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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (5,225)
  • Inorganic Chemistry  (3,415)
  • 1985-1989  (8,640)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; CDPK ; cytoskeleton ; cytochalasin D (CD) ; rhodamine-phalloidin (RP) ; pollen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We recently purified a calcium-dependent but calmodulin- and phospholipid-independent protein kinase (CDPK) from cultured plant cells (Harmon et al.: Plant Physiology 83:830-837, 1987). A monoclonal antibody (mAb 3B9) directed against CDPK was used to localize this protein in Allium root cells and Tradescantia pollen tubes using immunofluorescence techniques. The mAb 3B9 staining pattern showed that CDPK is localized within a fibrous network in the cytoplasm resembling the normal interphase network of F-actin. Treatment of tissue with 10 μM cytochalasin D (CD) prior to fixation abolished the staining pattern. Double-localization experiments in which pollen tubes were first stained with mAb 3B9 and then with rhodamine-phalloidin (RP) demonstrated that CDPK and F-actin were colocalized. Monoclonal antibody 3B9 did not react with purified actin from rabbit muscle or Dictyostelium and did not bind to proteins corresponding to the Mr of actin in crude extracts of Allium root tips and Tradescantia pollen tubes.CDPK did not phosphorylate purified rabbit muscle or Dictyostelium actin in vitro. Binding studies showed that CDPK (1) does not cosediment with actin filaments and (2) does not form a complex with G-actin. The data indicate that although CDPK does not interact directly with actin, it may be associated with an actin-binding protein and therefore could play a role in the regulation of the plant cytoskeleton.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; colchicine ; cold-treatment ; kinesin localization ; EBTr cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The localization of kinesin in EBTr (bovine embryonic trachea fibroblast) cells was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using an affinity-purified antibody against bovine adrenal kinesin.It has already been shown that in interphase cells a part of kinesin is located on microtubules and the rest diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm [Murofushi et al., 1988]. When microtubules were depolymerized with cold or colchicine treatment, antikinesin antibody-stained fibrous components distinct from microtubules. These fibrous structures were considered to be stress fibers because they were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin and because the fibrous staining with antikinesin antibody was completely lost by treating the cells with cytochalasin D along with colchicine. When cold-treated cells in which a major part of kinesin had been localized on stress fibers were incubated at 37°C, kinesin reappeared on reconstituted microtubules. These observations strongly suggest that kinesin has affinity not only to microtubules but also to stress fibers in culture cells.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 123-123 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 139-149 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spectrin ; hamster ; cardiac tissue ; cytoskeletal-membrane ; myofibrils ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spectrins are a family of cytoskeletal-membrane proteins that have a wide tissue distribution. In the present study, we employed polyclonal antibodies made against mammalian and avian erythroid spectrins as well as mammalian brain spectrin to assess their presence and distributions in the mammalian heart. Western blot analyses revealed that all three antibodies were specific for a 240,000 molecular weight α-spectrin subunit found in hamster erythrocyte ghost homogenates, whole hamster heart, and isolated hamster cardiac myofibril homogenates. Spectrin staining was absent from the Triton X-100-extracted supernatant fraction of myofibril preparations, suggesting that the protein is linked to the myofibril precipitate after exposure to the detergent. Frozen, unfixed, 2-μm-thick; sections of adult, Syrian golden hamster cardiac tissue exhibited strong immunofluorescent staining of intercalated discs and Z-bands using all three antibodies. In addition, the mammalian erythroid spectrin antibodies showed staining of the sarcolemma, and in cross section, revealed a delicate internal network of staining that appears to surround individual myofibrils. This may be T-tubule-associated staining. Myofibrils isolated from cardiac myocytes using Triton X-100 show positive Z-band staining using all three antibodies. Double staining with Texas Red-labeled monoclonal desmin and FITC-labeled polyclonal spectrin antibodies revealed that both stained the myofibrillar Z-line regions. These results demonstrate that spectrin is closely associated with the membranes, myofibrils, and intermediate filaments in the mammalian heart.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 181-181 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin microfilaments ; cytochalasin ; immunofluorescence ; phalloidin ; cytoplasmic streaming ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A comparison of actin localization in pollen tubes of Nicotiana has been made using a monoclonal actin antibody and rhodamine-phalloidin (RP). The monoclonal antiactin, based on Western blotting of pollen tube extract, labels a polypeptide at 45 kD that comigrates with muscle actin. A 51-kD unknown protein and three bands less than 45 kD, presumed to be proteolytic fragments of actin, are also observed. Structural observaations using this antibody reveal a network of axially oriented strands of microfilaments (MFs). The MFs are distributed throughout the length of the pollen tube except at the very tip, where diffuse staining is usually observed. A similar pattern of MFs is evident after RP staining. When pollen tubes are treated with cytochalasins (CB or CD) cytoplasmic streaming is inhibited, as is tube elongation. Microscopic analysis reveals that the microfilament (MF) pattern is markedly altered; however, the antibody and RP produce different staining patterns. The antibody reveals many MF strands that distribute throughout the tube length and extend into the very tip. In contrast, RP shows mostly a diffuse staining pattern with only a few short clumps of filamentous material. Immunogold labelling of sections of pollen tubes prepared by rapid-freeze fixation and freeze substitution reveals that actin MF bundles are indeed present after cytochalasin treatment. Our results thus question reports in the literature, based on phalloidin staining, asserting that cytochalasin fragments or destroys actin MFs.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ankyrin ; adducin ; protein 4.1 ; correlation length ; flexural rigidity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The three avian spectrins that have been characterized consist of a common α-subunit (240 kD) paired with an isoform-specific β-subunit from either erythrocyte (220 or 230 kD), brain (235 kD), or intestinal brush border (260 kD). Analysis of avian spectrins, with their naturally occurring “subunit replacement” has proved useful in assessing the relative contribution of each subunit to spectrin function. In this study we have completed a survey of avian spectrin binding properties and present morphometric analysis of the relative flexibility and linearity of various avian and human spectrin isoforms. Evidence is presented that, like its mammalian counterpart, avian brain spectrin binds human erythroid ankyrin with low affinity. Cosedimentation analysis demonstrates that (1) avian erythroid protein 4.1 stimulates spectrin-actin binding of both mammalian and avian erythrocyte and brain spectrins, but not the TW 260/240 isoform, (2) calpactin I does not potentiate actin binding of either TW 260/240 or brain spectrin, and (3) erythrocyte adducin does not stimulate the interaction of TW 260/240 with actin.In addition, a morphometric analysis of rotary-shadow images of spectrin isoforms, individual subunits, and reconstituted complexes from isolated subunits was performed. This analysis revealed that the overall flexibility and linearity of a given spectrin heterodimer and tetramer is largely determined by the intrinsic rigidity and linearity of its β-spectrin subunit. No additional rigidity appears to be imparted by noncovalent associations between the subunits. The scaled flexural rigidity of the most rigid spectrin analyzed (human brain) is similar to that reported for F-actin.