrix, whose elements are made up of squares of the inner products of the vectors that are made up of the stoichiometric coefficients of the species in the reactions, is non-zero.
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  • 45
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pirt's model for microbial growth and product formation are reparameterized to obtain multiresponse models with common parameters. The dependent variables in the models are related through the available electron and carbon balance constraints. Covariance adjustment is used to reduce the growth model to a unit variate linear model with covariates. Therefore, standard multiple regression programs can be used to obtain combined point and interval estimates of true biomass energetic yield, true product yield and maintenance coefficient. This approach may yield “better” estimates than the maximum likelihood approach when an appropriately selected subset of covariates is used. Nonlinear estimation procedures are also considered; these procedures are efficient with few responses; however, as the number of responses per observation increase, they may require a lot of computing time. For illustration several data from the biochemical engineering literature are analyzed by the proposed methods.
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  • 46
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The numerical methods developed in Part I are applied to a number of important countercurrent processes. Examples involving simultaneous input disturbances, distributed disturbances, Langmuir isotherms, and nonlinear coupled boundary conditions are tested. These examples, if solved by previous methods, would have required interpolation or iterative procedures, but are solved efficiently and accurately by the explicit algorithms and coding sequence developed in Part I.The solutions for a linear system are in excellent agreement with the analytic solution. Numerical solutions obtained from explicit algorithms based on a nonlinear rate expression also shows very good agreement with the analytic solutions of Thomas (1944) for a fixed bed process. In both cases good accuracy is obtained with as few as sixteen increments.
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  • 47
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    Notes: Experiments were conducted on the degradation of valeric acid in aqueous solutions by bacteria in attached growth and on the removal of valeric acid from aqueous solutions in granular activated carbon columns. The first type of experiment was intended to obtain results necessary to determine the values of the relevant parameter of biofilm kinetics. These parameters were then used in conjunction with the model developed in Part I to predict the performance of carbon columns for removing valeric acid. Comparisons between experiments and predictions constitute the necessary model validation.
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  • 48
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 802-807 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theoretical equation is derived for the collision rate of aerosol particles in a homogeneous and isotropic turbulent system. This equation takes into account the relative velocity between fluid and particles. The calculated results indicate that the relative velocity between fluid and particles is the main factor in the turbulent coagulation (agglomeration, coalescence) of unequally sized particles in an air flow. This hold true, even when the particle sizes are less than 1 micron. For particles of equal radii the coagulation coefficient reaches its minimum value, because the effect of motion relative to the fluid now becomes zero and only the spatial variation of turbulent motion remains to cause collisions between the particles. For particles following a fluid motion completely, as in a water stream, the equation for the collision rate reduces to the Saffman and Turner equation.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 833-835 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 840-841 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 849-853 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: The behavior of bubbles in a cocurrent gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed was investigated in a column of 76.2 mm ID in this study. The particles used were glass beads of 3 and 6 mm and a binary mixture of these particles. A novel dual electrical resistivity probe system was developed and utilized to obtain bubble properties including bubble size and rise velocity. The distributions of the bubble properties in the gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed were evaluated for three flow regimes: the dispersed bubble flow regime; the coalesced bubble flow regime; and the slug flow regime.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 934-944 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Graphical and numerical procedures are presented for the design and analysis of cocurrent and countercurrent multistaged mixer-settler units for liquid membrane extraction operations - these are based on the recently developed Advancing Front Model of Ho et al. (1982) and Hatton et al. (1983). The numerical results indicate that the extraction efficiency in a countercurrent cascade is only slightly improved over that for cocurrent operation. However, for any given stage, marked improvements in extraction efficiency are indicated if an external emulsion recycle over the mixer settler unit is used to ensure adequate holdup ratios in the mixer. Premixing of the emulsion feed and recycle streams will impair the extraction performance, however,
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  • 58
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    Notes: Aramco vacuum gas oil was catalytically hydrotreated to conversions of 20, 40 and 60%, and subsequently fractionated into naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, and hydrotreated vacuum gas oil. These fractions were thermally cracked to test their potential as feedstock for olefins and BTX production. The olefin yields from the hydrotreated vacuum gas oil obtained from hydrotreating with 40 and 60% conversion favorably compare with those of straight-run naphthas. Cracking in conventional naphtha/atmospheric gas oil units becomes possible. The naphtha, kerosene and gas oil fractions are preferably added to standard refinery streams.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 924-934 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mass transfer studies were conducted in a stable liquid foam reactor under various operating conditions to evaluate gas holdup, effective interfacial area, liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient and a modified interfacial mass transfer coefficient to include the surface-active agents employed. Gas holdup and effective interfacial area were evaluated experimentally. The interfacial mass transfer coefficient was evaluated semitheoretically, by considering the interfacial region as a separate phase and using the experimental data developed for mass transfer accompanied by a fast first-order chemical reaction. The liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient was also evaluated semitheoretically, using Danckwert's theory for the liquid phase and the experimental data on mass transfer accompanied by a slow pseudofirst-order chemical reaction.An experimental unit was set up to provide a stable flowing foam column, simulating the foam reactor. Mass transfer rates were studied for superfacial gas velocities in the range from 1.5 × 10-2 m/s to 5 × 10-2 m/s, giving gas residence times in the range from 20 to 55 seconds. A cationic and nonionic surface-active agent and three different wire mesh sizes, giving bubble size distributions in the range from 2.2 to 5.4 mm Sauter mean diameters, were employed.It is observed that gas holdup is insensitive to the type of surface-active agent; it is however, dependent on wire mesh size and gas velocity. The bubble diameter and, hence, the interfacial area are found to be insensitive to gas velocity in the range studied; they are, however, strong functions of wire mesh size. The liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient increases with increase in gas velocity. The surface-active agent introduces additional resistance to mass transfer in both reaction cases, this being the controlling one in the case of the fast reaction. A comparison with conventional packed bed contactors indicates the mass transfer rates to be about 8 times lower for the foam reactor, for the fast reaction case; for slow reactions, the foam reactor has mass transfer rates approximately 2-4 times higher than those for conventional packed bed contactors.