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: carotenoid droplet ; intermediate filament ; microfilament ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cytoskeleton of goldfish xanthophores contains an abundance of unique dense structures (400 nm in diameter) that are absent in goldfish nonpigment cells and are probably remnants of pterinosomes. No major difference in protein composition between xanthophores and nonpigment cells (without these structures) was found that could account for these structures. In xanthophores, these structures are foci of radiating filaments. The addition or withdrawal of ACTH causes a radical rearrangement of the xanthophore Cytoskeleton accompanying redistribution of carotenoid droplets, namely, the virtual exclusion of these dense bodies with associated filaments from the space occupied by the carotenoid droplet aggregate vs. a relatively even cytoplasmic distribution of these structures when the carotenoid droplets are dispersed. These changes in cytoskeletal morphology are not accompanied by any major changes in the protein or phosphoprotein composition of the cytoskeleton.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: meiosis ; live observation ; oscillatory movements ; microtubule assembly-disassembly ; spindle forces ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chromosome movements in Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes were studied using conventional video light microscopy. Kinetochore regions of the three bipolarly oriented bivalents displayed periodic back and forth movements directed to both poles at metaphase I, leading to periodic lenght changes of the bivalents. Velocity was 8-10 μm/min (maximum 17 μ/min), about one order of magnitude higher than the normal meiotic or mitotic chromosome movements of other species. One cycle of movement lasted for about 100 seconds. The movement of kinetochore regions implies that the antagonistic chromosome fibres periodically grow (assemble) and shorten (disassemble) at comparable rates. Poleward movements must be caused by forces generated in disassembling fibres, whereas movements away from the poles, accompanied by fibre growth, are probably brought about by the internal elastic force of the chromosomes. Antagonistic fibres of a bivalent can operate in or out of phase. The movements of the three kinetochore regions are coordinated insofar as growing and shortening fibres coexist in a half-spindle at almost any time [Fuge, H. (1987): European Journal of Cell Biology 44:294-298]. These observations are discussed in terms of microtubule dynamics.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; actin-binding protein ; plasma membranes ; cytoskeleton ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; cell motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ponticulin is the major actin-binding integral glycoprotein in plasma membranes isolated from log-phase Dictyostelium discoideum amebae. As such, this protein appears to be an important link between the plasma membrane and actin filaments (Wuestehube and Luna: Journal of Cell Biology 105:1741-1751, 1987). In this study, indirect immunofluorescence microcopy was used to examine the distribution of ponticulin in randomly moving D. discoideum amebae and in amebae engaged in cell migration and phagocytosis. Ponticulin is distributed throughout the plasma membrane and also is present in intracellular vesicles associated with the microtubule-organizing center-Golgi complex adjacent to the nucleus. In aggreating amebae, ponticulin is concentrated in regions of lateral cell-cell contact and in arched regions of the plasma membrane. Ponticulin also is present, but not obviously enriched, in filopodia, in the actin-rich anterior end of polarized cells, and in detergent-insoluble cytoskeletons. In amebae engaged in phagocytosis of yeast, ponticulin is present but not enriched in phagocytic cups and is associated with intracellular vesicles around engulfed yeast. These results suggest that ponticulin is stably associated with actin filaments in certain regions of the plasma membrace and that the actin-binding activity of ponticulin may be tightly controlled.Indirect immupofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis demonstrate that human polymorphonuclear leukocytes also contain a 17 kD protein that specifically cross-reacts with antibodies affinity-purified aganst D. discoideum ponticulin. As in D. discoideum, the mammalian 17 kD ponticulin-analog appears to be localized in plasma membrane and is evident in actin-rich cell extensions. These results indicate that ponticulin-mediated linkages between the plasma membrane and actin may be present in higher eukaryotic cells.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 274-287 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: complex I ; mitochondria ; bovine cardiac muscle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A 70 kD protein, which we have named mitoskelin, is highly enriched in cytoskeletal preparations from bovine cardiac muscle. Mitoskelin has three main variants with isoelectric points between 5.6 and 5.8. Immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies directed against mitoskelin shows that, like intermediate filament proteins, the majority of mitoskelin resists solubilization from a myocardial homogenate by a series of extraction solutions ranging from very low salt to 0.6 M KI buffers and by 0.1-1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. By double-label immunofluorescence on cells and tissues, mitoskelin is colocalized with the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase. Mitoskelin is associated with the inner membranes of mitochondria as shown by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting Immunological cross-reactivity and similarities of molecular weight, pI, distribution, and chromatographic properties indicate that mitoskelin is the 70 kD component of complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase), a portion of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. No function or activity has yet been demonstrated for the 70 kD component of the 25-polypeptide complex I. Dialysis against physiological buffers allows purified, urea-solubilized mitoskelin to form 10 nm wide filamentous structures that do not closely resemble intermediate filaments. These results suggest the exciting possibility that mitochondria may contain a membrane-associated filamentous skeleton.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sarcoplasmic reticulum ; mitochondira ; mitotic spindle ; cytoskeleton ; cytokinesis ; fluorescent membrane dyes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dynamic changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in interphase and mitotic cells was detected by the vital fluorescent dye 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Two types of arrays characterize the continuous ER system in the non-muscle PtK2 cell: (1) a lacy network of irregular polygons and (2) long strands of ER that are found aligned along stress fibers. In cross-striated myotubes there was a periodic localization of fluorescence over each I-band corresponding to the positions of the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In contrast to the arrangement in muscle cells, the aligment of the long strands of ER along stress fibers showed no strict periodicity that could be correlated with the sarcomeric units of the stress fibers. The ER and SR arrays seen in living cells were also detected in fixed cells stained with antibodies directed against proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and sarcoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Observations of vitally stained PtK2 cells at 1 to 2 minute intervals using low light level video cameras and image processing techniques enabled us to see the polygonal ER units form and undergo changes in their shapes. During cell division, the ER, rhodamine 123-stained mitochondria, and phagocytosed fluorescent beads were excluded from the mitotic spindle while soluble proteins were not. No obvious concentration or alignment of membranes could be found associated with the contractile proteins in the cleavage furrow. After completion of cell division there was a redeployment of the ER network in each daughter cell.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 12-20 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 81-91 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 118-127 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 183-186 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 178-182 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spermatozoon ; Ca2+ ; asymmetry ; inactivation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Spermatozoa of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were demembranated with Triton X-100. The demembranated spermatozoa showed vigorous motility in the reactivation solution containing Ca2+ at the concentrations below 10-8.5M in the presence of cAMP. The motility was lost at 10-8M Ca2+ or more. The shape of the immotile flagella in the presence of high concentration of Ca2+ was not uniform: Some showed the cane shape and some were almost straight. The change in Ca2+ concentration of the extraction solution did not alter the motility of the reactivated spermatozoa. These results were different from those obtained from the sea urchin spermatozoa. When the concentration of cAMP was changed from 0.5 to 100 μM, the concentration of Ca2+ for converting the motile to immotile state was not altered. Thus, it is likely that the Ca2+-dependent regulatory system of flagellar movement is independent of the cAMP-induced initiation mechanism, which is assumed to require the transient influx of Ca2+ in rainbow trout spermatozoa.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Acanthamoeba ; affinity chromatography ; Dictyostelium ; NMR spectroscopy ; platelets ; myosin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present evidence that native profilin can be purified from cellular extracts of Acanthamoeba, Dictyostelium, and human platelets by affinity chromatography on poly-L-proline agarose. After applying cell extracts and washing the column with 3 M urea, homogeneous profilin is eluted by increasing the urea concentration to 6-8 M. Acanthamoeba profilin-I and profilin-II can subsequently be separated by cation exchange chromatography. The yield of Acanthamoeba profilin is twice that obtained by conventional methods. Several lines of evidence show that the profilins fully renature after removal of the urea by dialysis: (1) dialyzed Acanthamoeba and human profilins rebind quantitatively to poly-L-proline and bind to actin in the same way as native, conventionally purified profilin without urea treatment; (2) dialyzed profilins form 3-D crystals under the same conditions as native profilins; (3) dialyzed Acanthamoeba profilin-I has an NMR spectrum identical with that of native profilin-I; and (4) dialyzed human and Acanthamoeba profilins inhibit actin polymerization. We report the discovery of profilin in Dictyostelium cell extracts using the same method. Based on these observations we conclude that urea elution from poly-L-proline agarose followed by renaturation will be generally useful for preparing profilins from a wide variety of cells. Perhaps also of general use is the finding that either myosin-II or alpha-actinin in crude cell extracts, can be bound selectively to the poly-L-proline agarose column depending on the ionic conditions used to equilibrate the column. We have purified myosin-II from both Acanthamoeba and Dictyostelium cell extracts and alpha-actinin from Acanthamoeba cell extracts in the appropriate buffers. These proteins are retained as complexes with actin by the agarose and not by a specific interaction with poly-L-proline. They can be eluted by dissociating the complexes with ATP and separated from actin by gel filtration if necessary.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 271-287 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin-membrane interaction ; adhesion plaque ; vinculin ; integrin ; fibroblasts ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To investigate the role of talin in the anchoring of actin-containing stress fibers to the cell membrane of nonmuscle cells, a fluorescent analog of the adhesion plaque protein talin was developed, characterized, and microinjected into living cells. Purified chicken gizzard talin was covalently labeled with the fluorescent dye lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl chloride. The fluorescently labeled protein was then chromatographed on Sephadex G-25 and DEAE-cellulose in order to remove free dye and denatured protein. The fluorescent talin was able to bind purified vinculin and was localized in adhesion plaques, membrane ruffles, microspikes, and polygonal networks in acetone-permeabilized nonmuscle cells. In cells that were double-stained with fluorescent talin and an affinity-purified anti-talin an-tibody, a one-to-one correspondence of adhesion plaque staining was seen. Living epithelial cells (PtK2) were microinjected during interphase with fluorescent talin. Computer-enhanced video microscopy was used to document adhesion plaque dynamics such as (1) changes in plaque shape, (2) alterations in plaque positions, and (3) the appearance, growth, and dissolution of plaques. In cells that were followed during mitosis, the adhesion plaques disappeared during cell rounding and then subsequently reappeared upon spreading of the two daughter cells. Treatment of microinjected cells with DMSO in order to disassemble stress fibers resulted in an altered localization of the fluorescent talin. Upon recovery of the cell from the drug, the talin was visualized in its characteristic submembraneous position. These results are the first to document the role and distribution of talin in dynamic processes occurring in living microinjected nonmuscle cells.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; membrane organelle ; cross bridges ; intracellular motion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Two major brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MAP2 and tau, were found to be able to bind to purified rat brain mitochondria. The apparent dissociation constants of the binding of thermostable 32P-labeled MAP2 and tau are 0.9 ± 0.04 × 10-7 and 3.8 ± 0.7 × 10-7 M, respectively. 32P-labeled MAP2 and tau bound to the mitochondria can be displaced by phosphorylated, nonradioactive MAP2. The binding parameters of MAP2 prepared without heat treatment and those of the thermostable MAP2 were of the same order of magnitude. Microtubule-binding and projection domains of MAP2 were obtained by chymotryptic digestion of rat brain microtubules (Vallee, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77:3206-3210, 1980). Displacement studies with these two domains show that MAP2 bound to mitochondria can be displaced by the microtubule-binding domain, whereas the projection domain does not displace MAP2. The two domains of MAP2 bind to the mitochondria with similar affinity constants; however, the Bmax for the projection domain was 10 times and 35 times lower than the Bmax of the binding of the intact MAP2 and the microtubule-binding domain, respectively. Chymotryptic digestion of MAP2 bound to the mitochondria yielded peptide fragments with molecular masses similar to those obtained by the digestion of MAP2 bound to the microtubules. The fragments corresponding to the projection domain were released into the extramitochondrial supernatant, whereas the fragments originating from the microtubule-binding domain remained bound to the mitochondria. These results suggest that MAP2 binds to mitochondria preferentially via its microtubule-binding domain.