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    Notes: This paper reports on the operating characteristics of the collar type MVS which uses either orifice plates or screens as supports for the solids.The optimum placement for the support (screens or orifice plates), the current needed to operate the valve as a function of vessel size (up to 0.55 m) and screen or orifice opening, and the response characteristics of the valve were all determined. These findings were then compared with theory.Finally, the operational characteristics of the MVS (magnetic valve for solids) when handling a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic solids were briefly examined.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 981-983 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The critical constants and acentric factor are generally required in thermodynamic calculations based on the principle of corresponding states. In this work, these properties of hydrocarbons and derivatives are correlated with the molecular weight, specific gravity, and normal boiling point. Properties of n-alkanes are correlated with the molecular weight. Properties of other hydrocarbons and derivatives are expressed as perturbations from those of the n-alkanes, and the perturbations are corrlated in terms of specific gravity and normal boiling point.
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 984-986 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 989-991 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Kevlar 29 fiber has been widely considered for the manufacture of very-long high-performance cables. Due to low transverse strength fiber-on-fiber rubbing leads to rapid deterioration. The usefulness of impregnating Kevlar 29 braids with resin to overcome this drawback has been evaluated by performing reverse bending fatigue tests. Braids of identical construction, one of them being impregnated with a polyurethane resin by a patented process, were fatigued to failure on a purpose-built rig under varying applied loads. Fatigue tests were also carried out to 30 percent and 50 percent of total braid life and residual strength values measured. It was found that high applied loads (∼50 percent of ultimate) lead to premature braid failure dominated by a creep mechanism. Both braids showed similar behavior, although the impregnated braid was superior. At low applied loads, however, where the failure mechanisms was dominated by wear or internal abrasion, it was seen that resin impregnation could increase braid life by a factor of four. Resin impregnation coupled with bending fatigue significantly stiffens braids, as was demonstrated by tensile testing up to braid failure.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0032-3888
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Effects of pressure and temperature on time-dependent changes in physical/mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy composites were investigated. Samples were cut from the eight-ply-thick laminates of commercially used composites, post-cured, and then quenched to environments of various temperature and pressure. Time-dependent changes in their properties were analyzed by thermal and thermomechanical (dynamic mechanical) measurements. An increase in the glass-transition temperature was found to occur as a function of time. The rate of this process was enhanced by an increase in temperature and/or a decrease in pressure. An explanation was offered in terms of types and mechanisms of molecular events that occur in the glassy state. Time dependent decrease in free volume (and enthalpy) takes place but is not the sole mechanism responsible for the observed increase in Tg. After a certain period of time (which depends on T and P of the environment), additional crosslinking appears to take place.
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 24 (1984), S. 30-41 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A mathematical model has been developed to compute the molecular weight distribution (MWD) in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) manufacturing process. Unlike the previous efforts, this model takes into account the influence of side reactions and various interchange reactions on MWD. The process of blending of molten polyester chips has also been simulated with a view to calculate the equilibrium MWD as well as the time required to reach the equilibrium MWD. The1 significance of the results has been discussed in terms of industrial operations involving PET polymerization and PET blending.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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    Polymer Engineering and Science 24 (1984), S. 169-174 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Water-ground Phlogopite micas were classified into narrow particle-size distributions containing flakes with well-defined diameters and thicknesses in order to evaluate the influence of particle size and flake aspect ratio on the mechanical properties of mica-filled polypropylenes, For the purposes of comparison, most of the injection-molded specimens contained 40 percent (by weight) mica. As expected, the flexural and tensile modulus values increased in proportion to the aspect ratio over the range from 30 to 60 to a maximum of 8 GPa. The measured tensile strengths of the mica-filled polypropylenes increased substantially as the flake diameter became smaller, but did not correlate with the flake aspect ratio. The attainable properties were frequently dependent upon the method of mixing, and considerable care was necessary to ensure proper dispersion and adequate coupling. Intensive mixing, as in a Gelimat Mixer, may cause in situ delamination and particle-size reduction of the mica filler particles, leading to a marked increase in tensile strength of the resulting composite. The mica-filled compounds could be reprocessed many times without significant loss of properties, particularly compounds having mica particles less than 40 μm in diameter. The fracture energies (notched Izod) and the heat-distortion temperatures were not appreciably influenced by the size or aspect ratios of the mica within this range. Increased fracture toughness could be achieved by reducing the mica concentration or employing a polypropylene copolymer. Guidelines are presented to indicate the preferred characteristics of mica fillers and the influence of mixing conditions on performance.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The tranesterification step of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) formation consists of several side reactions in addition to the main ester interchange, transesterification, and polycondensation reactions. The side reactions considered in this work are acid end group, acetaldehyde, diethylene glycol, water, and vinyl end group formations. The objective function of the batch esterinterchange reactor is assumed to consist of maximizing the conversion and simultaneously minimizing the formation of side products. The control vector iteration procedure has been used to optimize the esterinterchange reactor and the temperature-time profile that gives the best performance has been found. It is found that the reactor should be operated at a high temperature initially to obtain high conversion of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) first, but then it should be lowered to reduce the formation of side products.
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