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; cell surface ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have used 400 kilovoit intermediate voltage electron microscopy (IVEM) to examine thick sections of fibroblasts cultured in collagen gels. In these 3D collagen lattices, the long, narrow pseudopodial extensions that extend out and make contact with the collagen matrix exhibit a complex topography not seen in the processes put out by cells moving on planar substrata. For this reason, sections 1 to 2 μm thick that enclose a whole cell process are more informative of the overall morphology of the interaction between cells and the collagen than are thin sections. To aid the discrimination of topography of cell processes in stereo views of micrographs, some cells were labeled with antibodies and protein A-colloidal gold conjugates. The gold particles provided clear 3D reference points for computeraided reconstructions of membrane topography from tilt series of IVEM images. Our results confirm that cells that move through collagen lattices lack the wellspread morphology of their counterparts moving on glass. They are generally rather spindly with several long branching anterior pseudopodia. We found that the cell bodies and major pseudopodial processes were cylindrical, as one might expect of cells in a 3D environment, but at the leading edge of advancing pseudopodia there are small flat extensions similar to those seen in cells on glass. This similarity suggests that the lamellipodium is a basic type ofprotrusive structure used by fibroblasts during locomotion on all types of substratum. The flattened shape of lamellipodia may be part of the mechanism by which cells sense the orientation of fibrillar extracellular matrices during embryonic morphogenesis.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Quin-/ ; spermatozoa ; desmethoxyverapamil ; fluorescence ; K+ ; flagellar beating ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The initiation of motility of trout spermatozoa is inhibited by the presence of millimolar concentrations of external K+, but external Ca2+ might also be implicated in this control as it has been shown to antagonize the K+ inhibition of motility [S.M. Baynes et al.: J. Fish. Biol., 19:259-267, 1981]. The present work aimed to investigate internal Ca2+ levels during the motility phase of trout spermatozoa. Internal Ca2+ concentrations were monitored by the fluorescent quinoline Ca2+-indicator, “Quin-2” [R. Y. Tsien: Nature 290:527-529, 1981]. Trout spermatozoa were loaded with Quin-/ under conditions that gave efficient intracellular hydrolysis of Quin-2 and that did not impair the ability of loaded spermatozoa to initiate movement. The beat frequencies, cell velocities, and flagellar asymmetries of sperm movement were not significantly modified by the presence of the internal dye. Upon initiation of flagellar movement, an increase of the internal Quin-2 fluorescence was observed that reflected a sixfold increase of the free Ca2+ concentration. The free Ca2+ remained elevated after the cessation of movement. The variation of fluorescence was completed within 40 seconds, whereas the initiation of motility was nearly instantaneous, and the total duration of flageliar beating lasted for about 80-100 seconds (measurements at 11°C). The increase in the internal free Ca2+ concentration is completed after the initiation of flagellar beating but its occurrence correlates with that of sperm movement. Fluorescence increase was not observed in the presence of 40 mM K+, a condition in which spermatozoa did not initiate flagellar beating. In the presence of the Ca2+ channel blocker desmethoxyverapamil, neither sperm motility nor fluorescence increases were observed, which suggested that the increase of internal free Ca2+ was produced by a flux of external Ca2+ into the cell rather than by a mobilization of internal Ca2+ stores.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: F-actin ; intermediate filament ; microtubules ; pterinosomes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Immunofluorescence and phase-contrast microscopic studies of goldfish xanthophores with aggregated or dispersed pigment show two unusual features. First, immunofluorescence studies with anti-actin show punctate structures instead of filaments. These punctate structures are unique for the xanthophores and are absent from both goldfish dermal no-pigment cells and a dedifferentiated cell line (GEM-81) derived from a goldfish xanthophore tumor. Comparison of immunofluorescence and phase-contrast microscopic images with electron microscopic images of thin sections and of Triton-insoluble cytoskeletons show that these punctate structures represent pterinosomes with radiating F-actin. The high local concentration of actin around the pterinosomes results in strong localized fluorescence such that, when the images have proper brightness for these structures, individual actin filaments elsewhere in the cell are too weak in their fluorescence to be visible in the micrographs. Second, whereas immunofluorescence images with anti-tubulin show typical patterns in xanthophores with either aggregated or dispersed pigment, namely, filaments radiating out from the microtubule organizing center, immunofluorescence images with anti-actin or with anti-intermediate filament proteins show different patterns in xanthophores with aggregated versus dispersed pigment. In cells with dispersed pigment, the punctate structrues seen with anti-actin are relatively evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, and intermediate filaments appear usually as a dense perinuclear band and long filaments elsewhere in the cytoplasm. In cells with aggregated pigment, both intermediate filaments and pterinosomes with associated actin are largely excluded from the space occupied by the pigment aggregate, and the band of intermediate filaments surrounds not only the nucleus but also the pigment aggregate. The patterns of distribution of the different cytoskeleton components, together with previous results from this laboratory, indicate that formation of the pigment aggregate depends at least in part on the interaction between pigment organelles and microtubules. The possibility that intermediate filaments may play a role in the formation/stabilization of the pigment aggregate is discussed.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centriole ; centrosome ; centrin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii each basal body is linked to the nucleus by a fibrous nucleus-basal body connector (NBBC) that contains the calcium-binding protein centrin. (Wright et al.: Journal of Cell Biology 101:1903-1912.; Salisbury et al.: Journal of Cell Biology 107:635-642; Huang et al.: Journal of Cell Biology 107:121-131). In order to explore the cellular function of the NBBC we used antiserum directed against centrin to examine a number of mutants known to be defective for basal body assembly and/or localization. Of three variable flagella-number mutants examined, one, vfl-2, is dramatically defective with respect to the NBBC in that (1) the union between basal bodies and nucleus is very labile, (2) there is no detectible centrin in the NBBC region, and (3) total cellular centrin levels are reduced 75-80% relative to wild type. The existence of these defects in a mutant incapable of maintaining normal flagellar number supports the view that the NBBC plays an important role in determining proper basal body localization and/or segregation. In contrast to vfl-2, the mutants vfl-1, vfl-3, uni-1, and bald-2 contain approximately normal levels of centrin and possess stable NBBCs. The observation of NBBCs in the mutant bald-2, which lacks all but very rudimentary basal bodies, indicates that the assembly of the NBBC does not require fully formed basal bodies and that such assembly may not require basal bodies at all. Finally, the possibility that the NBBC is required for induction of gene expression following deflagellation was tested by examining vfl-2 for such induction. Results indicate that the connector does not play a necessary role in the induction process.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 544-551 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ingestion ; cell; encapsulation ; cell; size of granulocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Micromanipulation of yeast particles and blood granulocytes has been used to study the kinetics of single phagocytosis events. The ingestion process was quantitated by observation of sequential adhesion and encapsulation times. Both adherence and encapsulation times were found to increase greatly as the temperature was reduced below 37°C calcium in solution facilitated adhesion of the particle to the phagocyte but not encapsulation; both adhesion and encapsulation processes required a minimum level of plasma components (presumably complement). The general nature of these observations were confirmatiory of previous studies, but this study is unique in that the specific time course of single particle ingestion was quantitated. It was immediately apparent that the phagocytosis process was 100% efficient above the threshold concentrations required for plasma and temperature, but variations in times from cell to cell indicated heterogeneity in the population. The total time for ingestion varied from as low as 2 sec/particle at 37°C to above several min/particle below 15°C. Encapsulation times for particles were normalized by estimates of particle surface areas to establish a specific time/unit area of particle surface: from 0.5 sec/10-8 cm2 at 37°C to greater than 8 sec/10-8 cm2 at 15°C. The temperature dependence of the encapsulation time correlated well with the temperature dependence of the “apparent” viscosity for granulocytes measured by micropipet aspiration. As such, the kinetic properties observed in these phagocytosis tests are consistent with a model that both assembly of the contractile system and the displacement of the surface by active contraction in phagocytosis are limited by viscous dissipation in the cell. Based on temperature dependence of the adhesion time, the activation energy associated with “turning on” the contractile system is quite large, with a value of about 31 kcal/mole. Finally, it was found that serial “feeding” of yeast to a single granulocyte satiated the phagocyte only after six to eleven particles had been encapsulated. The number limit to ingestion was directly proportional to inital size of the granulocyte.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Y probe ; Prenatal diagnosis ; Mosaicism ; Chorionic villus biopsy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Samples of human adult lymphocytes, fetal lymphocytes, amniotic fluid cells, and chorionic villus cells were sexed independently by cytogenetics and DNA-DNA in situ hybridisation to a tritiated Y probe. For the in situ hybridisation analysis, the presence of Y bodies (hybridisation bodies) in 100 interphase nuclei were scored after autoradiography. In all, 82/83 samples were sexed in this way (one technical failure) and 78/82 were sexed by both in situ hybridisation and cytogenetics. There was complete agreement between the two methods. There was a considerable variation (40-100%) in the percentage of interphase nuclei with a hybridisation body among the male samples, but very few nuclei from female samples showed significant hybridisation. In situ hybridisation could be used to sex the conceptus when males but not females are at risk for various X-linked genetic disorders and may also be useful for detecting 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or polyploid/diploid mosaicism. This would be particularly useful for direct preparations of chorionic villus samples, which often prove difficult to analyse cytogenetically but offer the best means of avoiding maternal contamination. Some interphase nuclei had more than one hybridisation body, and this was most commonly found among amniotic fluid cells. Comparison of sizes of nuclei with one or two hybridisation bodies strongly suggested that most of the amniotic fluid cell nuclei with two hybridisation bodies were tetraploid.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Preimplantation ; Gene expression ; RNA quantity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Studies of gene expression during blastocyst formation in mouse preimplantation development have been limited by the amount of RNA available per embryo. Our present approach to this problem has been to construct a large, representative, blastocyst cDNA library in λgtll. Random hexadeoxynucleotides were used as primers with total blastocyst RNA serving as template. RNA collected from 4,100 32-64 cell embryos was used to generate a library with an initial size of 30 × 106 recombinants. By using clone frequency as a measure of relative mRNA abundance, our data support previous work on the relative and absolute amounts of actin, histone H2a, and intracisternal A particle. Furthermore, we provide estimates for the abundance of cytokeratin endo A, cytokeratin endo B, and β-tubulin from clone frequency data. Insert sizes for isolated clones range from 200 bp to 3.6 kb with full-length or near-full-length insert sizes for selected clones, indicating that random primer methods generate cDNAs which can represent a significant portion of the mRNA. We have so far characterized products whose abundance is equal to or greater than 0.002% of total RNA. This library offers the potential for the analyses of presumptive regulatory gene products in the mouse preimplantation embryo which are represented as low abundance (〈1% of mRNA) RNAs.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Transgenic mouse ; PCR ; Microinjection ; Bisection ; Morula ; Fetus ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system to detect transgenes in mouse preimplantation embryos was employed so that transgenic embryos could be selected before they were transferred to recipient mice. The selection system involves bisection of morulae, selection of the half-morulae containing target sequences within 7 hr, and culture and transfer of the sister half-morulae. PCR analysis of morulae derived from transgenic mice confirmed that the PCR system was reliable. However, five of 41 implanted embryos derived from PCR-positive morulae did not contain the transgenes. Also, one of 28 implanted embryos from PCR-negative morulae were transgenic. The selection system was applied to fertilized mouse eggs into which pSV2-gpt-gE1A DNA was injected. The injected DNA was detected in 30 of 84 morulae derived from the microinjected eggs. All seven implanted embryos developed from PCR-negative morulae had no detectable amount of transgenes, and one of two successfully implanted embryos from PCR-positive morulae was transgenic.
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 66-66 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: amoeboid movement ; endocytosis ; cation composition ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To study the in vivo role of myosin-II in Acanthamoeba castellanii, motile cells were microinjected with monoclonal antibodies raised against the myosin-II heavy chain. All injected cells underwent a transient shock response. It was found that although injection of buffer alone or of an endogenous Acanthamoeba protein decreased the motility of injected cells from 7 μm/min to ∼3 μm/min, injection of monoclonal antibodies specific for myosin-II decreased motility further to ∼0.8 μm/min. This effect was seen whether or not the monoclonal antibody to myosin-II inhibited the actomyosin-II MgATPase activity in vitro. Levels of antibody far in excess of endogenous myosin-II concentrations could not completely block amoeboid movement. The morphology of moving antimyosin-II-injected cells was unusual, suggesting a greater defect in the ability to retract the trailing edge of the cell rather than to extend the leading edge. Endosomes frequently disappeared from injected cells, and although buffer-injected cells rapidly recovered visible endosomes (50% recovery at 5 min), endosomes were not seen in antimyosin-II-injected cells until, on the average, ∼50 min after injection. Injection of a nonspecific antibody or of a nonspecific exogenous protein (ovalbumin) also decreased the mobility of the injected cells beyond that of buffer-injected cells (to ∼1 μm/min). These cells tended to recover endosomes more rapidly (∼25 min) than cells injected with antimyosin-II monoclonal antibodies. The inability of antibodies to myosin-II to inhibit completely any of the movements studied suggests that although myosin-II probably plays a role in these motilities, the cell either routinely uses or can draw upon another cytoplasmic motor to maintain locomotion, organelle movement, contractile vacuole activity, and endocytosis.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Ca2+ control ; Beroë macrocilia ; sliding disruption ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Macrocilia of the ctenophore Beroë are activated to beat continuously in the normal direction by membrane-mediated Ca2+ influx (Tamm: Journal of Comparative Physiology [A] 163:23-31, 1988a). Using saponin or Brij-58 permeabilized models of macrocilia, we show that ATP-reactivation of beating requires μM levels of free Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+. Isolated macrocilia beat initially in reactivation solution (RS) containing Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+ and then undergo microtubule sliding disintegration without added proteases. Addition of protease inhibitors to RS + 10-5 M Ca2+ prevents sliding disruption. Pretreatment in wash solution (containing 1 mM EGTA) without protease inhibitors, followed by RS + 10-5 M Ca2+ with protease inhibitors results in extensive sliding disintegration. However, treatment in wash solution followed by RS + protease inhibitors does not induce sliding. Therefore, Ca2+ is not required for proteolysis by endogenous proteases, but is necessary for sliding disintegration.Local iontophoretic application of Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+ to permeabilized macrocilia in RS lacking these cations triggers motility and/or sliding disintegration. Extrusion of microtubules occurs from the tip or the base, depending on whether or not the macrocilium remains attached to its large actin bundle. Thin sheets of microtubules telescope out initially, due to synchronized sliding of subsets of doublet microtubules from parallel rows of axonemes.Macrocilia are one of the first examples of ATP-induced microtubule sliding which retains Ca2+ sensitivity. In addition, the finding that Ba2+ and Sr2+ also trigger active sliding provides an additional method for investigating the control of dynein-powered microtubule movements.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytokinesis ; cytoskeleton ; microinjection ; mitosis ; myotubes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescently labeled desmin was incorporated into intermediate filaments when microinjected into living tissue culture cells. The desmin, purified from chicken gizzard smooth muscle and labeled with the fluorescent dye iodoacetamido rhodamine, was capable of forming a network of 10-nm filaments in solution. The labeled protein associated specifically with the native vimentin filaments in permeabilized, unfixed interphase and mitotic PtK2 cells. The labeled desmin was microinjected into living, cultured embryonic skeletal myotubes, where it became incorporated in straight fibers aligned along the long axis of the myotubes. Upon exposure to nocodazole, microinjected myotubes exhibited wavy, fluorescent filament bundles around the muscle nuclei. In PtK2 cells, an epithelial cell line, injected desmin formed a filamentous network, which colocalized with the native vimentin intermediate filaments but not with the cytokeratin networks and microtubular arrays. Exposure of the injected cells to nocadazole or acrylamide caused the desmin network to collapse and form a perinuclear cap that was indistinguishable from vimentin caps in the same cells. During mitosis, labeled desmin filaments were excluded from the spindle area, forming a cage around it. The filaments were partitioned into two groups either during anaphase or at the completion of cytokinesis. In the former case, the perispindle desmin filaments appeared to be stretched into two parts by the elongating spindle. In the latter case, a continuous bundle of filaments extended along the length of the spindle and appeared to be pinched in two by the contracting cleavage furrow. In these cells, desmin filaments were present in the midbody where they gradually were removed as the desmin filament network became redistributed throughout the cytoplasm of the spreading daughter cells.
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  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeletal arrays ; heat shock ; synchronous CHO cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The vimentin intermediate filament (VIMF) network is more sensitive to heat-induced disruption than either the microtubule (MT) or microfilament (MF) cytoskeletal (CSK) arrays in G1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (Coss and Wachsberger: Radiation Research, 1987). We therefore investigated the effect of the VIMF disruptive agent, acrylamide (Eckert: European Journal of Cell Biology 37:169-174, 1985), on the heat response of synchronous CHO cells. Cells, either in the process of spreading (G1 or S phase) or in the well-spread state (S phase), were exposed to a nontoxic concentration of 5 mM acrylamide, heated, and processed for immunofluorescence microscopy 30 min or 20 hr following the heat shock. Recovery from CSK disruption was related to cell survival.CHO cells, either in the process of spreading or in the well-spread state, were sensitized to heat-induced CSK disruption and cytotoxicity by acrylamide. Recovery from CSK disruption correlated with surviving fractions of cells treated in the G1 phase but not with surviving fractions of cells treated in the S phase and was independent of the degree of cell spreading. This correlation suggests that damage to CSK structures may contribute to the death of cells treated in G1 but not necessarily to the death of cells treated in S phase.The degree of acrylamide sensitization of heat-induced CSK disruption was greater for cells exposed to acrylamide prior to spreading than for well-spread cells. Furthermore, normal spreading of cells was prevented when they were plated into medium containing acrylamide, suggesting that acrylamide interferes with the initial stages of attachment and spreading of these cells. These observations are interpreted in relation to the possible role that VIMFs, together with cortical MFs, may play in mediating cell surface focal contacts in the initial stages of cell attachment and spreading.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell adhesion ; cell motility ; near infrared light ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Interference-reflection microscopy (IRM) is the only method presently available with which to visualize cell-substratum adhesions in living tissue culture cells continuously for long periods of time without the use of fluorescent markers (Curtis: J. Cell Biol. 20:199-215, 1964; Izzard and Lochner: J. Cell Sci. 21:129-159, 1976). This method utilizes approximately 1% of the incident illumination to produce the IRM image (Verschueren: J. Cell Sci. 75:279-301, 1985) and so far has required the use of high-intensity light sources in the visible spectral range (400-800 nm). Unfortunately, visible light of this intensity and spectral range induces marked changes in the behavior and morphology of motile fibroblasts, including cessation of locomotion. In contrast, the present paper reports that continuous observations of live cells in IRM for periods of up to 8 hours are possible if the illuminating light is in the red to near-infrared range (650-950 nm) and without any observable change in normal cell morphology or behavior. In addition, we describe how the technique of Y-contrast image processing can be applied to IRM images to create a three-dimensional image of the ventral cell surface topography.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; cell adhesion ; light chain phosphorylation ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; fluorescent indicators ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Following our study in Balb/c 3T3 cells and other cultured fibroblasts of the changes in myosin light chain phosphorylation associated with alterations in cell shape, attachment, and receptor patching, we have now determined the corresponding changes in cytoskeletal myosin distribution, and in the cellular calcium concentration, since this might, in part, mediate such responses.Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that myosin assembly into ordered forms such as actomyosin bundles and myosin sheath almost always correlated with previously shown high phosphorylation levels of myosin regulatory light chain, whereas diffuse distributions usually correlated with low or undetectable levels. An exception was observed in treatment to alter cellular cAMP levels when, in a biphasic response, assembly was correlated inversely with the phosphorylation states shown previously.Fluorescent indicators for intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca++]i, showed that myosin disassembly by trypsin or EGTA acting externally on the cells was preceded by a transient increase in [Ca++]i. For EGTA this was associated with transient recruitment of myosin into dorsal sheath structure as well as the transient enhancement of phosphorylation shown earlier. Blockage of EGTA-induced disassembly could be achieved by azide, which also caused an immediate increase in [Ca++]i and inhibited its subsequent decline. Trypsin-induced dephosphorylation did not appear to involve an eventual reduction of [Ca++]i. Therefore, in many but not all of the systems studied, correlated changes were observed in myosin assembly, [Ca++]i, and the myosin phosphorylation levels shown earlier.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: latrunculin A ; latrunculin B ; cell shape ; actin organization ; cell growth and division ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The latrunculins are architecturally novel marine compounds isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. In vivo, they alter cell shape, disrupt microfilament organization, and inhibit the microfilament-mediated processes of fertilization and early development. In vitro, latrunculin A was recently found to affect the polymerization of pure actin in a manner consistent with the formation of a 1:1 molar complex with G-actin. These in vitro effects as well as previous indications that the latrunculins are more potent than the cytochalasins suggest differences in the in vivo mode of action of the two clases of drugs. To elucidate these differences we have compared the short- and long-term effects of latrunculins on cell shape and actin organization to those of cytochalasin D. Exposure of hamster fibroblast NIL8 cells for 1-3 hr to latrunculin A, latrunculin B, and cytochalasin D causes concentration-dependent changes in cell shape and actin organization. However, the latrunculin-induced changes were strikingly different from those induced by cytochalasin D. Furthermore, while initial effects were manifest with both latrunculin A and cytochalasin D already at concentrations of about 0.03 μg/ml, latrunculin A caused complete rounding up of all cells at 0.2 μg/ml, whereas with cytochalasin D maximum contraction was reached at concentrations 10-20 times higher. The short-term effects of latrunculin B were similar to those of latrunculin A although latrunculin B was slightly less potent. All three drugs inhibited cytokinesis in synchronized cells, but their long-term effects were markedly different. NIL8 cells treated with latrunculin A maintained their altered state for extended periods. In contrast, the effects of cytochalasin D progressed with time in culture, and the latrunculin B-induced changes were transient in the continued presence of the drug. These transient effects were found to be due to a gradual inactivation of latrunculin B by serum and were used to compare recovery patterns of cell shape and actin organization in two different cell lines. This comparison showed that the transient effects of latrunculin B were fully reversible for the NIL8 cells and not for the mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: desmosomes ; keratinocytes ; tumor cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In cultured human keratinocytes (NHEK) maintained in medium containing low levels of Ca2+ (0.04 mM) desmoplakin is a component of certain electron-dense bodies in the cytoplasm. These bodies are associated with bundles of intermediate filaments. Upon elevation of the level of Ca2+ in the culture medium to 1.2 mM, desmoplakin first appears at sites of cell - cell contact in association with bundles of intermediate filaments. Subsequently, desmoplakin becomes incorporated into desmosomes in a manner comparable to that seen in mouse keratinocytes (Jones and Goldman: Journal of Cell Biology 101:506-517, 1985). NHEK cells maintained for 24 hr at Ca2+ concentrations between 0.04 mM and 0.18 mM were processed for immunofluorescence, immunoelectron, and conventional electron microscopical analysis. In NHEK cells grown at Ca2+ concentrations of 0.11 mM, desmoplakin appears to be localized in electron-dense bodies associated with intermediate filaments at sites of cell - cell contact in the absence of formed desmosomes. At a Ca2+ concentration of 0.13 mM desmoplakin is arrayed like beads on a “string” of intermediate filaments at areas of cell - cell association. At 0.15 mM, desmosome formation occurs, and desmoplakin is associated with the desmosomal plaque. In basal cell carcinoma cells desmoplakin is not restricted to desmosomes but also occurs in certain electron-dense bodies morphologically similar to those seen in NHEK maintained in low levels of Ca2+ and during early stages of desmosome assembly. We discuss the possibility of “cycling” of desmoplakin through these bodies in proliferative cells.
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 239-244 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm ; nucleotide analog ; kinetics ; Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus ; reactivation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The 2-substituted ATP analog 2-Chloro ATP was tested for its capacity to support axonemal movement. The movement of sea urchin axonemes reactivated with 2-CI ATP appeared very similar to that with ATP. Detailed waveform analysis indicated that bend angle and shear amplitude were not significantly different for ATP and 2-CI ATP. Although wavelength differs at particular nucleotide concentrations, if normalized to the beat frequency, it is similar for ATP and 2-CI ATP. The main difference in the movement with the two analogs was seen in beat frequency and sliding velocity. The Vmax for beat frequency and mean sliding velocity was lower for 2-CI ATP. The apparent Km for beat frequency and sliding velocity was much lower for 2-CI ATP. The ratio of these two effects, that is, (Vmax/Km) is higher for 2-CI ATP. Thus 2-CI ATP is a good substrate for axonemal movement. The significantly lower Km of 2-CI ATP was also demonstrated by its ability to support oscillatory motion at concentrations below that for ATP. The observations identify the structures and conformation of substrate necessary to support axonemal movement.
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    Electronic Resource
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 90-103 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; spindles ; microtubule-organizing centers ; antiphosphoprotein antibodies ; phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Protein phosphorylation during development of sea urchin eggs from fertilization to first cleavage was examined by labeling cells with specific antiphosphoprotein antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antithiophos-phoprotein antibody (Gerhart et al.: Cytobios 43:335-347, 1985) has revealed that nuclei as well as centrosomes, kinetochores, and midbodies were specifically thiophosphorylated in developing eggs incubated with adenosine 5′-O (3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP-γ-S). The phosphorylation reaction required Mg2+ but was not dependent on cAMP or calmodulin in detergent-extracted models. Centrosomes were purified by fractionation of isolated mitotic spindles with 0.5 M KCl extraction. The thiophosphoproteins were retained in the purified centrosomes and the antibody recognized a major 225-Kd polypeptide on immunoblots. In an independent preparation, a monoclonal antiphosphoprotein antibody (CHO3) was found also to react with mitotic poles and stained a 225-Kd polypeptide, confirming the centrosome specificity of this protein. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the 225-Kd thiophosphoprotein was found at mitotic poles associated with granules to which mitotic microtubules were directly attached. Unlike centrosomes in permeabilized eggs, those in isolated spindles could not be thiophosphorylated, possibly due to inactivation or loss of either phosphorylation enzymes or cofactors, or both, during isolation. The immunofluorescence labeling of thiophosphate could be inhibited by ATP and AMP-PNP in a concentration-dependent manner. Exogenous ATP could abolish thiophosphate-staining more effectively when added with phosphatase inhibitors, suggesting a dynamic state in which centrosomal proteins are being phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in rapid succession by the action of protein kinase(s) and phosphatase(s).
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    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; spindle ; kinetochore ; centrosome ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To investigate the association of calmodulin (CaM) with microtubules (MTs) in the mitotic apparatus (MA), the distributions of CaM and tubulin were examined in cells in which the normal spindle organization had been altered. A fluorescent CaM conjugate with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (CaM-TRITC) and a dichlorotriazinyl aminofluorescein conjugate with tubulin (tubulin-DTAF) were injected into cells that had been treated with the MT inhibitor nocodazole. With moderate nocodazole concentration (0.3 μg/ml, 37°C, 4 h) in live cells, CaM-TRITC and tubulin-DTAF concentrated identically on or near the centrosomes and kinetochores. In serial sections of these cells, small MT segments were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the regions where fluorescent protein had concentrated. When a higher drug concentration was used (3.0 μg/ml, 37°C, 4 h), no regions of CaM-TRITC or tubulin-DTAF localization were observed, and no MTs were observed when serial sections were examined by TEM. However, following release from the high-concentration nocodazole block, CaM-TRITC colocalized with newly formed MTs at the kinetochores and centrosomes. Later in the recovery period, when chromosome-to-pole fibers had formed, CaM association with kinetochores diminished, ultimately attaining its normal pole-proximal association with kinetochore MTs in cells that progressed through mitosis. We interpret these observations as supporting the hypothesis that in the MA, CaM attains a physical association with kinetochore MTs and suggest that CaM-associated MTs may be inherently more stable.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axolotl ; cell differentiation ; cell shape ; cytoskeleton ; nucleated erythrocyte ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spleen of Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) larvae develops as a closed sac containing differentiating nucleated erythrocytes, and is typically isolated from the general circulation for about 10 days post-hatching. Beginning 3-4 days posthatching, it can be removed intact for examination of the morphology and cytoskeletal structure of the erythropoietic cells. In the smallest (earliest) spleens, spheroidal cells predominate, while older ones contain a preponderance of cells exhibiting the flattened elliptical morphology typical of all non-mammalian vertebrate erythrocytes. Most striking in the splenic erythroid population are cells with singly or doubly pointed morphology. Though common in the developing spleen and circulation of young larvae, pointed cells are less frequently encountered in the circulation of older larvae, indicating that they are intermediate stages in the differentiation of spheroids to flattened ellipsoids. This is supported by structural observations on cytoskeletons prepared from the splenic cells. Incomplete singly and doubly pointed marginal bands of microtubules are observed, many of which contain a pair of centrioles within or close to a pointed end, suggestive of organizing center function. The observations are consistent with a sequence of changes in cell morphology from spherical to doubly pointed to singly pointed to flattened ellipse, causally linked to stages of marginal band biogenesis.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myofibril assembly ; focal contacts ; vinculin ; α-actinin ; connectin ; immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relationship of nascent myofibrils with the accumulation of adhesion plaque proteins and the formation of focal cell contacts was studied in embryonic chick cardiac myocytes in vitro. The cultures were double-stained with various combinations of the specific antiactin drug phalloidin and antibodies against vinculin, α-actinin, connectin (titin), myosin heavy chain, fibronectin, and desmin and examined under fluorescence and interference reflection microscopy.In the areas of myofibril assembly, vinculin and α-actinin plaques were formed at the ventral sarcolemmae. These areas overlapped with the sites of cell-to-substrate focal contacts and extracellular fibronectin. Because the myofibrils always ran in a straight line between these sites, polarized lines appeared to be generated within the cells in response to their physical (e.g., stress) and/or biochemical environment (e.g., adhesion plaque proteins). The possible presence of other factors cannot be ruled out for the proper alignment of myofibrils. As soon as myofibrils came to span between these adhesion sites, they exhibited typically mature cross-striated characteristics. Thus, the formation of these inferred lines has some relation to or is in fact necessary for the maturation of myofibrils, in addition to the directional arrangement of sarcomeric proteins.Additionally, synthesis and distribution of myosin and connectin were tightly linked during early developmental (premyofibril and myofibril) stages. The spatial deployment of desmin was not coupled with vinculin. Thus, connectin and desmin do not appear to form the initial scaffold of sarcomeres.
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    Electronic Resource
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 283-283 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 56
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 136-145 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 187-193 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosphere ; locomotion ; MTOC ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that BHK syncytia have the ability to locomote provided the centrospheres are clustered and located adjacent to the cluster of nuclei. This article reports that experimental reorganizations of the centrospheres or the nuclei change the motile behavior of BHK syncytia in a way that is consistent with our previous observations: When fusion of the multiple nuclei occurred in stationary syncytia whose multiple nuclei encircled the centrosphere cluster, the centrospheres were expelled from the ring of nuclei. Consequently, locomotion was initiated in these syncytia even if they had been previously stationary for up to 5 days. Conversely, when a 2-hour incubation in 5 μg/ml cytocholasin B caused the cluster of nuclei to surround the centrosphere cluster, the locomotion of the syncytia was inhibited. Similarly, the dispersal of the centrosphere cluster induced by a 4-hour incubation in 1 μg/ml of colcemid resulted in the long-term cessation of locomotion in motile syncytia.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: compartmentalization ; muscle cells ; actins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The functional significance of multiple isoactins in the same cell is still not understood. To address this question, we examined the response of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle α-isoactins to a serial extraction procedure applied to both muscle and nonmuscle cell types. We compared these extraction results with results obtained with the β- and γ-nonmuscle actin isoforms from the same cells. In differentiated BC3H1 nonfusing muscle cells (smooth muscle α-isoactin), in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (cardiac α-isoactin), and in chick skeletal muscle cells (cardiac α-isoactin), different fractions were found selectively enriched in either the nonmuscle or the muscle-specific actin isoforms compared with their relative abundance in whole cell extracts. Conversely, when these same isoactins were examined either in undifferentiated BC3H1 cells or in mouse nonmuscle cells stably transfected with a cardiac α-isoactin gene, no enrichment of these isoforms above their relative abundance in whole cell extracts was observed. These results indicate that within the muscle or muscle-like cells examined, the different actin isoforms were either selectively utilized or localized. These results further show that isoactin-specific responses observed were apparently related to the cell type in which they were found and not to differences in inherent physical properties such as solubility of the different isoactins examined.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axopodium ; microtubules ; X-body ; receptor site ; contraction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the heliozoan Echinosphaerium, rapid axopodial contraction often occurs during food capturing. In morphological studies, it has been considered that rapid contraction is caused by conformation is change of the X-body. We determined that reaction sites or receptors for anion exchange resin, which can induce rapid contraction, were located in every region of the axopodium. However, the probability of locating sites where contraction was induced was lower in the middle region than in the distal region of the axopodium. In cases in which contraction was not induced by resin placed in the middle region of the axopodium, so-called bead formation was induced instead. At the fine structural level, only granulated forms of the X-body were observed in this beading region. These results suggest that rapid contraction results from disassembly of axonemal microtubules and the simultaneous contraction of the X-body and that bead formation represents a stage when only the X-body contracts. Furthermore, effects of metabolic inhibitors and Ca2+ channel blockers revealed that contraction of the X-body did not depend on the supply of adenosine triphosphate, but on Ca2+ influx. Ultrastructural observations revealed that the mass of the granulated X-body was aggregated into the proximal region of the axopodium, suggesting that the X-body might be associated with the undercoat of axopodial membrane or the axonemal microtubules themselves.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 309-331 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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